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Chemistry Notes

Grade 8

By: Yusuf Badr

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2017 By: Yusuf Badr

Acid, Bases and Salts

Acid: A substance that dissolves in water producing H+ (aq) ions a solution of an


acid turns litmus paper red and has a pH below 7, in their reactions, acids acts as
proton donors. (Contain an excess of H+ ions)
Base: A substance that neutralizes an acid producing salt and water only as the
products, in their reactions, bases acts as proton acceptors (Insoluble in water are
the oxide and hydroxides of metals)
Alkali: Soluble bases which produce OH- (aq) ion in water a solution of an alkali turns
litmus paper blue and has a pH above 7. (contain an excess of OH- ions- dissolve in
water- feel soapy to the skin) (A base that dissolve in water)
Examples of Alkalis and Bases.

Name Ions present


Hydrochloric acid H+(aq) and CI-(aq)
Acids Nitric acid H+(aq) and NO3-(aq)
Sulphuric acid H+(aq), HSO4-(aq) and
SO42-(aq)
Sodium hydroxide Na+(aq) and OH-(aq)
Alkalis Potassium hydroxide K+(aq) and OH-(aq)
Calcium hydroxide Ca2+(aq) and OH-(aq)
Ammonia solution NH4+(aq) and OH-(aq)

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Indicators: A substance which charges colour when added to acidic or alkaline


solutions
Litmus: The most common indicator: turns red in acid and blue in alkali
*Red litmus paper stays red in neutral and acidic solutions
* Blue litmus paper stays Blue in neutral and bases solutions
*The hydrogen ions (H+) in acid solutions make litmus go red
*The hydroxide ions(OH-) in alkali solutions make litmus go blue
Methyl Orange: An acid-base indicator that is red in acidic and yellow in
alkaline solutions.
-Neutral = (3.7)
Universal Indicator: A mixture of indicators that has different colours in
solutions of different pH
*(7= Green / Below 7 = red-yellow / Above 7 = blue-purple)
*It is very useful as it gives a range of colours depending upon the strength of
acids and alkaline

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Strongly Acidic Weakly Acidic Neutral Weakly Alkaline Strongly Alkaline

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Dark Blue Violet

Phenolphthalein: Commonly used indicator for titrations and is a week acid

Indicator Colour in acid Neutral colour Colour in alkali


Litmus Red Purple Blue
Phenolphthalein Colourless colourless Pinks
Methyl Orange Red Orange Yellow

pH scale: A scale running from below 0 to 14, used for expressing the acidity or
alkalinity of a solution. (Neutral Solution = 7)
*soil needs to be neutral (pH), Bases can be added to neutralise.

Strong Acid: An acid that is completely ionised when dissolved in water- this
produces the highest possible concentrations of H+ (aq) ions in a solution. (E.g.
Hydrochloric acid)

Weak Acid: An acid that is partially dissociated into ions in water- usually this
produces a low concentration of H+ (aq) ion in a solution (E.g. Ethanoic acid)

Strong Alkali: An alkali that is completely ionised when dissolved in water- this
produces the highest possible concentrations of OH- (aq) ions in a solution. (E.g.
Sodium Hydroxide)

Weak Alkali: An alkali that is only partially dissociated into ions in water- usually this
produces a low concentration of OH- (aq) ion in a solution (E.g. Ammonia Solution)

Amphoteric Hydroxide: Hydroxide which can react with acids or alkalis to produce
Salts

Amphoteric Substance: A substance which can behave as acid as well as base

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Oxidation: (I) A reaction in which oxygen is added to an element or a compound. (II)


The reaction involving the loss of electrons from an atom, molecule or ion. (III) A
reaction in which oxidation state of an element is increased. (IV) Oxides are binary
compounds formed by the reaction of oxygen with other element. Oxygen is highly
reactive in nature. They react metals and non-metals to form oxides
Characteristics of Oxides
Non-metals generally form acidic oxides that dissolve in water to form acidic
solutions
Metals form oxides that are solids. If they dissolve in water, these oxides give
alkaline solutions. These metal oxides neutralise acids are basic oxides

Neutralisation Reaction: Acid + Base Salt + Water

Salt: Ionic compounds made by the neutralisation of acid with bases/Alkali (or-
a compound made from an acid when metals takes the place of the hydrogen in the
acid)

*When negative ion of an acid combine with a positive ion of base/Alkali. Salts is
formed

Soluble salts are soluble in water while Insoluble salts arent


All nitrates (NO3-) and ethanoates are soluble
Sodium (Na), potassium (K), ammonium(NH4+) and salt(NaCl) is soluble
All of sulphate salts (SO42- ) are soluble except barium sulphate (BaSo4),
calcium sulphate (CaSo4) and lead sulphate
All of chloride(NaCl) salts are soluble except silver chloride(AgCl), lead chloride
(PbCI2) and mercury (Hg)
All of the carbonates salts are insoluble except sodium carbonate(Na2Co3),
potassium carbonate(K2CO3) and ammonium carbonate (NH4)2Co3

