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Q\n lllttstratc~ illag a~i ne of Ilrartirc an~


:.Lll ./ Uyllt,-< r es (' rrt'tl. ]

VoL. I. -~o. :?7.] S.\TCRD.-\. Y, SEPTE:\IB ER ~ 1, l SS!. [PmcE OxE r t:~ XY.

fig. 7. flg. G

A c
Pig. s.

flg. l. L E
~. g. ~ ...

c ) ---. F"

. ,!'

l'jg. z.
' Jl
- .>"
I'jg. 9.
F ig. L - Fly for Stamping . Metal Balls to be b olt ed to Strong Bench. Fig. 2.- Slotted Holeer to cnry Punch. Fig. 3.- Boss or B?d and Punch. Fig-. 4.-
Punch for Stamping Balls. fi;. 6.-Hollow Cup Punch . Fig. 6. -Sheet of 1\Iet:U for cutting . Fig. 'i.- Sheet of 1\Ieta.l w ith Places for BaHs cut out.
Fig. 8.- A, B, C, D, E, L, M, Sh:lpe3 ass!liDed by Met:U at various Stages of Punching. .Fig. 9.-Re>ol ving J.Uill for Polishing Balls.

MET !.L D!.LL Jl.\1\:I~G . 1 mann!red to m:1kc somo p~rfel.'t, and this i5 pit>re of g0oll ;;t i tr writi ng paper, and if one
THE )lODE OF ST.Ulr!XG DALI..S L'i' 0)."" how tl1ey ar~? to b~ lll:llie. , jde ha:- a n)u)!h e,lpe l.'ll screw up t he
SOLID PIEC'E OF ) l ETAL. They are nutdl! in sizes fr0m :l in. to thr~l' ht'~=- a little t)ll th.H side. \\'hen the tool is
. _ . inches' in d iamet l'l'. and a r~ St)lll hy :\lt. th:~ll ,!:!l't your metal : cut it in strips (us
B\: B. " R.Ul::-DE~. I' '\alter Wnlkl'r, of Hockingham ::-trel't, Fig. G) I S inchei' l l.' ll ~.,. by 1::? inches wide, of
Sheffioltl, tot'! piercer anll stn mper, frL)Il\ ~l). 10. l.J, or 17 Birmingham metal gau~e .
DEFORE giving a descript ion of the way to .J ~d. to 12~. p t- r dozen. a cr0rdin ~ t o size. Put the metal mlllcr fty and pull handle
make tho balls, I will just say a few words Tl1ree tiies nre nece;:.::ary. accLw,ling h' ;:ize ~, f ( r, Fig. 1) : t('r that work the balls (J)ran be
t o encourage young men not to gi\'e up in ball requirell. :\.. three hundredweight. a t :tk~n l1ft: as they arc n0t rl'quircd. as \'ery
d espair if they do not at tirst man:1gc to ~ ix and a twelve bnndretlweight, are th~ littl':! pressure is tll.'l'llcd. The metal ,,hen
make n success in anything they wish to do. sizes mostly in u::e, as (Fig. 1) a wry ~ tron~ cut out will he like K. Fig. :l and t he sheet
T he fi rst th ing a. youth s1tOuld learn j::; the bench is reqnirl',l t,, \mt the tly upon so mN:tllikl' F i!!s. G an,l 7. whidt show halt" cut

value <?f small things. A ,err small thing that it can be h,,ltel b st, and a. h_ole 0ut and bali nM. Thl' littll' bl:wk Jots
to do IS ~carry a small book and pencil. 1 cut through t o nll''"' of the meta L fall m:; sh,, w wh er~ smnlll'r :,.izc:- are cur out so as
a nd, as D1chns truly says. " whcu found 1
tbrourrh when punehe,l ont by ( 1- 1g. 3) a t,, le:we as Jittl t! wa:-te :'ll' l't1J' as p0;;sible, as
make a note of it ; " it i ' ad vice which I h:wc to0l c~lletl a boss or het! . with n sl0t an1l n ml'tal i" 1s. lid. a lh.. anll WJ. 0nh :"in~n
i:- -
always carried out, and I cannot tell the ' bole in centre. ;:o a:; h' ali,Hv metal to fall .
fllr. ser.1p. ll aYin.:: :!'l't all t hl' l~l:ll\k:s rc-
' 'alue it has been to me when in a. difficulty I out. \\'hen ptmLhe::; (Fig. 3) are used tb,,y l}llll't'll. take 0nt rntrin,:: tl1t,ls (F1g. 3) and
t\..i I enter my notes in a large book indexed' are put in n :0:h1t (Fi~. :2) and Wl'dgev tight 11ut in to0ls (Fig. 4): t''P punch in nose and
which is .n. tine knowledge uook. _When~ with tl~in st ee_l wl',lges. an,l arc fastl',l_lb l . bottl''m in bL'$~. ])o not take out the boss :
youth of s txtec n , I saw ~omemenmakm_gsome I1 down t tght wtth t!to screw do~;; _( F, l-1g~. just knol'k 0ut t hl' w ttl ~~s. Take one of
cup , and from what I th E'n entered m my 1 and ::?) : then the top punch (Ftg. 3) 1:> the l'l)tmd pietes of metal and put o>er the
oook, 1 made t hese lalls twelve year;; I fastened in the Ay n 0s~ (G, Fig. 1) nnd lwle in bottom ~ t l' d die, and pull on the
altenvaros- that wa.s in 1 75. At fir. t I screwed tight by n. The punche-; must fit handle. The first J ie being shallow, t he
made a fail ure of it, but after a few tri:ds I \'ery fin e, or they will tlrag. Try them with a balls will not yet be required. After

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BURGL AR A LARUil fS. [Work--Se ptcmbr:t 21, 188!!

taking all the pieces through put them on a. of pmely home design and mn.nufncture decay of the apprcnticm;hip system, in the
stout sheet i ron tray and anneal them by were bnt little use<.l; to-day, however wo great Metropoh s particular ly, the.rc is a very
putting in a f urnace or blowin~ upon them find British decorativ e hangings and fu.LI"ics urgent necessity for tcch11ica l instrnctior: n
with a strong blowpipe ; if wtth pipe n.nd able, not only to their commerc ial the higher grades, especially of house paint-
gas be sure not to make them too hot all at position in our own country, but to compete ing; and 1 although there exist at present
once. Commenc e very gently, and increase su<:cc:;sfnlly, both for n.rtistic excellenc e nnd variou~ a1~s f~r the young worker, we h~we
until the full h eat is put upon them, so as to superiori ty of manufact me, with simila r no bes1tat10n m saj,ng tl1a.t these chapter~
,:{et them a good cherry-re d but no more ; goocls in foreign mnrket.-;. in so cheap.and popular a work will meet, to
then allow them to cool. Be very ca.t"eful not Althcugh , by rcn~on of the able editorin.l some extent, that very definite want of the
to let a ny cold water fall upon them, or they proclamn.tion m the general scope, pnintinz trades. It is the writer~ cxperienco
will be full of cracks. When cold they aims~ nud cnus of WouK were placed before nnJ behef that decrwat-ive supply will and
ready for the second punch (l!'ig. ~~A) ; then the world of worker:-, nny lengthy iutrn- does c1eate t!te demand; and the more
nnnenl a.s before. Put on bull to 1 y and uso duction of these chapters to it.s readers is extensive the spread of knowledge on the
punch (Fig. 4), which will mn.lw th Jnt like renucrcd entirely :mpcrfluou~, I will clnim suhject1 so willtts P!actice an.d employme nt,
. l'ig., 8, B. The p rocess of annealing is again a short spnce in which to explain the mode thercwtth , proportw nally m crease. No
gone through. selected for the trcntmcn t herein of this apology can be needed if this know led rre and
A lathe, such as is advertise d in WoRK, wide and compreh ensive suhjcct. instructio n is h ereby extenf;ivcly t e;derctl
m ust be brought into use. Chuck the metal By a three-fold division of our theme, n.n to the socall~d " r" class of pa~nters.
cups (Fi~. 8 B), which will be just like a arrangem ent is obtained whereby the com- John Ruslun, spcakmg on progress m life
tlumble m shape. As lathes have been so piler hopes to tender knowledg e and practical a~d art-worke rs gen~rally,. has expressc1 l
clearly described in WORK, it is no use assistanc e forthwith to all the various sections htmself upon n. very v1tal pomt somewha t in
reP.eating it here. Tr ue the edges, and with of workers, under one of which all house these words : " When," said ho, "I hear of
a burnisher turn over the edges as Fig. painters must come-to the apptentice, the any young mnn ns one giving promise of
8, L; when in that shape the h ollow cup 1mprover, the amateur, and to the operative , much success in his vocation, I invariably
punches (Fig. 5) aro brought into use, which wage-ear ning house painter. Believing in in(}uire wh ether he works haru and dilirrently
1s just the samo process as the other, only the importan ce of every craftsman n.nd ut such profession or calling ; for i~ the
hollow top punches instead of round ones worker untlcr~tanding the somce and na.ture answer to this will be found the surest.
being used. When as round as can bo got of that which ho w.w~, ere he receives in- criterion of his future career."
t ake them and put them in a revolving mill, stntetion s how to use it, I purpose in the first Herein 1 therefore , will lie the success of
as Fig 9, wh1ch has two pulley wheels, part to treat on the elemeu tary processes and the pract1cnll y disposed reader of these chap-
revolvin~ the plates with balls top nnd mn.tcrials of my snhject, which will especially ters. Natural faculty and ability arc of
bottom m opP.osite directions , which gives
them a beautiful polish and even sUlface.
appenl to the young workers, both '' ama-
teur" and profession al. In the second
little avail unless suppleme nted brdiligent
and painstaki llg effot-ts. Technico. instruc-
A spring in th e top part of the mill above division will be taken such nseful and de- tion can but strive to point out the most
small pulley presses down the top ns they cota.tivo brn.nchcs of house pnintin.!r, known direct way to the best ends, and, whetbe1
get into shape, thereby ensuring them being axgminin g, marbling, bronzing, gilding, hnncl actuated by motives of direct profit m
perfectly round. After first punch is used polishing , etc:., written for tho~e operative s recreation , the results will very materially
use plenty of oil ; keep a pot of oil in rench, who arc desirous of extending their capabili- be governed by his own persevera nce and
dip m your finger, and wipe top and bottom ties beyond what is tcchnicn.lly termed applicatio n, in short, bard work !
punches, which. will ensure them leaving the "!Jrtt~h work." In the third part the most Introduct ions, I am well aware, and pre-
dies eas1ly. advanced portion of modern decorativ e house liminary disquisiti ons on ihe history that
If fancy balls are wanted the pattern must painting will be both prncticall y and theo- attaches to certain crafts are objected to
be cut in the dies, and the machine (Fig. 8) retically considere d. As being the most very strongly by some readers, and I am of
can not then be used. likely conrse to he)/) the journeym an crafts- opinion myself that the pages of a magazine
If any questions require answering , I will man, this part wi l contain directions , ac- such as WoRK are,, not the ID;Ost.
he pleased to recetve them and give companie d by illustratio ns where necessary , desimble placo for the ventilatio n of the
t h em my best attention in " Shop." If a for tho decoratio n of a modern residence , ln.tter. N cverthelc ss it is tJscful, and, in-
hydra uhc press is used the balls can then be with chapters especially ucvotcd to the study deed, necessary , for those who undertake
done at once with only once lighting, as of colour and its ap)llicatio n to buildin gs. to write on subjects that will from their
they will come out like F ig. 8, n, and by A consiclcrn.tion of the most useful nnd nature occupy some considera ble space in
i nverting in hollow cups after lighting popular (lccora.tive mn.tcrin.lR n.nd their treat- their treatmen t to foreshado w what that
would be lik e F ig. 8, E. I know of no firm ment will here,, be pln.ccd treatmen t will be that the r eader may be
in England which uses one in the si lver plate before the render; and, without dipping too enabled to comprehe nd in some measure
trade ; in Am erica they are all made by that deeply into the theoreticn.l or philosoph ical what is to be placed before him. In my
process. aspects of (lccoratio n, tbc writer will end~'l. own case I have made my prelimina ry
vour to so ground the ~1.rnest worker in remarks ns brief as possible, and in my
PLAIN AND DECOR,\ TIVE HOUSE pri nci pies of decorativ e truth and ben.uty next, I sha.ll enter nt once on the considera-
PAINTIN G. that he may himself be o.ule with some tion of the Rources, nature, and qualities of
A PRACTICAL TREATIS E BY A LONDON degree of confidenc e to discrimin ate between all materials used in house painting.
DECORA' fOR. the trne nnd the fnl::-e, and to be A.ble to give
a reason for the faith thnt is in him.

In these competiti ve days, when the much BURGLA R ALARUM S :

vexed question of amateur versus profes-
A T no period of the V ictorian era has there sional comes so often to the front, the HOW TO MAKE, WORK, AND :r.IAINTADi.
existed a spirit of more earnest inquiry for operative painter may venture to inqniro BY GEOitCE EDWINSO N BONNEY.
such knowledg e as will enable t h e worker to how far this giving of common technico.l
know the true from t he false in nll matters THE L Eor,ANCHE BATTEnY- TRm
instructio n to both the two divisions of AooLOMEtt A'rE BNrmnv- THe GA~SNE n DRY
concernin g the applicatio n of art to i ndustry workers can fairly be justified. Our answer BA"rTEII-A itRANOI'.MENT ANO 1\[Al~TENANC~
t~an t hat whicli character ises t h e present is this : rrhat at such times as we live in, of OF BATTERY- LA \"JNO THE LI~E "\VmF.S.
t 1me. advancin g education and widely difl'uscd Tlte Batte-ry. - Se,ern.l types of battery
Sin ce the y ear 1851, wh en the Great Ex- literature bearing upon all trades ami call- have been used in ringing electric beUs.
h ibition in H yde P ark demonstr ated to us ings, the facilities of obtaining knowledg e Th ese I hope to notice when d ealing with
so painfully, but1as it has proved , beneficial ly are, and should be, common to all sorts and the general subject.. I now only describe
our inferiorit y m the artistic aspect of out! condition s of men: That " a little know- the ".fittest "-that 1s, the one m genera.}
manufact ures as compared with that of ledge is dangerou s'' in matters of decorativ e use all over the world where electric
m anf oth er n ations, a. change h as transpire d practice, ev~ry professi? nal .decorato r, v.:ho bells are used, and its latest and most
which, alth ough becoming but gradually ha.s had deahngs both w1th chcnts possessm g
apparent to the commun ity at large, is none successfu l rival. It won't do, on a job liko
that " little "-derive d probably from tho this, to employ an experime ntal battery.
t he less of a. vital and extraordi nary nature. "art column" of a fashion paper, or a couple VIe must have one that we are sure of-one
I n no departme nt of industria l art has of terms at a school of art-and with those that has been tested by long experience.
this ch ange and progress been m ore ma rked customer s wh o lay claim only to the usual Tho battery muf.l t be reliable, rea.cly to work
than in t he d esign and productio n of decora- attribute s of education , common sense, and at all times, nnd capable of main tain in~ its
tive m at erials and wall h angings. As testi- observati on, will fully benr rno out. Again{ efficiency for long periods without attent10n.
mony to this, t'wenty years ago wall papers that in conseque nce of the almost toto. Some forms of battery choke themselve s, so

The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012


W'a Septemb er 21, 1880.] BURG LAR ALAR UMS.

