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4.

Elementary Transcendental Functions


Logarithmic, Exponential, Circular and Hyperbolic Functions
RUTHZUCKER'

Contents
Page
Mathematical Properties . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.1. Logarithmic Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.2. Exponential Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.3. Circular Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.4. Inverse Circular Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 79
4.5. Hyperbolic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.6. Inverse Hyperbolic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Numerical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.7. Use and Extension of the Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Table 4.1. Common Logarithms (100 52 S 1350) . . . . . . . . . . . 95


log,, x, ~=100(1)1350, 1OD

Table 4.2. Natural Logarithms (0 1 2 5 2 . 1 ) . . , . . . . . . . . . . 100


In X, 2=0(.001)2.1, 16D

Table 4.3. Radix Table of Natural Logarithms : . . . . . . . . . . . 114


In (1+x), -1n (1-x), r=lO-"(lO-")lO-"+l, n=10(-1)1, 25D

Table 4.4. Exponential Function (0 5 1x1 I 100) . . . . . . . . . . . . 116


e=, fx=0(.001)1, 18D, 2=0(.1)5, 15D
~=5(.1)10, 12D, -~=0(.1)10, 20D
fx=0(1)100, 19s

Table 4.5. Radix Table of the Exponential Function . . . . . . . . . 140


e*, e-*, x=lO-"(lO-")lO-"+l, n=10(-1)1, 25D

Table 4.6. Circular Sines and Cosines for Radian Arguments (0 1 z I 1 . 6 ) . 142
sin x, cos x, x=0(.001)1.6, 23D

Table 4.7. Radix Table of Circular Sines and Cosines . . . . . . . . . 174


sin x, COS 5, x=lO-n(lO-")lO-n+l, n=10(-1)4, 25D
Table 4.8. Circular Sines and Cosines for Large Radian Arguments
(0<x<1000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
sin x, cos 2, x=O(l)lOO, 23D, s=100(1)1000, 8D

National Bureau of Standards.


66 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Table 4.9. Circular Tangents, Cotangents, Secants and Cosecants for page
Radian Arguments (0 S z 5 1.6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
tan z, cot z, sec z, csc 2, x=0(.01)1.6, 7 to 9D
x-'-Cot 2, csc z-x-~, ~=0(.01).5, 8D

Table 4.10. CircularSines and Cosines to Tenths of a Degree (0' _<0_<90") . 189
sin 0, cos 0, ~=Oo(.lo)900,15D

Table 4.11. Circular Tangents, Cotangents, Secants and Cosecants to


Five Tenths of a Degree (O'SOS90') . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
tan e, cot e, 8=Oo(.5')9O0, 15D
sec e, CSC e, e=0(.50)900, 8D

Table 4.12. Circular Functions for the Argument x ( O S x 51) . . . . 200


2
U A A A A r
sin -2, cos -x, tan -2, cot -x, sec -x, cac -2, x=O(.O1)1, 20D
2 2 2 2 2 2

Table 4.13. Harmonic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202


2ur 2n-r
sin -t cos -t r=l(l)[s/2], s even
S 8
r=l(l)[(g-l)/2], s odd
~=3(1)25, 10D

Table 4.14. Inverse Circular Sines and Tangents ( 0 5 ~ 1 1 ) .. . . . . . 203


arcsin 5, arctan x, z=O(.OOl)l, 12D
f(x)=[2(1-z)]-*[3r-arcsin z], x=.95(.001)1, 12D

Table 4.15. Hyperbolic Functions (0 I x I 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3


sinh z, cosh 5, 2=0(.01)2, 9D, x=2(.1)10, 9D
tanh z, coth x, 2=0(.01)2, 8D, 7D, x=2(.1)10, 10D

Table 4.16. Exponential and Hyperbolic Functions for the Argument rz


(OSxSl). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
e*", sinh m,cosh rx, tanh m, x=O(.O1)1, 10D
Table 4.17. Inverse Hyperbolic Functions (0 I z _<a ) . . . . . . . . . 221
arcsinh z, arctanh z, z=O(.Ol)l, 9D
arcsinh x, (arccosh x)/(Z9-1)*, 2=1(.01)2, 9D, 8D
arcsinh a-ln x, arccosh x-ln x, x-'=.5(-.01)0, 10D

