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**The e!ect of high Landau subbands "lling on the hot-electron
**

magneto-transport ultrafast transient in InSb

E.W.S. Caetano , E.A. Mendes, V.N. Freire *, J.A.P. da Costa, X.L. Lei

Departamento de Fn& sica, Universidade Federal do Ceara& , Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara& , Brazil

Departamento de Fn& sica Teo& rica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Caixa Postal 1641, 59072-970 Natal,

Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

Shanghai Institute of Metallurgy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200 050, People's Republic of China

Received 8 July 1998; received in revised form 1 December 1998; accepted 9 December 1998

Abstract

The e!ect of high Landau subbands "lling on the ultrafast hot-electron magneto-transport transient in InSb subjected

to high parallel magnetic and electric "elds is studied. The overshoot in the electron drift velocity calculated considering

the "lling of all possible high Landau subbands is shown to be smaller than that calculated when the extreme-quantum-

limit assumption is taken into account, and can even be precluded at small electric "elds if the magnetic "eld intensity is

high enough. 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Hot electron; Landau quantization; Magnetic "eld

**1. Introduction electrons. On the other hand, when high Landau
**

subbands are populated, several electron circular

Hot-electron high-magnetic-"eld transport in orbits exist, and their radii are directly related to

semiconductors is an interesting research subject the quantized electron energy levels. In this case,

because both the high electric "eld and the Landau these orbits drift in the applied electric "eld direc-

quantization of the energy bands have to be taken tion under scattering conditions that change with

into account simultaneously. When only the lowest the order and "lling of the Landau subbands.

Landau subband is occupied } the extreme-quan- Most works on magneto-transport in narrow-

tum-limit assumption, all the electrons are con- gap semiconductors have assumed the extreme

strained to move in the same circular orbit. This quantum limit hypothesis. For example, the hot

orbit drifts in the applied electric "eld direction electron conductivity in n-HgCdTe was shown to

under scattering conditions that are the same for all decrease when the applied magnetic "eld becomes

stronger due to the related carrier scattering rates

enhancement in this approximation, [1]. The hot

electron drift velocity in n-Hg Cd Te was

* Corresponding author. Fax: #85-2874138. shown to decrease when the magnetic "eld becomes

E-mail address: valder@"sica.ufc.br (V.N. Freire) stronger [2]. However, the e!ect of Landau

**0921-4526/99/$ } see front matter 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
**

PII: S 0 9 2 1 - 4 5 2 6 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 5 1 - 4