to apeal; with crysuls whilst they are at ounces of the carbon mixtur e ; and No. 3 time. H ere, however, they possess an im-
rest ; others send up fumes or salts to corrode will take about 10 ouuces of the carbon and portan t superio rity. When a J.Jcclanche cell
their connections, and cause failure just manga nese mixtur e t o charge each cell. IS quite exhaus ted, we have to take it to.
when the battery is wanted ; others are M:an~a.nese peroxid e costs about 6cl per lb., pieces, clean, and perhap s renew the ziul:,
soon exhaus ted, and do not recover their and oroken ~~s carbon about the same, if and renew the yorous cell, with its content ~.
strengt h. It is clear that these will not bought retatl in L ondon, but is much When a Gassm: t cell is exhaus ted, we have
do for electric alarum s. cheape r in some districts. The various only to send n. strong cmrent of electricity
TM Leclanche JJatter y.-This battery , in- parts of the battery may be bought and put (such as that from a. battery of Hnnsen cell~)
Yented by the late M. Georges Leclanc he, togethe r. Their cost may be nearly esti- throug h the cell from c.1.rbon to zinc for
has stood the t&;t of many years' practic e as mated as follows :- about an hour to regener ate itl:l conten ts ancl
the best battery for rin11ing electric bells. Porous make the cell even more powerf ul than it
EtACh compos ite cell is made up of (1) a glass Porous Carbon Glnss Cells Dattcry
No. Cell. Cnpprd. Zinc. Cells. charged . complet e. was when first constru cted. I hope to go
outer contain ing cell charged wi'th a solutio n 1. -ld. l s. Od. 5u. Os. !Jd. ls. Sd. as. ucl. into this part of the subject more fully when
of sal-ammoniac, into which dips a rod of 2. 5d. l s. 3<1. till. Is. Od. 2s. 2cl. 4s. Ocl.
3. Gd. ls. 8<L Stl. l s. 3d. 3s. Od. 5s. Od. 1 treat of electric bell batterie s. The battery
zinc to form the positiv e elemen t ; (2) a has stood the test of neady t hree year.~'
porous inner cell charged with a mixtur e of Sal-am moniac costs Is. per ll>. practic al work, and is fa.<>t growin g in favour.
broken carbon and small lumps of mangan ese With respect to the size and number of The wholes ale agents in L ondon are :\lcsst.-;.
peroxide, surroun ding a cube, or a plate of cells required to rin~ an electric n.ln.rnm, we Mayficld, Cobb, and Co., 41, (~ucen Victori a
carbon, to form the negativ e elemen t. The must be guided by tlle work to be done. If Street ; and the batterie s ure al:-;o sold l>y
whole arrange ment is shown at Fig. 37. the bell is a large one, and wound with thick :Messrs. Gent and Co., Farada y Work:-;,
The outer cell may be of any other ware, wire, or if several bells a re connec ted to one L eiceste r. Fig. 39 shows the round form of
such as china, porcela in, stonew are, or glazed battery , we should use No. 3, or largest size cell used in this ba.ttery, and this is sold at
earthen ware ; and the pot may be of other cells, to furnish a sufficient volume of current . 5s. per cell.
shapes than that shown in the sketch. It is No. 2 cells will ring a 4-inch bell fairly well, A 1"ran,gement and Ma-intenance of B attery.
charged with a half-sa turated solutio n of sal- and three of these coupled in series will be -Fig. 40 shows bow a n electric bell battery
ammo niac-th at is to say, sal-amm oniac all sufficient for an a.larum system in an is connec ted up and arrange d. It will be
(ammon ia muriate ) is dissolv ed in warm ordinar y-sized house furni~hcd with one bell noted that one wire, A A, leads to belt, anc..l
rain water until the water is saturat ed; then only. If the bell has to be rung through a thts is connec ted to the carbon clemen t of
it i.'S diluted with an equal bulk of rain water. long line of wire, or through a line of fine the battery . The wire leading from the zinc
Ordina ry well, spring, river, or pump water wire, we must add more cells in series to of this cell is connec ted to the carbon
may be used ; b11t rain water is best. The overcome the extra resistan ce. All users of element of the next cell, aud the wire from
zinc rod is cast with a stout piece of copper electric bells are agreed that it is false the zinc of this to the carbon of the last cell
wire project ing from its upper part to form econom y to stint battery power. of the series. A wire leads from the zinc of
a connec tion with the carbon of the next 'l'ke Agglom~rate Batte-~y.-This is only a this cell to the line wire, B n,from bell. This
cell. This wire is coated with warm ~utta new form of the L echtncbC. The porous cell method of connec ting cells to form a bat..
percha, or with tarred tape, from the zmc to is dispensed with, and the mangan ese and tery is called connec ting in series; and is
within two inches of its other end, which carbon mixtur e is made into agglom erate always the method adopte d for electric
is left bare and clean to make connec tion block:> by machin ery, under enormo us pres- bells. I t is immate rial which wire is con-
with the binding screw of the carbon. sure. T he usua.l capped carbon plate is nected to the termin al carbon or zinc, for
The whole, together with an inch of the zinc enclosed betwee n two of such blocks, which the bell will ring equally well whethe r we
rod at the top, is coated with Brunswick black. are kept pressed togethe r by crossed rubber connec t the wire coming direct from the
The inner cell is made of white porous bands, the loops of the bnnds ser vin ~ as a bell to the zinc ot connec t it to the cmbon.
earthen ware. A prepare d strip of carbon is bolder for the zinc rod, as shown at Fig. 38. The path of the curren t is, however, from
set uprigh t in the middle of the cell, and then When these were first introdu ced, they were zinc to carbon.
closely packed with a. mixtur e of equal parts though t to be superio r to the old form of I have shown the battery of three cells in
by bulk of gas carbon, broken to the size of L eclanch.:, but it is now found that their a box ; but it is not neccs~>U.ry to thus enclose
peas, and lump peroxid e of manga nese of sole recomm endatio n lies in ofl'ering less them. It is, howeve r, usual to place Le-
the same size, all dust being sifted out of resistan ce to the current . In practic e they clanch6 cells in a box, for several good
the mixtur e. The surface of this charge is are said to be more trouble some than the old reasons. A box protect s the cells from acci-
covered with a thin coat of pitch to keep it form. dental blows, and from dust. I t also serv~
in positio n, and two holes are made in this TILe Gassner D1~11 Batit'?'!I-This battery as a check to meddlesome childre n and ser-
pitch seal after it has cooled, to allow the bids fair to rival the Lecl:mch{, and oust it "ants, for the box may he securely fastene d,
gases formed whilst workin g to freely escape. from its long-su stained high position or being and the wires broug ht out throug h the back
The strip of carbon is selecte d just w1de the premie r electric bell battery . Ench cc: ll or side. I have not shown the cover and
enough to slip easily into the cell, and long is comple te in itself, instead of being a cvm- one side of the box. Both of these a re
enough to stand with its upper part about posite cell made up of inner and outer cell. hinged to each other and to the bottom , and
one inch above the top of the cell. This There is no porous cell, nor any outer cell of the cover opens fr)m the back. \Vhen con-
part is soaked in hot melted paraffin for gJass, porcela in, or other breaka ble materia l. structe d in this way, the cover and side fall
some time ; then allowed to cool. When Each cell of the battery is made of thick down when opened, and allow free access to
cool, a few holes are drilled laterall y through sheet zinc, and this forms the contain ing the cells for adjusti ng screws or seeing the
the para.tfined top. i a hole is drilled in the case as well as the positiv e elemen t of the conditi on of the battery . If made for a
top near the midcue to receive the end of a cell This case is nearly filled with a paste Oassnc r battery , it will be advisab le to par-
tang of ~ binding screw ; the top part is i~ compos ed of zinc oxide and gypsum , tition off each cell with a thin partitio n of
verted m a. mould ; and melted lead IS moisten ed with n. solutio n of zinc chloride. wood to preven t acciden tal contact . Half-
poured in to form a head having a good A capped cube of carbon bearing a binding inch deal, or pine, or any other wood may
contact with the carbon, and to bold the screw on its head, forms the negativ e elemen t be used in its constru ction, and the outside
binding screw. The head, a.nd a strip of in the centre of the case, where it is sur- may be stained , painted , grained , or polishe d,
carbon just below it1 are painted with Bruns- rounde d with the conduc ting and excitin g as taste may dictate .
wick black, and tnis, togethe r with the paste. The whole is sealed over with some I n a rran11ing a suitabl e place for the L e-
paraffin, prevent s the lead head being cor- dark compos ition resembling l!larine .gh~e. cla.nche cells, it should be borne in mind
roded away with the ammon ia fumes formed It will thus be seen that there IS no hqmd that they work best and last longest when
in workin g the battery. The cells are made to spill, nor any require d, as the porous mass put in a modera tely cool and damp room,
in various sizes,. but most vendor s sell three is moist enough to excite the zinc, and such as a cellar, or in a wasbho use. In dry
atock sizes, numbe red respect ively 1, ~. and retains its moist conditi on for a.ny len~th of situatio ns the solutio n rapidly evapor ates,
3. All do not agree in the sizes apportioned time. The cells may, therefore, be latd on and the salts creep up the sides of the cells'
to the several numbers} but the following their sides in racks, as wine is stored or and over the connec tions. The salts formed
may be taken as .genera l y ~orrect :- turned upside down withou t impairi ng their in a L eclanch e cell by the union of sal

8lzeof workin g qualitie s. They may be placed in ammon iac with zinc have a tendenc~ to
lfo. Porope Cell Size of Cnrbon. any conven ient positio n, regardl ess of the thus creep up the sides of tile cells. Thia
ta. ala. bJ 2tn. Gin. by llln. by ! in.
lia. b.riUn.
l~lL by aiD.
7in. byltin. by ~in.
7~ln. by 2 n. by tin.
temperature of the room in which they are
located . As to power and constancy, they
may be guarde d against by greasin g the in-
side of the glass cell down to water line.
take their place cell fot cell side by side Messrs. Gent and Co. have their glass cells
1 win about 6 ounces of the with the L eclanch6, doing equnJ work, and made with a narrow channe l around the
mbtur e; No. 2 will take about 8 recover ing their- normal l:ltrcngth, in equal t op1 and this is filled with a composition

The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
420 BURGLAR A LARUMS. [Work-September 21, 1889.

guaran toerl to pre,ent the salts from creeping

0\er. lithe glass cells arc allowed to get dirty
it, so that he may be awakened at the first
alal'ln, and be able to switch otl' the current
bells. the wires eau be run along the tubes
for this purpose, the old system

on the outsides f1om this cause, or are left wet, as soon us he can after the alarm has been 1 wires being cltawn out as the electn~ bell
or stood on a wet shelf, a part of t he current given, for the burglars ma.y promptly decamp wires are drawn in. If different tints
will be lost by leakage. Cells must be looked and be left unca.ptured if the bell continues of cotton are used in covering the wires one
to from time to t ime, and all such causes of to. rin.g fo~ som,e time1 an~ so alarm them colour of covered wire sl~ould be used to
leakage stopped ; at t he time, the loss 'nth 1ts dm. 'I he mam lme from the bell from the bell to the mam-line battery a~d0
of solution from evaporation must be made to the main-line battery should be of from this outwards to the end of tbe'line
good. It is not necessary to add sal- No. 20 copper wire, coated with indiarubber, The return wire should have a different tint.
ammoniac when water is added to make and double co~tonCO\'ered . This may be 1 an~ thus the. going and return wire can b~
good this loss. Use clear rain water if had covered w1t.h any colom of cotton to eas1ly r~cogmsed, a matter of importance in
procurable. match the p~nnted woodwork or the connectmg them to the various contacts
Some makers do not amalgamate the zinc ground tint of the wall-paper, a.t a cost Be careful, in iliiving the staples, not. to cut
rods used in a Lecla.nche battery, but I have of about 1~s. Gd. per 110 yards. Hun through the covering, nor to abrnde this
found tuat they work when drawing the
best when amalga- wires tight through
mated. To do this, holes or around cor-
well cleo.n them in hot ners. Let all be done
water witb some wash- neatly, out of sight
ing soda ; then dip us much as possible
tlunn in dilute su l- and out of the prob~
phuric acid, and rub able course of the
some mercury well housemaid's broom.
into the rods, with an From the main line,
old rag as a rubber. several branches will
If the zincs turn blnck be thrown out towards
soon ufter the batterv the various points of
has been set up, and contact. If each room
there is a strong odour is connected to a.
of ammonia from the separate indicator, one
battery, toqether with of the wires will be
white specks on the connected to the out-
porous cells, we may going main fl'Om the
suspect a. leakaae battery, whilst the
either between tho other will go dirl!ct
cells and elements of Fig. 38. by a path of its O\m
the battery, or in the to the indicator and
outercircuit;thismust Fig ...7.
bell. Each point of
b o promptly detected Fig. 39. contact must have its
and repaired, and the own two wires ; one
zincs cleaned up again. from the main battery

A ----~--------------.----.------------------~----~A _______ Flg. 42.


c Flg. 43.


Fig. 40

E .-----------

Doorl'l!o.t ~ntncL. Fig. 41.
Fig. 37.- Lecln.nchEI Cell. Fig. 38.-Agglomera.te Block. Fig. 39.-Gassner Dry Cell. Fig. 40.-Three Gassner Cells connected 1n Series and placed in
Box- A, Wire from Bell ; B, Wire to Blll. Fig. 41.-Diagram showing how to connect Branch Wires from Burglar Alarum Contacts to Main-Lino
Wires or Electric Bell- A A, Mllin-Line Wlra to Bell ; BB, Main-Line Wire f rom B1ttery; C, Door Trigger; D, Door Post Contact; E, Special Line to
Indicator; P, Door-Mat Contact. Fig. 42.-Sketch showing how to Strip Covering from Electric Bell Wires preparatory to connecting Wires
together. Fig. 43.- Sketch showing how to Twist End or Branch Wire r ound a Wire to form a Junction with it.

. Lay.inu the Line W:ires.-Before laying the the line wires along by the wainsco:~.t, line, the other returnin~ to the bell or eh;e
hne wues, we must not only decide upon a the skirting, or by any wood work, in pre- back t o t he indicator. So\ero.l contncts in
place for the battery, but also a position for ference to pinning it against w.1lls. If one room may be connected to ono branch
the bell. This may be on a wall or in a there is a. chair rail around the room, one main, but in this case the indicator will only
cupboard in the master's room. or in t hat of wire may be carriefl above, and the other t ell the room from which the bell was rung,
a trusted man servant. The local battery beneath the rail. In no case should the not the particular door or window. Per-
to work the bell through a relay, should b~ wires be laid side by side together under one haps a. clearer idea of how this is to be
in the same room with the bell, and not far staple. In passing from room to room, pass done will be g-1.thered from the accompany-
off from it. If a Ga.ssner battery is used the wires through the hind doorpost, where in~ diagram, Fi?. -n.
the cells may be enclosed in an ornamentai they will be least observed, boring the holes To connect a uranch wire to the main line
box of small dimensions, and the bell may with a fine long gimlet. Secure t he wire at proceed ~s here directed. . First lay ba~e
be mounted on the same box. If tbe intervals of about 18 inches or 2 feet with about l ~ mch of the covermg of the ma1.n
Leclanche is chosen, a cupboard near the small staples. Messrs. H . Dale and Co. sell line at the point of junction by scraping 1t
bell may be utilised ; or the wires m'l.y be a hard, sharp-pointed staple for this purpose, with an old knife. Clean the bare copp7r
brought through a wall or partition from a which enters the wood easily, and does not bright with a piece of emery cloth. Stnp
closet or other anteroom. The bell should readily benrl. Where provision bas been about 2 inches of the end of the branch line
be near at hand to the person in charge of made, in building the house, for a system of wire, and clean in a similar ma.nner. Lay
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012

York-Sep tember n, 1889.] S OME F ACTS ABOUT MAHO GA.LVY. 42J

the two wires together, as shown ~t Fig. 42, each ring are completed. By this means articles whilst being turned. For large
and twist the end of the branch wne around the proper position of the holes is ensured, drills it will be found even better than
the clean pt\rt of the main wire, as shown at it being importan t that, when the screws a sel f- centreing chuck, as with a. little
Fig. 43. Drop a. little melted composit e are put in, each set of three should meet practise it can be adjusted to run dead
ea.ndle, or a little powdered resin, on the accuratel y in the centre. The chuck now true.
joint run a. hot tinned soldering bit along only requires to be furnished with screws to
the t~isted wire to tin it ; then follow with complete it. It is hardly worth while for
a drop of solder ; wipe the joint with a. rag any workman to make these, seeing that they SO:UE FACTS ABOUT MAHOGANY.
to get off any trace of soldering flux re- may be purchased at N ettlefold's at the
maining; cut the loose ends otf close. to very low price of fourpence per dozen. The BY DAVID DENNING .
the wire; and then cover the whole w1th heads require cutting off, and a square
a few strands of soft cotton dipped in should be fi led at the top of each one, the MABOO.-Ui'Y is a wood so well known1 so
melted paraffin. opposite ends being slightly coned, as shown generally used, not only by the cabmet
In my next I will endeavou r to show in the figure. The screws should be made maker, but by others, that we are almost
several forms of door and window contacts, a medium fit in the chuck ; neither tight naturally inclined to regard it without any
and how to connect these with the bell and nor loose ; but so that they may be readily particula r interest. We take it as one of
battery. turned by- the fingers. For light work a the common materials of daily household
spanner 1s hardly necessary, but will be use, and looking round our rooms we can
hardly conceive the time when it was
A. CH'EAP BELL CHUCK. unknown . Neverthe less it is to all intents
BY F. J. OOODACRE. .... ..... - .............. - --- and J!Urposes a modern introduction, com-

paratively . Not till well on towards the
. middle of last century was it in anything

WHILST fully admitting that a row of
like general use, although it was not un-
chucks in burnished gun metal or brass ha.s VV'.FV'I>I'Y'
known at the end of the sixteenth , when it is
a very effective appearanc e, yet there are no stated to have been brought to this country,
doubt many of "ours" who are unable to not as part of the cargo, but as portion of a
~ay the high price demande d for them. vessel which had "got into lumber," and
For instance, a 2-inch bell chuck made in had been repaired with it. To Sir Waiter
gun metal is to be had at 148., a.nd is pro- Haleigh is credited this first importati on,
bably not dear if the actual cost of labour
and material be taken into considera tion.
Iron chucks of this class may be made from
castings, but there is then a considera ble
Pig. l. . .