*Solution + Solid = Soluble salt


* Soluble salt + Soluble salt = Insoluble salt

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Metal + Acid Salt + Hydrogen

The salts made depends on the acid:


Hydrochloric acid always gives chloride
Nitric acid always gives nitrates
Sulfuric acid always gives a slufate
Ethanoic acid always gives an ethanoate

Acid + Base salt + water

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NaCl

The metal comes from the The non-metallic part comes


base or alkali from the acid

Sodium hydroxide in this case Hydrochloric acid in this case

Acid + Metal carbonate Salt + water + Carbon Dioxide

Basic Oxides: Oxide of a metal that will react with acids to neutralise the acid
* Metal that react with oxygen to give basic compounds of oxygen
* They are ionic compounds
*Properties
Dont react with bases
React with acids to form salt and water
Basic oxides are usually insoluble in water. These that dissolve in water form
alkaline solution
Acidic oxides: Oxides of non-metal which will react with bases and dissolve in water
to produce acid solutions
*Non-metals react with oxygen to form acidic compounds of oxides are held
together by covalent bonds
Properties
Dont react with acids
React with bases and alkaline to form salt and water
Dissolve in water to form acidic solutions
Usually gases at room temperature
Neutral oxides: Some compounds react with oxygen to form oxides which does not
exhibit acidic or basis characteristics

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Some common simple and polyatomic ions Pg:73

Valency Simple Simple non-metallic Polyatomic


Metal ions ions
(+ve)
(+ve) (-ve) (+ve) (-ve)

1 Sodium, Na+ Hydrogen, Hydride, Ammonium, Hydroxide, OH-


H+ H- NH4+
Potassium, Chloride, Nitrate, NO3-
K+ Cl-
Silver, Ag+ Bromide, Hydrogencarbonate,
Br- HCO3-
Copper(i), Iodide, I-
Cu+
2 Magnesium, Oxide, O2- Sulfate, SO42-
Mg2+
Calcium, Sulfide, S2- Carbonate, CO32-
Ca2+
Zinc, Zn2+
Iron(ii), Fe2+
Copper(ii),
Cu2+
3 Aluminium, Nitride, Phosphate, PO43-
Al3+ N3-
Iron(iii),
Fe3+

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*additional part

Writing Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds

1. Identify the chemical symbols for the cations and anions. All chemicals have what you
can call a first and last name. The first name is the cation (positive ion) while the last name is
the anion (negative ion). Cations are written as the element name while anions are the
element name ending with the suffix ide.[6]

The chemical symbol for each element can be found on the periodic table.
Unlike covalent compounds, Greek prefixes are not used to indicate the number of
atoms of each element. You have to balance the charges of the elements to determine
the atoms.
For example: Lithium oxide is Li2O.

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2. Recognize polyatomic ions. Sometimes the cation or anion is a polyatomic ion. These are
molecules that have two or more atoms with ionic groups. Theres no good trick to
remembering these, you just need to memorize them.[7]

There are only 3 cation polyatomic ions and they are ammonium (NH4+), hydronium
(H3+), and mercury(I) (Hg22+). They all have a +1 charge.
The rest of the polyatomic ions have negative charges ranging from -1 to -4. Some
common ones are carbonate (CO32-), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and chromate
(CrO42-).

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3. Determine the valence charge of each element. The valence charge can be
determined by looking at the position of the element on the periodic table. There are a
few rules to keep in mind that help you identify the charges:[8]

All group 1 elements at +1.


All group 2 elements are +2.
Transition elements will have Roman numerals to indicate their charge.
Silver is 1+, zinc is 2+, and aluminum is 3+.
Group 17 elements are 1-.
Group 16 elements are 2-.
Group 15 elements are 3-.
Remember, when working with polyatomic ions, just use the charge of the ion.

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4.Balance the positive and negative charges of the ions. Once you have identified the
charge of each element (or polyatomic ion), you will use these charges to determine the
number of atoms present of each element. You want the charge of the compound to equal
zero so you will add atoms to balance the charges.[9]

For example: Lithium Oxide. Lithium is a group 1 element and has a +1 charge.
Oxygen is a group 16 element and has a 2- charge. In order to balance the 2- charge of
the oxygen, you need 2 atoms of lithium; therefore, the chemical formula of lithium
oxide is Li2O.

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5.Practice with some examples. The best way to learn formula writing is to practice with
lots of examples. Use examples in your chemistry book or look for practice sets online.
Do as many as you can until you feel comfortable writing chemical formulas.

Calcium Nitride: Symbol for calcium is Ca and symbol of nitrogen is N. Ca is a group


2 element and has a charge of +2. Nitrogen is a group 15 element and has a charge of
3-. To balance this, you need 3 atoms of calcium (6+) and 2 atoms of nitrogen (6-):
Ca3N2.
Mercury (II) Phosphate: Symbol for Mercury is Hg and phosphate is the polyatomic
ion PO4. Mercury has a 2+ charge as indicated by the Roman numeral II next to it.
Phosphate has a 3- charge. In order to balance them, you will need 3 atoms of
mercury (6+) and 2 molecules of phosphate (6-): Hg3(PO4)2.

