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Journal of Food Engineering xxx (2017) 1e10

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Purication of caprine oligosaccharides at pilot-scale

Leticia F.M.C. Aquino a, 1, Juliana M.L.N. de Moura Bell a, b, *, Joshua L. Cohen a, Yan Liu a,
Hyeyoung Lee a, 2, Vitor L. de Melo Silva a, 1, Paola Domizio a, 3, Carlos Adam Conte Junior c,
Daniela Barile a, b
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States
Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States
Department of Food Science and Technology, University Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, 24230340, Brazil

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The purication of caprine milk oligosaccharides (COS) by membrane ltration has been hampered by
Received 16 February 2017 the low concentration of target COS and high concentration of lactose. In addition, their molecular
Received in revised form weight proximity hinders the recovery of a COS fraction with high degree of purity and recovery yield. In
19 May 2017
this work, the recovery of a high purity COS concentrate was obtained by the optimization of an inte-
Accepted 9 June 2017
Available online xxx
grated approach including complete lactose hydrolysis, fermentation of the resulting monosaccharides
and nanoltration. All carbohydrates were quantied using High Performance Anion Exchange Chro-
matography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC PAD). Defatted goat whey was ultraltered
Chemical compounds studied in this article:
30 -sialyllactose (PubChem CID: 123914)
with discontinuous dialtrations to increase the recovery of COS in the whey permeate which was then
60 -sialyllactose (PubChem CID: 643987) subsequently concentrated by nanoltration. COS recovery yields of 75% with negligible amounts of
60 -sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine (PubChem monosaccharides (0.3% of the initial amount of lactose in the whey permeate) were achieved. A nal
CID: 16212424) retentate containing 67.6 and 34.4% of acidic and neutral oligosaccharides respectively was obtained
Lacto-N-difucohexaose (PubChem CID: from caprine milk.
3082109) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bioactive oligosaccharides
lactose hydrolysis