Table 4.18. Roots z, of COS z, cosh x,= f 1, n=1(1)5, 7D . . . . . . 223

Table 4.19. Roots x, of tan z,=Xz, (-a SXSO, l<X<-) . . . . . 224


-X=0(.05)1, n=1(1)9, 5D
X-'=-1(.05)1, n=1(1)9, 5D

Table 4.20. Roots 5. of cot x n = k . ( 0 5 X S a ) . . . . . . . . . . . 225


X=0(.05)1, h=1(1)9, 5D
X-'=1(-.05)0, n= 1 (1)9, 5D
The author acknowledges the assistance of Lois K. Cherwinski and Elizabeth F. Godefroy
in the preparation and checking of the tablea.
Mathematical Properties
4.1. Logarithmic Function Logarithmic Identities

Integral Repmeentation 4.1.6 Ln (zlzz)=Ln zl+Ln zz.

4.1.1 lnz= JZ - ? (i.e., every value of Ln (zlzz)is one of the values


of Ln zl+Ln zz.)
4.1.1 In (zlzz)=ln zl+ln zz
(-<ax zl+arg zZl?r>
Z
4.1.8 Ln '=Ln zl-Ln z2
22

Z
4.1.9 In '=In zl-h zz
za
(-.<arg zl-ax Z Z I ~
4.1.10 Ln zn=n Ln z (n integer)
4.1. Brunch cutfor In z and z".
FIGURE
(a not an integer or zero.)
4.1.11 In z"=nln z
(n integer, -?r<n arg z l r )
where the path of integration does not pass Special Values (see chapter 1)
through the origin or cross the negative real
axis. In z is a single-valued function, regular in 4*1*12 In 1=0
the z-plane cut along the negative real axis, real 4.1.13 In 0=- a
when z is positive.
4.1.14 In (-1)=l.i
z=s+iy=ref@.
4.1.15 In (*i)=d+ri
4.1.2 z=ln r+i6 (-r<65*). 4.1.16 In e=1, e is the real number such that
SI6
I n

$4
s=r m s 6, y=r sin 6,
4.1.3 r=(s*fyl)f,
@=amtanY
; 4.1.17 e=lim
w- (1+- 3' =2.71828 18284. . .
(see 4.2.21)
The general logarithmic function is the many-
valued function Ln z defined by Logarithms to General Base

4.1.18 log, z=ln z/ln a


4.1.4 Ln z=J* $ log, z
4.1.19 log, 2=-
log, a
where the path does not pass through the origin.
1
4.1.20 log. b=-
4.1.5 log, a
Ln (ref@)=ln(re0)+2klri=ln r+i(6+2k~), 4.1.21 log, z=ln z
k being an arbitrary integer. In z is said to be the 4.1.22 log,, z=ln dln lO=log10 e In z
principal branch of Ln 2. =(.43429 44819. . .) In z
67
68 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

4.1.23 In z=ln 10 log,, z=(2.30258 50929. . .) log,, z Iln (1--2)1< 2


32 (O<z5.5828)
4.1.35
(log, x=ln 2, called natural, Napierian, or hyper-
bolic logarithms; log,, 2, called common or Briggs 4.1.36 ln 252-1
logarithms.) (X>O)
Series Expansions 4.1.37 1) for any positive n
In z5n(x1'"-
4.1.24 In (l+z)=z-$z2++z3-. . . (x>O)
(12151 and 22-1) 4.1.38 (In (l+z)lI---In (l-lzl) (121<1)
4.1.25 Continued Fractions
4.1.39

(92 13)
4.1.26 (z in the plane cut from -1 to - a )
In 2=(2-1)-+(2-l)2+~(2-l)3-. . .
4.1.M
(12-1151, ZZO) ln('f")=----. 22 Z2 4Z2 9Z2 . .
4.1.27 1-2 1-3-5-7-
(z in the cut plane of Figure 4.7.)
(9210, ZZO) Polynomial Approximations 2