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Determining the products given reactants

1. Identify all of the cations and anions in the reactants. In a basic double replacement
equation you will have two cations and two anions. The general equation takes the form of
AB + CD --> AD + CB, where A and C are cations and B and D are anions. You also want to
determine the charges of each ion.[10]

For example: AgNO3 + NaCl --> ?


The cations are Ag+1 and Na+1. The anions are NO31- and Cl1-.

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2.Switch the ions to build the products. Once you have identified all of the ions and
their charges, rearrange them so that the first cation is now paired with the second anion,
and the second cation is now paired with the first anion. Remember the equation: AB +
CD --> AD + CB.[11]

Remember to balance the charges when forming new compounds.


For example: AgNO3 + NaCl --> ?
Ag+1 now pairs with Cl1- to form AgCl.
Na+1 now pairs with NO31- to form NaNO3.

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3.Write the full equation. After writing the products that will form in the equation, you can
write the whole equation with both products and reactants. Keep the reactants on the left side
of the equation and write the new products on the right side with a plus sign between them.[12]

For example: AgNO3 + NaCl --> ?


AgNO3 + NaCl --> AgCl + NaNO3

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4.Balance the equation. Once you have written the equation and have all of the products and
reactants you need to make sure everything is balanced. An equation is balanced only when
you have the same number of atoms of every element present on both sides.[13]

For example: AgNO3 + NaCl --> AgCl + NaNO3


Count the number of atoms on each side: 1 Ag left, 1 Ag right; 1 N left, 1 N right; 3 O
left, 3 O right; 1 Na left, 1 Na right; 1 Cl left, 1 Cl right
This equation is balanced because there are equal numbers of atoms on both the left
and right side of the equation.

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5.Practice with some examples. The only way to get better at writing chemical equations is
to actually do it. Work your way through these examples to make sure you really understand
the process.

NiCl2 + (NH4)2S --> ?


Cations: Ni2+ and NH4+
Anions: Cl1- and S2-
Recombine ions to make new products: NiS + NH4Cl
Write the equation: NiCl2 + (NH4)2S --> NiS + NH4Cl
Balance the equation: NiCl2 + (NH4)2S --> NiS + 2NH4Cl

***wikihow.com***

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Sources: IGCSE Chemistry Coursebook


IGCSE Chemistry Workbook

Email: Yusufbadr@hotmail.com

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Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

Acids and Bases:

Acids:

Any substance with sour taste which can give Hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution is called
Acids.

Substances with a pH of less than 7 are acids. The stronger the acid, the lower the pH number.
Acids turn blue litmus paper red. They turn universal indicator red if they are strong, and orange
or yellow if they are weak.

What are the Chemical Reactions of Acids?

All acids will react with

1) Any alkali or base, called neutralization reactions.

2) Any metal above hydrogen in the reactivity series.


The metal will fizz, giving off hydrogen gas, and leaving the metal salt in solution.

Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2
any metal carbonate or metal hydrogen carbonate when react with acids will bubble giving off
carbon dioxide gas, leaving the metal salt and water.

For example: CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

Any chloride or sulfate can be made by reacting the appropriate metal carbonate or hydrogen
carbonate
with hydrochloric acid to make the chloride or sulfuric acid to make the sulfate.

For Examples:

Na2CO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O + CO2

CaCO3 + H2SO4 CaSO4 + H2O + CO2

Bases:

Those substance with bitter taste which can give (OH-) in aqueous solution is called base.

Substances that can react with acids and neutralize them to make a salt and water are called
bases. The pH value base is greater than 7. They are usually metal oxides or metal hydroxides.
For example, copper oxide and sodium hydroxide are bases.
Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

For examples:

NaOH,

KOH

Ca(OH)2

Reaction of Acids and bases:

When acids and bases react together it produce salt and water these reaction are called
neutralization reactions.

For examples:

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

HCl + KOH KCl + H2O

H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O

H2SO4+ 2KOH K2SO4 + 2H2O

HNO3 + NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O

Indicators:

Indicators are substances that change colour when they are added to acidic or alkaline solutions.

Indicators that are commonly used in the laboratory.

Litmus,

phenolphthalein,

and methyl orange

Universal Indicator

Litmus:

Litmus is a weak acid. Litmus indicator solution turns red in acidic solutions, blue in alkaline
solutions, and purple in neutral solutions.

Litmus paper comes as red litmus paper and blue litmus paper.
Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

The table shows the colour changes it can make:

Solution Red Litmus Paper Blue Litmus Paper

Acidic Solution Stays Red Turns Red

Alkaline Solution Turns Blue Stays Blue

Neutral Solution Stays Red Stays Blue

Methyl orange

Methyl orange is one of the indicators commonly used in titrations. In an alkaline solution,
methyl orange the colour changes when you add an acid.