1. Introduction

* Corresponding author. Department of Food Science and Technology, University

Milk oligosaccharides (OS4) are carbohydrates found in all
of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States. mammalian species that possess diverse biological activities. The
E-mail address: (J.M.L.N. de Moura Bell). interest in milk oligosaccharides has grown substantially over the
Present address: Department of Food Science and Technology, University Fed- past few decades following observations that the carbohydrate
eral Fluminense, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, 24230340, Brazil.
2 fraction of milk is likely responsible for the development of a
Present address: Department of Food Science and Technology, Dong-Eui Uni-
versity, Busanjin, Busan, 47340, Republic of Korea. protective Bidobacterium-rich microbiota in breastfed children
Present address: Department of Agricultural Systems Management, Food and (Kunz et al., 2000). The composition of human milk is unique, in
Forestry, University of Firenze, 50144 Firenze, Italy. part due to its complex OS prole, wherein OS are the third most
OS: Oligosaccharides; COS: Caprine milk oligosaccharides; CF: Concentration abundant component after lactose and lipids with a concentration
factor; TMP: Transmembrane pressure; HPAE-PAD: High Performance Anion-
Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection; UHT/HTST: Ul-
ranging from 7 to 30 g L1 depending upon the lactation stage
tra High Temperature/High temperature short time; SPES: sulfonated poly- (Coulet et al., 2013; Hickey, 2012; Stahl et al., 2007). Important
ethersulfone; 30 -SL: 30 -sialyllactose; 60 -SL: 60 -sialyllactose; 60 -SLN: 60 -sialyl-N- biological functions of milk oligosaccharides for the developing
acetyllactosamine; LNDFH I: lacto-N-difucohexaose; LNFP I: lacto-N-fucopentaose I; neonate include prebiotic action to stimulate the growth of
20 -FL: 2-fucosyllactose; LNnH: lacto-N-neohexaose; LDFT: lactodifucotetraose.
0260-8774/ 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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benecial bidobacteria in the gut (Gopal and Gill, 2000; Zivkovic observed on isolated COS (Oliveira et al., 2012).
and Barile, 2011). Additionally, OS can prevent infection by acting Current technological approaches to recover COS utilize mem-
as soluble receptor decoys thus inhibiting the adhesion of patho- brane ltration and dialtration to improve the purity of recovered
gens to intestinal epithelial cells and subsequent invasion oligosaccharides. Usually, high recovery yields of COS has been
(Daddaoua et al., 2006; Lara-Villoslada et al., 2006; Ninonuevo achieved at the expense of COS purity. The combination of ultra-
et al., 2006). ltration (50 kDa) and nanoltration (1 kDa) of caprine milk yiel-
Although not used directly as nutrients for the infant, OS ded 80% of the original oligosaccharides, but the remaining 5% of
perform a wide variety of functions, which appear to be related to original lactose signicantly compromised the overall oligosac-
their unique structural features. Indeed, OS have complex struc- charide purity, which was as low as 8% (Martinez-Ferez et al., 2006).
tures which distinguish them from other milk sugars like lactose, Oliveira et al. (2012) have used a similar approach where a 25 kDa
glucose, and galactose. Whereas the latter are all digested and UF membrane followed by the use of a tighter 1 kDa UF membrane
absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract, OS contain a variety of resulted in a nal product containing low lactose content, but also
monosaccharides joined together by indigestible linkages; there- containing only trace amounts of COS.
fore they reach the lower intestine intact and are utilized as carbon Our group recently developed a novel approach to recover oli-
source by select bacterial species that possess the appropriate en- gosaccharides from bovine whey permeate colostrum in high pu-
zymes to break down the otherwise inaccessible sugars. The lactose rity at pilot-scale (companion paper, de Moura Bell et al.). This new
core of OS is generally elongated by key monosaccharides such as approach relies on the integration of optimized processing condi-
N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and/or sialic acid, yielding a constel- tions that favor maximum lactose hydrolysis and monosaccharide
lation of structures that can be classied as neutral or acidic (based fermentation prior to membrane concentration.
on the absence/presence of the sialic acid). Oligosaccharide recovery of 95% with 99% purity (intended as
Considering the limited supply of human milk as a commercial absence of simple digestible sugars such as glucose and galactose)
source of oligosaccharides, alternative sources of human milk-like was achieved by using a nanoltration membrane (500e700 Da) at
oligosaccharides have been identied, including bovine and 35 bar, 50  C and concentration factor (CF) of 20 (CF volume of
caprine milks. Compared with human milk or colostrum, the levels feed/volume of retentate). The integration of these processing
of OS in the milk of domestic mammals (cows, sheep, goats and techniques solved the major hurdle of removing simple sugars (that
horses) are much lower than the ones in human milk, typically less lack biological specicity towards commensal bacteria) while
than 1.0 g L1 (Urashima et al., 2001). concentrating the oligosaccharides by membrane ltration. Our
Innovative strategies attempting to reproduce the structural hypothesis was that this new approach could be applied to other
diversity of human milk OS include the use of metabolically engi- milks (besides bovine milk and colostrum) that contain a mixture
neered bacteria, transgenic animals, chemical and enzymatic syn- of bioactive oligosaccharides and other carbohydrates that could be
thesis (Bridiau and Maugard, 2011; Chen, 2015; Endo and Koizumi, further converted into fermentable sugars such as lactose. Although
2000; Prieto, 2012; Watanabe et al., 2008). While the use meta- the use of microorganisms to ferment digestible sugars, e.g.
bolically engineered bacteria has the potential to produce grams to S. cerevisiae, as a strategy to increase the purity of gal-
kilograms quantities of OS (Endo and Koizumi, 2000) the use of actooliogosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides has been pro-
transgenic animals has not proved as effective since usually results posed in the literature (Goulas et al., 2007; Guerrero et al., 2014;
in either the animals or its offsprings death (Prieto, 2012; Nobre et al., 2016), these studies did not investigate further steps
Watanabe et al., 2008). Chemical synthesis allows for the produc- needed either to improve the purication of the target oligosac-
tion of a wide array of OS, however this technique remains charides, in case full removal of undesirable sugars is not achieved
expensive and time consuming, and extensive purication tech- (a common case when using complex mixtures), or to recover the
niques are required to eliminate the chemicals used in the pro- target oligosaccharides from the diluted medium prior to nal
duction (Chen, 2015). Enzymatic methods have overcome some of concentration by freeze-drying or spray-drying. Our integrated
the limitations encountered by the chemical synthesis (reaction approach is novel in the sense that it addresses all the steps needed
time and cost) but reduced enzyme availability and poor region prior to the production of a pool of OS free of simple sugars; it
selectivity have resulted in low production yields of OS (Bridiau and converts lactose into a form than can be fully fermented prior to the
Maugard, 2011; Lu et al., 2012; Michalak et al., 2014; Rodrguez- recovery of the target OS by nanoltration. In addition, our
Daz et al., 2013; Sandoval et al., 2012). Although some of the approach is novel because is the rst to be applied to complex
above described techniques have the potential to produce diverse mammalian milk oligosaccharides at pilot-scale.
OS in adequate quantities in the foreseeable future, the recovery of The aim of the present study was to design and optimize a
existing complex OS from many food streams represents a more process to recover puried COS at large-scale for future evaluation
attractive opportunity from an environmental and economic of their biological functions. COS were recovered by an innovative
perspective for the production of grams quantities and simulta- approach developed by our research group (companion paper, de
neously capture a pool of diverse OS structures. Moura Bell et al.) where upstream lactose hydrolysis and fermen-
Goat whey is a co-product of goat cheese manufacturing and is tation of monosaccharides was conducted prior to concentration of
primarily composed of lactose (74%), proteins (18.9%), and fat (1.2%) COS by nanoltration. The specic objectives of this work were to:
on a solid basis. Whey is also a source of caprine milk oligosac- 1) evaluate the monosaccharide fermentation rate at pilot-scale; 2)
charides (COS), but the high lactose concentration and its investigate the effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP) and feed
molecular-weight proximity with most oligosaccharides represents ow on permeate ux and permeation of oligosaccharides during
a challenge for the production of lactose-free COS by membrane ultraltration; 3) evaluate the effects of TMP on permeate ux and
ltration (Martinez-Ferez et al., 2006; Moreno-Indias et al., 2009). oligosaccharide retention (acidic and neutral) during nano-
The recovery of COS from goat whey would enable the production ltration; and 4) demonstrate the proof-of-concept of the inte-
of high-value nutritional products while mitigating nancial and grated process regarding the recovery of COS at pilot-scale. COS
sustainability issues associated with the underutilization and quantication was accomplished by high performance anion ex-
disposal of this co-product. The prebiotic activity of COS recovered change chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection
from caprine whey has already been validated by several in vitro (HPAEC-PAD).
studies, where substantial growth of Bidobacterium spp. was