1
4.1.28 In (*)=2 (A+-+-+.
1 1 . . 4.1.41 -z<J<ol
Z- 1 2 3z3 5z6 4%- -

4.1.29

+i(&)J+ * .]
4.1.42 L X 5 J T t i
JE-
Limiting Values

4.1.30 lim 2-=h


2=0
z+m
(a constant, 9a>O)

4.1.31 lim P In x=O


2%
(a constant, 9a>O)

4.1.32
=y (Euler's constant)
=.57721 56649. . .
(see chapters 1, 6 and 23)
Inequalitiea
2
4.1.33 -<In (l+z)<s
l+x
(2>-1, ZZO)
2
4.1.34 z<-ln (l-z)< -
1-2
@<I, ZZO)
ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 69
4.1.4 O<z<l
4.1.52
In (1 +z) ' a l z + ~ ~ 2 + ~ ~ + a 1 2 4 + a ~ ~ s + a 6 ~ e 4.1.53
+a7z7+ad+c (5)
p n [z+(z'f l)t]dz=z In [z+(z2f 1)+]-(2*&1)+
l(z)l53x10-8
.99999 64239 US= .16765 40711 4.1.54
&'-. 49987 41238 U6=-. 09532 93897
%= .33179 90258 ~ 7 = .03608 84937
~ 4 =-. 24073 38084 -.00645 35442
Approximation in Terms of Chebyshev Polynomiak 8

4.1.45 05x51 Definite Integrals


Tn*(z)=cosn8, cos e=2~--1 (see chapter 22)
4.1.55 dt=--n3/6

n An n An
4.1.56 1'E dt=--s2/12

0
1
2 -.
.37645 2813
.34314 5750
02943 7252
6 -. 00000 8503
7 .OOOOO 1250
8 -. 00000 0188
4.1.57 fo' &=Zi(z) (see 5.1.3)

3 .00336 7089 9 .OOOOO 0029 4.2. Exponential Function


4 -. 00043 3276 10 -. 00000 0004
5 .00005 9471 11 . 00000 0001 Series Expandon
4.2.1
Differentiation Formulas z z3
e'=exp z=l+-+-+-+ (2=z+iy)
d 1 l! 2! 3!
4.1.46 z=- Z
zln where e is the real number defined in 4.1.16
dn Fundamental Properties
4.1.4'7 -In z=(-l)n-l(n-l)!e-n
dz"
4.2.2 Ln (exp z)=z+2kni (k any integer)
Integration Formulas
4.2.3 I n (exp z) = z (-r<Yz 5r)
4.1.48
4.2.4 exp (ln z)=exp (Ln z)=z
d
4.1.49
SIn z dz=z In z-z 4.2.5 - exp z=exp z
dz
4.1.50 DeGnition of General Powers
n
4.2.6 If N=u',then z=Loga N
4.2.7 a'=exp (z In a)
(n#-1, n integer)
4.2.8 If a=la1 exp (iarg a) (- r<arg a <r)
4.1.51
4.2.9 Idl=(alze*Uga

4.2.10 arg (a')=y In lal+z arg a


(nf-1)
4.2.11
Ln az=z I n a for one of the values of Ln a'
*The approximation 4.1.45 is from C. W. Clenshaw,
Polynomial approximations to elementary functions, 4.2.12 In az=z In a (a real and positive)
Math. Tables Aids a m p . 8, 143-147 (1964) (with per-
mission). 4.2.13 1e.l =e+
70 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCXIONB

4.2.14 arg (ez)=y Special Values (see chapter 1)

4.2.15 azaa4 =a"+* 4.2.22 e=2.71828 18284..


4.2.23 eo= 1
4.2.16 a%'= (ab)' (-r<arg a+arg bsr)
4.2.24 em=w
4.2.25 e-m=O
4.2.26 e*d= -1
*d
4.2.21 e a=fi
4.2.28 eWki = 1 (k any integer)
Exponential Inequalidea
If z is real and difTerent from zero
--r
4.2.29 e '-X<l--z<e-r (2<1)
4.2.30 8>1+2
1
FIGURE
4.2. Logarithmicand ezponentialfunctions. 4-2.31 e<1_2 (5< 1)
2
Periodic Property 4.2.32 -<(1-e-3<2 (z>-1)
l+z
4.2.17 eZ*Tki=eZ (k any integer) 4.2.33 z<(e.-l)<& (z<l)
Exponential Identities r
4.2.18 eg~e+=eZa+Y
4.2.34 Z+z>e'+f (z>-I)

