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MODULE 5 SHOCK

2. <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS


</li></ul><ul><li>DANGERS OF SHOCK </li></ul><ul><li>SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
</li></ul><ul><li>FIRST AID </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES </li></ul>Scope of Presentation

3. <ul><li>- is a depressed condition of many body functions due to the failure of enough blood to
circulate throughout the body following serious injury . </li></ul>shock

4. <ul><li>1. PUMP FAILURE </li></ul><ul><li> occurs when the heart is damaged .


</li></ul><ul><li>Causes: Heart attack, trauma </li></ul><ul><li>to the heart. </li></ul>BASIC
CAUSES:

5. <ul><li>2. HYPOVOLEMIA - blood or fluid loss from blood vessels decreases blood volume, usually
a result of bleeding, and results in adequate perfusion. </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES: Trauma to vessels
or tissues, </li></ul><ul><li>fluid loss from GI tract </li></ul><ul><li>(vomiting/diarrhea) </li></ul>

6. <ul><li>3. BLOOD VESSELS DILATE </li></ul><ul><li>( RELATIVE HYPOVOLEMIA) - the blood vessels
can dilate enough that the blood within them, even though it is of normal value, is inadequate to fill
the system and provide efficient perfusion. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSES: Infection,
drug overdose (narcotic), and spinal cord injury . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>

7. CAUSES: <ul><li>1. Severe bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>2. Crushing injury </li></ul><ul><li>3.


Infection </li></ul><ul><li>4. Heart Attack </li></ul><ul><li>5. Perforation </li></ul><ul><li>6.
Anaphylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>7. Shell bomb and bullet wound </li></ul><ul><li>8. Rupture of tubal
pregnancies </li></ul><ul><li>9. Starvation and disease </li></ul>

8. FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO SHOCK <ul><li>1. Pain </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rough handling


</li></ul><ul><li>3. Improper transfer </li></ul><ul><li>4. Continuous bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>5.
Exposure to extreme </li></ul><ul><li>cold or excessive heat </li></ul><ul><li>6. Fatigue </li></ul>

9. DANGERS OF SHOCK <ul><li>1. Lead to death </li></ul><ul><li>2. Predisposes body to infection


</li></ul><ul><li>3. Lead to loss of body part </li></ul>

10. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SHOCK <ul><li>1. EARLY STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Face - pale or
cyanotic in color </li></ul><ul><li>Skin - cold and clammy </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing irregular
</li></ul><ul><li>Pulse rapid and weak </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting
</li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Thirsty </li></ul>

11. <ul><li>2 . LATE STAGE </li></ul><ul><li> Apathetic or relatively unresponsive


</li></ul><ul><li> Eyes will be sunken with vacant expression </li></ul><ul><li> Pupils are dilated
</li></ul><ul><li> Blood vessels may be congested producing mottled appearances
</li></ul><ul><li> Blood pressure level </li></ul><ul><li> Unconsciousness may occur, body
temperature falls </li></ul>

12. Heat Stroke, Drug Overdose Lack of O2 supply to the brain, brain damage Stroke, Head Injury
Different Sizes of Pupils

13. OBJECTIVES OF FIRST AID <ul><li>1. To improve circulation of the blood </li></ul><ul><li>2. To
ensure an adequate supply of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>3. To maintain normal body
</li></ul><ul><li>temperature </li></ul>

14. First Aid and Preventive Management of Shock <ul><li>1. Proper Position </li></ul><ul><li>Keep
the victim lying down flat </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate the lower part of the body a foot or so if injury is
severe, from eight to twelve inches high </li></ul><ul><li>Place the victim who is having difficulty in
breathing on his back, with his head and shoulder raised </li></ul>

15. SHOCK POSITION

16. <ul><li>Head injury - apply pressure on the injury and keep the victim lying flat. Do not elevate
head or lower extremities. When the color of the face return to normal, elevate head and shoulder
and continue giving care to the injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Chest injury - raise the head and shoulder
slightly. </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting or unconsciousness - keep the victim lying on one
side (known </li></ul><ul><li>as recovery, coma or lateral position) </li></ul><ul><li>preferably
opposite from his injury except for sucking wound and stroke. </li></ul>

17. <ul><li>2. Proper Body Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain body temperature and victim must not
be neither perspiring nor chilling </li></ul><ul><li>If the weather is warm, the victim need not to be
covered </li></ul><ul><li>If the victim is cold, inspite of the weather, a blanket may be placed
underneath him and cover the body </li></ul>

18. <ul><li>3. Proper Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Proper handling of patient would prevent further
injury to the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Refer proper techniques on transfer method on Patient
handling </li></ul><ul><li>*DO NOT give anything by mouth including water. If medical care is
delayed and patient is complaining of intense thirst, you may wet his/her lips. </li></ul>

19. TYPES OF SHOCK Position comfortably, assist ventilation, transport promptly Chest pains,
irregular pulse, weak pulse, low blood pressure, cyanosis (lips, under nails), anxiety Inadequate heart
function, disease of muscle tissue, impaired electrical system, disease or injury Cardiogenic Supply
respiratory support, assist ventilation, determine cause, transport promptly Can develop within
seconds. Mild itching, burning skin, vascular dilation, generalized edema, profound coma, rapid
death Allergic reaction (most severe form) Anaphylactic TREATMENT S & S CAUSES NAME

20. Secure airway, assist ventilation, determine illness, transport promptly Rapid, weak pulse, low
Bp, change in mental status, cyanosis ( lips, under nails), Cool, clammy skin Excessive loss of fluid &
Electrolytes due to vomiting, urination or diarrhea Metabolic Secure airway, assist ventilation,
control external bleeding, elevate legs, prevent aspiration, transport promptly Rapid, weak pulse,
low blood pressure, change in mental status, cyanotic (lips, under nails), Cool, clammy skin Loss of
blood or fluid Hypovolemic TREATMENT S & S CAUSES NAME

21. Transport promptly, provide full ventilatory support, elevate legs, keep patient warm Warm skin,
tachycardia, low Bp Severe bacterial infection Septic Determine duration of unconsciousness, record
initial vital signs & mental status, suspect head injury if patient is confused or slow to regain
consciousness, transport promptly Rapid pulse, normal or low Bp Temporary, generalized vascular
dilatation, anxiety, bad news, sight of injury/ blood, prospect of medical Psychogenic (Fainting)
Secure airway, assist ventilation, conserve body heat, maximize circulation, transport promptly
Bradycardia (slow pulse ), low Bp, signs of neck injury Damaged cervical spine, which causes blood to
dilate widely Neurogenic TREATMENT S&S CAUSES NAME

22. Thank you! .. Have A Nice Day!