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2. Material and methods performed.

The recovery of COS at pilot-scale was performed based on an 2.4. Monosaccharide fermentation and yeast removal by
integrated approach relying on optimized processing conditions microltration
that favor maximum lactose hydrolysis, monosaccharide fermen-
tation and concentration by nanoltration to obtain an Monosaccharide fermentation was performed using a 208 L
oligosaccharide-rich fraction free of digestible sugars such as jacketed stainless steel research fermenter system (Cypress, San
glucose and galactose (Fig. 1). Jose, CA, USA). Fermentation of hydrolyzed goat whey permeate
was performed according to our recently developed method
2.1. Production of defatted goat whey (companion paper, de Moura Bell et al.). Monosaccharide fermen-
tation was performed using 0.4 g L1 of active dry yeast, previously
Two batches of approximately 70 L of raw goat milk (UC Davis rehydrated before the inoculum, and 0.3 g L1 of yeast extract
Goat Farm, Davis, California, USA) were used to produce goat whey. (Bacto Becton, Dickinson and Company, Sparks, Maryland), which
Whey was obtained from the production of a soft cheese based on a were mixed into approximately 110 L of whey permeate. Fermen-
method described by Buriti et al. (2005) with minor modications. tations were conducted in duplicate at 30  C. The recirculation
Goat milk was heated to 37  C in a 95 L stainless steel jacketed tank pump was set up to provide constant stirring (58 min of stirring per
and a commercial rennet Chy-Max Extra (100% chymosin, Chr. hour with 2 min interval). To evaluate the reaction kinetics, samples
Hansen, Milwaukee, WI, USA) was added at 8 mL per 10 L of milk. were withdrawn at time intervals ranging from 2 to 3 h until
After 40 min, the curd was cut gently into small cubes under con- density measurements values, used as a real time indicator of the
stant stirring of 37 rpm for 50 min to encourage syneresis. A sieve fermentation progress, leveled off. The fermentation was cooled
was used to separate the curd from the whey, wherein approxi- down to 4  C overnight to allow gravity sedimentation of the yeast.
mately 90% of the initial volume of milk was recovered as whey. The Removal of residual yeast in the supernatant was performed by
whey was subsequently defatted using a cream separator (GEA gross ltration (Millipore Polysep II, Cartridge Filter, pore size
Westfalia Separator, Model CTC 3, Germany) at 420 mL min1, 0.5 mm Nominal, Millipore Corporation, Bedford, Massachusetts,
0.05e0.1 bar at 50  C. All steps of the experiment were conducted USA) followed by subsequent microltration.
in duplicate.
2.5. Concentration of fermented goat whey permeate by membrane
2.2. b-Galactosidase treatment of goat whey at pilot-scale ltration