...... .. ........... ....... .. ... .
and little could the great Adnnral have
ima~ined that the timber he found useful
would one day be found to possess qualities
which should lead to its general adoption as
amount of labour involved in finishing them a furniture wood.
-labour which many persons have neither Evidently , at first it did not appeal to.
the time nor inclinatio n to undertak e. I 1> popular taste, or possibly while mens' minds.
Probably there are few persons who have 11 were excited with the idea of discoveri ng an.
not noticed, at one time or another the -E----- ------112 .- -- --- ---- ~ Eldorado , whence gold in unlimited quanti-
"reducin g sockets'' used so extensively by Pig. .z. ties could be had almost for the trouble of
gas and water fitters for connectin g large taking it, the notion of importing bulky
pipes to those of smaller diameter. These timber may have seemed too ridiculous. lf
may be obtained up to 6 inches in diameter it was an age of strength it was also an age.
at the large end, and with the other con- of rudeness, almost of barbarity, when.
siderably reduced. These are just the domestic comforts as we understand them
shape for bell chucks, and being of wrought were little thought of. Going ba-ck in fancy
iron, and averaging about i inch in thick- to those "good old times '' we can well
ness, are of very great strength. imagine that any one who proposed to.
Assuming that it is desired to fit up a import mahogan y because of its beauty
2-inch bell chuck, and that the mandrel would have been looked on as a man whose-.
nose is t-inch th1ead, a reducing socket of schemes were not worthy of serious cGn-
the size known in the trade as lt inch by t sidera.tion. Even were the wood appreci-
inch will be required. Mount this by the ated, how could it be brought over in suffi-
larger end on a face plate, or in a self- cien t quantity to make its sale remunera tive.
centreing chuck ; or, if neither of these in the little vessels in which the navigator s
happen to be available, turn a piece of wood of those days sailed on their half-mara ud-
to fit the inside of the socket. Assuming ing, half-tradi ng expeditio ns 1 Any cargo
that the piece now runs true in the lathe, must necessarily have been such that it could
the first operation consists in turning out be stowed in a small bulk. Whether a few
the existing gas thread in the smaller end, Jogs may have been brought over from time
thus enlar~g the orifice until it is of Fig. I .-Socket Tapped !or Mandrel and Marked to time or not, after Raleigh used the strange.
sufficient SlZe to permit of the i-inch tap for Screws. Fig. 2.-Screw. Fig. 3.-Front
View of Chuck complete with Screws. new red wood to repair his leaky vessel~
being introduced. In tapping, it is as well it certainly was uot much heard of in this
to bring the back centrepoi nt up to the end country, though it is reported that the
of the tap, so as to ensure the thread being useful for heavy work, and can easily be Spaniard s employed it for shi1)-building
~urately cut. This having been accom- made by drilling and filing a square of the purposes in the sixteenth century. It

phahed, a small recess should be turned in required size in a small piece of iron or seems probable that Raleigh availcd him-
the end, as shown in the illustration. steeL sel f of this wood simvly because it 'vas
(Fig. 1.) If the foregoing operation s have A shn.vincr may be taken from the mouth handy and known to:be suitable, just as, had
been ca.refully carried out, on screwing the of the chuc~ and the body turned up bright the repairs been effected in Britain, oak
rough ehuck on the mandrel. it should run and smooth, if it is thought desirable ; but woulu have been the most convenie nt wood.
truly and bed nicely against the shoulder. a very good plan is to give the outside one Truly these old seamen found an Eldorado,
Set the lathe in motion, o.nd with a. graver or two coats of black enamel. but not such as their greed-inflamed
or point tool mark two rings on the circum- If a 4-inch chuck, say1 should be re- ima~ina.tion suggested . By discoverin g the
ference of the chuck. Each ring is to quired, it will not be poss1ble to obtain a proclucts of other lands-na y, by their
be divided into six divisions. Drill and socket small enough at its "reduced " end discovering in the :first place the other
tap with ! -inch thread each alternattdi vision to fit the mandrel. It is easy to get over lands beyond the seas-the y have done the
iD the two rings, takin~ care that the three this difficulty, however, by plugging up the wodd more good than bad they only and
holea in one ring are m1dway between those end entirely, and then drilling out afresh to solely come across the mythical golden city:
ia fellow. If the divisions are marked the size required for tapping. They searched for gold, and in so doing
a punch, the back centre can be used, 'l'he total cost of this chuck (2-inch) paved the way for modern commerce in all
ita point in one mR.rk, when the one should not exceed one shilling, exclusive of 1ts extended ramifications. Whateve r the
ean be drilled with a tool in the time and labour, and when tinished it will quantity of mahogan y that may have been
Ucl 10 on until the three holes in be found of great value for holding many brought to this country duringthe seventeen th

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422 50JJ1"E FACTS ABOUT MAHOGA NY. {"rork-SC;ptem bcr 21, 1889.

century, we seem to have few reliable details decorations during the last century, but there the good qualities of the choicer kinds i.e. it
by which to trace its adoption till well on remains the fact that in mahogany the is as reliable in work, and forms an ex~ell~nt
into the ei~hteenth , when we again meet with great designcts and artisans to whom English ground for veneering on. Most of the finest
some tangible evidence of it during the reign furniture owes so much of its vrescnt wood is c~1t into veneers which, ~ccordiug to
of George I. A certain Dr. Gibbons, of who~ position as a fine art industry fonnd a con- the figunng, are known by vanous names
I believe history is otherwise silent, had a genial materi:1l. It may be interesting to such as curls, feathers, and various fancy
brother engaged in the merchant service, note that mahogany, even in its commontJr titles, not now so much regarded as for-
by whom he was given in the year 182~1 qualities, must have been a comparatively merly.
some pieces of mahogany, the gift being valuable wood, fot it is not uncommon to From what has been said about the
probably induced by the fact that the find old articles of furniture veneered with extensive variety of qualities it will easily be
doctor was then having a house built for it on a found ation of oak. understood that there is an immense range
himself in King Street, Covent Garden. Later on, M inferior, i.e.. plainer figured i!; price between the highest ~nd the lowest.
Whether they were handed to him with t he mahogany, became a commoner commodity, ] abulous sums have been glVen for choice
intention of being used for decorative pur- the custom of veneering on it became more lo~s, and though there arc certain indica-
poses, or simply because they were looked general, and it is rarely nowadays that one tions by which experts can form a fair
on as waste, is not known, but there is no tincls any other wood used for the purpose, opinion before cutting, the probable amount
doubt that they stood a very good chance of except when for the sake of cheapness pin e of figure cannot be accmately foretold.
e\'entually becoming the latter, for the is used. No one, however, would think of One may buy half a dozen logs supposed to
joiners refused to work it on the plea that it laying maho~nny veneer on oak. be fit for choice ' 'eneers, and tind them after
was too hard. Apparently the doctor bad Mahogany" has remained, par excellence, all very ordinary stuff, while on the other
reco~'~'uised its beauty, or it may have been . the cabinet-maker's wood, althou ~:~h within hand a log from which nothing much might
thathe only wished to have some trifle as the last few years it has fallen mto com- have been expected will supply veneers
a memento of his brother made from it. parative disuse for the best, or say the most with the choicest markings. 'l'o give some
Whate\'er the motive, fortunately he didn't fashionable, fumiture. Various causes idea. of the high prices which logs have
accept the builder's decision of its unwork- contributed to this, among them the rage sometimes realised 1t may be said that they
a.bleness as being final, for we find that he fo r the plain severe styles which for a. time have sometimes rea.ched four figures, or
arranged with a cabinet maker named ha.d sole sway, and the outcry raised in 1,000 per log. This almost incred-
W ollaston that a cn.ndle-box-strange CE!rtain quarters agn.inst veneer. Unrea.son- ible were it not that fine veneers are known
reminder of the primitive modes of illumina- able though it might be, this had great to be beyond ordinary market figures, and to
tion !- should be made from some of it. influence on public opinion, and ash, walnut, command "fancy" prices. However this
Wollaston also seems to have found fault or oak, solid, or supposed to be solid, may be, it has been stated on good authority
with the wood on account of its hardness, largely supplanted mahogany in popular that logs have been sold for the sum named.
from which we may reasonably infer that it favour. Nothing can be urged agai nst these A well-known firm is reported to have given
was a piece of finely-fiqured Spanish- other- woods being unsuitable for furniture con- this figure for three logs, which, as was
wise, had it been of inferior bay wood, struction, except that in point of beauty they pointed out some years ago, would probably
men accustomed to work in oak, the till are not equal to mahogany. They are good give a cost of from 5 at least per cubic foot.
then ordinary furniture wood, could hardly enough in their way, but when it comes to It must not be imagined that all Spanish
have complained of it.q being unworkable. be a matter of richness of colour and val'iety wood is finely figured, nor that all bay wood
Be this as it may, the candle-box when of figure. they are, to use a colloquialism, "not is plain, for though these are the general
finished gave satisfaction to so great a in it." We are, after having kept our eyes characteristic s of the two kinds, instances
degree that, as one writer s::tys, "it outshone partially closed to the merits of mahogany, are not unknown where the latter has been
all the other furniture belonging to the and sought more or less vainly to find the finely figured, ind~ed it is said that the three
doctor, who gave Wollaston the remainder" same qualities in other woods, just beginning logs above referred to were Honduras.
of the wood, though another writer <iis - to open them again. and to see that there is Spanish mahogany is sometimes spoken of
tinctly attributes to Wollaston the credit of after all notbin ~ like a handsome piece of as though the name alone would be enough
havin~ " recoanised the fine qualities of t he mahogany fumiture. Not that I would to support its claim for figure, the fact being
matenaL" .tlowever, without discussing advocate its exclusive use, but do not Jet us often overlooked that the stufl' may have
whether to t he doctor or to the tradesman remain under the impression that a.c;h or very slight markings, as most that shows
is due the chief credit of sufficient discern- walnut for bedrooms, walnut or oak for any fine variety is used up in veneers. As
ment to appreciate the merits of mahogany, dining-rooms, is only to be employed if '"'e Spanish is supposed in every instance to
there is no doubt that, speaking from a want to have "art-furniture ." This can be indicate a fine wood, so H onduras is taken
commercial point of view, it is owing to made in any and not necessarily the as being very plain, and undeservedly so,
their joint enterprise that the wood took at plainest wood, although there seems a cer- for the quality of the timber depends very
once a leading place as a furniture material. tain amount of misconception about this much on the situation in which the tree has
The story goes that out of the remainder of sometimes. In mentioning the claims of ~rown. That from the low marshy districts
the captain's present Wollaston made two maho~any it must be 'recollected that the m the south of Honduras is mostly plain,
bureausbone for Dr. Gibbons and the other style m which it was worked up, say thirty, while that from further north approximates
for the uchess of Buckingham. After this or even twenty years ago, is not a. neces- more closely to the genuine Spanish. In
the demand seems to have increased, and sary concomitant. It is not, however, all addition to American mahogany-in cluding
Wollaston is supposed to have amassed a mahogany that is equally beautiful ; indeed, that from the West Indie~ -there are at '
considerable fortune by the manufacture of there is hardly a wood with which we are least two other kinds, viz., the African and
mahogany furniture. acquainted that presents more variety than the East Indian varieties. These, how
Within the next few years the importa- this, varying from the plain coarse Honduras ever, even if they can be classed as true
~ion of mahogany. must have greatly t o the richly variegated Spanish. It was in mahoganies, do not en,ioy the same repute
mcreased,. for even before Chippendale's this latter that the Georgian cabinet makers as the others, as the timber is inferior in
time we find it extensively 'used, wbile the princifally worked, and when a fine piece of many respects. It is also probable that other
fact that Chippendale made most of his "city wood can be obtained it is a thing to varieties from different parts of the wodd,
furniture from it is too well known to be valued. closely resembling the real mahogany, fincl
require comment. It is h ardly too much to The maho~any tree is found more or less their way into the market, and are sold
say that to the introduction of mahogany abundantly m the West Indies, whence under its name, for we find that the natural
much of the change which took place comes that known as Spanish. The best order of plants which produce similar timber
in the fashionable styles is owing, an im- of this was formerly imported from San is very widely difl'used in tropical and sub-
petus having been ~iven to the study of Domin~o. Indeed, at one time, it appears tropical climates. Among them may be
desi~s suitable to 1t ; 'and whatever the as if th1s were the only port of shipment for, mentioned the W est Indian or Barbadoes
opimons of the desi~ themselves, there is at any rate, the choicer varieties, whence the cedar, which is often used for making
no question that Chippendale and his con- designation of " city" wood. Other islands Havana cigar boxes. .
temporaries made the most of their material. were found to produce mahogany, some of Perhaps a glance at the subject from a
It was delicately worked UP. in a manner it, notably that from Cuba, little, if at all, botanical point of view may not be un
which conclusively proves that it was not inferior to the old "city" wood, and from interesting, though it must be confessed
regarded as a common materia~ but rather these we now import most of the Spanish . that for workshop purposes it may not help
as one to be treated with r espect. Other Mexican mahogany is also of good quality. us much ; however, if 1t does nothing eLc;e, it
causes, no doubt, contributed to the As regards figure and colour, Honduras will at any rate help us perhaps to under-
improvements which took place, not only mahogany, commonly spoken of as bay wood, stand how and why there are, for example, an
in furniture but in general household is inferior, though otherwise it presents all East I ndian and an African kind, and how

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--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ------ --- --- --- --- --- --- ------ ------
it is they diffe r, alth ough gene rally spok en of Very m uch m ore mig ht be said abou t I t m elts at a very lmv tem pera ture, 507
as mah ogan y. mah ogan y, and ther e eau be little dou bt that Fah. , and expa nds so muc h on cool ina as
The real stuf f from the W est Indies Rod the inte llige nt wor ker wou ltl occa sion ally to
Ame rica is from the tree S tL'istenia malw g- deri ve m ore plea sure from h is wor k-o occu py :l mor e ~pace whe n cold than it
<tni one of the natu ral orde r of Cedrela~ere. from his mat eria ls-d id he know
r does whi ht in its melt ed state . Whe n
1ts 'growth is slow, and from the imm ense more than is com mon ly the case a little stron gly h eate d, it burn s with a blue flame
:size of som e of the trees, whic h ofte n reac h 80 By way of a few sugg estio ns ou maht them . and form s an oxid e of bism uth. It disso lves
to 100 feet in h eigh t, with a trun k 6 feet thic k, in this dire ction the fore
ogan y free ly in nitl'ic ac;u. Bism uth is an import-
goin g rem
it has been calc ulat ed that man y of them ofl"ered t.Q those who take som e intearks are ant ingr edie nt in the coml>osit ion of fu::~ible
mus t have b een grow ing for approxim ately know ing all- or at any rate som test in alloy s and soft sold ers, 1ts pres ence con-
ethi ng- tribu ting larg ely to thei r fusi uilit l. See
200 year s. As has been inci dent ally men - abou t e,er ythi ng they com
e in dail y coo- Fusible Alloy, Ste1eotype meta , 'l'yp e
t ioned, thos e grow n on low swa mpy grou nd tact with.
prod uce infe rior timb er. Perh aps owin g to nu>tal. etc.
I t is not, how ever , only as a furn iture Bisi nuth is elec tro-p ositi ve to copp er,
the great difficulty of tran spor tatio n from woo d that mah ogan y is usef ul,
the plac e of grow th to the port of shipmen t, natu rally the choi cer vari eties are thou gh sihe r, merc ury, plat inum , iridi um, osm ium,
ther e is an incr easi ng tend ency to dete riora - for this purp ose. Its use in ship rese ned gold , anti mon y, and carb on. I t is elec tro-
-bui ldin
tion in qual ity. The best acce ssibl e tree s has a lread y been refer red to, thour-h, not-g u <.'gntiv e to tin, lea.d, coba lt, nick el, iron,
hav e been felled, and as d istan ce from the with stan ding the fact that it::; dura zinc, man gane se, alum iniu m, and mag -
coas t incr ease s ther e is less poss ibili ty of so grea t, it does not r~ceive the high bilit y is nesi um. Plates of Lism uth, I mus t n ot
est class omi t to say, form the posi tive elem ent a nd
pick ing and choo sing ; the tree s inste ad are at Lloy d's, a fact 'vlnc h mn.y be
acco unte d plat es of anti mon y the nega tive elem ent in
take n as they come. for by the best sort s not bein g emp loye d som e ther mo-e lectr ic batte ries.
Eas t Indi a mah9gan y is prod uced by t~ e for the
.Soy mida f ebrif1l{!a or Roh una tree ; as 1ts JJisu lplti te of Cmbon. See note on
Car~011, Bisu lp!ti te and JJrigltteniny Solu -
nam e almo st imp lies, it, or rath er its bark , is
occa sionally nsed med icina lly as a febr ifug e. BIC tion .
YCL E PL.l TIX G, BIS 1IT TH, A~D JJloodstone. -Th e nam e give n t o the ston e
The bark of the mah ogan y tree has also been
BLOODSTO~l~ . used in the man ufac ture of best qual ity
used for the sam e purp ose.
Mric a.n mahogan y is the prod uce of the BY GEORGE EDWINSO.X Dt1~NEY. burn isbe rs. It is gene rally supp osed to be
Kha ya Sene gale nsis ; Wes t Indian cedar, or, a Yariety of a nati ,.c oxid e of i ron. Mr.
as it is ofte n fam iliar ly calle d, thou gh B i.-T he pref ix "bi " mea ns two. ancl i.s Bloxam i n his book on meta ls, says :
erro neou sly, mah ogan y, is supp lied by the synonym ous with the prefix "tli. " Thu s R ed 1/a:matite has been so calle d from the
Ced rela odor ata. Gree k wor d sign ifyin g blood, on acco unt of
diox ide and bino xide have the sam e mean- its dark red
All of them belong to the natu ral ord er ing, viz., two atom s of oxyg en. colo ur, and is som etim es
Cedrt-lacere, whic h incl udes man y othe r erro neou sly calle d 1;/o odst one-tbe true
Bica rbon ate of Potaslt. See Pota.~lt. bloo dsto ne bein g a dark gree u vari ety of
l-ind s of woods, that best know n perhaps Bica rbon ate of Soda . See Sodi um.
bein g satin -wood, whic h, apar t from its silic.l (Aeli otmp e) with red spot s. In appe ar-
Bino xide of Merctll"!/. Sec JftrciO'!I ance it is the mos t strik ing of the ores of
<list incti ve colour, bear s a v ery mar ked Bisu lplti de of Carbon. See Carb on iron som etim es a ppcarin g in roun ded mas ses,
r esem blan ce to mah ogan y in figu re and B isulp liide , etc. etc.
ha\'io~ exte rnal ly a liver colo ur with con-
{;en eral mark ing. , Bicy cles .-Ne w bicy cles are usua lly sent side ra'ble lustr e, and inte rnal
Eve ry one who is accu.stomed to hand le it to the plat er in pieces, fresh and clea n from ly mad e up of
kno ws that mah ogan y is a relia ble woo d- the mak er's hand s. T he vari ous piec es are la~crs havi ng the appe aran ce of the thic k
fllea sant to work , and susce"{ltib le of a high clea ned and trea ted as pi>ces of stee l to be shel l of som e hufr- e fruit , .or of bundles of
c.l>gr ee of finili h- It is obta 1nable in larg e plate d. tibrc:S "ill rh look ike petr ified wood. The
p lank s clea n and soun d, i.e., free from spec ific grav ity of this vari ety is abou t 5"0.
If the spok es of the wheel are sent ::>uch spec imen s are, in gene ra l, rem
..knots and shak es. One som etim es h ears sepa rate, they shou ld be slun~ toge ther with arka bly
that reall y fine mah ogan y is diffi cult to stou t copp er wire s so as to form a ladd er hard , and are usef ul for burn ishin g meta ls."
of 'fhe 1umJJS of this subs tanc e that are used
l'roc ure now aday s, or even that it cann ot be spok es, and thes e bang in the dipp ing and
b'Ot. This , h owe ver, is hard ly corr ect, for bath solu tion s. The rim of the for burn ishe rs are held in the ends of
ther e is no d oub t wha teYer that by care a nd plat ed in sections whe n the bath is ''"he el is meta l tube s by sold er. See rem arks on
not large B w-n~$lters.
t he paym ent of suffi cien tly high pric es, enou gh to take the who le wh<.'cl. The
mah ogan y of the very fines t figure is still to sect ions mus t be so arra nged in tho b.1th =-c
he purc hased. Natu rally , it will not h ave to caus e the deposit on one sect
ion t o over
the fine dark colo ur of old maho!mny, but lap t he ends of the othe r ~ection . Old- THE KA LEI DO SCO PE: ITS CON
that will com e i n time , unle ss, in~eed, the bicy cles m ust be take n to piect:~. STR UCTIO:Y AND APP LIC ATI ON.
s tains whic h, at the requ est of igno rant part that can be unsc rewe d mus t Eve ry
purc hase rs, are so freely used to give an rated and clea ned separatel y. Clea
artif icial appe aran ce of age have a p re- with em ery, then with a leath n tir:.t
er buff
judi cial effect. Stai ns may prod uce a char ged with Tren t ~and, and polis THE CoM POU ND K.u.EIDOSCOP E.
plea sing appe aran ce on n ew woo d, but it Sh effield lime. As high polis h as h o!f 'rith
JD&y very .rea sona bly be supposed that the obta ined shou ld be give n to each can be THE engr avin gs which acco mpa ny the pre-
vart , and sent artic le illus trate a new t ype of kale ido-
bene fit is only a tem pora ry one, and that then they shou ld be tran sfer red to a stro ng scope, com bini ng in one inst rum ent man y
inst ead of imp rovi ng as time goes on the p otas h bath t o remo ve all the grea
<:Olour will be anyt liing but agre eabl e. If som etim es advi sabl e to brus h the se. It is imv orta nt prop ertie s, whic h may be briefly
piec es in state d as follo '"s : -
any mod e of artif icial dark enin g be reso rted the pota sh liquor, then r inse them and
to that by amm onia vapo ur is the leas t scour by hand . They are then agai In the simp le form a defe ct was refe ned
n rinse
harm ful, and f.ves a nearer appr oach to the plac ed in the acid dip, well rinse d in clead, to whic h mar s the sym met ry of the pict ure,
-colour of ol mah ogan y than any oth er wate r, a nd tran sfer red at once n caus ed by the inte rposition of a. blan k spac o
to the plat ing at the junc tion of each dire ct and inve rted
proceas. Of few woo ds can it be said that vat. As it is not alwa ys prac ticab
they imp rove with age, but mah ogan y is the wheels t o piec es, thes e may le to take imag e, equal to the thic knes s of the glas s
cert ainl y one of them ; but to let old Fath er enti re. Whe n the part s are plat edbe plat ed of whic h the mirr or is com pose d. In the
they are pres ent case t his is obvi ated by sih erin g
Tim e have fair play the woo d sh ould be rins ed in clea n hot wate r, drie d, and
.sim ply oiled , or at most Fren ch poli shed with lime , that is, w ell polis fi nish ed the first surf ace of t h e reflectors i n place of
with out any stain ing. Of cour se, I d o not Shef field lime appl ied on a doll y hed with tbl) post erior surf ace, so that each imag e
refe r to that very infe rior wood, which in a lath e. The whe els are polirevo lving merg es dire ctly into the adjo inin g one, form-
hardly dese rves the nam e of mahogan y, so hand with cham ois leath er. shed by ing, whe n the refle ctors are plac ed at any
~ly mad e up into furn iture in the Eas t angl e whic h is an even a.liquot part of a circle,
D etail ed info rma tion on this subj
of Lon don, and eith er coloured a fiery illus trate d with diagrams , is give n in ect, a serie s of sect ors arra nged with beau tiful
lme , or, if it ia mad e up~ into "second han d A. Wat ts's book on" Elec tro-d epos ition Mr. regularit y roun d a com mon cent re ; the
," t o n umb er of sect ors bein g alwa ys equal to the
*tf ." a dirt y brow n. 'fhe natu ral colour of whi ch the read er is refe rr,ed. num ber of time s that the angl e formed by
acb wood can hard lr be spoi lt, but on the Bia mutlt.-Chem ical sym bol Bi., com- the junc tion of the mirr ors is
et:be r ban d the pract1ces that prev ail to give bini ng wei~ht 2 10, specific grav ity.g cont aine d in a
.. IOQd colour, or wha t is supp osed to be redd ish -wht te m etal of a hig hly crys ts. A com plete circle, or 360 d egrees. The reflec-
allin e tors are so mou nted that the angl e can be
et.nn~ be apok en of in term s of com - and v ery \:>ritt le char acte r, foun
d with the vari ed at will, and clam ped in any posi tion ,
ores of nicke~ coba lt, copp er, and silver. with in a. limi t of 72 degr ees,
by mea ns of a
The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012