In alkaline solution the colour of methyl orange indicator turns to yellow. In acidic solution it
will be red. Solution having pH 3.7 - near neutral the colour will be mixture of yellow and red
which is an orange colour

Phenolphthalein:

Phenolphthalein is another commonly used indicator for titrations, and is another weak acid.

In acidic solution the colour of Phenolphthalein is colourless. Basic solution turns the indicator
pink. While in neutral solution or at pH 9.3 the colur will be mixture of colourless and pink
which is a paler pink.

Universal indicator:

Universal indicator is a mixture of indicator dyes. Universal indicator is very useful because it
gives a range of colours depending upon the strength of acids and bases.

Solution of different acids produce different colours in universal indicator.

Even solution of same acids with different concentrations give different colours.

The more acidic solution turns universal indicator bright red. A less acidic solution will only
turns it orange red.

Different alkaline solution also produces different colours the most alkaline solution gives violet
colour
Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

Relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of pH measured using Universal indicator:

"pH". Means "Potential of Hydrogen". It is the measurement used to determine the relative
alkalinity, acidity or neutrality of a solution. Acidity or alkalinity of a solution is measured by
concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) versus hydroxyl ions (OH-) and is expressed as pH level, an
exponential scale that ranges from 0 to 14

For identification of the pH according to a certain colour. You can use universal indicator (UI)
to check a substance's pH.

Neutral: pH 7, turns UI green.

Acid: low pH (less than 7), turns UI red-yellow.

Alkali: high pH (greater than 7), turns UI blue-purple.


Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

Describe and explain the importance of controlling acidity in soil.

Soil is used to grow crops, so it is important for it to be neutral. If it happens to be too alkaline
or acidic, the crops tend to grow poorly. Acidity is usually the problem for soil, so a base can
help neutralize it. Bases include limestone, slaked lime, or quick lime is added to soil to
neutralize the soil for better plant growth.

Q. Given Hydrochloric acid and Ethanoic acid of the same concentration, how could you prove
that Hydrochloric acid is strong acid

Ans. Tested with universal indicator Hydrochloric acid gave red colour (pH 0-2) ethanoic acid
gave orange colour (pH 4-6).

Q. Given sulphoric acid and phosphoric acid of the same concentration how could prove that
phosphoric acid is a weak acid

Ans. Tested with universal indicator sulphoric acid gave red colour (pH 0-2) phosphoric acid
gave orange colour (pH 4-6).

Q. Given sodium hydroxide solution and ammonia of the same concentration, how could you
prove that ammonia is weak base

Ans. Tested with universal indicator sodium hydroxide gave purple colour (pH 12-14) ammonia
gave blue colour (pH 9-11).

Lowry and Bronsted concept of acid and base:

According to Lowry& Bronsted concept:

Acids: Acids are compound or species that donate, tends to donate proton in a chemical reaction.
e.g HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, CH3COOH etc

Base: Bases are those species, which accepts, tends to accept proton in a chemical reaction. e,.g
NH3, OH-, F- etc.

Examples:

CH3COOH + H2O H3O+ + CH3COO-

In the above reaction CH3COOH is an acid because it donated proton (H+) in this reaction while
H2O is a base because it accepted proton (H+) in this reaction

NH3 + HCl NH4+ + Cl-

In the above reaction HCl is an acid because it donated proton (H+) in this reaction while NH3 is
a base because it accepted proton (H+) in this reaction
Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

Q. Identify which one is acid and which one is base in the following reaction (Home Work)

HNO3 + H2O H3O+ + NO3-

HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-

H2SO4 + NH3 NH4+ + HSO4-

Difference between Base and Alkali:

Base: A substance that will neutralize an acid, but does not dissolve in water, is called a base.
For example: copper(II) oxide (CuO), iron(II) oxide(Fe2O3) and zinc carbonate ZnCO3 are
bases, they do not dissolve in water

Alkali: Any base that dissolves in water is called an alkali.


For example, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium carbonate
(Na2CO3) are alkalis.

Weak and strong acids and bases:

Strong Acid: A strong acid is a species that dissociates completely into its constituent ions in
aqueous solution and give a high concentration of proton (H+) to the other reactant.

Example: Nitric acid is an example of a strong acid. It dissociates completely in water and give
proton (H+) to water to form hydronium, H3O+. After the reaction occurs, there are no
undissociated HNO3.

HNO3 + H2O H3O+ + NO3-

Other examples:

HCl: HCl is a strong acid because it completely dissociate in water and give H3O+ and Cl-

HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-

H2SO4: H2SO4 is strong acid it completely dissociate in water and give H3O+ and HSO4-

H2SO4 + H2O H3O+ + HSO4-

Weak acid:

Weak acid does not dissociate completely into its constituent ions. An example of a weak acid is
acetic acid, CH3COOH which is present in vinegar. Acetic acid dissociates partially in water and
gives Proton (H+) in very low concentration to water to form hydronium ion and acetate ions.

