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OCCURRENCE OF FLOODS AND IMPACTS ON

PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN LOS BANOS AND BAY,


LAGUNA, PHILIPPINES
GREGORIO Y. ARDALES, Jr., PhD

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
I. Introduction
II. Methodology
III. Results and Discussion
IV. Conclusion and Recommendation
I. INTRODUCTION
Philippines is highly vulnerable to floods (high exposure;
difficulty in coping: physical and socio-economic impacts
(Eleazar, 2011).
Floods caused adverse impacts on the education sector
In Bay & LB:
Lakeshore floods lasted for months 2009 & 2012
Flashfloods ravaged upland communities 2006

Objectives:
General: Examine past floods and impacts on public schools
Specific:
compare five past flood events in lakeshore areas;
determine the adverse effects of recent flood events on
the delivery of education services and on the schooling of
children.
Defn
Delivery of education services- efforts rendered by
schools in providing continuous instruction to students.
Focused on delivery of instruction (teaching)
Schooling of children- process of attending and being
formally educated in school. Focused on attendance,
school performance and drop-out rate.

II. METHODOLOGY
Study area- Los Banos and Bay
Schools Studied- all 38 public schools, 27 ES & 11 HS
Grp A (Flooded)- 11 ES, 3HS (1 DepEd, 2 NDA)
Grp B (Non-flooded but affected)- 12 ES, 6 HS
Grp C (Non-flooded least affected)- 4 ES, 2 HS (1DepEd,
1 NDA)
Part I. Delineation & Comparison of 5 Past Food Events:
Analysis of Rainfall (from UPLB Agromet), Lake water
level data (from LLDA)
Mapping of flooded areas through GIS (using IfSAR
images, and Bathymetric survey data from NAMRIA)

Part 2. Impacts of Floods on Public Schools:


KII: 12 DepEd & LGU Officials + 16 School heads.
FGD: in 4 schools- 2 FGDs per school- 1 w/ students, 1
w/ adult stakeholders
Survey: 157 teacher (20% of all qualified respondents);
4-5 respondents per school.
Gathered school records, reports on damage and effects
of floods on schools and community
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Delineation/Comparison of 5 Past Flood Events
Table 1. Annual rainfall, water levels, extent and duration of five
flood events in Bay and Los Baos, Laguna
ANNUAL NO. OF
AVERAGE TOTAL AREA
TOTAL PEAK WATER DAYS
PEAK HEIGHT OF FLOODED AT
RAINFALL IN ABOVE FLOOD
YEAR GAUGE WATER > PEAK WATER
LOS BAOS MEAN SEA LEVEL
READING 12.5 M (m) LEVEL
AND BAY LEVEL (m) >12.5m
(m) (m2)
(mm) (d)

1972 2483.7 14.03 1.53 3.64 2,599,606 87


1978 2673.2 13.58 1.08 3.19 1,885,319 60
1986 3016.9 13.33 0.83 2.94 1,471,128 91
1995 2652.9 12.94 0.44 2.55 804,133 82
2009 2829.6 13.87 1.37 3.47 2.344,912 108
Effect of Floods on Schools
In 2009 and 2012: flooded schools in Bay: (ES164502, ES108207, ES108211, ES108208
and HS301262); in LB: (ES108314, ES108310 and ES108311 and NDAHS001)
In 2006 flash floods severely damaged schools in Bay: (ES108205, ES108206,
ES108210, ES108200 and NDAHS003); in Los Baos (ES108302)
In 2009 and 2012: EC in Bay: (ES108202, ES108203, ES108210, ES108200 and
HS307930). Flooded & used as EC (ES164502, ES108207, ES108211 and HS301262)
EC in LB: (ES108308, ES108303, ES108304, ES108313 ES108306). Flooded & used as EC
(ES108310 and ES108311)
Table 2. Adverse effects of floods on schools