A food grade fungal lactase (Bio-Cat Inc., Troy, Virginia, USA) Microltration was performed to ensure the absence of any
derived from the fungus Aspergillus oryzae was used to hydrolyze residual yeast during the nanoltration of the fermented whey
lactose into galactose and glucose. The pH of two batches of 70 L of permeate. A tangential ltration system (Model L, GEA Filtration,
goat whey was adjusted to 4.5 with citric acid before adding 0.2% Hudson, WI, USA) composed of a plate and frame membrane
(w/v) of b-galactosidase. The slurry was stirred for 1 h at 60 rpm module with 0.036e0.72 m2 area was used. The fermented whey
and kept at 50  C. Lactose hydrolysis optimized conditions were permeate was microltered using a series of at sheet 150 kDa
selected based on our previous work, which also demonstrated that regenerated cellulose membranes (Mycrodyn-Nadir GmbH, Wies-
the selected enzyme does not degrade the acidic oligosaccharides baden, Germany) at TMP of 0.8 bar, feed ow of 6.1 L min1, and
30 -SL, 60 -SL and 60 -SLN (De Moura Bell et al., 2016). After lactose temperatures ranging from 10 to 12  C.
hydrolysis, samples were immediately pasteurized using a contin- Following yeast removal by microltration, the fermented whey
uous UHT/HTST lab pasteurizer system (MicroThermics, Raleigh, permeate was concentrated by nanoltration using the same
NC, USA) at 72  C for 30 s. Pasteurized samples were refrigerated at equipment used during the ultraltration stage. Approximately
5  C prior to ultraltration to produce the goat whey permeate. 100 L of fermented whey permeate were concentrated using a
500e700 Da spiral-wound HYDRACoRe70pHT sulfonated poly-
2.3. Production of goat whey permeate by ultraltration ethersulfone (SPES) nanoltration membrane with an effective area
of 1.86 m2 (Hydranautics, Oceanside, CA, USA) to a CF of 10.
Ultraltration experiments were carried out on a pilot-scale Nanoltrations were performed at 50  C and TMP ranging from 35
tangential membrane ltration system (Model L, GEA Filtration, to 40 bar and 6.0 L min1 recirculation ow rate.
Hudson, WI, USA) to separate whey proteins and produce the whey
permeate. The system was composed of a 2.500 diameter spiral
2.6. Membrane performance parameters
membrane housing (1e2 m2 area), a 95 L jacketed stainless steel
reactor, a Proline Promass 80E owmeter for mass ow rate and
Permeate ux, oligosaccharide retention and purity of the nal
density (Endress Hauser, Reinach, Switzerland), a heat exchanger,
product were quantied to evaluate the membrane performance
inlet and outlet manometers, and a 7.0 HP feed pump (Hydra-
(Cohen et al., 2017). Permeate samples were collected and weighed
Cell, Minneapolis, MN, USA). The whey was concentrated using a
in regular time intervals to determine the permeate ux (Jp) given
10 kDa spiral wound polyethersulfone ultraltration membrane
in units liters per meter squared per hour (L m2 h1) (Equation
(Hydranautics, Oceanside, CA, USA) with an effective area of
1.86 m2 to a CF of 6. To evaluate the effects of TMP and feed ow on
permeate ux, goat whey was ultraltered in recirculation mode Vp
with negligible concentration (CF < 1.1). After identication of best Jp (1)
TMP and feed ow, ultraltration experiments were performed at
50  C, 2 bar TMP and 6 L min1 feed ow rate. After CF 6 was where Vp is the permeate volume, A is the membrane area (m2), t is
achieved, the ultraltration retentate was dialtered discontinu- the time (h) for collecting the permeate volume.
ously with 50  C water, at volumes equal to the retentate (8.5 L) to The retention of digestible sugars (glucose, galactose and
increase the permeation of oligosaccharides from the ultraltration lactose) and acidic (3-sialyllactose (30 -SL), 6-sialyllactose (60 -SL),
retentate into the permeate. Eight discontinuous dialtrations were and 6-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine (60 -SLN)) and neutral

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Fermentation and Yeast Removal

Production of Defatted Goat Whey
Goat Milk Fermentation

Curd Rennet Coagulation

Microfiltration Yeast

Fermented Whey
Defatted Whey

Nanofiltration of Whey Permeate

Nanofiltration (oligosaccharides,
Lactose Hydrolysis peptides and salts)

Pasteurization Permeate
Production of Whey Permeate

peptides and salts)

Retentate Ultrafiltration

Whey Permeate

Fig. 1. Pilot-scale recovery of COS by an integrated approach based on enzymatic hydrolysis, monosaccharide fermentation and nanoltration.