pair of milled beads (A and B, Fi~. 5)

at the back of the instrument, wliich
actuate a pair of J?inions sliding in vertical
slots, a nd worklng in racks attached
at each end to the inside of the case. The
mirrors recede from each other at their
upper edqcs on turning the head (A) in
the same a irection as the hand::; of a clock
move or clockwise, and apptoach each
othet when the head is turned contra
clockwise. One of the reflectors is shown
a t the extreme limiting angle in Fig. 2.
In order to produce annular or arched
and rectilinear pictures, the reflectors are
moved apart at their lower edge::; by a
motion the reverse of the preceding, and
of which it is quite independent, viz.,
b.v turning a milled head (c, Fig. 5),
which is secured to a pinion rotating in
bearings at each end, and moving in
opposite directions a pait of racks at-
tached at their ends to the arms ( K), which
support the reflectors. A ~econd milled
head (D) acts as a clamp. The rctlcctor.;
can thus be separated to a di::;tance oi 2
inches, and parallel to each other, as . ,.
sho,vn in FiCT. 1, any intermed iate po;:;i-
tion, either ~lique or parallel, bein~ ob-
tainable on turning the heads A or ~c as
r equired. The whole in strument is
capable of being rotated through nn arc
of abont 110 degrees, the rings shown
at x. (Figs. 1, 2, and 5), secured to each
end of the instrument, b<:ing suppo:ted
hy the uprights (,-), the upper end:; oi
which are hollowed to fit the rin.!!:-'. thus M

Fig. 1.- Elevation or Eye End of Compound

Kaleidoscope, showing Mirrors parallel
to each other, with Portions of the End
Plate r emoved to show Method of attach-
ing RackWork and Slide to the Arms which
carry Reflector s. (Scale, half size.)

forming a bear in<T, and the neces..c:ary

le>era~e is pro>ided by the handle seen
at m (Fig. 1). By means of a milled head
at F (Fig. 5), this motion can also be
arrested to admit of the picture being
copied. The OQject box i::; enclosed in a.
carrier (c), which allows of continuou!l.
clockwise rotation, through the medium
of a. small rubber-covered disc of wood
(H, Figs. 2 and 5). actuated by a milled
head, seen at E (Fig. 1), the tension of a.
coil spring applied to the end of a. le,er
(L, Fig. 2) bemg sufficient, on turni11g
the disc, to transmit motion to the
carrier. In addition to the ad>antages
already enumerated, other accessories,
rendering the instrument still more
complete, will be described and figured
in due course. ~l ea nwhil e, sufticient ex-
planation has beeo ~,en to make the
reader con,ersant wtth the motions of
the se>eral parts before us, and we may
now turn our attention to the Yarious
details involved in its construction.
I t may be argued that were the instru- ,
ment con ~t r ucted entirely of met<1 l, the
mechanism necessary to produce the
several motions recorded aboe might
haYe been enclo~ed in a circular tube of
very much smnllet dimensions than the
one here prei:en ted ; hut to have carried
out the idea in a confined space would
ha>e required an amount of prectston m
the use of tools seldom attained by any
but professional hands. Sacrificing space
Ffg. 1'.-Eievatlon of Obje~ End. One half or the End Plate and the Slotted Vertical Plate P 1s in order to avert the exclusion of the
removed to show Interior. (Scale, half sue.) amateur mechanic, I haYe endeavoured

The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012
Work-8 eptember 21. 1SS9.] THE K ALEI DOSC OPE : I TS C ONST RUCTl 01V AND A PPLI CATI ON.

to so combine wood and metal in its each is also required for the beads B, D, and teeth in 2 inches, and the pinion wire has
construction as to avoid having recourse F, and a plate into which the latter is twehe l eave~. One length of pinion wire
to any particul~rly delicate ~ec~anic~l ope- screwed (It in. long, ~ in. wide, nnd a i n. and three piece'i of rackwork 7 in. long are
rations, the p1eces composmg 1t bemg on thick), with a circular boss cast on one side requ ired. 'l'heym aybe procured from)l essrs.
that account relatively larger than would as shown. Othet materials in metal required J amcs Lancn!:l ter and Bon, optician~, of Hi r-
be the case if of smaller compass, as it is are some pieces of brass tube : one piece for mingltam . A letter enclosing P.O. for 3~. ud.
much easier to file np a level surface an il:lch sliding pinion, 7} in. long. and ! in. oubide would, I am persuad ed, meet with }1romp t
wide than one of half or quarter that width ; : diamet er; with a piece to sliLle over this .Ji in. :1 atteution, if addrel'sed to the aLove most
a nd the same remark applies with oltligin~ fi nn.
etlual force to woodwork; therefo re, '\'e will eommcnce operations
where,er possiblet pieces of wood by turning the ca rri<:r for t he ou-
basing a small sect10nal are:L should j cct box c: (fig. 5). For tllis we
~e prepare d in lengths of 12 or 15 requi re a piece of r-pecial ly souud,
mches. Fig. S.-Plan of Unde:-si de of Hook ed Wood-Turning Tool. close - gramcd mahoga ny, 5.~ in.
To those who contemplate en- (Full size.) sc1uare and ~ in. thick. At -i in.
gaging in the proj ect, I would ~ug ftotn the etlgc, r-et off fou r holes,
gest at the outset t he prod uct10n, one at each corn et; hore these to

on cardboard, of a full-size draw- pass a :t-in. scre\\', ancl countersink
ing, with the aid of t he description, them, so that the heads shall not
where necessary, so that the dimen- be less than ~ in. loelow the sur-
sions of the several parts can be face ; if neces~1ry, le:vcl the other
obtained withou t the t rouble of Fi!;'. 4. - Plan of Undar side of Side-Cu tting Wood-T urning Tool. side, and fix to the true face of a
furt her c-alculation. F urther, as (F ull size.) hart! wootl. chuck. Having tl'llec.l
being princi- up the face,
pally of wood, ti nd the ccu trc
every care as it spins. and
should be ex- scrihe a cirdc
ercised in its with the COJil-
selection, no- pa ~sel', -! .} in.
thing being di ame t e r,
all o wed to which is the
pass muster, !:ize of th e
es pecia lly cpening in the
where lathe l,l,ject end of
work is con- the case; out-
cerned, except !'ide this ci rcle
well-seasoned! t mn down to
close - graine< tr - - - - -
- ---- -----~ a shoulder,
mahogany. I n ---- -11
I ---
1 - 1
oare y 1.'\';r m.
t he piecescom- 11
11 1'
deep, so that
p o sing t h e I
I I when in posi-
suppor t and 11
II t ion it may
sides of the 11 I1
I I I not project be-
case a. more . . I
I' yond the edge
open gram 1s of the open-
admissible, al- ing into the in-
though if it is t eri or. Scribe
intended t o ;
a. 11De ,,). Ill..
be Fr e nc h
polished, it
heyon er the
~boulder, and
would be wPll remove it from
t o have t he t he chuck, re-
outside of uni- }hcing it with
i' or m g ra in a piece of g-in.
t hroughout for deal, 7 in.
a. ppea ra n ce' square ; true
sake. up the face,
:Before at- and bore to
t n.cking t he tit th e part al-
w oodw or k ready turned
gene r a l 1y, on the carrier.
t here are a Cut off the
few t rifling su o er fl uous
pa t te rn s of cori1ers of the
t he bra.sswork =
latter, and if
which it will not su fficientl v
be well to pre- t i,!!ht t o chhe
pare, so that ],~: friction, fix
t he cast ings with a couple
(wh ich should Fig. 6.- Sectlona l Elevaill n on Line of ~crews an
fJe thoroughly M N 1n Fig. 2, showing also Portion s of Interior (!111rror s Inclined) and
sound) may Le
Section through Cent re of Arm. (Scale, half size.) inch or so from
th e centre .
ready to banu when wanted . They corn 1 Ion,., ; o. piet:"e for the stationary pinion, Thus secured . true up the fare and the edge
prise patterns for tbe mi lied heads shown 'i ~ i~.lon~. and ~in. ontsille diameter. 'l'o sup- !'quare with the ::;ame to 5k in. diameter. Xo,,-
m F ig:-!. 1 and 5. First turn a pattern , port the'arm-. whi<h carry t he rctiecto r::; we r<crihe a centre line arro,..._ the face, and sink
for c (Fig. u); as thic; will be moulded ' refluirc two picre_, 1! in. long,anLI! in.ontsiLlc a recess t in. deep and -l ~ in. diameter, with
Rhank downwards, the latter must be diamet er ; two pi ere" .-~ti n. long, to fit the ex- a grorn-e tlu~ h with the ltottom. bored with
t apered ~:~l i gb tl.v from the point upward s, tcrior: :mcl two piccr-;o f steel rotl(8t in. long) a ::;pecial ]l(loked tool ~J wwn as Yiewed from
omittin g t he Lwllow shown in the diagram, os t o fit the in tcrior. Th e bc,-t material for the the und~r~ide in Fi~. 3. .-\not her tool. ~hich
nlao the groove on t he erltrc, which mn-;t latter would ht:> sih'er steel '"ire, ::;urh as is may J,e made by grin,l ing a firmer chisel at
be tapered in the same direction ns t he n:>ed for drills anl t:lJ"' and ~nld in 1;)-in. tho ~itl e, a in Fit::. .J. will he fou nd most
abank. The an me pl\.ttcrn wi ll serve for t he lengths Ly dealer:; in watch anll clock ma- ~u i~al>le f01 fini,-hin g the inte!ior .rortion
heacllS A o.nJ E ; -(,J' in. all over t he r<tuface tcri::tl:5. ,
winch nun next be boretl t o :~$ 111. dtameter.
D'l\1.\lt be allowed for tuming. One pattcm ' The rackwo r]( fi;mc,l ha;; thir t.r-~e...-e n l- :-ing the centre liner::.-.; o. gui,h:, Ect off an