Unhappily. velocity and energy (or mean temperature) towards ever.electric "eld for a given magnetic "eld This paper is concerned with the e!ect of high intensity B. They showed that the electron. a high magnetic "eld dv qE v " ! . hump in the low-frequency side (around 0. applied electric and magnetic "eld intensity. drift velocity (v) and energy e (or mean temperature erties of electrons in InSb subjected to high parallel ¹ since e"3k¹/2. By relaxation time approximation: considering the "lling of high Landau subbands in the numerical calculations. E. (2) dt q (e.014 m .W. the negative di!erential mobility was pre. The with this scheme of solution of the Boltzmann-like . The results obtained tric (&kV/cm) and magnetic (&T) "elds. the steady state obtained in extreme-quantum-limit cluded when the "lling of all the possible high approximation and beyond it. as well as the electron scattering processes etically calculated electron drift velocity in InSb considered during the calculations are presented in exhibits negative di!erential mobility for magnetic Section 2. B) InSb subjected to high parallel electric and mag. the ultrafast transport transient prop. How.S. / Physica B 269 (1999) 28}33 29 sub-bands "lling should change signi"cantly the purpose is to establish a clear picture on the conse- transport properties of electrons in semiconductors quences of the extreme quantum limit hypothesis in subject to high magnetic "elds (B&T). B) and energy q (e. dent e!ective mass in InSb. B) relaxation times as given C [4] nor Caetano [5] have given a clear insight by Nag [6]. B) electron velocity overshoot and can even eliminate C it [4]. Model and numerical approach high Landau subbands. [5]. velocity. the high-magnetic-"eld transport in the transient regime should be also The theoretical investigation is performed very dependent on the "lling degree of the magnetic through the numerical solution of the following subbands. principally the hot-electron magneto-transport evolution to- when the carrier e!ective mass is small. A similar approach to solve the coupled Landau subbands "lling on the time evolution to. where the hot-electron magneto-transport transient in m is the electron mass in the free space. E and B is the ponents of the hot-electron mobility in n-type InSb. The theor. Section 3 contains the numerical results "eld intensities up to 25 T when the occupation of and discussion on the evolution of the electron drift only the lowest Landau subband is assumed. Parti. does not favour the existence of the "qvE! . this was shown to be the case of the the transport equations and the numerical ap- steady-state properties of hot electrons in InSb. neither Mendes q (e. pation of the excess energy and the momentum scattering rate of hot electrons in InSb subject to high-magnetic-"eld changes with the occupation of 2. and m(e) its non-parabolic energy-depen- magnetic "eld reduces the real and imaginary com. de e!e netic "elds. where k is the Boltzmann) in the electric and magnetic "eld was studied [4]. "nally. electron energy. sions close this work in Section 4.electric "eld and electron drift treme-quantum-limit assumption is considered.1 THz) of Instead using the expressions for the momentum the imaginary mobility. wards the steady state in InSb. Caetano et al. transport equations was used previously to deter- wards the steady state of the electron drift velocity mine the ultrafast behaviour of hot-carriers in and temperature in InSb under parallel high elec. respec- and can be able to reduce or even eliminate the tively. The "nal conclu- Landau subbands is considered [3]. (1) can reduce the electron drift velocity and energy in dt m(e) q (e. two coupled di!erential equations for the electron Recently. Since the dissi. GaAs [7] and p-GaAs [8]. the relaxation times are calculated in concerning changes in the time evolution of the this work using the steady-state relations between electron transport properties in InSb if the ex. [3] proach to their solution that are necessary to study whose electron e!ective mass is 0. High-magnetic-"eld e!ects on the terahertz where e is the thermal energy of the electron at the mobility of hot electrons in n-type InSb were lattice temperature. q is the electric charge of the studied by Caetano et al. The description of cularly. InSb.

One temperatures [6]. where one can also 3. in the electron drift velocity can also occur even if the "lling of all Landau subbands is considered. "elds is presented in Figs. the extreme-quantum-limit assumption the relaxation rate of energy (this is valid when intervalley is not valid anymore even for a magnetic "eld scattering is not considered). when the extreme- into account. which is meters of the electrons to arrive at the steady state.5. At the steady state. These are the ways higher than that calculated if the "lling of the dominant electron scattering mechanisms at low all Landau subbands is taken into account. and magnetic "eld intensities of 2 and 25 T. 1). (1) and (2) are always in good agreement with intensity as high as 25 T [3]. the overshoot obtained within the The transient behaviour of the electron drift ve- locity and temperature in InSb at 42 K is calculated for electric "eld intensities of 0. this implies showed that the interband electron relaxation time a signi"cant reduction in the electron drift velocity for GaAs : Be is of the order of 4 ps. rate of hot electrons in narrow gap semiconductors For low electric "elds (see Fig. The According to Tiwari (see Ref. In fact.5. to consider the "lling of all electron e!ective mass is smaller than the electron Landau subbands turns the electron momentum e!ective mass in GaAs : Be. and are considered during the can see also that the time necessary for the electron numerical calculations performed in this work drift velocity and temperature to arrive at the through the relaxation times q (e. B). e!ect in the electron drift velocity [11]. 2. and has to be taken bands is considered. unity even when B"25 T [3]. B"2 T and E"2. the overshoot A "rst indication of the importance of the "lling exists when the magnetic "eld intensity is small of high Landau subbands during the transient re. [10] electric "elds [3]. 1}3. an overshoot in subjected to a magnetic "eld was found by Santra the electron drift velocity is precluded for magnetic and Sarkar [9] to enhance their energy loss rate in "elds up to 25 T if the "lling of all Landau sub- the extreme quantum limit. They show that the ering the non-parabolicity of the energy bands. However. it is not available at the moment for InSb. steady state is almost independent of the scheme C The e!ect of non-parabolicity on the energy loss used to calculate them. relaxation rate at high magnetic "elds. In the high-electric "eld case. 2 and 3. Caetano et al. for example). . overshoot e!ects in the drift velocity of carriers in semiconduc- InSb doping density is 10 cm\. Within these tors occur when the relaxation rate of momentum is larger than conditions.5 kV/cm. This suggests due to enhancement of the electron momentum that the interband relaxation time for electrons in scattering mechanisms. in InSb subjected to high magnetic and electric culated theoretically by Weng and Lei [3] consid. the occupied those calculated with the most frequently used electron subbands number is higher than 21 when methods of solution (like the Monte Carlo method. B) and q (e. (25 T. sidered in describing the ultrafast magneto-trans. Since this time is of the relaxation rate smaller than the electron energy order of the time necessary to the transport para.S. / Physica B 269 (1999) 28}33 Eqs. using the extreme-quantum-limit assumption is al- acoustic and polar optical phonons. The steady-state values of the electron drift The e!ect of high Landau subbands "lling on the velocity and temperature in InSb subjected to an ultrafast hot-electron magneto-transport transient applied electric and magnetic "eld (E""B) were cal. This occurs because the cooling However. (2 T). 1. and much larger than for example). and electron drift velocity and temperature calculated the electron scattering with ionized impurities. but it disappears for higher magnetic "elds gime is the interband electron scattering time. This is shown in Figs. enough to preclude the existence of an overshoot the "lling of high Landau subbands should be con.W. [11] and references therein). the overshoot e!ect port transient of hot electrons in InSb. e!ect of the magnetic "eld is very important at low But the experimental results of Hannak et al. for a given electric and magnetic "eld intensity. Results and discussion observe that.5 kV/cm. During the low-electric InSb should be much smaller than 4 ps since its "eld transient regime.30 E. quantum-limit is taken into account.