oligosaccharides (lacto-N-difucohexaose (LNDFH I), lacto-N-fuco- monosaccharides in the retentate was calculated according to the
pentaose I (LNFP I), 2-fucosyllactose (20 -FL), Lacto-N-neohexaose following equation:
(LNnH), lactodifucotetraose (LDFT)) was calculated according to the  
following equation: CCMO
%Purity *100 (4)
" !#
R 1 *100 (2) where CCMO is the summed concentration of all quantied caprine
Cf milk oligosaccharides (30 -SL, 60 -SL, 60 -SLN, LNDFH I, LNFP I, 20 -FL,
LNnH and LDFT) and CMono is the summed concentration of quan-
where Cp and Cf are the carbohydrate concentrations in the tied monosaccharides (glucose and galactose).
permeate and feed, respectively. The recovery yield of oligosaccharides in the retentate was
The average retention of oligosaccharides during the nano- calculated based on the following equation:
ltration of fermented goat whey permeate was determined ac-  
cording to the following equation (Cheryan, 1998): Ci; r* VR
%Yield *100 (5)
Ci; f * Vf
log R logCF (3) where Ci,r is the concentration of a specic component in the
retentate, VR is the volume of liquid in the retentate) Ci,f is the
where CR is the oligosaccharide concentration in the retentate, Cf is concentration of a specic component in the feed, and Vf is the feed
the initial concentration of oligosaccharide in the feed, R is the volume.
average retention coefcient of oligosaccharides and CF is the
concentration factor. Permeate samples were collected at different 2.7. Carbohydrate quantication of permeates and retentates
CF for oligosaccharide determination. Retentate oligosaccharide
content was determined by mass balance. Acidic (containing sialic acid) and neutral CMO as well as simple
The effects of TMP ranging from 1 to 3 bar and feed ow from 3 sugars (glucose, galactose and lactose) were quantied by High
to 9 L min1 were evaluated in relation to permeate ux during the Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed
ultraltration of hydrolyzed whey in a recirculation mode experi- Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD ICS-5000, Thermo Scientic,
ment (CF < 1.1). For the nanoltration experiments, TMP ranging Sunnyvale, CA, USA) following a previously published protocol (Lee
from 5 to 40 bar were investigated in relation to permeate ux and et al., 2015). Samples were diluted between 10 and 1000 times as
carbohydrate retention in a recirculation mode experiment appropriate and ltered through a 0.2 mm syringe lter (Acrodisc
(CF < 1.1). TMP was chosen per the permeate ux vs. TMP curve and 13 mm PES, Pall Life Sciences, Port Washington, NY, USA) into 2 mL
retention of acidic and neutral oligosaccharides obtained in the vials with septa. Calibration curves (coefcient of
recirculation mode experiment. Permeate and retentate samples determination  0.999) were prepared using analytical grade
were withdrawn and weighed in regular time intervals for each commercial standards for 30 -SL, 60 -SL, 60 -SLN, LNDFH I, LNFP I, 20 -FL
combination of pressure and feed ow. Experiments were con- (V-Labs, Covington, LA, USA); LNnH and LDFT (ProZyme, Hayward,
ducted in duplicate. CA, USA) and glucose, galactose, and lactose (Sigma, St. Louis, MO,
The purity of the target oligosaccharides in relation to USA). 25 mL of diluted, ltered samples were injected into a Carbo-