The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012

JVHY F UR N ITURE IS VE1VEERE D. [Work-5eptembe.r 21, 1889,

opening at each side, as shown in Fig. 2, 11\onder at a solid oak tab le h a ing been is ven eered comes t 0o la te to the user and
and carefulJy remove a p ortion of the outer obtainab'le at a smaller price than a nn ee r~d dist urbs h is peace of m ind. To do what I
edge of the groo>e with a dovetail saw and one. Gin~n equally good wood to sen e can to restore it to any who may happen to
~uge. so as to a dmit a simila r pai r of pro- as a. foundation for eneering on. or to be read these p age$, let m e say that if t he
~ections on the object boxes, forming what finislled without >cn eer, it stands t o reason things were sold by a good, reliable 'cabinet
1s known as a b aynnet joint. E ach end of t ha t a Yenc~rell p iece of furniture mU cost maker, or, rather, m ade by one, t hat what-
the case is formed v: a p iece of mahogany, more than a similar ar ticle uu>eneercd. It eer the con~~ l'u ct ion is, they may be d e-
which. for convenience' sake, we wiU dis- cannot, however, be expected that a really peudec~ On. \~ Ith. resard to SOlid. Work, th ere
tinguish by t he term " plate." These plates choice wood- ! refer, of course, only to the ts a pom t whtch IS h nble to o. shgh t miscon-
m easure 9t in. acr~ the corners, and more valuable k inds-is t o be used solid. ceptiOn, Tiz., when wood of the same kind
8 }-i- in. across the fiat-s. T he back p lat~ T o do so, apart from other considemtious , as t he >eneer is used for the foundation
at t he eye end is 9! in. square, and would be simply a 1'aste of ma terial, or let us say, for examp~e, o. mahogany sid~
'id in. t hick t o commence "i t h ; L'ne face if t his is too sweeping au assert ion, let it be board t op. 'fhis, for the sake of t he extra
is dressed with a t rying p lane unti l i t said t hat few would be mlling t o pay the beauty of surface, might be Yeueered but to
will lie with out tie~ure close to the t rne ' enormous diti'~rcnce in cost for any ordinary dist inguish it from pine, similarly ~neered
face of a " ood chuck, on wh ich it is to be artide t o be made of solid wood tit fo r it would be called a solid maho!!an~
m ounted by a screw at e~ch corner. To high -class >enee1-s. top. if referred to, by many tradesmen. eThe
ensu re the pla te being left of t h e s..unc t hick- If. as sometimes ha ppens, p ine is t h e wood fact of the su rf:!ce Yen ~ered by no
n ess throughout, a st raig-ht ed~e must b e on which the ven~er is bid. and t he vtmeer means ~re, ents ~ts bemg a so~~ mahogany
d iligently used to test the surf~ce until it n ot of t he m ost costly, then it would not top, M 1t r~ally 1s ; the error, if any in de-
is quite le>el ; then reverse it on t he chuck. be incorrect ttl suppose t hat a plain solid script ion b eing merely t hat it is not stated
and reduce it wi th equal care on this side mahogany article would c~t a httle more. t o be composed of two thick ne.."Ses. I merely
also to a thickness of "i!lii in. I n th\? one c~se we h:1e a fine, handsomely met~t ion this, as I ha>e heard of p eople sup-
H ere I must p:.mse to m ention t he neces- marked surface with a pine b~1cking. in t he posmg themsel>es to ha;e been d eceiYed bv
sity to provide a. steel scriber, ha,ing one end ot her a plain ish piece of wood, but solid. Of :.tatements about solid wood, but almost ill-
s harpened to a neen le point. and the opposite course, the notion of pin e m ay not b e &o<"'I'ee- >ariably it will be found that t heir questions
e nd like a turning chisel. Mark t h e centre able to some, but there is no doubt t hat for leading t o t h em ha>e n ot been sufficiently
ligh t ly a nd exactly at t his point m t h t he many positions i t is quite s u itab le; and exp licit t o elicit a correct answer. I trust,
cut ting edge ; mark the centre l ine. M ~. t hat apart f rom its softness, i t is, when h owe>er, I han said enough to show that
rig ht across t h e grain, and :!TI- in. below the selected with care and p roper k nowledge, veneering should n ot be indiscriminate ly
centre : scribe the line, I J, p erpendicular to by no means t o be d espised. I d o n ot advo- condemned , and t hat when properly done, it
M ~. We also require three c1rclt's on t h is cJ.te its me ~s a foundation for really tine is n ot only a judicious, but sometimes a
face of 9t in., 4i in., a nd :! ~ in. dia meter, re- wneers, b ut I m ust confess that for com- necessary, method of working u p a material.
s pectively, the last -named being t h e size of p;uati>ely cheap work, it seems to me t hat I think a ll the m ore common forms of ob-
the opemng for the eye-piece. It may n ow t here can be no m ore objection to >eneering jections t o it h a-re b een discussed in such
be bored out, and a groo>e p rodu ced on its p ine t han t o staining p ine. say , walnut or m a- a way as to dispel f rom the reader's mind
edge of the same character, and to ser>e a h ogany colour, a nd polishing it. The greatest any prejudice h e may have insensibly formed
similar purpooe as in the carrier, the whole purist hardly objeNs to t h e latter ; indeed, against Yeneering. Though much more might
being mad e as sm ooth a.s possible with the ~om e of thew rnther suggest that i t is a wry be said to t he sam e purpose, we may take
fin est glasspaper. a pprop riate way of fini::hing pine furniture, lea>e of t his part of t h e s ubject, a nd t:oncern
Following the sam e d irection s m t h the b ut why >eneere,l p ine should not be equo.lly oursel>es mth the p ractical work of \'eneer-
front plate, setofftb e centre l inesand acircle so, I am at a loss t o u udt:'rstand . The only ing. In connection mth this, I may say
H in. diam eter ; after remo>ing t he cent ral reason ca n be that tho::e who object t o it t hat many ditferent methods are adopted, and
portion, work carefully up t o the line, so as h<w e bad t he mi::fo!'tune to m eet mth some that in comp etent h ands t hey are all capable
t o fit th e carrier neatly; t he s urface w hich uncommonly bad specimen s of furnit ure of of p roducing good resu lts, some bet ter t.hnn
comes in con tact mth t h e latter t o be this kind, and that on t hem they ha'e too others, but none of them u t terly bad. Do
finished by ru bbing mth a p iece of N ixey's hastily formed opinions. The critic of wood - not, t herefore, let it be thought that if no
blacklead, in order that the carrier may slide work frequently d oes so, or t hose acquainted allusion i5 made t o some fa>ourite mode of
s moothly within it. with the trade of t he cabinet m aker would prep aring or laying Yen eers, or I may go a
n ot b e so much a mazed as they are some- little farther and say, that if some other is
times with t he e~trat,rdinary statem ents stated to be better, that it is d one with any
made wi t h all the con fidence of an intimate i nten tion of inducing practised artisans to
knowled ge of the s ubject. That good and abandon their old systems of working. I
\VITH REMARKS ON SOIJD W ORK, ETC. bad f urniture is made cann ot be disputed, am quite p.repared to admit t h at an y method

BY DAVID .U>,B LSON. but the former is ~ways to be h ad by 1;0ing v.-hich has been found in practice con>enient
to respectable cnbmet makers and pay10g a and durable, i5 just as good s.o any which
I MUST nlt.ogether dissent f rom t h e remark fair price for i t. The individuals who, wit h- may be m entioned by me. I am not bigoted,
about it never being " worth while t o buy ou t any practical knowledge of the subject, a nd would let e>ery one practise h is own
furniture ven eered with mahogany, for a but with an o>ef1\eeni ng confidence i n their "Utethod, i.e., any one who is competent to
l ittle extra cost may procure the same own ability to distinguish between the false form an opinion, or i5 an experienced crafts-
articles in solid WOO<!,, as it is quite in- and the t rue in quality of wood or workman- man ; so, good readers among these, don't
accurate, if it may be assumed, as I presume ship, and it may b e added, act uated by a n thi nk I wish to disturb you in your p~nt
it nlay be, that the furniture. whet her solid unhealthy d esire t o pick up bargains, rely modes o f veneering. but at the same tune,
or ven eered, i.s to be goOd, that is properly on their own judgment, are principally to b e please remember t hat the operations to be
made and finished. If it is to be only credited w it h t he immense qua ntity of slop described, h owever t hey d iffer from yours.
common Curtain Road stuff, then certain ly furniture which is made and sold. It is not also quite reliable. I say t hi5 with full
the case is rather different, for rubbish can made for sensible people, but for the other kn owledge that the practice of veneering is
be bad at almost an y price. sort ; a n d as according to the sage of C helsea, s ubject t o many Yariations in d etail, and
The fact is that the cost is n ot altogether the majority belong to this other sort, it that men equally rom petent to form sound
regul.ated. by the wood being veneered or woul d be >ery remarkable if a certain pro- opini ons difi'er materially in their n e1\S as
n ot, i.~, so far as labour is concerned. It portion of f urniture as well as other thtngs to what is best ; also, I cannot forget that
depends far m ore on the value of the >eneer. were n ot p repared for their special d electa- discussions about practical methods are not
N owl if we are to understand that any tion. always carried on with that freedom f rom
artic e veneered with finely figured m a- It is sometimes erroneously supposed that acrimony which is desirable. .May I there-
hogan~r:d be had made solid of equally articles of furniture are >eneered solely t hat fore suggest , that any on e who can add to
finely wood, I am afraid the difference the p rofit of the m aker may b e u nduly i n- t he lamentab ly small a mount of publish ed
in cost would rather startle any one. On creased, and it is n ot uncom mon to hear a matter on veneering, " ill do better ~b:~nd
the other ban~ prest1.J!1ing that the fine would-be p urchaser i nquirincr if s uch a nd i ng on an account of h is m ethods, by
veneer i.s laid on a mahogany base, as it such is solid, a pparen tly un~er the n otion sim p ly contentin g h imself m th saying that
genmally is in good work, and that this that i t will be wort h m ore, or be better the present writer "is altogether u rong."
or a mm~ plain mah~oany is value if it is. 1 d on 't think any honest T h e follomng instructions are based on a
worked up solid vithout v eneer, then the tradesman would h esitate to say which part_, fairly mde ~perience of the m ethods ~er
.aolid form would be very much less than are solid and which are >eneered ; but some- ally practised, but there i5 no assumption
the othw. Hence there is no cause to times the d iscovery that a particular t hing tha t all the methods in particular sho~ or

The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012

York-Septemb er 21. 1889.] O uR Gu.IDE TO Goon T HINGS.

districts are known to me, and I for one OUR GUIDE TO GOOD THI8GS. work i:~ properly dry, leather it O\er with a litlle
shall be grateful to those who are able to whitin~ and wat~1-. l'luce tho graiuers wher e
su a(Yest improvements . This, howen:r, can Patentus, manuJac:u,ers, and dealers aencra/ly are n required, and stcncil on tho YCins with Vandyko
qufSte<L to seuct prO$J>tetusts, bills, rlc., of their SJ>tciali brown and water, curo Lcing tak~::n not to have
o;JT be done by eXI!_erts, for veneering is a ties i1~ tools, 1nachinery, and wor/;sltop app/iaucu to I he
delicate operation. The present seems to be Editor of WORK fl!r notice in "Our Uuirle to (:oocL the brush too wet (an ordinary SO.!!h t ool a nswers
an opportune time for some addition to the Thin,gs." 11 is desirnble that swcimrns shouid be unt very well) . You will find J,r ruJ,Ling the br ush
for e.ruminati~1t ancl ledlin!J ilt u/l ca~.-s uheu /M.$ o.:tm be to antl fro, inslNtrl of dabbing, the veining will
literature of veneeri~~ Many of our younger dmv. withiJu t ii&COIU'enitliCC.. Sped mens tJms ''"ti L'td
artisans are l?racticauy ignorant of the pro- um be rttur11ed at tAe ear/i~;t OJ>Jll)rtwtity. It 11uc.t be come out much clcnncr." For oil-graining
Ull<lerstoo.L that ererythill'J 1chkh is Mticed is nnticttl c:olour, raw um ber should be uJ;Cd, mix<:d with
OOS1>, which 10 the immediate future bids 01~ it:s 11tcrtu Ollly, c111d that, as it is ill the ~wtr of Ull!/ boiled linsc<:d oil and turps. The following are
fair to be more practised in connection with OIUl who has a 1u<(ul article for sale to oiAailt ment ;.,,, (lf
1\lr. J on es's dirc<:tions for wntor-gr.tining. Rub
good work than it, till very recent ly, has it in. this dtprtl'/lllutt of IVORK teithout charge, the
'!lolicu gitrn parklkt in no 'ICU!f of tM 1Ullure of ad rer the work -in Ycry q uickly with Yundyke brown
'been for some years. Unless it is performed tisttntllts. and wattr, and s tippl<J it clean. ComL and pro-
by competent hands, it will soon prove un- STEXCI L PATTEr~-.s ceed as in oil-graining, cxc<:pt the whiting and
reliable, and without saying t hat the a rt of
86.--.Jo!\"ES's A.'m Ct:TTixos.
water. If the g aining is r.:q uired light, place j
veneering is ever likely to be lost completely, :AIB. G. JoxEs, Enst Cowes, Islc- of 'Yight, the grainers and spougo out thu veins.
full advantage may not be taken of its D ecorator to her :Maj esty, and Designer und Hc vcrting once more to the stencil vat terns, there
Stencil Cutter to the trade, has sent m e for is one oi special excellence to which I feel bound
cai>3-bilities. inspection and notice a few of hi:; cut strncils
To the young workman-! mean the pro- t o c:tll attention. This is pattem K o. 155, in
a nd pa tterns. I ha ,.e n e'"cr had the pleasure of which flo"ers of the duisy type, conYentionally
fessional- ! would therefore especially a d- seeing patterns that c:Lu be surpassed for Leauty
dress myself while I hope makincr my re- treated with foliage, all symmetricHlly armnged,
a nd excellence of design, n or ha Ye I ever had
marks so piain that t bey may ~e easily the satisfaetion of handling patterns as well c ut
rise from a vase of sirnplo dlsign, but pro-
ducing a remarkable effect by the d c,er manner
followed by the amateur who may be in- and as well t ied, for my r "'atle:1-s will readily in which ornamental bands in the ground colour
clined to turn his attention to ~eneering. understand what nn important factor tying is in arc contrasted with tho dark hue of the oak.
As the needs of the latter class of workers stencil cutting, inasmuch as the stalJility and
must be considered, the following instruc- endumnce <Jf the pcrforateJ sheet. if I may 87.-TI!E X E\\" ,Y.\TEltPliOOF L IQl'ID GLt'E.
tions and remarks must necessarily contain apply sut>h expressions to thi~ work, depf'nJ I am loath to be in anv- way bt>hindhand i n

much that may seem superfluous t o those entirely on the s1:ill of the dtsigncr in this brin,.in o.. uudc r the notice of my
~ . r eaders lln)thin n..
who have even a modicum of experience r espect and the care of the cattcr in confioin:; that mny pro,e to be a valua'Lle invention, a nd
himself precisely t o the outlines of his de::ig nc r, n:; pressure of work on rny time is so great j ust at
acquired in practical workshops, but no and keeping his knife exaetly in thll tracks thus pre~cnt ns to pre:,cnt me from maki ng any
doubt, though I may appear prolix, they laid down for him, j ealously guarding the pa~sa~e particular tests of the" :Xew w aterproof Liquid
will forgive me now that I have sta ted the of the tool a hair 's br eadth be'"oml the t..:rndua- Glue," of which a s:tmplc has been sent me by th e
reason. If such a thing be possible, I want tion of any two lines, whether stmight or cuncJ, X uw Glue Company, (.;range Yard, Ya~cy R oad,
t o help those who have hardly seen a veneer th!it meet a t a greater or less angle in any point :--hiplcy, near Bmdford, Y orkshire, I ha YO
till after it is laid, who have not the slightest of the pattern. lli. J ones's patterns w<:ro elicited from the Co10pany statrmeut.;; which lead
idea of either canl or hammer-laid Yeneer, accompanied by n long r oll of stencillings, frvm m e to draw the following inferences with refer-
or, indeed, anything about the work to set plates many of " 'bich are much longe r than th! e:nce to the sp<:t>inlity they arc now p repared to
about it intelligent!& with results that will patterns sent, and which exhibited a boldness of supply.
neither be disappointingto themsehe.~, nor design combined with delicat>y of execution and The X ew "uterproof'Liq uid Glue, j ust placed
yet afford opportunityt o their most critical manifest comprehension of the cfl'cct to Le on the market, is a step in the right diredio n, a nd
friends to find fault with it. obtained when the pattern is reproduced on t'!lc marks an area in ud,ance:ment towards perfection
Of course, it will bereadilyunderstood that walls or ceiling of a room, in colours contmsting s) far as the production of that indi.~pcru;able
wi th the ground or rep!'ating the gn>unrl in mticle glue is concerned. T he trade mark
for any written instructions to be of much deeper tints, that it would be difficult to C'xcd
use, the learner's co-operation is needed, for " "ntr:r Glue" fairly describes its leading
or e\en to equal It is really a matter of difii- qualities. lleiog always liquid, it is always read~
unless this can be given the novice need not culty to single out any patterns f llr special corn-
l for use, r equiring no boilin!!. It sets quickly,
hope to profit by the plainest directions. mendation where all arc good, but there arc tv.-o , r.nd when thoroughly dry v.ill hear lengthened
In the practice of veneering, the beginner to which I may call spetial attention. from the I exposure to water without '"isibly decr easing in
is sure to encounter diffi culties; he must h et that they form p:trt of the de.:or-o.~tions in s~rcngth. In eYery household, how often hal'e
make up his mind for that, for de- st~ncil of h er :llajer.ty's residence at Usbome, articles come asunder, thu glued joints ha,; ng
pends very largely on judgment as well as and which, on this account. may be re~rdcd as succumbed to the invisible but deadl~ enemy,
care and knowledge of what to do. He patterns of more than usual interest. One of these dam p :' To those who US'3 the W ater Glue, such
sbonld not commence operations with large is a floral ornAment of great beauty and sim- a thing- cannot happen. The amateur carpenter
or costly veneers, nor attempt to lay these plicity which appears on the panels of the ceiling nnd j oiner will find a true and trusty friend in
until be has had some practice with the of the Queen's pri vate chllpcl, and the other an this glue, always ready, relia ble, and strong.
commoner kinds. otnament of the same character, exhibiting n Canoe and hoat builders will at last obtain a
pleasing a rrangement and acl"Lptation of the watertight joint without th e a id of the trouble-
Thia, it may be said, applies specially to national emblems of England, S~.:otland, and I r e- sum e pitch pot. To builders of model yachts, the
the amateur working alone and not able to land- the rose, thistle, and shnmrock-'1\hi ch \Yater Glue will be highly welcome, ns built
command the a.<J.Sistance usually a>a ilable forms part of the decoration oi her )laj1.sty's m odels, by i ts ai:!, can now be pla.n ked up with
where several artisans are working together, council chamber. :Mr. Jon~s's l.'t ~nci l patterns the certainty of being watertight afterwards.
in case of anything going wrong uoex-pec- arc all distinguished by n umbers, and, in accord- F or cyclists, this gl ue, used as a liquid-tyre
tecily. The young professiona l's foreman ance with this plan, I may say th:t the form_er cement, will supply a long-felt wa nt. W o rkers
may aafely be trusted to see that he does is distinguish ed as K o. 7, and the latter ns l\ o. in m t'tal "ill find it in,nluable as a means of
not make his maiden effort at veneering 10. I ven ture to sug-gest to ~lr. Jones that he causing leather to adhere to smooth metamc
with any valuable material, and, indeed, he ~hould ha'"e a book of his pattems in miniature surfat>es, and i t t>an be used as a lacquer for
8hould be guided exclusively by his foreman, prepared, in the same manner adopted by )fr . polished m etal, giYin; it a good colour, and being
notwithstandi ng that his detAils may pos- Henry Zilles, M essrs. Rarger Bros .. an~ )!es~rs. pe:rfectly imper ..-ious t <J water . It is made up in
aibly differ from anything written here. J. H . Skinner & Co., and others, so tha t mtendmg t ins containing 2, 4, and 8 fl uid ounces, sold
purchasers may be enabled t hus _to judge of the respecti..-~ly at 3d ., 6d., and l s. per tin by all
Directiooa in Wo11x are written to aid be- suitability of t he patterns for the1r p u;pose before chemists. ironmonge-rs. and oilm~n.
giuoen, not to supersede their employer or giving their orders. I presume t hat tf :ll r. J ones I asked the Company to giYe m e some idea of \
foreman' preference for any course of had such a oook. he would'e sent me a copy of t he meri ts claimed for it o,er Le Page's Carriage
aniPGlatioo. and, perhaps, they will pardon it with hi.a s tencils. 'With each pattern its size, G lue, a preparation which has hitherto been
1111 flioti01_ that some of them are just that is to say, its length and greatest bre:ulth, fOLmd most u;;eful of its kin d. They claim that
a trifle iDclined to air their very superior should be stated, a nd the purpose .i.t is chieti y tal..;ng H}U.'ll quan tit ies of t ach, and comparing
bowwtp of a method which they ha\'e intended to ser'"e. The price, also, should be prices, the w at er Glue is cheaper, a nd that Le
I IlD denribed '"in print!' Thia may in named. P age's Glue is not wa ter proof or e..-en damp-
it11lf be better, but for you.nelf your em- Some of Mr. J onea's stencil patterns a re in proof. The American Glue, if allowed to stand
ploJer'aMt.lae beat in the meantime. Forgive tended to r ender n~istance in graining. These i n a cold pbce, will sotidiiy so m uch, that the pot
apeaking, but if you will take the are l.."Down collecti,ely by the name of t he m ust be heated by standing it in boiling Wllter.
"Arcundian Oa k Grainer ," and are sold in sets, \Yater Glue is al ways r eady, a nd can be used for
i$ IDAJ eave you now and ~aain a more or leas, I presu me, in n umber . .The .set
aplttnntnea s with your "boss," in all purpost's that Le Page's or llny other glne
anpplil'd at 5s. comprises se,en differe nt patterns can be used for. I intend myself to give thia
JUa are mre to get the wont of it. which are cut to follow on to any le ng th. The new glue a trial at the first opportunity, and I
ia dnger of leaving me to talk directions git'en for using t he "A.rctmdian Oa k trust thRt those of m; r eaders who may procure
in the worbhop instead of Orainer" are as follows:-" R ub in the work ,ery and make hial of this ne w article for public
YJ&eiDg1 and the way in which smoothly and clean with colour. Comb fa vour will giYe me an account of the
of wwk ia aODe. tint with coane and then fine comb. When the obtained. TH:a EDnooL

The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012


'A. OoRSEa FOil THOSE -.n~o """.L"q" ro T.1LE IT.