4.2.19 (era)q=eza+ (- T
~,z< _<T ) 402.35 ez>l+g (%>o, S>O)

The restriction (- r<9zl 5 T ) can be removed


3
IT
if z2 is an integer. 4.2.36
(
eZ> 1+- '>e= (z>O, y>O)
Limiting Values 5
4.2.20 4.2.37 e-Z<l-- (O<z< 1.5936)
2
lim z=e-'=O ((argzI 5)r-c<*r, a constant)
I+-
4.2.38 I,1 zI<I~P- la1<i ZI l <O( zl<l)
4.2.21 lim
m-m (l<iT=ez 4.2.39 le'-l(_<e'rl-151z1e'rl (dz)

Continued Fractions
4.2.42 Approximations in Terms of Chebyehev Polynomials 6

2a aZ+l u2+4 4.2.48 O_<X_<l


e2a
1
2=1+-
- -a2+9
-
z-a+ 3 Z + 5Z+ 7Z+ c(z)=cos ne, cos e=2~--1 (see chapter 22,
~

' * *

m (D

(z in the cut plane of Figure 4.4.) e z = C AnT*,


(2) e-'= A, 2
': (2)
n-0 n-0
Polynomial Approximations4
n An n An
4.2.43 O s z l l n 2=.693. . . 0 1.75338 7654 0 .64503 5270
1 .85039 1654 1 -.31284 1606
e-'= 1 +alzfa&+r(z) 2 . 10520 8694 2 .038704116
3 .00872 2105 3 -. 00320 8683
((z)ls3xlO-3 4 .00054 3437 4 .00019 9919
5 .00002 7115 5 -. 00000 9975
~1=-.9664 ~2z.3536 6 . 00000 1128 6 .OOOOO 0415
7 . 00000 0040 7 -. 00000 0015
4.2.44 Olzsln2 8 . 00000 0001
Differentiation Formulae
-1 +als+a~2+a~;ca+a4z4+(z)
d
le(z)l53 x 1 0 4 4.2.49 dz ez=ez

ul= -.9998684 a3=-.15953 32 dn &"a"&'


.4982926 ~ 4 = .0293641 4.2.50 -
~ 2 ' dz"
4.2.45 05zSln 2 d
4.2.51 - uz=aLIn a
dz
e-== 1 + u l z + ~ z z + u ~ 2 + u 4 z 4 + u ~ ~
+a6ze+a7z7+c(2) 4.2.52
I(z)1 52x 10- lo d
4.2.53 - zz=(l+ln z)z'
~1=-.99999 99995 ~5=-.00830 13598 dz
U2= .4999999206 a(= .0013298820 Integration Formula.
~3=-.16666 53019 U7=-.OOO14 13161

4.2.46
~ 4 = .0416573475

05x51
4.2.54

4.2.55
S P d z =eaz/u

lo"= (1 +alz+a2zz+aa23+a4~4)2+~(~)
le(2)I 5 7 x lo-' S ea'
zneazdz=a,,, [(az)"-n(az)"-*+n(n-l)
+ . . . +(-l)n-Ln!(az)+(-l)~!]
(a~)"-~
(n20)
Ul=1.1499196 ~3=.2080030
uZ= .6774323 a d = . 12680 89 4.2.56
4.2.47 0_<2<1
loz= (1 +a1z+a& +u32+u,z4+u& (See chapters 5, 7 and 29 for other integrals
involving exponential functions.)
+a69 +Q.7z7)z
+(2)
lf(2) 5
< I x 10-8 4.3. Circular Functions
WfiniUOM
ai=l. 15129 277603 US=.01742 111988
Uz= .66273 088429 a6=.00255 491796 efr-e-fr
~ 3 = -25439 357484 ~ 7 00093
= . 264267 4.3.1 sin z= (2 =2+iy)
~ 4 = .07295 173666
2i
,ir +e - ir
4 The n proximations 4.2.43 to 4.2.45 are from B. Carl- 4.3.2 cos z=
son, M. Eoldstein, Rational approximation of functions, 2
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory LA-1943, Los Alamos,
N. Mex., 1955 (with permission). 6 The approximations 4.2.48 are from C. W. Clenshaw,
6 The approximations 4.2.46 to 4.2.47 are from C. Hast- Polynomial approximations to elementary functions,
ings, Jr., Approximations for digital computers. Princeton Math. Tables Aids Comp. 8, 143-147 (1954) (with per-
Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1955 (with permission). mission).
72 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