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Pac PA200 (Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) column at 0.5 mL min1 3.2. Pilot-scale fermentation of hydrolyzed goat whey permeate
ow rate using 100 mMol NaOH and 10 mMol NaOAc isocratically and yeast removal by microltration
for acidic oligosaccharides and 100 mMol NaOH and 3mMol NaOAc
for neutral oligosaccharides quantication. Glucose, galactose and The complete fermentation of monosaccharides released from
lactose quantication was carried out on Carbo-Pac PA10 (Dionex, the hydrolysis of bovine colostrum whey permeate lactose has been
Sunnyvale, CA, USA) column with a ow rate of 1.2 mL min1 and 10 successfully demonstrated at pilot-scale as an essential step to
mMol NaOH for the rst 12 min and a gradient from 10 to 100 mMol improve the purity of oligosaccharides concentrated by membrane
NaOH for 12.5 min. ltration (companion paper, de Moura Bell et al.). The rate of
fermentation of hydrolyzed goat whey permeate is shown in Fig. 4.
HPAEC-PAD results demonstrated that nearly complete fermenta-
3. Results and discussion
tion of glucose (12.9660e0.0150 g L1) and galactose
(13.0755e0.0120 g L1) in goat whey permeate was achieved at 9
3.1. Ultraltration of goat whey
and 16 h, respectively when using 0.4 g L1 of active dry yeast and
3.0 g L1 of yeast extract. The initial density of the hydrolyzed whey
3.1.1. Effects of TMP and feed ow on permeate ux
permeate decreased from 1.0092 0.0002 in the starting material
Operational parameters such as TMP and feed ow are known to
to 0.9988 0.0 Kg m3 at 16 h of fermentation, leveling off from 16
affect permeate ux, with higher pressures and feed ow
to 22 h. Constant density measurements have shown to be a reli-
increasing permeate ux by increasing the removal of solvent and
able method for monitoring the fermentation progress (companion
reducing the rate of fouling to a certain point. Although high feed
paper, de Moura Bell et al.). These results corroborate our recent
ow typically reduces the rate of fouling due to turbulent ow
work (companion paper, de Moura Bell et al.) in that nearly com-
across the membrane surface favoring higher permeate ux, its
plete fermentation of glucose and galactose was observed at 10 and
effect on permeate ux also depends on the TMP range used (Kuo
15 h of fermentation, respectively. The starting materials of both
and Cheryan, 1983). The effects of TMP and feed ow, in recircu-
studies, bovine colostrum and goat whey permeates, were very
lation mode, ranging from 1 to 3 bar and 3e9 L min1, respectively,
similar in terms of density (1.0123 vs. 1.0092 Kg m3) which facil-
are shown in Fig. 2. In the pressure range evaluated (1e3 bar),
itates the comparison of both results. In addition, similar optimized
permeate ux was favored by intermediate TMP and higher feed
fermentation conditions (amount of yeast, yeast extract, stirring
ow, with maximum values (~29 L h1 m2) observed at 2 bar and 6
conditions, temperature, and fermentation reactor) were used in
or 9 L min1. At higher TMP (3 bar), a small reduction in permeate
both studies. As expected, galactose fermentation started after
ux was seen when increasing the feed ow from 3 to 9 L min1,
glucose was almost completely depleted, being in agreement with
likely due to increased fouling. The optimal combination of pres-
reports in the literature demonstrating Saccharomyces cerevisiae
sure and feed ow for higher permeate ux was 2 bar and
preference for glucose upon galactose.
6 L min1. Our results are in agreement with the ndings of Kuo and
In addition to the utilization of the monosaccharides in the
Cheryan (1983), who showed that a relative increase in permeate
whey permeate, a reduction in the initial COS concentration from
ux was observed at higher ow rates at low and intermediate TMP
0.0740 to 0.0361 g L1 was measured by HPAEC-PAD after the
(2.4 and 3.1 bar). However, an opposite trend was observed at
fermentation. No changes in the concentration of the acidic COS
higher TMP (4.85 bar), which could be attributed to increased
was observed, which is in agreement with our recent work (com-
fouling. In general, the use of higher ow rate has been associated
panion paper, de Moura Bell et al.) in that no reduction in the
with lower fouling rates at and low to intermediate pressures,
concentration of the major acidic oligosaccharides in bovine whey
while higher fouling rates have been observed at higher ow rate
permeate from colostrum was observed after fermentation.
and higher TMP, justifying the decrease in permeate ux.
Reduction on the total COS after fermentation has been associated
with the consumption of the neutral COS by Saccharomyces cer-
3.1.2. Concentration and dialtration evisiae. Total COS and monosaccharide concentrations of
Hydrolyzed goat whey was concentrated by a 10 kDa ultral- 0.0361 g L1 and 0.0278 g L1, respectively, were observed after
tration membrane to a CF of 6 (Fig. 3) at optimized processing fermentation. The fermentation of nearly all monosaccharides
conditions (2 bar and 6 L min1). Permeate ux decreased from 21.1 increased the whey permeate purity from 0.28 to 56.64%, in rela-
to 14.5 L h1 m2 at CF 6, corresponding to an increase in density tion to fermentable sugars. Approximately 7.5% of the initial vol-
from 1011.1 to 1021.3 kg m3. Permeate ux reduction ltering ume of whey permeate was lost during the separation of the yeast
cheese whey may be attributed to the formation of a polarization by sedimentation. Residual yeast removal was accomplished by
concentration layer on the membrane by proteins and salts, which microltration with minimum loss of whey permeate (~1% of the
could lead to the formation of salt bridges between the membrane initial volume) and a permeate ux of 90 L h1 m2.
and whey proteins, thus fouling the membrane (Merin and
Cheryan, 1979). To increase the recovery of CMO in the ultraltra- 3.3. Nanoltration of whey permeate
tion permeate, eight discontinuous dialtrations were performed
(Figure A2). The efciency of each dialtration was evaluated by the 3.3.1. Effects of TMP on permeate ux and retention of
quantication of acidic and neutral CMO in all permeates. oligosaccharides
Approximately 98% of the oligosaccharides remaining in the TMP has a direct impact on permeate ux and solute retention.
retentate after CF6 were recovered in the permeate after 4 dial- Increased TMP can lead to membrane compaction and reduced
trations, with complete permeation being achieved with 5 dial- membrane thickness, which might result in increased permeate
trations. Although the presented pilot-scale experiment used fresh ux. However, membrane compaction can also lead to an effective
water for dialtration, this approach is not the preferred option pore size reduction, thus affecting the retention of target compo-
from a sustainable perspective. In an industrial scenario, the use of nents (Goulas et al., 2002). The effect of TMP on the permeate ux
a countercurrent dialtration process, where the permeate from a of goat whey permeate and oligosaccharide retention using a
previous dialtration is used to dialter a new retentate and fresh 500e700 Da NF membrane is shown in Fig. 5. Permeate ux
water is used only in the last stage of dialtrations, could be easily increased from 1.92 to 11.33 L h1 m2 when TMP increased from 5
implemented. to 35 bar and leveled off from 35 to 40 bar. A similar trend was

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3 L min-1 6 L min-1 9 L min-1


Permeate Flux (L h-1 m-2)






1 2 3
Transmembrane pressure (bar)
Fig. 2. Effects of TMP and feed ow on permeate ux during ultraltration of hydrolyzed goat whey (CF < 1.1). Error bars represent the standard deviation of two analytic replicates.