. Sv1KC f t ~S14n~-1 fZ'fi.~Yr:~; D"'JI cf

O:t! Q~v r.o C'.'~'RJ,..,.t<. (',. .,., r~
~ to .r.J'tltia; tA!l.r w Of :f1116:Nti ; ,. - SJ,r: ,r::;t
en~ N n:b' i o w 01 11 m~r a.n.d J':l}C ,,, "' "'lt-~7
~ lrO&JO: ia orl!~ tMru.),Nr< w.uu" t:iNa
~&ad t.-. v;re ti.t 1~t1U; -.; c.r ;i.( ;t~ - :.-."r,Jt ;_-.
dOe\~~ U ~- IJ'lJ tJ.l' h ;::i.;.:.c ">, , :;,,!'! ;,f
reri dw:r, (ll' :. ua-M-rolv:mc. e>,f Iilr .,-;;rr l1- vr~"'
daoe qt~N~t-'tll b bef.a tu'/;.cd '>T l.' ..~).: 1To 0 ..,,, "Y J,:;.
fCJL fJJnJ'tiJJ gi lJt.~ _4.UAI'(.N' r..lj},.r, :,: :-c f;1'f 'll ! .;#,(.J-
tiD'U ltlloicll dll taor !oe.'t.r P'll F'll !')('Ca ;.~.a;; p . r. J1 C::"'-1
tlll tii .:he M;llJII Q/tM. Jlo.go.rLr.c..
L -LErrE Rs FBOll CoB.R.E:S PI)XDI:s rs

The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012

W ork-Septe mber 21, 1889.] SHOP.

II.-QC"EST IONS .fu~SWERED BY EDITOR AND STAFF, t ell m e if I cnn insure mr tool~ rrom fire nnywh ere. the g-lue has ~et cl<'n n niT in th e ns nnlmnnncr . You
and also, it po:;si ble. the cost or n lOliey 1 I shall n111s t l'l'lll('llll.>cr thul t h uu~ h it is of C<JIII}mmth cty
Straighte ning Bird-Cag e Wire.-G. C. (Leith). feel greatly obliged if you \.'llll answe r tbcso qucs s nll\11 cnn:;cqur nce whna kiaul of g lue you uso to
-As G. C. rem.a rks, ~his, though .a. sirupl~ ques- tions in their turn."-LI do uot think thcte is uny fasten th e pil-ct:~ of inlny to the paJ.Ica, if there
tion, is a. somewhat difticult one m pract1ce. It office in which men can insure t heir tools. I shu U i:! much light wood, colourlc,;~ gluo i:~ nrccssu ry to
"'ould have simpillled matters very much. and per- be ha~py to consult with unr who mo interested iu nttnch tho ,cncct to till' ground, 11s th e heat of the
h aps sae valuable space. it G. C. had inti mated this direction as to t he practicabil ity of setting- on cnn t lmtr en use al durk colonn:ll 1.d110 to lea ,.e a
w l.ult plans be h&3 tryed. 9reater ~culty w~ll be foot a Company with t his object. T here are dilli- s tuin. '!'he pullctu fc>r lino wmk shouhl he JIOUIICt>d.
expertence d in straighten mg brass Wll'e than 1ron. culties in the wny; but doubtless 1bcse may be ns sntlicil'nt accuan<'Y cannot be .:ot by tracing.
it being so much hardt>r. Some time since I needed overcome. If unr established industrial otlicc, Use powdelcd nsphalte in u piece of mmsllu or a.
rather stout "ire in straigh t lengths. and nccom- with a large staff of a~cuts. would tuke the tuutt cr r oll or rtunncl w ell dusted wllh usphultc. A ftcr
p lisbed the work bJ: finll,'ers n.nd thumbs, maki~F !t up and create a new brunch fot th e dc,~lopmeut oi pounciltg tho dcsi~n rlown, hole! the pounced vat--
cur\e in the oppos1te direction to the curl. I h1s this object, it woulu be tlle tuoro eusil y carried.- t ern to the fire. '!'hi:! mcll:! th u ll:lJlhullo, unc.J tbe
w as etrecti>e, but slow, and only practica~l~ for .a En.]. outline is then inc.Jl'lible. Yon nu1y u:~o coloured
sma.ll quantity. I t can also be don~ by striJong 1t chnlks instead of nsphalle, but the outlim's r cl)uire
with h~bt blows on hard wood Wlth a. wood hum- Ha~~gtug Chlna. -G. D. M. ClnvC1ncss. N.B.).-
m er. 1 his, too, is rather slow. The m ost success- I t is true that one often tinds the olc.J Delft plates Ctll'eful luUldlin:;, a:; they nre ca:~ib CI'IIStL Hy a
ful plan, however. that I can suggest for large with holes bored th rough them. anclal huge knot ot little adaptation you may u::e alli1 ost nny of th e
quantities of wire is to cut it in suitable lengths, string de!acin~ the plaque itself: bur. in addition ortlinnry fretwt>rk c!esi:;n:1 for inlll)'illj: purposes :
and run it through a tiomo.n's set of rollers, which to the risk of clriUing the hole. woulu it not be wiser but it you menn designs for nutrqucl ry inlay:~. surh
t o hang it with au ordinary plate wire. sold nown. ns nrc seen on so mnch morltrn furniture, you will
is arranged w ith two soles under and one on the days o.t most chinawnre shop:>, or. if nct>ds be. tind a consiclerab lc dilllcnlty in oblnininl{ th em, as
top. Perhaps G. C. is a\vate that there arc two made at h omo easily enou~;h I As the diaJ..\"l'tlll\ none arc Jltlbli3h c!l in this country. 'fic1-sot, ot
qualities ot brass w ire in the market - a soft w ire, shows. it is but n circle o( wire, hli'!N cnou~h to slip l'ari:~. publishes d esig- ns fo1 inlays, but they are
and what is known ns ''hard r olled," used by oer the rim- the foot. so to speak - ot th e plate. not in the style now fns hionnblo here : so they
jewellers, etc. I should advise him to get the with four other pieces twisted on. These are bl'llt mnr not suit \'OU. 'rho only th ing- you can alo, or,
former. P erhaps G. C. will pardon me it I remntk <1t least, thnt"' enn s uggest, is that you npply to
that brass wire is not the best for the purpose he any furniture designer whom you may know. He
requires; it soon gets discoloured , but worse than muy be willing to supl1ly ,ou; but, ns 1he designs
that, the clear musical ring which it gi,cs when will h:wo to bo spec in ly t 1m wu. you must be pre-
Qtruck by a bird is said to destroy the purity or a Jl:ll'\.'c\ to pnr ftli rly for them. P ossibly ::\lr. na,id
bird's song-it picks up the sound as a false note. I .\damson, whosu nnmc will be fumil inr 10 ron in
ha;e known a canary whose song was spoiled b} llae,;c png-cs, mar bo willing to supply you. The
t he _piping of a chicken which it had heard, and in- whole su bject ot marqueuy inlayin~will &e treated
troduced into its music. Personally , I should not oi in these pu~c:~ in due coursc.-ll . v.
cage a T"aluable songster wit h bruss wire.-0. D.
Fixing Tops.-E. \V. (EMt Shecn).-Y es, the L inseed Oil .-C t' ~tRO {Rhyl}.-R uw linseed oil
best way or fix in~ these in similnr positions to thnt may bl.' lllade thi ckl'l' hy boiling-, hut b\ doing this
r ererred to is umlouhted lr by dovetailing them imo it is r t.>utlcr\.'d un,uitublo fot Fr\.'nch po)i,;uin~ pur-
the ends ; and you are also correct i n supposing po:K':!. l t will not injure the polish, but if th ickened
that this form of constructio n is independen t of 11 clog-s the work: and it is just because r nw oil is
machi nery: in fact, it is a very ordinary joint. No th in thnl it is prl'fcnecl. I c.Jo not know whether
special tools are required. All you have to do is to I :till ri~ht iu suppo~in;; that you wish to rentler
m11rk and cut the dovetails on the ends of the tcps. tlw oil :;etTiCl'llblo both fot oiling nud lllliug at one
This cnn easily be d one by running the gauge along, op\.'r:tt io n : but if so. I cL me attempt to diss unde you
of course o.fter you have squared them up. and th011 fl'olll tloing- 1his. Yolll question is put rather ob-
formin~ the d ovetail with chisel. 1\lark olf the Wire for Hanging China. st:urel)-. ,.:; I 111nr be wrong ilt suppo!ling- that such
dovetail on the back edges of the end pieces. W ith is you t iutcution.- l). A.
the square scribe lines from back to front of the oer the edge to the front of the plate. and then R e productio n o f Fretwork Deslg u s .-I. C. G.
inner sides of the ends. These lines sere as guides nipped close off. say, ! in. from mur;;iu. ancl may (Rt'acl i /If/).- Y cs. fret work desi::rns can be multi-
to work t o, between which the wood to the required be sa fely trusted to support the m o:>t \'alnable oltl }llicd by the bltll' printing process. the reproductio n,
depth must be removed. T h is can be done with a china. A round frante. turned to enclose the plate of course. showing the dark lines ot the original
chisel, using if necessary an "old woman's tooth,'' a as though it were n. mirror. i8 nlso usccl :u tiu11s: white on a blue ~1ountl. T he originnl must be
tool wilh which you are doubtless acquainted , to bu~ to me it is too hea \'Y for the decor:\! ion of u. intcrpocd bet Wl'l'n t\ sheet of g-lass nnd the blue
le,el the bottom. Sh ould y ou not know what the plate, unless, indeed, it be ono of the old ma,iolicn J.>:tlll'l'l'ither i!' u fl'llme or lloth po.J?ers
old woman's tooth" is, ones with a pictorial treatment, where. Sll\'C lor the must bo Kt'pt 111 close contact dmmg tho pr1otm~r.
I may explain that it accident of being on earthenwa re, instead of o n a oa the prillt will be indistinct. Patterns _printed 10
is a router, and t ha t a panel or canvo.s, the plate is to nil inte nts and pur- bhtl' iuk. such as those of somo of the Jtnlinn de-
short description of ono poses a rou nd picture.-T . G. " ' sh,:u:;. cu nnot bo c011ied by this means. 'l'bo print-
t or home mo.nufactu re Draught Screen.-, V. 1\!. D. CGotan). - I am in'); may be mu ch exvcditcd by oiling Ute origin~1
will appear ere long. sorry I cannot possibly tell you how to make a :;o a;; to make it scuu-t mnspnrent . A colourless oil
'l'he sloping side of the screen of the kind you descri be for the !mm you do should be used fot the purpose.-L . I . P .
~O\'e for the dovetail not wish to exceed. any more than I can tell you L ett e ring iD GUt. - F. W. H . (Shrfficld) .- In
lS also formed by cut- how to make a half-sovere ign worth :!Os. I t ake it ll'l tlrin~ in gilt on leather proceed thus :-Wash
ting a way with t h e from your description that you want to use J aparll'sc the leather with pnste-wate r. i.e .. water with a little
chisel. Such. in brief, leather payer, but of course common embosserl wull 110111' paste mixed in it. "'hen it has become tho-
is a n outline ot the pro- paper wil be much cht>aper. Your question ito. roug-hly dry. cou t it OYer eenly with .:lnire (pre-
cess, wh.i ch will be more however, couched in such \ery vague tenus thnt 1 Jllll'Ccl from ftcsh hen egg!l): use the whites only,
fully treated in some am by no means sure of what you renllr clo want to nnd bent up until a dry-looking , wl1ite troth has
projected articles on make. For example. though you ghe dimensions. hCl'n formed of th e whole mnss. After heating
d ovetailing. Inst-ead ot V0\1 do not say whether YOU want 1\ folding S('l"CC!n. nlitll\' it to set tl e. The froth will disappcnra nd leave
doing the whole ot the Dovetail for Tops. i can only suppose you do. and you will easily ~:>cc a l'll'nt' am her-coloure d liquid as thin us water .
cutting with a chisel a that the cost depends greatly on the nu m bcr or folds \\'h ln the first cont i:1 drr. gi\e it a second, and
fine saw may be run along the lines to the depth wo.nted. \\o'itb eYery disposition to assist nil who nlltw it to dry also. Huh it o\er with a little hog's
r equired, leaving the waste wood to be remo,ed applf. for informatio_n in "~hop," it ~s ut~crly il!t hml or nli \'O oil, nnd lny on the gold leaf. The
with the chisel. Do not cut right through to the poSSJble to do so satisfacton ly unless mqmri.'I'S wall ku ers u;;cd ato made of brass with wooden handles;
front, unless the front edges are to be faced. and state clearly what they want. It you write more 1he~ arc heated over n
ot course, whnteer distance you stop from the fully, I shall be able to answer you more helpfully. p\s ,.:to, e. a.ud, wh en t he
front will ha'.:e to be removed from the front edge -D. D. jopcr clcgTcc of h eat
of the dovetail on the top or shelf. I n cabinet work Fire Blower.- R. B . (Col ne).- Y our skl'trh gin~!l 1:; ohtninctl. th cr nre
i t is only necessary t o torm a dovetail on ono side a very fair Idea. of the thing you want. so tlmL with vrcsscd ono br ono on
ot the tops, US\tally on the under side, the other the following hints no doubt you will be able to 1 he top of the gollllcnf;
being left square. 'l'he diagram here given will make one to suit ronr purpose, though. if fot nn the hnat causes th e go la
make this clear. You will see that it is a compnro.-
tl vely easy matter to get the top on the upper side
to shoulder well to the end. or, in other words. to
make a good fit, as aU you have to do is to cut the
ordinary fire, you will find the common bellows do
just as well. I do not think the kind you want
would be sufficien tly useful to justify a len~lhy dc-
scl'iption- at present. ut anr rnt e; but if it shnn hl
1o ttd here to the lcatller.
Whtn the lellctin~ is
completed. t he sul'plus
gohl is rubbed ott' wil h
'' '
''' '''
groove straight. The appco.ranc e of the lower side
is not of so much consequenc e, as it is n ot seen.
seem likely to m eet the wishes ot' uny oonsirlerah lo nn oily rug- kept for the V ""
number or readers. nn article amty be deYotetl to tho purpose. The lJt'oceclme
The parts are to be fastened together with glue, subject. Meanwhile , yon or nny othl't' renclet in- t'ot cloth is mu ch the
which, however, s hould not come within a few quiring on any point you muy bo in di rti culty about, snnw. Omi~ the pnste
Inches of the front.- D. A. wiU be answered in t hese columns. ::iizu. of comsc, wnshing, nnd gi\e only
Minor Carpentry .- W. H . R. (Lo,tdon, W .) depends on use to be made of blower, whi ch con- ono coat of glnilc. !See
'Wl'ites :-"Might I ask your kind help in the fol- sists essentiallr of a thin murow b ox with n. re- r eplf. to ANXIOUS ONE
l owing :- I am desirous or doing T"arious little jobs vol >ing wheeltnsid e. This wh eel is something like in No. U, pnge :!:!1.) In
at home, such as makJng picture frames, flower o. st~amboat screw or paoJ>Cllct, the number or doi ng the lettcri ng for
boxee foot-stools, salt boxes, benches, and such- blo.des depending on circumstun ccs. 'l'be blades for yotr sister, you s hould Hand Palette.
Uke Odd articles. i a nd if you would tell me the tools, a small ono mnyuo mnrle of thin brass or block tin get a hnnd palette mndo
with thei r lengr.n and weight, I should r equire, I fitted into a hnb or axle. One end of this projt>cl:~ with the name nncl nrldrcss engrned in r elief upon
ehould be much obliged. I notice that some saws through !>DO side of th.c J?ox and hns a pul~ey wh eel it. An~engrav ercould make it for rou. hnt i~ would
with a rimmed back, such as butchers use. are also fixed to 1t. Ncur to 1t 1s another re>olnng wheel he best to apply t o i\lessrs . Hoylc and Son. Loveus
made UIIO ot by w ood workers. \Vould I require with a handle. A cord contnaunica .tos motion from Court, Pnt ernostc1 now, ns thev will !mow exnctly
a11cb an art1cle1 What Is your opinion of the patent this handle wheel to the othot connected wi th the whnt rou wnnt. H owc,er, the' sketch giYcn nbove
acrewdrive r advertised by Harger Bros. 1 T he tool fan. It prefened, geared wheels mny bo used in- will show the shnpc of the pulette; t110 lettering is
doea away with the n ec0881ty or holding the screw. st.ead. A snit:\ble nozzle nml :;puces for the nd- cm on the fnco.-G. C.
n t. oalled K olb'a 'Comm on-Sense Screwd.r lver.' - mission or nir complete the nrran~;cmcnt.-D. A. Fretwork D esigns.- ' ' \. T. sends n modifica-
[You ehaD b o s hown how to make th e articles you Inlaying. -H . L. 1\I. (Bil'111illnlw m).-Gum is not t ion ot llt>sij::n for cnbinet in fre twork, by Mr.
meolioo, and a paper shall be w ritten on o. handy suitable fOl' fastening the pieces or inlny together Glceson-"' hito. in Ko. 1 of \\'or:K. aud writes:- I t
kit of tools for beginners. 1' he saw \\ith tbo or to the ground. Good orclinnry glue i:1 the best should be also much obligtd if you coultl tell rue of
nmml!d that you speak of Is a tenon saw. and thing you can us~ .. Unl~ss the pieces nrc\'ClT thin a tlrm who would ho likely to buy d esigns, and ot
11 uaed chiefly for cutting acros~ the ancl for they will not be lllJttred 111 col0\11', th ough of COUI':!O the nsunl 1ucuns or transacting that sott ot busi-
hard w ood. I have ono of .Kolb's "Common -Sense it the inlay is verr light you will choose a colonrlcliiS nc~c<s."- Your modlttcntio n of ul r. \Vhite's design is
IJc...wdrlvers " In uae. It Is o. handy tool, but I have t(hle. 'Vith Lepuge's cnrrinl{e ghae )~ou enn lay nny vety nicely r encleacd: but I must nsk rendot-s ot
lleen 10 loll~ acca.tstomc cl to th e orc.Ji nnty screw- 1nluy without l'et\r of discolnmt ion. Fix the infttY nv "out'S" to tttko my word for this .. ut~ it is not pos-
4rlYer that I prefe r 1t to an y ot the patent sctow- first on u sheet or papet. 'Vhen dry eleam up with sible to find space to publish it. .J . H. Sk inner mad
llriYen.-JLo.). a toothed plane, the ,cneer anrl Inlay being- m ono Co., East Dcrehnm : lla rger B r os. Settle, York-
la .,... . . of Toola. - T. T. ( K cnnlnotonl sheet supported by the paver. Luy the whole papct shite; Booth llaothcrs, Dublin. nil buy designs i

