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KNPC (Kuwait) Training Course

1st 5th February, 2008 6.- DYNSIM Modelling:
Pressure Node

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6.- DYNSIM Modelling: Pressure Node Equipment

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Source: Definition
Pressure Node.
Models the starting/ending boundary of a system
Source can also model a sink to specify a
composition for reverse flow
Reverse flow of air through a relief valve
Source is infinite source of inventory
Multiple feed and product streams can be connected from it
Source can be used to initialize the holdup flash of
other equipment with holdup.
Elevation Setting Option

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Source: Specifications
Must Specify
Boundary Pressure
Boundary temperature, enthalpy, or vapor fraction
Boundary mole composition

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Pressure node
Models ending boundary of a system
Only feed streams
No product stream

No Flash
Computationally simpler
Can not model reverse flow properly

Must Specify
Boundary Pressure

Elevation Setting Option

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Sink: Reverse Flow
Reverse flow from a sink is not recommended since
reverse flow properties are not specified. One of the
following is recommended
Place a check valve upstream of the sink

Use a source rather than a sink to specify reverse flow composition.

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Source and Sink Boundaries
Use source and sink to define the simulation
Set boundaries within other equipment models to tune
the flowsheet
Boundaries include pressures, temperatures,
enthalpies, and flows
Boundaries (other than in Source and Sink) result in
loss of mass or energy balance. They are for tuning the
model only

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Header: Definition
Pressure Node
Models flow junctions and pressure dynamics
Mixing and splitting
Usually put piping volume here
Compressible or Incompressible dynamic
Compressible pressure changes with accumulation
Incompressible pressure changes instantly for flow balance
Metal Wall Dynamics
Metal temperature is based on the heat transfer with fluid
and surroundings

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Header: Optional Specifications
Important Optional Specifications
Vol - Volume
Area Heat transfer area
MM Metal Mass
L Length
Dia - Diameter
Thk Wall thickness

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Drum: Definition
Pressure Node
Single holdup calculation
Vapor and liquid always in equilibrium and at the
same temperature
Use for knockout drum or where single holdup
approach works
Rigorous two or three phase separation
Switches from compressible to incompressible
dynamics when liquid filled
Can model a CSTR with Reaction Data Set
See Separator model for non-equilibrium vessel
with weir option
Use for depressuring studies to match Pro/II

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Drum: Specifications
Heat Stream
Specify additional heat transfer from and to the fluid holdup
Metal heat stream for additional heat transfer to/from the metal
Use with utility exchanger
Metal Wall Dynamics
Metal temperature is based on the heat transfer with fluid and
Handles overfilling and emptying
Boundary Specifications
State variables
Pressure, Enthalpy, Temperature, and Pressure-Temperature

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Drum Configuration
Orientation (5 options) Important:
Vertical There is not a Weir Option for the
Horizontal with boot Drum A separator is needed in
Vertical with boot such case
User Defined

Geometry specifications
LEN and DIA for horizontal and vertical
LENBOOT and DIABOOT are additional for
horizontal and vertical drum with boot
NUMHEAD for simulating the head portion
of the cylindrical vessels at top or bottom
AREA and HEIGHT for user defined drum

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Drum: Ports
Drum Level
L is level of HC phase
L2 is level of aqueous phase

Stream pressure is the

summation of drum
pressure and static head
pressure correction
Port Height and Diameter
Determines composition
and phase of outlet streams

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Separator: Definition
Pressure Node Blanket
Multiple holdups at calculated in partial VAPOR
equilibrium HOLDUP

Liquid 2
Simulates phase holdup dynamics separately Hold
Vapor temperature will change faster than One flash up

liquid temperature. per feed

Used where different temperatures are
expected during transients

Appropriate for columns with a hot vapor

bypass for pressure control

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Separator: Hold-Ups
Separator has three holdups

Prod Strm 1
Vapor Holdup

Feed Flash
Feed Strm1

Recycle Flash
Liquid Holdup Prod Strm 2
Feed Flash

Feed Strm2

Liquid2 Holdup
Prod Strm 3

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Separator: Example Scheme
Separator with a weir has five holdups.

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Separator: Properties
Feeds are flashed but there are also separate vapor and liquid
feeds that bypass feed flash
Separate vapor and liquid feeds
Vapor feed can model blanket gas
Metal Wall Dynamics
Metal temperature is based on the heat transfer with fluid and surroundings.
Handles overfilling and emptying
Recycle between phases to drive the separation to equilibrium by
recycle ratios
Three recycle parameters corresponding to Vapor, Liquid 1 and Liquid 2
Suggest to use the default values initially and tune them later to achieve the
desired separation
Entrainment option

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Separator: Optional Specifications
Important Optional Specifications
Orientation (8 predefined options)
Vertical with boot
Horizontal with boot
Vertical with weir
Horizontal with weir
User Defined Geometry

User-defined option also

Len, Dia, and Thk
Port locations and Static head corrections
Just like Drum.