Perm Flux Density

25 1024
Permeate Flux (L h-1 m-2 )


Density (Kg m-3)

20 1020
5 1010
0 1006
1 2 3Concentration
4 5
Factor 6 7
Fig. 3. Effects of concentration factor on permeate ux and density of hydrolyzed goat whey using a 10 kDa membrane.

Galactose Glucose

Concentration (g L-1)


0 5 10 15 20 25
Time (h)
Fig. 4. Pilot-scale fermentation of hydrolyzed goat whey permeate.

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observed for oligosaccharide retention, which increased from 50.5 increases observed from 30 to 40 bar. Increased carbohydrate
to 89.2% when TMP increased from 5 to 40 bar, with marginal retention with increasing TMP is likely due to the combination of
polarization concentration and membrane compaction. Higher
TMP would result in a denser gel layer and reduced membrane pore
size which would in turn reduce the convective transport of oli-
gosaccharides through the membrane pores. The consistent oligo-
saccharide retention observed from 30 to 40 bar may indicate the
transition from a convective to a diffusive transport of solutes
(Pontalier et al., 1997). TMP of 35 bar and feed ow of 6 L min1 was
used to concentrate the fermented goat whey permeate.
Goat milk contains both acidic and neutral oligosaccharides, so
electrostatic interactions between acidic oligosaccharides and the
membrane charge may play a role in the retention of charged
components. Electrostatic interactions might affect the retention of
charged solutes when using charged membranes. This effect arises
from the interaction between the charged solutes (i.e. acidic oli-
gosaccharides) and the membrane charge, in our case a negatively
charged membrane (Verliefde et al., 2008). The retention of acidic
and neutral oligosaccharides at different TMP is shown in Fig. 6. In
Fig. 5. Effects of TMP on permeate ux and total oligosacccharide retention using a general, acidic oligosaccharides showed a higher retention than
500e700 Da membrane.


Retention (%)

60 3'-SL


2 - FL

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Transmembrane pressure (bar)
Fig. 6. Effects of TMP on the retention of COS using a 500e700 Da sulfonated polyethersulfone membrane (CF < 1.1). Error bars represent the standard deviation of two analytic

a 6'-SLN 6'-SL 3'-SL b

Perm Flux Density LNDFH I LDFT 2'-FL
12 1015 100
Oligosaccharides Yield (%)
Permeate Flux (L h-1 m-2)

10 1010 90
Density (Kg m-3)

8 1005
6 1000 75
4 995
2 990 60
0 985 50
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Concentration Factor (CF) Concentration Factor (CF)

Fig. 7. Effects of concentration factor on permeate ux and density (a) and on the retention of acidic and neutral oligosaccharides (b) in the retentate using a 500e700 Da sulfonated
polyethersulfone membrane.

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Concentration (g L-1)
a Before NF After NF b
0.30 0.12
Concentration (g L-1)

0.25 0.10
0.10 0.02

0.05 0.00
Oligossaccharides Monosaccharides Oligossaccharides

Concentration (g L-1)
Before NF After NF b
0.30 0.12
Concentration (g L-1)

0.25 0.10
0.10 0.02

0.05 0.00
Oligossaccharides Monosaccharides Oligossaccharides

Fig. 8. Total oligosaccharide and monosaccharide concentration before and after nanoltration (a) and individual oligosaccharide concentration (60 -SLN, 60 -SL, 30 -SL, LNDFH I, LDFT,
20 -FL and LNFP I (b) in the nal retentate (CF 10).