Evolution of the electron drift velocity (top) and temper- ature (bottom) in n-InSb towards the steady state when the Fig. ted dashed) and 25 T (bi-dotted dashed). the e!ect of relaxation rate at high magnetic "elds. 2. it is There is only a small reduction in the electron drift worth to comment that its initial rate of increase velocity at the steady state due to the enhancement depends on the applied magnetic "eld intensity as of the electron momentum scattering mechanisms. well as how the InSb subbands "lling are described. During the high electric "eld transient regime. "eld is much less important at high electric "elds. applied electric "eld is 1. the magnetic "eld-related cooling e!ect is reduce the overshoot e!ect in the electron drift not enough anymore to preclude the existence of an velocity.5 kV/cm. Conse- an increase in the magnetic "eld intensity is to quently. / Physica B 269 (1999) 28}33 31 Fig. They were calculated consid. 1. ted dashed) and B"25 T (bi-dotted dashed). overshoot e!ect in the electron drift velocity [11] membering that the cooling e!ect of the magnetic (see footnote 1) but can reduce it considerably. Evolution of the electron drift velocity (top) and temper. the "lling of all possible ering: the extreme-quantum-limit assumption with B"2 T (dot.S.W. They were calculated consid- ature (bottom) in n-InSb towards the steady state when the ering: the extreme-quantum-limit assumption with B"2 (dot- applied electric "eld is 0. Caetano et al. . high Landau subbands with B"2 (solid) and 25 T (dotted).5 kV/cm. In both cases. su$cient to make the electron momentum relax- gger than that calculated if the "lling of all Landau ation rate much smaller than the electron energy subbands is considered. the "lling of all possible high Landau subbands with B"2 T (solid) and 25 T (dotted). E. With respect to the electron temperature. This behaviour can be understood by re. to consider the "lling of all Landau subbands is not extreme-quantum-limit assumption is always bi.