sin z 4.3.17 cos (zl+z2)=cos zl cos z2-sin z1 sin z2


4.3.3 tan z=-
cos z
tan zl+tan z2
4-3-18
1 tan (21 +22) =1 -tan z1tan z2
4.3.4 csc z=-
sin z
cot 21 cot 22-1
4-3-19 cot (ZI+Z~)=
1 cot 22+cot 21
4.3.5 sec z=- cos 2
Half-Angle Formulas
1
4.3.6 cot z=-tan z -
4.3.20 sinZ=&
z ">'
(l-Y
Periodic Properties

4.3.7 sin (z+2kr)=sin z (k any integer) 4m3*21cos z *'s C+Y ">"

4.3.8 cos (2+2kn)=c0s 2 Z 1-cos2 t l - c o s z ~ sin2


4.3.22 tan--& - =---
4.3.9 tan (z+IC?r)=tan z 2- (l+cos 2) sin z l+cos 2
The ambiguity in sign may be resolved with the
aid of a diagram.
Transformation of Trigonometric Integrals

If t.an i=z then


22 1-22
2 dz
du=- 1+22
4.3.23 sin u=-) 1+ 22 cos u=-1 +22'

Multiple-Angle Formulas
2 tan z
4.3.24 sin 22=2 sin 2 cos z= 1+tan2z

4.3.25 cos 22=2 cos22-1=1--2 sin22


l-tan2 2
=cos2 z-sin2 2= l+tan22

2 tan z - 2 cot z 2
4.3." tan 'z'l-tan2 z-cot2 z-l-cot z-tm 2
-sinx
__---
-- csc x
cos x ........ see x
___ tOnx _-- cot x 4.3.27 sin 32=3 sin 2-4 a h a2
FIQURE
4.3. CircularJunctions. 4.3.28 COS 3 ~ = - 3 COS 2+4 COSa 2

Relations Between Circular Functions


4.3.29 sin 42=8 cosa2 sin 2-4 COS 2 sin 2
4.3.10 sin2 z+cos2 z=1
4.3.30 cos 4 2 4 cos4 2-8 cos2 z+l
4.3.11 sec2 z-tan2 z=1
Products of Sinem and Cosines
4.3.12 csc2 z-cot2 2=1
4.3.31 2 sin z1sin z2=cos (z1-z2)-cos (zi+zz)
Negative Angle Formulas
4.3.32 2 COS 21 COS Zz=COS (Z1-25)+COS (21+Z2)
4.3.13 sin (-z)=-sin z
4.3.33 2 sin z1 cos Z2=Sin (zl-z2)+sin (21+22)
4.3.14 cos (-2)=cos 2
Addition and Subtraction of Two Circuk Functionm
4.3.15 tan (--)=-tan z
4.3.34
Addition Formulas
4.3.16 Sin (zl+zJ=sin z1 COS Z~+COS 21 sin Za
sin zl+sin z2=2 sin (-
Z 1 y > COS(??)
ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 73
4.3.35
- sin
sin zl-sin z2=2 cos (zl:z2) (y) 4.3.41
cos2 z1-cos2 z2=-sin (zl+zz)sin (zl-z2)
4.3.36
cos Zl+COS 22=2 cos (z1;22)
- cos (zz) 4.3.42
cos2 zl-sin2 z2=c0s (zl+zz) cos (zl-zJ
4.3.37
- sin
cos zl-cos z2=-2 sin (zl;~,> (y) 4.3.43
Signs of the Circular Functions
4.3.38 in the Four Quadrants
sin (zl f 22)
tan zlftan z2=
cos 21 cos 22
4.3.39 Quadrant sin cos tan
csc sec cot
sin ( z 2 f z l )
cot z1fcot z2= --
sin z1 sin z2
Relations Between Squares of Sines and Cosines 1 + +
11 +
-
-
-
4.3.40 111
sin2 zl-sin2 z2=sin (zl+z2) sin (zl-z2) IV - +