...U.:-" A oueltiou 1 wllh to ask ilt, (.;o.u you sicle upwatilit, with a. cant on the panel; nfter but purchase will depend entirely on aultabillt;y ox

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430 SHOP, ETC. [Work-Scptember 21, l SS:l.

designs for their pnrposo. The usual mode of trans- wh eel is turned by the bnnd, and imparts the
acting business of this kind is to submit desi~ns. and motion by means ot a. belt to the smnll wheel, o Trade Note.
name terms at which you would part with tilem. (Fj!:{, 2); this is on tho fan axle, and the fan, n, in-
Griftlos Fre t saw s .- J . A. J. (Stratford, E .)- side mon~s in conjunction with it, dro.wing in the "SCRTPP'S League of Newspapers,'' composed of
In reply to yow- intimo.tion that you "would esteem nir at A (Fig. 1). and expelling it through the pipe, B six n ewspapers pnblislled in tbe lending citit's of
it a. favonr tf I could give you the address of the (sn,mc figure). It is show n in position in :Fig . 3, of the Central !:>tares, and circulating largely nmong
ma.kers of Griffin's patent fret snws,''l re,ttret to which A is the machine, B the hearth, o the fire, working-men, have sent, at their own expense a
say that I am uno.ble to do so. Possibly Mes3rs. deputation of representnti\'CS of trades and ind~a
Chnrchill & Co., 21. Cross Street. Finsbury, E.C., tries to the Paris Exhibition. These representatives
may give you the information you require, or what are forty in number, four or whom are won1en nod
would do very nenrly o.s wel l. If you want to sell inclnde the engineet'S, foundrymen , scwing-runcbine
them retail they would supply you on the most makers, blo.cli:smiths, car builders, safe and Jock
fAvow-able terms. A makers. shipbuilders, stove makers, and others
J'ig. l . each individual of the forty r epr esenting a distinct
Enlarging Came ra. - CUPID ( CastlPjohn).- If occupation. Most of the men occupy po~itions of
you have maue the enlargiug camera as described, trust and responsibilityin their respective \'OCations
you will dnd the process of making enlargements and the names oC several are familiar to us upo~
very simple indeed. 'fbe moctus opc1andi is as this side of t.he water, as 111r. llobert E. l\Instcrs
follows :-Put yout negative in the carrier with the
film side inwatds ; focus sharply upon the ~rotmd
.1 oseph T~orpe. Edmund G. V nil, and 'W illinm
Keep. I t IS a p1ty thnt our shrewd, prnetico.l work-
glass to the size you desite. in wltich you are guided men have not more opportunities for indulging in
lJy the lines on the glass. 'fhen, in the dark r oom, travel; it would counteract that nnrrowness of
put the pu.per in the slide, fastening it in position mind which, through no fault of their own, is too

with fine dl' tacks, and keeping it to the lines generally a fe;ntnre in their charactel'S, '!'heir'
corresponding w1th those on the g-luss to which you l'ig. 2. observations would certainly be as fruitful o.s those
focussed row- picture; put the slide in the camera, of their employers.
draw the s hutter, u.nd expose. lleturn to the dnrk Si d e View: Section. Front View.
room and dovclop the picture. The de'\"e loper is A, Wbcel, nclt nlf. o, Fnn. A. Utolctn S nppl~ tho 'F:tn
made up as follows :-No. 1. Neutral oxalate of WORK
c, Slll:tll Wb~cl. WHh Au. C, O, C,SilOII'fi J'Ool, 8 oz.; boiling water, 16 oz. No. 2. Sulpha.te of uou ut J:o'o.u. is pllbli$/ltd nt La. Dtlle Sflllt'OUil, LOJdunte J/i/1, l.ntlflo>tl, ttt
1ron, 12 o:r..; boiling water, 1G oz. No. 3. Bromide 9 o' dtocl <1'1'1"1J ll'eduetdlllf nwr11i110. 1111d llwulrt be obtlllmriJ/c ellclrV
of potassium, 60 grs. : water, 1 oz. For use, mix the where tluouulwut tlte United 1\iiOIJdtm& on }'rid<!I/ ttt tile llltCdt.
developer in the following order :-No. ~ oo:r.. ; ~ o. 'l'ERllS OF SUBSCRIPTION.
2, 1 oz.: No. 3, 12 drops. Put the paper m the d1sh !I mon~h!, free by poat .. .. la. @d.
and flow the solution over it: gently rock till the G JUOillhs, ,. ~~. :ltl.
image appears and develops to the required t one. 1!! tuolllb&. ,. 61~ on.
Pour off the developer, o.nd, without washing, flood PoHnl Orllerl' or Po~t omce Ordera 1l11YIIhleat thet:euer:.l
the print with a clearing solution of sulphuric acid, Poot Omtc, Lou<lon, to CA!ISKLL nn<l CUWJ'A.NY, Limited.
1 oz., wo.ter1 SO o:r.. Allow it to remain one minute, TKRliS FOR TliB l:S SRRTIO:S Or Atn'liUTI8BlllaT8 1!1 RACil
pour off ana repeat. Then wash well and immerse W .KI>KLY lB~UB I. d.
m fixing bath (hyposulphito of soda, 4 oz., water, One Pnge - - - 12 0 0
20oz.) for ten minutes. '-Vash in running water for llttl( Pll!<l' - - - 0 IU 0
two hours; th en hang up to dry. Do not dry be- ~uarter l'llgB - - - - a 1: G
tween blottin~ paper o.s in the silver print process. 11!hlh nf a Pa~.. - - - - - l 17 d
UniSixttcntll of 11 - - 1 0 0
There are vanous brands of paper in the mulket, l u Culurun, 1lCT iuch o 10 0
all of which are fairly good and give pleasing re- Promi11e>1t l'oaititnll, or a 1erlra of inmt!on,,
sults. I should, however. recommend you to use bV Ptctlll liM'UII!}elllmt.
Eo.stman's C paper; it ho.s a rough sw-face, and is ~mnllprepaid Advertisements, such llll SIU1ntlons Wnntl'li,
easy to work. giving pure blacks and whites similar F.xchnngt', l'tc., Twenty Words or lcfs, uno :>billing, and One
to good pencil drawings. The most difficult thing l'tunr t>er Word extra if over Twentr.
is to gauge the right exposure-everything depend- Section 1n P osition.
"* .Ad\'Crtl!eiDODt5 Should T('RCh the Omco fourteen
diU's in w.dvance of tbc dnto or issue. .
ing upon the quality of tbo light, which in this
country is a varying quantity. 'l'he best way to A, llncbinc. n, Ucnrtll. c, I'irc.
find the proper timo of exposure is to put a strip of
the bromide paper in the slide, giving it different SAL E .
nnd D the supply pipe. As yon see by FiA'. .3. it is
exposures by drawing out the shutter one-fomth of used wit h the tint henrth nnd lo.r.;e open clmnney : Your Name, Sir?- A complete Font or Rubber
its length, then halt, then three-fou rths, and then but I ha,c no donlJt thn.t it could be flttccl ton. firc- Type, con~isung of two alphabet~, with box, ink, pad, and
full Ollt, with a pause of, sar, half Ll. minute between plnce. It is mndo by P eitce &. Co., Wexford, and h old~r, post free, xs. 6d. ;' extra alphabet~, 6d. per ~et.
each pull. Develop the str1p and see which part is costs 9s. 6d. I do n ot'black on uilfment pnrts of it. E. C. J!RESTRII:GE, Manufac turer, Cumberlnnd Strret,
rightly exposed: then expose yow- picture accord- On the top I drew tho tlying stork ; on the left top IJristol. (6 R
ingly. Keep the camera close to a window, with a corner and right side, the s torlc standing, nnd The " Era '' Pock e t Pri n ter, R cgd ., prinu any
northern exposure, if possible, but in no case facing several others on difl'er ent parts. It made a. g-rcnt thing; supersedes stencils; post free, JS. 6d.- F. l:lowurTCH,
the sun, and raise the cnrricr e nd of it as much sky- clitfercnce in the frame, and it look very s, Waldo Ro<1d, Kensal Green, Lundon. [911
wards o.s you can. A.void walking about or shaking pretty."
the fioor during the time you are rnakin~ the ex- P olished B eechwoo d Brace, wi1h ~prin~r, with
posure, or you will get a blurred image. The fore- Drilling S qua r e Boles.- T. M. B. (Colch tster) spring and ltgnumvitae head ; 24 warrnnted bright steel
goin~ is as concise a description of enlarging as can writes in reply to A REAPF.R (sec page 270> :- bits, titted new, 9s. 6d. ; carria~e. 9<1.-LC:11, 93, Tachbrook
be gtven in "Shop;" but if you already know .. This appliance was introduced into E ngland many Road, Leamington. [23 R
something about photography you will easily grasp years ngo, and Britannia. Company advertised it. P owe rful Miniature Shocltlng Coil and
the details, and after a tew trio. Is succeed in making But not one wo.s sold. It is so muc h quicker to Battery.-Carried in waistcoat pocket. Ccmplete 1n
good pictures; but I must remind you that under- bore a round bole and drift it out with a square struct.ious for making, 9d.-BELDAIR, 25, Livingstone Road,
exposed negatives will n ot do for enlarging from. drift with cutting edges. This npplies to either Bath. [24 R
Use negatives that are ro.ther over-exposed, thin, metals or wood. 'l'be drifts can be driven through Cyclists.- Use "Gr<~phine" on your chains; no grease,
but full of detail, and the results '\'ill be plca.sing.- with a hnmmer, or drawn through by a screw and will not hold du~t ; 8 stamps, free.-WoLFF and Sot~,
G. LEB. proper appliance." Falcon Pencil Works, Dattersea, S. W. (25 K
Brass FlDishfng .-C. H. C. (.il fargate).-This Dulcim e r. - ::\I usxo (Go tan) writes :- "In re- Came r a, L e ns, plates, sensitised paper, chemicals,
subject will be touched on in due ti me: but, o.s I ference to question by T. C. B. in 'S~op.' Jul;v 13th, complete, 25. 6.1. "Practical Amateur Photography," 7d.,
have said before, it is impossible to handle at once page 268, about !Sound board of dulc1mer, will rou free. ~ew illustrated catalogue, Id.-C. C. VEVEIIS,
everything that 1t is desirable to handle. allow m e to send enclosed sketch with singer Market Street, Leeds. (26 R
marked, o.s I know it to be the angle to please any
Woode n B eeh t v es.- G. G. (H ammersmith).- one who tries 1 I nm only nn amateur, but like B est Book on the Lat h e , JS. Sever:ll soiled
In reply to yonr inquiry for papers on the consuue- T. C. B. hn,e ma<lo three dulcimers. and have one copies, zs., post free. Cash returned if not npproved.-
tion of wooden beehhes, I will endeavour to gi>c at present to dimensions given, which is capable of BRrTAXXIA Co., Colche~ter. [2I R
you somethin{r to do in this direction in the winter Pate nt Twist DrWs1 ~ inch, 4d. ; 13.r inch, 6d. ;
D estgus for Wood Ca.rv1Dg.- J. P. (Dundecl .-
~---- IS- - - -._.
. ' ~inch, Bd. ; t';r inch, Iod. ; ~ mch, ts. Id. ; { ;r inch, IS. 4d.;
~inch, rs. 7d. ; 1~r mch, 2s. 3d. ; t inch. 2s. 8d. Add po~t
Mr. George .Alfred Rogers, woodcarver, 29, Maddox age if per Parcels Post.-BRITANNIA Co. [27 R
Street, LOndon. w., not only supplies designs for 'I Circ ular Saws, slightly soiled, none the worse for
wood carving, but be also lends specimens for I
wear; 4 inches, IS. 2d. ; 6 inche~. 2s. 4d.; 8 inches, JS. ~d.,
learners to copy, carved by llimself. I t is some post lrce.-BIIITANNIA eo., Colchester. [28R
time since I have seen or heard from him, but I
furnish you with his address, trusting that he is - I
To Mechaoic s .-Sttnd 6d. for Cat:tlogue or new, or
2d. for List of Second-hand Lathes, Saws, &c.-BRtTANNtA
still in the land of the living. 'I eo., Colchester. [29 R
The Tenant's Greellhout~e.-G. J . (Peckham, I
I BrltaDDia Co.- Largest Stock of Tool~ in London, roo,
S .E.) and J. W. 0 . J. (East Dulwich).-I n reply to I Houndsditch.-Allletters to Bttt1'ANNtA Co., Colchester.
your letters let me say that Mr. Le Brun's mode of I
Cut Your Clothing Sys t e matlca.Uy .-Suits,
construction referred only to a mode of barring the V
Trousus, Overc<-ats. ~normous ~:\Vmg guarnnteed.-
landlord:s right to claim a greenhouse erected by ~------------ --40~ -------------~ Particulars, ] AMES HOPKINS, Practical Cutter, JA, Chest-
the tenant for his own convenience. As to the Sounding Board of Dulcimer .
points mooted in your letters. it would be better for nut Road, Tottenham. IJI R
you to place the matter before your respccthe Belt's Pate11t Enamelle d Adhesive Water
lawyers, who will advise you according to their proof Advertisin g . Paper . - Letter~ ::tnd Figures,
conception of the bearing that the Metropolitan playing on platform, or with other instruments if ornamentations in all colours, }( to 2-4 inches. Sole and
Building Act (1855) ho.s upon the subject. desired. or for that matter anywhere-the corner of Original M<lnufactory, 17, Arthur Street, New Oxford
the street if you like. llope you will excuse the Street, W.C. Liberal terms to Agentli, Speci::tl for E:cp<?rt.
amateur sketch, but I like a tip myself and there- Sample Sheets gratis.-Noted cheapest house for g1l~1ng
IV.-QUESTIONS .ANswlmED BY CORRESPO:o<DENTS. fore like to ~\e one when that is possible. Shottld and gold blocking. IJ2R
it be convement I shnll be pleased to let T. C. B ., or
Machlne for current of Atr.-CE:-ITREBIT any others who ho.vo o. taste tho.t way. examine Patterns.-roo Fretwo~k, xoo Repoussc, 200 Tur:ning,
(Tu.llow) writes in reply to BELLOWS (see pnge mine, the shape I menn, n ot the workmanship, 300 Stencils, IS. each parcel. Catalogue (700 Engravmgs),
It'(~ who asks m No. 12 of WORK for a ma- which is only amateur. I trust this mo.y be Jd.-COI.I.I NS, Summerlay's Place, lJ::tth. [1 s
c e to give a constant current or air:- .. I of some nse to those who want to know." S tencils.-too, large, working size, ready for cutting, ss.
enclose a few rough drawi.n gs of a fan much Samples post free. n cut Stencils, :a.s.-COI.I.INS, Sum
used in various parts of this r.ountry, especially Child's Wooden Toys.-B. A. B. (Hamp.'ftead)
writes in replf to \V. A. (HanlCIJ) (sec page 2i0) : - merlay's Place, .Hat h. (2 s
in those districts where the anthracite, or native One Hundred Photogral)htc Dodges, Tmde
hard coal. is abundant, It is made entirely of "He can obtnlD toys wholesale nt se,cral houses in
iron\ ot which Flg. 1 gives the g eneral shape; in and close to Hounllsd!tch. '!'hero is a good little Secret<. Curious Receipts, anti 1 ntere~tin~t E.xperimen: s,
heigllt it 1a abou~ 2t f t. by 6 in. broad. The large book on n~aklng toys .yublished 9Y Gil!1 li0, Strand, post free, 7 stamps.-\V, INCI.ItS RocERS, St. Germans,
vV.C. It lS by J . Lukin, B. A., pnce ~s . Cornwall. l3 S

The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012

"WOJ"k- Septe mber 21, 1889.) A DVE RTIS E.Af ENT S. 431


J:II MEN<;E STOC K o( Appliance< ond ~l11erials (nr Cn\lrucli~n er
Electr ic, Optical, ancl Sclent1 1lc Jl..ppa.ra.tus. \ "''~\)\'\! \.
(\\' (. \J.
C\~:\t. {\\\.I
n~ \_\\\)u~ e1'' :-.p<cL>ily fo.
llec troc Cata.loi:\IO. \ '{f\ ~U , \'jlo.Xla. ~ l'hoto;:ra phic Comer:\S,

Combined CARVING and WORK HENOH st:~'"" l"'l:"cs .