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Separator with Weir
Feed Separators have large
amounts of water that are
removed with a separator with a
weir rather than a boot which is
more common in refining
Model the left and right sides
with separate holdups instead of
assuming the same composition
on both sides.
Entrainment is also modeled

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Separator Model: Uses


Separator model is required to

estimate accurate amount of BOG
If it is calculated by complete equilibrium generation. Especially for the timing
model such as Drum, by-pass gas will
of unloading and loading.
all condense, and pressure control
becomes impossible. Use a Separator.

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Pressure Node
Constant pressure
Single liquid holdup
Vapor in feed will disappear from system.
Incompressible holdup (w/o pressure calculation)
No vapor liquid equilibrium, only liquid flash.

Optional blanket gas

The blanket gas if present will flow out of the Tank if liquid when
if no blanket gas, cannot be emptied below the highest port level

Overflow its contents onto the ground (material

loss) if the level exceeds the tank height

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Tank Configuration
Vertical Boot
Horizontal Boot
User Defined

Optional Blanket Gas

Blanket PB
Blanket TB
Blanket MB
Heat Transfer
Metal Heat Loss to Ambient
Fluid Heat Loss to Metal
Can have internal utility
exchanger coils Heat Stream
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Tank: Venting
Vapor formed within the tank from the holdup is vented
out. Use KVent to tune the rate of venting out. Only for
vapor formed from the holdup and not applicable for
blanket gas

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Tower: Definitions
Pressure Node.
Condensers, reboilers, accumulators, side strippers must be
modeled with separate equipment models. (unlike PRO/II)
Based on theoretical stages to match PRO/II.
Must Specify Number of stages
Tray numbers are starting from top to bottom
Multiple feeds and products can be connected to any tray
Products from trays are optional although the top tray
should have a vapor product
Each tray includes TOTAL holdup including vapor and liquid.
(Legacy Column model only included liquid holdup on each

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Tower: Definitions
Tower model considers the total holdup on each
stage to have both liquid and vapor phases
Accounts for heat transfer from fluid to the metal
and metal to surroundings
Permits heat transfer from external sources
directly to the metal and/or fluid through heat

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Tower: Stages Scheme

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Tower: Model Specifications
Must Specify
Number of stages
Should Specify
Tray diameter (Dia) - obtained from the equipment datasheet. Default value is 2 m.
Tray spacing (Spacing) - obtained from the equipment datasheet. It is used in the vapor volume
calculations, if the parameter VolVap is not initialized. Default value is 0.67 m.
Weir height (WeirHeight) - obtained from the equipment datasheet. Default value is 0.056 m.
Number of passes (Passes) - One, Two or Four passes can be set. When the option Others is
chosen the user will have to set the Weir length fraction and Down comer area fraction. Default
option is One pass.
Conductance factor (KJ) - used in the pressure drop due to vapor flow calculations. The default
value is 1. This value can be used to tune the pressure drop due to vapor flow across the tray.
Hole area fraction (HoleAreaFrac) - used in the pressure drop due to vapor flow calculations. The
default value is 0.12, which can be used in most cases
Optional Specify
Hole area available for liquid draining (DrainFrac) - should always be less than or equal to the
hole area fraction. The default value is 0.12, which can be used in most cases.
Sump model can be activated/deactivated in the tower model. The default value of sump diameter
is 2m and sump spacing is 0.67m.
Weep vapor flow (WeepVapFlow) - The threshold value of the vapor flow below which liquid starts
to drain from the tray is set here. If the default value is left in place no draining will occur. The user
may have to set this value for desired results. 34
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Tower: Tray Parameters
Tray Parameters on DEW Basic Tab

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Tower: Flow Calculations
Tray Vapor Flow (FV) Calculations
Net vapor flow (FV) defined as the vapor phase flow resulting from
tray feed flash minus the tray vapor side draws
Goes directly to the upper tray or to the column vapor holdup if it is
the top tray

Tray Liquid Flow (FL) Calculations

Summation of liquid flow over the weir and liquid weep flow
Liquid weir flow calculation uses Francis Weir formula
Liquid weep flow happens when the vapor flow from the tray below
is less than a fixed value known as Weep Vapor Flow

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Tower: Pressure and Level Calculations
Tray Pressure Calculations
Summation of the upper tray pressure and the pressure drop crosses
the upper tray
The pressure drop is the combination of the pressure drops from the
liquid head and vapor flow

Tray Level Calculations

Two parameters L and L2 for level indication
Independent for each tray. The bottom of each tray corresponds to
the reference zero level.
The maximum liquid level in any tray is limited to the tray spacing
Internal Phases of the flash object can be VLE, Free Water, VLLE, or

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Tower: Ports Locations and Diameter
Port Location and Diameter
Like drum and separator
Used on each tray
Measured from bottom of tray

The bottom of the tower (sump) can be simulated in

one of two ways:
A regular tray with a spacing of height same as the sump height
Connect a Drum or Separator at bottom as a Base Model

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Tower: Data Viewer
Tabular view of Tower Data

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Thermosyphon Reboiler
Density difference
induced flow through
heat exchanger
Model Tower Sump with
a vertical separator with
To model startup,
configure heat
exchanger natural
convection to generate
vaporization to get flow

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Questions & Answers

Thank You
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