it was shown in this paper that to better describe the hot-electron magneto-transport transient in InSb one has to consider the "lling of all possible Land- au subbands. / Physica B 269 (1999) 28}33 electron scattering rate increases when the mag- netic "eld intensity is higher (this increase is bigger when the electric "eld is small). BO0)' q (e. For a given electric "eld E.5 kV/cm. this type of measure- ments constitutes a formidable experimental chal- lenge. .W. Evolution of the electron drift velocity (top) and temper- ature (bottom) in n-InSb towards the steady state when the within the extreme-quantum-limit assumption are applied electric "eld is 0.5 kV/cm. the "lling of all possible all high Landau subbands. for example. that when the extreme. They were calculated consid. Concluding remarks Most of the previous published works on mag- netotransport in semiconductors have assumed the occupation of only the lowest Landau subband [1. The results presented in this work suggest that this approach is very limited. and is then respon- sible for the reduction observed in the electron drift velocity and average energy since q (e. those obtained by taking into account the "lling of ted dashed) and 25 T (bi-dotted dashed). It is observed. This The above results can also be understood occurs for both B"2 T and B"25 when the ap- through a relaxation time-based analysis. C C 4.12]. B"0) and q (e. the drift velocity obtained considering the extreme-quantum-limit assumption is about two times bigger than that obtained by taking into account the "lling of all possible Landau subbands. When E"2.S. 3. they will show that the theoretical results based on the extreme- quantum-limit approximation overevaluates the overshoot e!ect. considerably overestimated when compared with ering: the extreme-quantum-limit assumption with B"2 (dot. However. the electron temper. plied electric "eld intensity is 0. Caetano et al. If measurements of the overshoot velocity in InSb subjected to both high electric and magnetic "elds (E""B) are performed.2. In particular. The results the electron scattering rate increases when all the presented in this work indicate the necessity to Landau subbands are considered because it is re. BO0)'q (e. the magnetic "eld quantum-limit is considered. it was shown that the electron drift velocity and temperature in InSb subjected to high parallel electric and magnetic "elds calculated Fig. but also to the drift of semiconductors subjected to high parallel electric the circular orbits. the and magnetic "elds. possible high Landau subbands is considered. In the low electric "eld case. B"0). In fact.32 E. consider the "lling of high Landau subbands in the lated not only to the electron drift in the direction description of the high-"eld transport properties of of the applied electric "eld. In conclusion. cooling e!ect can preclude the existence of an elec- ature increases faster than when the "lling of all tron velocity drift overshoot if the "lling of all Landau subbands is taken into account.5 kV/cm high Landau subbands with B"2 (solid) and 25 T (dotted). and B"2 T.

1992.M. Phys. V.C. Santra. Bhaumik. da the partial "nancial support received from the Costa. D. X. V. Rev. . Freire. Nougier. Hannak. Phys. Constant. B 191 (1995) 183.P. Nag. J. this work. 52 (1981) 825. Mendes J. [4] E. [8] A. Funding Agency of the CearaH State in Brazil (FUN. Sol. 70 (1997) 1879.N. Appl.N. B 53 (1996) R16 137. Nobre. Mendes. C. Lett.M.L. Phys.P. V. J. E. period this research was performed. F. Appl. J. Mendes.S.L. J. 11 (1980) 372. Caetano. B 57 (1998) 11872. RuK hle.J.W. Caetano would like to acknowledge the [9] K.A. E. J. Sampaio. Sarkar.C. References [12] K. Alencar.S. Sarkar. Phys.A. Stat. C. and the Science [7] J. Lett. V. A.A. Solid State Sci.K. Chattopadhyay. Phys. The authors would like to acknowledge the inter.K. Ministry of Planning (FINEP). E. Gasquet.S.A. Zimmermann. Appl.W. Lei. Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq).A.P. Vaissiere. Sarkar. CAP) for the realization of this work. Tiwari. Phys.S. Phys.P.N. C. J. Compound Semiconductor Device Physics. Freire. Sarkar. Phys. W. Academic Press.W. Freire. Phys. [1] S. Lei.A.S. 59 (1991) 558. da esting suggestions of the two anonymous referees of Costa. Solids 52 (1991) scholarships they received from CNPq during the 1051.P. K. B 47 (1993) 3598.W.N. Chem. and E. [11] S. Basu. Springer Ser.K. Stat. C. Rev. E. X. Sol. Rev. J. Freire would like to acknowledge [5] E.K. / Physica B 269 (1999) 28}33 33 Acknowledgements [2] P. B 175 (1993) 403. [10] R.N.A. 64 (1988) 4041. Appl. Caetano. the [6] B. da Costa. Weng. Phys. E. San Diego. KoK hler. Santra.W. Caetano et al.R. [3] X.

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