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Abriendo Paso: La Gramtica, Unidad 4: Cmo expresar deseos y obligaciones

REGLAS GRAMATICALES
EL IMPERATIVO
- The formal command p. 154-5
How do you form the Ud. & Uds. commands?

And how do you make them negative?

Irregulars: (-) Ud. (-) Uds.

ser

dar

estar (no) est

saber

ir

Spelling changes: __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

Rules for positions of pronouns:

HAZ estas actividades: p. 156-7 A, B, C, D, E (just write the command)


A B C D E
1. 1. 1. 1. 1.

1. 2. 2. 2. 2.

2. 3. 3. 3. 3.

3. 4. 4. 4. 4.

4. 5. 5. 5. 5.

5. 6. 6. 6. 6.

6. 7. 7. 11. 7.

8. 8. 12. 8.

9. 13. 9.

10. 14. 10.


- The familiar commnds p. 158-59
General rule:

1. Irregulars:
decir salir

hacer ser

ir tener

poner venir

2. How to form NEGATIVE t commands:

1. Reflexives

-vosotros command p. 159 (NEW) Note: we see this on El Internado


1. How to form it? ________________________________________________________________

2. If reflexive? ____________________________________________________________________

3. Vosotros command of irse: _________________

4. How to form negative vosotros commands: ___________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________

HAZ estas actividades: p. 160-64 A, D, E, F (just write the command)


A D E F
1. 1. 1. 1.

2. 2. 2. 2.

3. 3. 3. 3.

4. 4. 4. 4.

5. 5. 5. 5.

6. 6. 6. 6.

7. 7. 7. 7.

8. 8. 8. 8.

9. 9. 9.

10. 10. 10. B. CONTINUED

11. 11. 11. 13.

12. 12. 12. 14.

nosotros command p. 164


1. What is the English equivalent? ____________________
What form do you use to form it? _____________________________________________
Rule for reflexive pronoun? _______________________________________ Example: lavarse ________________
2. How to form negative? ________________________________________
3. What to do with ir & irse? _____________________________________________________________________
4. Alternative: _________________________________________________________________________________

HAZ esta actividad: p. 165 Una merienda (just write the command)
1. 2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

EL IMPERATIVO
- Uses of the IMPERATIVE (command) read p. 133-4
p. 134 Where do you place object pronouns?

- Other ways of giving direct commands, p. 134-5


1. When would you see the infinitive used as a command?

2. What are 2 roundabout ways of expressing a command?

3. What is the politest way to request something?

- The indirect command, p. 139


What is the formula? que + ___________________ + ___________________!
(if expressed)

Alternatively, how would you express: Let Mary sing! (We want Mary to sing!)

- Expressions to indicate obligation, p. 140 (write the 5 ways here)


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
**What is interesting about #s 4 & 5?

HAZ esta actividad: p. 141 A


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

REGLAS GRAMATICALES
SUBJUNCTIVE
-Regular present subjunctive p. 166
What are the 3 steps?

HAZ estas actividades: p. 166-67 A, B, C (Just write the VERB)


A (choose a subject) B C
1.
1. 1.
2.
2. 2.
3.
3. 3.
4.
4. 4.
5.
5. 5.
6.
6. 6.
7.
7.
8.
9.
10.

-irregulars p. 167
Write down verb forms that are new for you

HAZ estas actividades: p. 168-9 A, C (Just write the VERB)


A (choose a subject) C
1.
1. 11.
2.
2. 12.
3.
3. 13.
4.
4. 14.
5.
5. 15.
6.
6.
7.
7.
8. 8.
9. 9.
10. 10.
- Stem-changing verbs in the Subjunctive p. 169
1. -ar/-er rules

2. -ir rules

HAZ esta actividad: p. 170 A (Just write the VERB all subjects)
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

-Verbs with spelling changes p. 171


Rules:

HAZ estas actividades: p. 171A, C (Just write the VERBS both trigger & subjunctive in B)
A.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

B.
1. 2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

11. 12.
The present perfect subjunctive
How to form it?

HAZ estas actividades: p. 172 A, B (Just write the VERBS both trigger & subjunctive in B
A B
1. 1.

2. 2.

3. 3.

4. 4.

5. 5.

6. 6.

7.

8.

EL SUBJUNTIVO
- Verbs of volition - p. 143-4 Remember all of this?
1. Use the subjunctive if the subjects in the dependent clause and independent clause are __________________!
2. What do you use if there is only ONE subject? ________________________
List the triggers (and definitions) that are *NEW* for you.
Note that:
1. When do you use subjunctive with decir and escribir? _______________________
And when would you use indicative? _______________________
2. Ojal (que) is always followed by the _______________________.
3. Which verbs can use either an infinitive or que + subjunctive when used to express an indirect command?

List any *NEW* impersonal expressions with their definitions.

Sequence of tenses - p. 144


MAIN CLAUSE (indicative) DEPENDENT CLAUSE (subjunctive)

When subjunctive is required


2. Use PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE to express what IS happening or WILL happen.

3. Use PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE to express what HAS happened or ________ ________ happened (*new*)
HAZ estas actividades: p. 145-49 A, B, C, D
A. 1.
2.
3.
B. 1.
2.
3.
C. 1.
2.
3.
D. 1.
2.
3.
HAZ estas actividades: p. 149-50 A, B, C, D
A B C D