GROUP A GROUP B GROUP C TOTAL


EFFECT ON SCHOOLS*
F % F % F % F %
ELEMENTARY N=48 N=45 N=17 N=110
Respondents affected 47 97.9 42 93.3 3 17.6 92 83.6
Disruption of classes 46 97.9 35 83.3 3 100.0 84 91.3
Damage being EC 38 80.9 19 45.2 0 0.0 57 62.0
Damage due to floods 38 80.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 38 41.3
In sharing facilities 16 34.0 16 38.1 0 0.0 32 34.8
HIGH SCHOOL N=13 N=25 N=9 N=47
Respondents affected 13 100.0 16 64.0 3 33.3 32 68.1
Disruption of classes 12 92.3 14 87.5 3 100.0 29 90.6
In sharing facilities 3 23.1 6 37.5 0 0.0 9 28.1
Damage being EC 7 53.8 1 6.3 0 0.0 8 25.0
Damage due to floods 8 61.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 8 25.0
*Multiple response
Table 3. Number of Evacuees in School Evacuation Centers in the
Bay and Los Baos Districts.
BAY DISTRICT LOS BANOS DISTRICT
SCHOOL TOTAL SCHOOL TOTAL
NO. OF NO. OF
EVACUATION EVAC- EVACUATIO EVAC-
FAMILIES FAMILIES
CENTER UEES N CENTER UEES
HS301262 89 357 ES108303 115 470
ES108211 11 51 ES108314 56 259
ES108210 155 549 ES108313 7 25
ES164502 7 25 ES108310 31 141
ES108203 136 481 ES108308 67 269
ES108202 164 721 ES108304 51 244
ES108200/
325 1300 ES108306 39 114
HS307930
ES108207 6 24 ES108311 65 252
TOTAL 893 3508 TOTAL 431 1,774
Table 4. Extent of Damage to School Properties due to Floods and use as
Evacuation Centers in 2012

SCHOOL ROOMS CHAIRS BOOKS CRs


Damage to Public Schools in the Bay District due to Floods
ES108211 8 225 1,293 2
ES164502 8 680 2,580 1
ES108208 8 29 404 1
ES108207 16 494 2,481 1
TOTAL 40 1,428 6,758 5
Damage to Public Schools in the Bay District from Use as Evacuation Centers
HS301262 21 260 150 6
ES108200 41 62 1,116 3
ES108202 23 350 3,641 5
ES108203 4 130 0 3
ES108210 5 93 11 0
ES108207 16 494 2,481 1
ES164502 8 680 2,580 1
ES108211 8 225 1,293 2
TOTAL 126 2,294 11,272 21
Damage to Schools in the Los Baos District from Floods and Use as Evacuation Center
Furniture/Fixture
Classroom Books Equipment
s
All Affected Schools 18 528 6113 24
Table 5. School personnel of Bay and Los Baos districts affected
by floods in their homes
SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. SCHOOL PERSONNEL AFFECTED
Bay District 53
Los Baos District 30
TOTAL 83

Physical damage (KII and FGD)