neutral oligosaccharides (40e77% vs. 20e44%) when concentrated from 13.8 to 7.05 L h1 m2 at similar processing conditions. At CF
by the negatively charged sulfonated polyethersulfone nano- 10, total oligosaccharide yield in the retentate (acidic neutral)
ltration membrane. This trend was observed across all TMP but was approximately 75% compared with the starting material.
was more pronounced at lower TMP values. Increased membrane Fig. 7b shows the effect of CF on the recovery yield of each indi-
compaction at higher TMP increased the retention of all oligosac- vidual oligosaccharide. Final yields of 61.7, 80.2 and 82.0% were
charides potentially masking the effect of the solute charge on the observed for the acidic oligosaccharides 60 -SLN, 60 -SL, and 30 -SL,
retention of acidic oligosaccharides. In addition to the role of respectively. Final yields for neutral oligosaccharides were 58.7,
electrostatic interactions between the acidic COS and the nega- 62.5, 78.7, and 73.9% for LNDFH I, LDFT, 20 -FL, and LNFP I, respec-
tively charged membrane, differences in the individual COS tively. Average oligosaccharide retention, as shown by the slope of
composition of the fermented whey permeate (0.0167 g L1 for 30 - the equation in Fig. A1, was 89%. The recovery yield of acidic oli-
SL, 0.0027 g L1 60 -SL, 0.0019 g L1 60 -SLN, 0.0060 g L1 LNDFH I, gosaccharides (~75% average) observed in this work was lower than
0.0014 g L1 LNFP I, 0.0024 g L1 20 -FL, and 0.0050 g L1 LDFT) may observed with bovine colostrum whey permeate, in which ~ 95% of
also have contributed to differences in the retention of acidic and acidic oligosaccharides were recovered from the starting material.
neutral COS. Higher COS concentration in the feed, as the ones Although the same processing conditions were used in both studies
observed for LNDFH I and LDFT might have contributed to reduced (TMP, membrane type, feed ow), compositional differences in the
retention of neutral COS compared with the acidic ones. starting materials may be responsible for the differences in oligo-
saccharide retention.
The total concentration and individual oligosaccharide compo-
3.3.2. Concentration of goat whey permeate by nanoltration sition of the nal retentate at CF 10 is shown in Fig. 8 (a and b). Total
Fig. 7 (a and b) shows the nanoltration of goat whey permeate oligosaccharide concentration increased from 0.036 to 0.27 g L1 at
using a 500e700 Da nanoltration membrane to a CF of 10, feed CF 10, evidencing 75% oligosaccharide recovery when using TMP of
ow of 6 L min1, 50  C and 35 bar, with total time of ltration of 5 h 35 bar (Fig. 8a). 67.6 and 34.4% of the oligosaccharides quantied in
and 45 min. Polarization concentration due to increased solids the nal retentate were acidic and neutral, respectively (Fig. 8b).
concentration in the retentate at CF 10 had a pronounced effect on Negligible concentration of monosaccharides were detected in the
permeate ux. Permeate ux decreased from 10.22 to 5.33 L h1 nal retentate (0.07 g L1), evidencing an oligosaccharide-rich
m2 when the retentate density increased from 988.3 to fraction nearly free of digestible sugars. The concentration of COS
1010.2 kg m3 at CF 10 (Fig. 7a). Our results are in agreement with by nanoltration increased the purity of the fermented whey
those in the companion paper (de Moura Bell et al.) in which the permeate from 56.64 to 78.38% in relation to digestible sugars. The
permeate ux of fermented bovine whey from colostrum decreased

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L.F.M.C. Aquino et al. / Journal of Food Engineering xxx (2017) 1e10 9

residual amount of monosaccharides in the nal retentate repre- approximately 67.6% and 34.4% were acidic and neutral respec-
sented 0.3% of the initial amount of lactose in the whey permeate. tively, was obtained. This process will enable the production of
The recovery yield observed using our approach (75%) was similar gram quantities of oligosaccharides with minimum contamination
to those obtained by Martinez-Ferez et al. (2006) in which 82% of by digestible sugars for future functional tests and
oligosaccharides were recovered from goat milk by a two-stage commercialization.
membrane ltration followed by dialtration. However, in their
nal retentate, 5% of the initial amount of lactose remained
therefore reducing the nal product purity. Although the recovery
yield of oligosaccharides was not reported, an oligosaccharide
This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health
fraction containing 10% of the initial amount of lactose was ob-
Awards R01AT007079 and R01AT008759, USDA:NIFA Hatch project
tained by Oliveira et al. (2012) using two-stage membrane
232719, UC Davis Peter J. Shields Endowed Chair in Dairy Food
Science and Sustainable AgTech Innovation Center (SATIC). This
research was partially supported by an industry/campus supported
4. Conclusions
fellowship under the Training Program in Biomolecular Technology
(T32-GM008799) at the University of California, Davis and by the
A recently developed approach to purify oligosaccharides from
Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel
bovine colostrum has been successfully applied to recover caprine
Program (CAPES) in Brazil.
milk oligosaccharides at pilot scale. This method relies on the use of
enzymatic hydrolysis, monosaccharide fermentation, and mem-
brane concentration. The concentration of whey permeate by NF Appendices
enabled the recovery of 75% of the oligosaccharides initially present
in the whey permeate with minimum contamination of glucose Appendix A
and galactose (equivalent to 0.3% of the initial amount of lactose). A
nal retentate containing 0.27 g L1 of oligosaccharides, of which

y = 0.8898x - 0.0195
R = 0.9999
log (Cf Cr-1)




0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
log CF
Fig. A.1. Average oligosaccharide retention during nanoltration (500e700 Da sulfonated polyethersulfone) of fermented goat whey permeate.

Concentration (g L-1)

0.05 6'-SLN
0.04 6'-SL
0.01 2'-FL
0.00 LNFP I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Fig. A.2. Effects of dialtrations on the permeation of oligosaccharides from the ultraltration retentate.

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