CH3COOH(aq)+H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+CH3COO
Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

Soluble and insoluble salts:

Soluble Insoluble

All nitrates None

Lead sulfate, barium sulfate and calcium


Most sulfates
sulfate

Silver chloride, lead chloride, silver


Most chlorides, bromides and iodides bromide, lead bromide, silver iodide, , , lead
iodide

Sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate,


Most other carbonates
ammonium carbonate

Preparation of Soluble Salts

The methods of preparing soluble salts are categorised into:

1. Solution + Solid:

A solid and solution are reacted together to form soluble salt.

Examples of such reactions:

Reacting Acid + Metal


Zn(s)+H2SO4(aq)ZnSO4(aq)+H2(g)

In the above reaction ZnSO4 salt is produced which is soluble salt

Reacting Acid + Carbonate


CaCO3(s)+2HCl(aq)CaCl2(aq)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)

In the above reaction CaCl2 salt is produced which is soluble salt

Reacting Acid + Base


Examples of such reactions:

CuO(s)+H2SO4(aq)CuSO4(aq)+H2O(l)

In the above reaction CuSO4 salt is produced which is soluble salt

2. Solution + Solution

A solution and another solution are reacted together to form soluble salt.
Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

Reacting Acid + Alkali


H2SO4(aq)+2NaOH(aq)Na2SO4(aq)+2H2O(l)

In the above reaction Na2SO4 salt is produced which is soluble salt

Reacting Acid + Carbonate (aqueous)


K2CO3(aq)+2HNO3(aq)2KNO3(aq)+H2O(l)+CO2(g)

in the above reaction KNO3 salt is produced which is soluble salt

Q. Explain methods for the preparation of following soluble salts?

a) Lithium Nitrate LiNO3, B) Iron Sulfate Fe2(So4)3

Ans. There are three methods for the preparation of soluble salts

1. Reacting Acid + Metal

2. Reacting Acid + Carbonate

3. Reacting Acid + Base

a) Preparation of Lithium Nitrate LiNO3:

. 1. Reacting Acid + Metal: HNO3 + Li LiNO3 + H2

2. Reacting Acid + Carbonate: HNO3 + Li2CO3 LiNO3+ CO2+ H2O

3. Reacting Acid + Base: HNO3 + LiOH LiNO3+ H2O

B) Preparation of Iron Sulfate Fe2(So4)3 :

1. Reacting Acid + Metal: H2SO4 + Fe Fe2(So4)3 + H2

2. Reacting Acid + Carbonate: H2SO4 + FeCO3 Fe2(So4)3 + CO2+ H2O

3. Reacting Acid + Base: Fe2O3 + 3 H2So4 Fe2 (So4)3 + 3 H2O

Q. How you will prepare soluble salt Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4) in laboratory

Ans: Equation: H2SO4 + Mg MgSO4 + H2


Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

When excess magnesium is added to certain amount of sulfuric acid in a conical flask by this
reaction we will get soluble salt Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4)

Q. What do you mean by the term excess?

Ans: Excess means more than needed for the reaction

Q. Why is excess Mg added?

Ans: To make sure that all sulfuric acid got reacted

Q. Write observation on this reaction

Ans: Bubbles of a colorless, odorless gas.

Name of the gas: Hydrogen gas

Q. How you will know that the reaction is completed?

Ans : When no more bubbles are produced

Q. How will you obtain pure, dry crystals of MgSO4

Ans : The solution saturated by heating. The point of crystallization is checked by a cold glass
rod. The solution is the cooled slowly to obtain pure crystals.

Q. Name the residue and Filtrate

Ans: residue: unreacted Mg

Filtrate: MgSO4 solution

Q. How will you prepare NaCl soluble Salts by Titration

Ans: Acid + Alkali (Titration) Salt + Water

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

Procedure:

Pipette out 25 cm3 of NaOH into a conical flask

Add two drops of phenolpthaline. Solution will turns pink

Titrated HCl acid till the solution was colorless

Volume of acid was noted

Note: This method is suitable for the hydroxide of group I only


Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

Q. How you will prepare soluble salts from metal Carbonates?

Ans: Soluble salts can be prepared by the reaction of metal carbonate with acid e.g Formation of
Copper Sulphate:

H2SO4 + CuCO3 CuSO4 + CO2 + H2O

Excess copper carbonate is added to a certain volume of sulfuric acid

Q. How you will prepare Copper sulfate soluble salts from copper oxide?

Ans: Excess copper oxide is added to a certain volume of sulfuric acid

H2SO4 + CuO CuSO4 + H2O

Q. How you will prepare lead nitrate soluble salts?

Ans: Certain volume of Nitric acid is taken in a beaker and warmed

Excess Lead oxide is added to it. The mixture is filter the filtrate is Lead nitrate solution.