Damages were 2-fold from floods and evacuees
School ECs devastated, vandalized
Furniture and appliances destroyed, teaching materials, school
records ruined, bulbs, knobs and classroom fixtures stolen
Toilet facilities not enough and got clogged, damaged; hence
human waste disposed improperly
Discipline in EC was a problem
Electric and water bills surge up in ECs, some were disconnected
Teachers and their Families were Affected (KII and FGD)
Many teachers & school personnel houses got flooded
Many got sick and were problematic
Table 6. Problems in teaching encountered by respondents due to floods
PROBLEMS IN TEACHING* GROUP A GROUP B GROUP C TOTAL
F % F % F % F %
ELEMENTARY N=48 N=45 N=17 N=110
Respondents affected 47 97.9 33 73.3 1 5.9 81 73.6
Time to finish lessons 40 85.1 24 72.7 1 100.0 65 80.2
Motivation/concentration 32 68.1 21 63.6 1 100.0 54 66.7
Lack classrooms 35 74.5 18 54.5 0 0.0 53 65.4
Lack teaching materials 35 74.5 11 33.3 0 0.0 46 56.8
Difficult prepare lessons 19 40.4 5 15.2 1 100.0 25 30.9
HIGH SCHOOL N=13 N=25 N=9 N=47
Respondents affected 13 100.0 17 68.0 4 44.4 34 72.3
Time to finish lessons 11 84.6 9 52.9 3 75.0 23 67.6
Motivation/concentration 6 46.2 12 70.6 1 25.0 19 55.9
Lack classrooms 10 76.9 4 23.5 0 0.0 14 41.2
Lack teaching materials 7 53.8 4 23.5 2 50.0 13 38.2
Difficult in prepare lessons 1 7.7 6 35.3 1 25.0 8 23.5
*Multiple response
(KII and FGD)
1. Lack of time to finish all lessons
Grp A schools: classes, cancelled for cleaning and restoration, to
recover, plan and coordinate the resumption of classes
Grp A and Grp B schools: classes in shifts covered only half of
what they need to take up
time spent cleaning rooms from both flood waters and evacuees
2. Poor motivation and concentration of students
Grp A and B schools: Alternative classrooms (hot, crowded, no
walls
School EC (dirty, noisy) teachers raise voices distracting other
classes
Lack of power and water supply is also a problem
3. Lack of classrooms & teaching materials:
Limited area to hold classes (many flooded schools even used as
EC
Some evacuees dont want to leave after floods
Classes in school EC held in covered courts
teaching materials Damaged by floods & evacuees. Used for cooking,
toilet and for disposing human wastes.
Table 7. Effects of floods on the schooling of children
EFFECTS ON SCHOOLING GROUP A GROUP B GROUP C TOTAL
OF CHILDREN* F % F % F % F %
ELEMENTARY N=48 N=45 N=17 N=110
Respondents with
Students Affected 47 97.9 37 82.2 12 70.6 96 87.3
Increased Absenteeism 45 95.7 36 97.3 12 100.0 93 96.9
Low Scores/Class
33 70.2 20 54.1 7 58.3 60 62.5
Performance
Increased Drop-out Rate 12 25.5 7 18.9 1 8.3 20 20.8
HIGH SCHOOL N=13 N=25 N=9 N=47
Respondents with
Students Affected 11 84.6 19 76.0 3 33.3 33 70.2
Increased Absenteeism 10 90.9 18 94.7 3 100.0 31 93.9
Low Scores/Class
5 45.5 14 73.7 2 66.7 21 63.6
Performance
Increased Drop-out Rate 3 27.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 9.1
*Multiple response
1. Increased absences (Reasons)
Floods/bad weather hindered going to school (danger;
added costs, sickness);
Due to effects on households (help at home, earn, take
care of belongings & family member)
Lack of motivation (lost school items, hopeless, cancelled
of classes, not ready to go back to school)
2. Low school performance/learning outcome (Reasons)
Absences (lessons missed, not able to meet reqts);
Inconvenience at school, home or EC (difficult to
understand lessons, distraction, poor concentration/focus,
poor mastery);
cancelled disrupted classes (less contact hours); and
adversities on at home (education set aside for immediate
needs, lack of support, and guidance)
(KII and FGD)
Grp A &B: Mastery was sacrificed due to shifting schedules
(class reduced to almost half)
For many HS students: modules distributed were not
effective. Understanding and retention was better through
discussions
Effect on drop-out (D-O) and school enrolment
Survey: Drop-out due to floods was not a problem for most of
the teachers surveyed
KII and FGD:
Only 1 school head of flooded ES in LB reported inc D-O.
1 Bay HS teacher said 3 of her students D-O to guard
belongings in the Tent City
A HS in LB asserted that high D-O rate in their school cant
be attributed to floods
School heads: Temporary or permanent transfer of students
to other schools did not affect much school enrolment
IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Delineation/comparison of 5 past flood events
Among the five floods event, the 1972 event most extensive,
least was 1995. The longest 2009, shortest 1978
Impacts on Public Schools
Cancellation & disrupted classes, damages on schools, and
adverse effects on teachers led to problems in delivery of
education services
Effects on delivery of services
lack of time to finish all the lessons, poor motivation/
concentration of students, lack of classrooms to hold classes,
shortage of teaching materials, and difficulty in preparing lessons
Effect on Schooling of Children
Floods adversely affected attendance and school performance of
students
Study not able to prove that floods increased D-O rate
RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations for LGUs
Cancel classes depending on actual situation in the area
Strive to establish permanent EC
Recommendations for DepEd
In absence of permanent EC:
push for use of other govt facilities as EC
assert that classes be held in classrooms not in covered courts
allow only the right number of evacuees in school EC
clear definition of duties, good coordination between the school
and different agencies involved
Flexibility in scheduling make-up/remedial classes and
adjustments in the school calendar
Build climate/flood-resilient, child-friendly school buildings
More classrooms in non-flooded schools and hire additional
teachers
Replace damaged school materials ASAP
Develop learning modules for all levels with regular review
to ensure effectiveness
Train teachers on best practices fit for unfavorable
conditions (e.g. large class size) and in skills that enhance
management of school property and school records (e.g. E-
BEIS)
Encourage/support/improve school-initiated instructional
and non-instructional interventions( peer tutoring, home
visitations, counselling services, financial assistance,
school feeding and scholarships programs
Recommendation for future studies
Use finer resolution, more accurate Light Detection
and Ranging (LIDAR) data to verify results & provide
more accurate recon-struction of past flood events
THANK YOU VERY MUCH
FOR YOUR TIME
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
DOST- ASTHRD-NSC Scholarship Program;
Usec. Peter Tiangco, NAMRIA;
Mr. Alvin Olvida & Ms. Fe Ociones, ERDB;
Engr. Emil Hernandez and Engr. Kim Mercado, LLDA;
Dr. Marites Ibaez (SDS), Dr. Darwin Talambayan, Ms. Arlene
Bongon and Ms. Ruth Camacho, DepEd, Laguna;
Dr. Esmeralda de Castro (DS), Dr. Neil Angeles (DS), DepEd Los
Banos and Bay; and
Teachers, students and others who participated in the study