(' ('\
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(\. \ ~ 01.1 <'fl.$~1l'-
\) 1'\\..
1) ~1-$
~ 3
L cmu, Stand<, Sen>.tb ul l~l>C:f
uud D ry ll" tes. JScw l'atcnt
llnr~r.etcrs and ctcrs. J.:.kctrie U~h1 .

OAHINET, 8 14 0. l\
.Every New lnvc mion or Apphonc c. Buy of tho A c tuo.l
. Manu ftlcturc rs. an<t get full Scientific Knowlcd l(c. oncl Save all
Intermed iate Fr<firs. S em i f~r I LLUS 'rRAT t; O C ATAL UCU ~ h of au y
brnnch ol SC IENCE- A GU IDE 1 0 DUYER!'. DALE, 26, J,UDCA TE RILL, :E.C.
M ade from Ame rican Bass Woo d, Sta.jn ed and Polis hed,
and can be made to Harmonise with any Furn iture .
Fitted with the following List of Warranted Tools, precisely the same
as we supply to Practical Workm en :
I Duple x Iron Plane .. . . ..
Straigh tedge, 3 ft. 6 in. .. .
s. d.
I 3 I Joiner 's Ham mer .. . . .. I
s. d.
..- T il l. .\ DDI<ESS :
L ondon. 226, High Ho l bo1n, Lond on, 1Ji. C. ,
1 I 6 I Melhu ish's Handsaw 3 6 ATTEN DS 1'0 ALL
1 Bright Hamm er BUSJNI!S S RF.l.ATI NC TO
.. . . .. I 6 I Box D rawing Knife.. . ... 1 9
J 2 ft. 2-fold Rule . . . . .. I 0 J Brace, and Set of 24 well- PAT EN'I 'S, DES IGN S, and TRA DE MAR KS.
3 Twist Gimlet s ... . .. . .. AT TENDA ~C IN T HE PROVJ S CE". Pl~ase menliDil litis Pn/'er w ire" nj>Jf.y!IIJ:.
0 10 assorte d Bright Boring
3 Patent Bradaw ls ... ... 0 8 Bits . . . . . . . . . . .. 6 9
1 Screwd river each, Jod., I/6
1 Cabine t Scr::tpe r .. . .. . o
2 4
I Pair Pincer s
I ~pokcshave
. . . .. . I .)
.. . .. . 0 9

FRETtqO~~ Af4 0 CH~V If4Go

6 Assorted Firme r Chisel s .. . 4 2 I Beech wood Gauge .. . . .. I .) ~ GOLD MEDALS AWARDED TO OUR CUSTO!ltERS.
3 Assort ed Firme r Gouge s... 2 1 2 Rasps, handle d .. . .. . I 10 Ju ~t out, Cat:1logue N o. 39 o f Artis tic Fret work,
I 6 in. Combi nation Square 24 1 Pencil ... 0
C:1n in,.r, I nl31ying , a nci WoouP a intin<> lJo:,ig ns, with
I ' , 1 ;.o E n~ravmg s, 6d.
1 Bright Bench Holdfa st ... 5 6 And our Patent Combi ned List No. 38 of .1\fouldings, Cabinet Fiuinr;s , Fancy
I Boxed Oilston e .. . .. . 3 o Tool, Joiner y,and Wood- \Vood,, T col.<, Machines, etc. , with 350 Engravmg~, 3d.
1 Can Liquid Glue ... . . . I 6 Carvin g \York Bench I n~tructions in the :\n of Wood Caning , tor the
I Beech M all et .. . . .. . . . Gu id:1nco: of H~ginners, gd. fr<~.
1 6 Cabine t, with V ertical
I Beech Mitre Block .. . .. . Bench Stop aud Patent H ENRY ZILLE S & CO.,
1 3 26 and 24, W lleon S t r eet, Finsbu ry, Londr n, E.C.
I Frame Bow Saw ... ... 3 6 Vice, &c., compl ete 5 10 o
I 9 in. T enon Saw .. . ... 3 o
1 zt
in. Jack Plane ... ... 5 o T otal ... ... 8 q 0
24 PAG ES, ILLU STR ATE D, for l d .
1 2 in. Smoot h Plane , . . .. . 3 4 Now 'lewl ?J, the F I RST NU~IDER of the 1\EW VOLU ME of
Send for our lliust rated Lists, post free.
1 Ca sse 11' s Sat rda y Jou t1n al
I Being No. 313 , in which appears a numb er of Nove l
RD. M EL HU IS H & SO NS , I and Interesting F eature s.
85- 87, Fet ter Lan e, Lon don . I CASSE LL & COMP ANY, LtMIT 0, Ludgnl c Hill, LDndDn.


E S TA BLIS H ED 18ril.
B.A.N'~, C ure.
Southa mpton BUildl n~ . C h Bnccry L:lne, L ondon.
New Auto mati c Tour ist Came ras.
All wishin~: to hove good. highelu s. and rclinble Photot:r nphie THRE E per CNT. I~TE REST allowed on DE
Apparntu s, should see tnese b e(~re purch;ui ug. L o w price. E very POS IT S, repayable on dem:.nd .
requisite in l'hotf>Kr~phy. Lens es. Dry Plates, Chemic.11s, &e. Lnrt:o l llc.
stock o( lughdu s Mn~:oc Lanterns , Slides, and Ap~uratus.
W . H . H UMPH R I ES & CO.,
ll68, UPPER STREE T. ISLING TON, L0:\00: -1, N.
Ctr!alt~ru.~s Fru..
ACCO UNTS caJculatt:d on the minimum mon tloly b:.l.<uces,
when not drawn be low 100.
STOC KS, !>HAR ES, a nd A N :::-l U ITIES Pur~h.1scd
and Sold.
Mr. J. D. CARNn. Station Moster L. B.ll: S. C . Rr.
Claph::u n Junction Station. S . \V.. writes: - "I Jm :t
FACTOR Y-70, El(ort Road, Orayton Park, ~.
OW TO PURCH A SE A H ()US E F OR tlt r n Jc;i IJYttll Dt,.tfit front tutnraulf your 11/t (IYO

J (you have an
Idea for an invention
H CUTNE AS PER M IJ :-I T H or A 1' 1.01 CJ F l.A:-:n l'i oi.:,
F lY SHILLI N GS l'c R ~l l):s'T II . "ith i~llttcrli"l<' 1 "'
session. Apply at the Office o the llti<I.:J..I!CI.: FtHiL,h v l.U LA~u
T\\'0 fJft. tluc B tlt. T/:t Lumbag o and ;a ins ,, nry back
llao:e 6otl ~tastd."
Gu~romte ed to renerate a mUU continuo us ~unent of
PATEN T it for a trifling cost.
hrtieula rs a nd P:trnphle t (ree. SOCIETY, as above. Electricity, which speedily cures all Oisorde ~ o( the
RAYN OR & CASS ELL, Paten t Agent s. The B IRKBEC K AL!IIA:->AC K, with ftt!l 1 ar.:<ular. J.< t free Nenes. htouooch, L iver and Kid ne)'S. Thous3n ds .,(
,;o. CHANC ERY LAN E . LO~DO N. F..C. on :tpplgmo n. FRA~C IS R A \ ' E :" SCI.(o ti'T. '! on1~:cr. Testimonials. t:uup b le t <\! ,\dviec fr ee on
n ltJl liCn l lu n to ~I r. t:. U. ll at n es~. Coumtf.
NOT1 C /5.- Cass ell & Com pany 's Catal ogue , contai ning particu lars of up\\':mls of our f:.'lutrwa u, the :tlc d lcnl GnttCrJ' t:O,I.It l.
ONE T H OUSAN D YOLU~ I E::i, publishe d by CASSELL & Co~II'ANV, Limtted , rangi n;: in pr i~c from On ly ,\ tlcl tc~~~ . LONDON, W.
7.'HRE El' E.VCE t o .lo' I.E'TY G U.LN.E.dS,
will be sent on request pDsi fru ID addrns .'"'JI
52, OXFORD ST Rn~7.:;::::,::r,.)
t.'allt o day, trpoAA ibl c. or writ e at tm rt-

Ne tv Se ri(tls, Re lttl y Sej Jt .. 26 tlt .

P art 1, price I s., of P ar t 1, price 7 d. , of
The Cab inet Por trai t Gal lery . Con taining Cas sell' s Illu stra ted His tory of Indi a.
a Series of Cabine t Photog raphs of Emine nt Men and Wome n of \\'ith 400 Illustr ations.
the Day, from Photog raphs by Messrs. W. & D. Dow:-oEv, with ll'ith PART I is im ttd, fiec of clta1~([e ,
a Magn ificen t Port rait
Biogra phical Skelch es. P ART 1 contai ns Portra its of The Duke
of H .RH. PRIN CE ALB ERT VIC'I 'OR (si::t, 29 in.
and Duch ess of Fife, T he Arch bisho p of Cant er- by 21 in.), b,autifully printe d i1: Lithography.
bury , a.nd Sara h Bern ha.rd t.
P art 2, price 6d. , of
Part 1, price 7d., of The Illus trate d S erial Edition of The Fam ily Phy s icia n. A l\Tanual of Do-
The Hol y Lan d and the Bib le. By the mestic :Medicine, by Emine nt Physicians and S u r~eons .
Rev. CUNNINCHAM Gi!IKI 1 D. D . With Illustra tions from Ori- S ctoml E a'ition of PART I now rcady. ;uitlz '<llltirh is issmd a valuabl~
ginal Drawi ngs by HENR Y A . HARPER, and Authe ntic Photo- Chart of Jl/cdi<a l, Sm:![ical, and S anitar y h u lntclions.
P art 13, price 7d., of
. Wit/a PART 1 is issued, free of charge , a Larg e Map in The Wo rld of Ad ven ture . Form ing the
Colou rs of the H oly Land . First Part of a New Vol.
CASS ELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, Lucgal e H ill, Londo! l; ami all BIXIku llers

The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012

/-} DI"E .A'TI SE_VF X TS.

Of we nHtke Vari eties.
G) ~ojJs anL\ pacto t'ies fitted up eomplete V\>itlc ...... ....... . .....
...... ... .... En~inEs, ~o ilers, G) qaftit'\~, lpools, 0c.
Trabl&-O et\red Lathe for every l!tnct
or work. --------- l I ~I f I ""' I ,--..
.\11 Ld ltr ., ltl
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or t he' NEW SERIA L ISSUE ur
Th e Fa n1 ily Pl1 ysi cia 11. Cas se ll's Na tion al Lib rary ,
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.. The FAMILY PHYSICIAN can be h art UOM PLR'l't in Ona \' Ol111ne, 'l' lw t. ~~tu tl" 111' St. l'nt l'ld Hr A l ' tl ta~ ,. 11 ~: \ ' ttt: R, LL.\1. \ \11. '75

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' l\tadllna a,
lli~:.,)t Aw.m\-hl~ ~~~al ~r T"'l~ 11ud l'.ll~rnt
D&elgn~lo..'ftOlt.. Wood, ll ll'l'on, Hiugea IUld
flhmn . VIU'.I}ial:l, Etc.
For Infa nts and In t h t .. \ \\ ' ' 1tfi1 (\1\ t."'af(\, \\\t\\
..,\ , , l r \ Uh\, ~ U(\. j s~
. l.l'iU'-JC:I,\\1\ t fr._., ., " .-.J : :\ \ ~ \Hth "i'~l
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o\ ,~ l ..:,..,:. o \o! t~'lllll\hllv\\, \l~ih .
a,f~o:\ht~lll.l\.ll\ J..,.._ b
I th& food in 11 tu. h 1h.: ' '"" h !._,_ 1.:<~1 .. t.. lh ,\,,,,. ~ . 1 nu .
"' "\\:-.: "-'f c'\1\ h: \.:i.\ttll\.:\ao, C\1 1-""'" ''' ' ''"' \ hUtoHU.l tho beil
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aolub\& aubatan oea, " hi,h ' " '' ,., "'"" ''" 1 ,1\\'c ll :d '" 11,., h,,,t, '" ' ' l l\' lnlf
blood, Thi, ruma rkall" re.uh 1> a u .. iuo. l ,.,u,.. l., t h~ t,tr, l1 ""'''"''> ,.,,,, rtr, 111 HAR GER BRO S.. SETT LE.
t h~ p t'(\-:e s , 0 1 U\" 1\\\ fl\C l\\rt2 1 th4 H a \Ht'~' 1.v' H"Ih h 1.' 1 hc~,hh\' ,,u,l \C\ 1"', \ ,\l~~ 'llht t
MELLI N'S FOOD h,., locn "'"""'=.! th\ .i.l..,;,,_,tl , l1 rh.- '"~"' .\l.,,h.ll
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t es tcu chemicilll)' hy rho "''"' " '''"'!.";,t, c.l \ unh '" "'"' t,., ,.t .. .1\,
l"""n Cla>i.,,l b)' th~:m .-\ 1. lt h.b 1:"111"'' '""">' ......
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l"an cno ~ a.l n\l\t~~t h ""' 1h"'
manr l'lf the-~e allu.te in i\11 """'' i.nal \"C l >III C"'" llh lllkl , ,, , ,, ~ " " ' , .... , .. ME.LLlN '~ l'"l \H \h.: 1'1 I le l \ li\l l: UU ~tHI }'1.111 lt'-~
I'OOD hu aned Baby from D eatb." \'h h~C't'1~1 \ I -id , Sldlhtu, l .i,t O J l Ui~l_. " " ' '
M 11\H oo.lh l1 " :.. \.tllo.lo':lll\'io\ .
FNsJto.t,.,, r.~lil~t~t ,,,.., s"'".P~, A.tJ>,~ .... ".':''.-...:.... :~ d ~ , ,. ,.,, ltvt BOOT H BROT I!ERS ,
ruul .llu ""/ u t ,.,..,. , IIJ, l ' .''FES .\N.'I'll EX S 1'1\t.' B J',
G. ME lll N, Mat1borough Wo1ks, StatT01ct St., Pt1cl.h:un, Loncton, S.E. DUB LXN.

J. I-1. Sl\.INNJ1Jll (t l i ()., ~ r\. S'1' J)E ltE ll.L\J\l, NOlll~'OLJ\.

Manufacturers and I1nporters of Phot ograp hic App aratu s and Fret work Materials.
\ l l.S ,\. \\\ ''",:\\l\\ ~i,t~\S l , hl l ''""'~ llt\o.\,t . n hC Ut~
~ 1\l .a \I \ ,V \~ ol \.llk.! U , " ''h h 0"'\.' t..\ , lu'a.l\\. \ t , (thl tl~\hU 1 d. t\IIC , ,1 :l ' l l i l f)IH' f tl l '<l, .1 \uulhl/ 111111 l 'lfHilll (l ,ll l/1,.; l ltt l' "l'iU(I l l ilPII.
l'hoh< l o;~ph \. \ p,'-'1\\l!.lt. ~t .._\ ... 1.), tl.ut l h.J , h~o~1c:.t t. \!H) ,
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8 '6 The Eclipse Camera Sat. 36 1 t1 :' .\i; l, ' \. ctl\ ' _!~$H1-. rh in ~h'' l a l \\HI 180,0DO .Eollpoe De ..J.:u, No. l QQ.
1"1:'T OF FRE'l' WOO D , s.'~ol .,t\,1 ' ' 111 , c,,,..,,,
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U.ul :i,,,,0;, l'hb\ ~H UhlO~l ..:.u~. t h t:n ' ttlhl~ ... l \.:.. d,,,. n.: "' '" ' ' t\lu~
' FULJ.I!II~ DJ:IlJON S for Fretwo rk W oocl
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t'.ah d 1\t:at, t i. .m' rrclli.UC ~l..h. hhl~. !>.tW U!a.\t~. 4\ ... . ,\.\. .
'1 6 Com_p\ete Photogr aplllc 0\\t.l\t.. '1 G 8-peclal Ulea fo'(' 1888 1888. - lit~<\ ~ " 'New
'''~"l'f~~ml:' Hr \ .. l\' 'h ,~ AM\. H -\ ~~~ t , eh nl''"' ~ "h" l 1 1h h' ' '"""'' h~. l \\ h l \\ \ t '- K l\ '" 1, l\\llta IHIII,S \ t Af,: ..: !'lhet.:l'll,
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N. B.- If A ppara t u~ does not ~lve ut l~fac l lon,
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The Work Magazine Reprint Project (-) 2012