HNO3 + PbO Pb(NO3)2 + H2O

Q. How you will prepare soluble salts Rubidium Sulfate using titration method?

Ans: Rubidium hydroxide + Sulfuric acid Rubidium sulfate + water

Procedure:

Pipette out 25 cm3 of RbOH into a conical flask

Add two drops of phenophtaline. Solution will turns pink

Titrated HCl acid till the solution was colorless

Volume of acid was noted

Repeat the experiment without adding any indicator. Heat the solution to dryness
until Rubidium sulfate salt is obtained

Note: This method is suitable for the hydroxide of group I only

Q. Explain with steps methods for the preparation of soluble salt zinc nitrate from
insoluble base?

Ans: Certain volume of Nitric acid is taken in a beaker and warmed


Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

Excess zinc oxide is added to it. The mixture is filter the filtrate is zinc nitrate solution. Heat the
solution to dryness until zinc nitrate salt is obtained

HNO3 + ZnO Zn(NO3)2 + H2O

Q. How you will prepare insoluble salts?

Ans: Preparation of Insoluble Salts

Precipitation (solution + solution):

Soluble salt + Soluble salt Insoluble salt

Preparation of lead sulphate (insoluble salt):

PbNO3(aq)+KSO4(aq)PbSO4(aq)+KNO3

KNO3 form as insoluble salt which can be separated by filtration

Preparation of Silver Chloride (insoluble salt):

NaCl(aq)+AgNO3(aq)NaNO3(aq)+AgCl

AgCl form as insoluble salt which can be separated by filtration

Preparation of Barium Carbonate (insoluble salt):

CaCO3(aq)+BaNO3(aq)CaNO3(aq)+BaCO3

BaCO3 form as insoluble salt which can be separated by filtration

Preparation of Calcium Sulfate (insoluble salt):

CaNO3(aq)+LiSO4(aq)CaSO4+LiNO3(aq)

Preparation of silver iodide (insoluble salt):

AgNO3(aq)+KIaq)AgI +KNO3(aq)

Preparation of silver bromide (insoluble salt):

AgNO3(aq)+RbBr(aq)AgBr+RbNO3(aq)

Oxides:

Oxides are binary compounds formed by the reaction of oxygen with other elements. Oxygen is
highly reactive in nature. They react with metals and non-metal to form oxides.
Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

Classification of oxides:

Depending upon the nature and the properties exhibited by compounds, they are classified into

Acidic oxides

Basic oxides

Amphoteric oxides

Neutral oxides

Basic oxides:

Metals react with oxygen to give basic compounds of oxygen. These compounds are usually
ionic in nature.

Properties:
1. Do not react with bases.
2. React with acids to form salt & water.
3. Basic Oxides are usually insoluble in water. Those that dissolve in water forms alkaline
solutions.
Examples: Na2O, CaO, MgO, FeO, CuO

Na2O + H2O 2NaOH

Acidic oxides:

Non-metals react with oxygen to form acidic compounds of oxides which are held together by
covalent bonds.

Properties:
1. Do not react with acids.
2. React with bases and alkalis to form salt & water.
3. Dissolve in water to form acidic solutions.
4. Usually gases at room temp.
Examples: SO2, SO3, CO2, NO2

SO3 + H2O H2SO4

B2O3 + H2O 2H3BO3

Amphoteric oxides:

Compounds of oxygen which exhibits both acidic as well as basic characteristics.

Examples: ZnO, Al2O3, PbO


Chemistry (Class) Notes- Grade- 8 Acids, Bases and Salts By- Ishtiaq

Neutral Oxides:
Some compounds react with oxygen to form oxides which does not exhibit acidic nor basic
characteristics.
Example: NO, CO. N2O

Properties:
1. Neutral pH

Written by:

Ishtiaq Khan

M.Phil in Chemistry +M.Ed

Teacher in Al-Reeyada
International School KSA
Periodic Table
The periodic table lists elements by atomic number, which is the number of protons
in every atom of that element.
Elements in the periodic table are arranged in periods (rows) and groups (columns).
Periods: The horizontal rows are called periods. There are seven periods in periodic
table. Members of the same period contain same number of shells e.g members of
period 1 contain one shell, members of period 2 contain two shells and so on
Groups: The vertical columns are called groups. Groups are of two types
Main group or fundamental elements: they are eight Numbered from 1A to 8A. The
elements in these groups has constant valence
Transition elements: they are ten in number. The elements in these groups has
variable valence
Group number represent number of valence electrons e.g elements of 1A contains
one electron in valence shell. Elements of Group 2 have 2 valence electrons and so
on.
There are three main types of elements: metals, non metals and metalloids
1. Metals: appear on the left hand side of the the periodic table
2. Non metals appear on the right hand side of the periodic table
3. metalloids: Elements on either side of the both metals and non-metals..
Alkali metal: any of the six chemical elements that make up
Group 1 (IA) of the periodic tablenamely, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),
rubidium(Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). The alkali metals are so called because
reaction with water forms alkalies
Physical properties:
They are softest metals which can even cut with knife. Softness increase down the
group, They are shiny, soft with low density. Density decrease down the group. The
atomic radius and volume increase down in the group. The melting point and Boiling
point decrease down the group.

Chemical properties: Presence of one electron in valance shell allows these metals to
lose electrons and from M+1 ions. So these elements form ionic bond when react
with Oxygen, water, Halogens etc. reactivity increase down the group, Na is more
reactive then Li, K is more reactive then Na and so on.
Reaction with oxygen: The nature of metallic oxides in alkali metals is different. For
example; Lithium forms lithium oxide
4Li + O22Li2O
whereas sodium forms sodium peroxide.
2Na + O2Na2O2
Potassium, Rubidium and cesium form superoxide as they easily lose one electron
K + O2LiO2
Rb + O2RbO2
Cs + O2CsO2

Reactions with water:


Group 1 elements react vigorously with water to produce an alkaline metal
hydroxide and hydrogen gas. In general:
Metal + water metal hydroxide + hydrogen
For example
sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen
2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2
The reactivity of the alkali metals increases down the group. Lithium is the least
reactive and potassium is the most reactive of the three.
2Li + 2H2O 2LiOH + H2
2K + 2H2O 2kOH + H2

The Halogens:
The Group 7 elements are also known as the halogens. They include fluorine,
chlorine, bromine and iodine, which all have seven electrons in their outer shell. The
halogens are non metals exists in diatomic as molecules, Chlorine molecules have the
formula Cl2, bromine Br2 and iodine I2.
Physical properties of halogens:
The halogens show trends in physical properties down the group.
Melting point and boiling point
The halogens have low melting points and boiling points. This is a typical property of
non-metals. Fluorine has the lowest melting point and boiling point. The melting
points and boiling points then increase as you go down the group.
State at room temperature
At Room temperature this temperature, fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a
liquid, and iodine and astatine are solids. There is therefore a trend in state from gas
to liquid to solid down the group.
Colour
The halogens become darker as you go down the group. Fluorine is very pale yellow,
chlorine is yellow-green, and bromine is red-brown. Iodine crystals are shiny.
Density:
Halogens have a higher density. Density increase as you go down the group.
conductivity:
Halogens are bad conductors of heat and electricity.

Halogen displacement reactions


The reactivity of the halogens the Group 7 elements decreases as you move down
the group. This can be shown by looking at displacement reactions.
Example
When chlorine is added to sodium bromide solution, the chlorine takes the place of
the bromine. Because chlorine is more reactive than bromine,
The solution turns brown. This brown colour is the displaced bromine.
chlorine + sodium bromide sodium chloride + bromine
Cl2(aq) + 2NaBr(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + Br2(aq)
This type of reaction happens with all the halogens. A more reactive halogen
displaces a less reactive halogen from a solution of one of its salts.

Reactions with other halide ions:


Halogen displacement reactions are redox reactions because the halogens gain
electrons and the halide ions lose electrons.
When we consider one of the displacement reactions, we can see which element is
being oxidised and which is being reduced.
bromine + potassium iodide iodine + potassium bromide
Br2 + 2KI I2 + 2KBr
As an ionic equation (ignoring the spectator potassium ions):
Br2 + 2I- I2 + 2Br-
We can see that the bromine has gained electrons, so it has been reduced. The
iodide ions have lost electrons, so they have been oxidised.

Reactions with Alkali Metals:


Halogens react with alkali metals produce salts
Cl2 + 2Na 2NaCl
Br2 + 2Na 2NaBr
Reactions with Hydrogen:
Halogens react with hydrogen produce acids
Br2 + H2 2HBr
Cl2 + H2 2HCl

The transition metals:


The elements in the centre of the periodic table, between groups 2 and 3, are called
the transition metals. Most of the commonly used metals are there, including iron,
copper, silver and gold.
Physical Properties:
The transition metals have the following properties in common:
they form coloured compounds
they are good conductors of heat and electricity
they can be hammered or bent into shape easily
they are less reactive than alkali metals such as sodium
they have high melting points - but mercury is a liquid at room temperature
they are usually hard and tough
they have high densities
Uses of transition metals:
Iron:
Iron is usually made into steel, which is stronger and more easily shaped than
iron. Steel is widely used as a structural material, for example to make
bridges, buildings, ships and cars. Iron is use as a catalyst in manufacture of
ammonia.
Vanadium: Vanadium(V) Oxide is used as a catalyst in preparation of sulphuric
acid.
Copper:
Copper is a very good conductor of electricity, so it is used for electricity
cables. It is easily bent into shape and it does not react with water, so it is
used for water pipes.
Silver:
Silver does not corrode in air or water, and it is a very good conductor of
electricity. It is used for jewellery, printed circuit boards and electrical
contacts.
Gold:
Gold does not corrode in air or water, and it is a good conductor of electricity.
It is used for jewellery, connecting wires for computer chips and electrical
contacts.
Titanium: titanium is use in fighter aircraft, artificial hip joints, pipes in nuclear
power stations.
Nickel: coins, catalyst in manufacture of margarine
Chemistry
Chemical bond:
- Attractive force which hold the two atoms together is called a
chemical bond

Why atoms form a chemical bond?


- Noble gases are unreactive because they have complete outermost
shell and stable so these atoms are unreactive
- While the other atoms have incomplete outermost shell and
unstable so they also want to complete its outermost shell to attain
stability so they form a chemical bond

Types of chemical bond:


- Ionic bond
- Covalent bond
- Metallic bond

Ionic bond or electrovalent bond:


- Chemical bond formed between two atoms due to transfer of
electron(s) from one atom to the other atom is called Ionic bond
or electrovalent bond
- Explanation:
In ionic bond formation one atom looses electron(s) and the
other picks it up
The atom that looses the electron acquires positive charge
and the atom which gains the electron becomes a negatively
charged particle
Due to opposite charge an electrostatic force of attraction is
setup between them
This force holds these atoms together in a unit
This fore of attraction is referred to as ionic bond

+ +
Formation of NaCl:
- Electronic configuration of Na:
11

2,8,1

Na + 1

- Electronic configuration of Cl:


Cl17
Cl+ 1e Cl

Na+ + Cl NaCl

Other examples of ionic compound:


- NaBr, Na2O, Mgo, CaCl2, MgCl2, CaO

Covalent Bond:
- Covalent bond are formed by sharing of electrons between two non
metals
- During covalent bonding the valence shells overlap and the
elements become stable
- It takes place between non-metals
- In covalent bond each atom provides equal number of electrons for
sharing but no transfer of electron takes place.
- Each electron pair is attracted by both the nucleus

Types of covalent bond:


- Single covalent bond:
A covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of one
electron pair between two atoms is called single covalent
bond.
In single bond each atom provides one electron
It is denoted by single short line ( )
Examples: H+H 2
H+Cl

Formation of single covalent bond in H2, Cl2, HCl, NH3


Double covalent bond:
- A bond formed between two atoms by the mutual sharing of two
electron pairs is called double covalent bond
- It is denoted by double short line
- Example: + = 2
- ==

Triple covalent bond:


- A covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of three electron
pairs is called triple covalent bond
- It is denoted by triple short line
- Example: + 2

What are lone pairs and bond pair:


- A lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared
with another atom
- Lone pairs are represented as dots and bonds as dashes
- Bond pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are shared with
another atom.

Properties of ionic compound:


1- Ionic bond is very strong bond
2- Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling point
3- Hard and strong
4- All exist in solid form
5- Conduct heat and electricity in molten state or in a solution
6- Soluble in water

Properties of covalent compound:


1- Covalent bond is weak compared to ionic bond
2- Low melting and boiling point
3- Softer than ionic compound
4- Exist in solid, liquid, and gaseous
5- Bad conductor of heat and electricity
6- Insoluble in water

What is Metallic Bonding?

- Metallic bonding arises from the electrostatic attractive force


between the negatively charged sea of electrons and positively
charged metal ions.
- Electrons of large size metals experience very low attractive force
from the nucleus therefore electron are free and detached and
form Electron Sea.
- Those metal atoms from which electron are detached carry positive
charge so an attractive force is develop between electrons and
positive metal ions which is called metallic bond.
- Metallic bond never results in compound formation.

What are Macromolecules?

- Macromolecules are very large molecules created by the


connection of many smaller molecules

- Examples are:

Diamond
Graphite
Silicon dioxide

Diamond: In diamond, each Carbon is covalently bonded to four other


C-atoms to give a tetrahedral unit.
C-atom utilizes its four unpaired electrons in bond formation therefore
it is a bad conductor of electricity.

- Properties of diamond

Colorless
Hardest natural substance
Density 3.51 g/cm3
Does not conduct electricity
High melting point

- Uses of diamond:

In jewellery
In drill bits, saws, and glass cutters

Graphite:

- In graphite each C-atom is covalently bonded to three C-atom to


give hexagonal geometry.
- Three out of four valance electrons are used in bond formation
while the forth electrons free to move in the structure of graphite.
- Graphite rings forms parallel layers. One above the other and held
together by weak van der Waals forces only.

- Properties of graphite :

Dark grey shiny solid


Soft and slippery
Density 2.25 g/cm3
Uses of graphite
In pencils
Lubricant
Electrodes in electric motor

Silicon dioxide

- Silicon dioxide also known as silica. Silicon dioxide has a giant


covalent structure.
- Structure: Each silicon atom is covalently bonded to four oxygen
atoms.
- Each oxygen atom is covalently bonded to two silicon atoms. This
means that, overall; the ratio is two oxygen atoms to each silicon
atom, giving the formula SiO2.

- Properties of Silicone dioxide:

Hard
High melting point
Dull crystal
Does not conduct electricity

- Uses of silicone dioxide:

Manufacture of glass
optical fibers for telecommunication

raw material for many ceramics


Such as earthenware, stoneware.