4.3.44
Functions of Angles in Any Quadrant in Terms of Angles in the First, Quadrant. (0 <O<p k any integer)
- 2'

?r 3*
-0 ZkO * f O -fO 2kaf0
2

-sin 0 cos 0 Fsin 0 -cos 0 fsin 0


cos 0 Fsin 0 -cos 0 fsin 0 +cos 0
-tan 0 rcot 0 ftan 0 Fcot e ftan 0
-csc 0 +sec 0 Fcsc 0 -sec 0 fcsc 0
sec 0 Fcsc 0 -sec 0 fcsc 0 +sec 0
-cot 0 7 tan 0 &cot 0 +tan 0 fcot 0

4.3.45 Relations Between Circular (or Inverse Circular) Functions

sin x=a cos x=a tan x=a csc x=a sec x=a cot x=a

U (1--a2)4 a (1 + a2)-4 .-I a-ya2- 1)' (1 +d )-

(1-a"i U (1 +a') -+ u-1(u'- 1)+ (2-1 a(1 +u2)-'


a(1 -a') -4 a--'(l--a2)' a (d- 1)-* (a'- 1)' a-1
a-1 (1 -u2)-' a- 1 (1 +a') * U a(a2-1)-* (1 +a2)'
(1--a2)-' a-' (l+a2)i a(a'- 1)-* U a-l( 1 +a') *
a-1(1 - a')' a(1 -a2)-' a-1 (a*- I)* (u2- 1)-* U

(O<x<-- -3 Illustration: If sin x=a, cot x=a-'(1-a2)*


arcsec a= arccot (a2- I)-*
74 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTION8

4.3.46 ircular Functions for Certain Andes Euler's Formula


4.3.47 ek=e=+iV--e (cos y+i sin y)
r/12 TI6 Ti4 Ti3
15' 30' 45' 60' De Moivre's Theorem
- 4.3.48 (cos z+i sin z)"=cos vz+i sin YZ
sin 112 ' (- r< 9 2 Ir unless v is an integer)
Relation to Hyperbolic Functions (see 4.5.7 to 4.5.12)
cos 412 4.3.49 sin z=-i sinh iz
4.3.50 COS z=cosh iz
tan 613
4.3.51 tan z=-i tanh iz
CSC 2
4.3.52 csc z=i csch iz
aec 2813
4.3.53 sec z=sech iz
cot 4 4.3.54 cot z=i coth iz
-
-
Circular Functions in Terms of Real andImaginary
5r/12 7r/12 2r/3 Parte
75' 105' 120' 4.3.55 sin z=sin x cosh y+i cos x sinh y
4.3.56 cos z=cos x cosh y-i sin x sinh y
Sin Jz4 ( 4 + 1 > f (J3+1) 4.3.51 tan z=
sin 2x+i sinh 2y
cos 2xfcosh 2y
co8 4
@(&-l) -.Jz
4
(4-1) 4.3.58
sin 2x-i sinh 2y
cot z= Gosh ~Y-COS 22

tan Modulus and Phase (Argument) of Circular Functiolu

C8C
4.3.59 lsin zl=(sin2 x+sinh* y)'
=[) (cash ~Y-COS 2~)]f
SW
4.3.60 arg sin z=arctan (cot x tanh y)
cot
- - 4.3.61 /cos zl=(cos* x+sinh* y)f
- -
3r/4
135' f$ I 11542
165'
P
180' 4.3.62
=[) (cosh ~Y+COS

arg cos z=-arctan (tan x tanh y)


Gosh ~Y-COS 22
22)]f

sin 0
4.3.63 ltan zI= cosh 2y+cos 22 >'
cos -1
4.3.64 arg tan z=arctan ("t29
-
series Espadolu
4.3.65
tan 0
z3 z6 z1
sin z=z--+---+ ...
csc 03 31 51 71
8ec -1 4.3.66

cot a2
-
ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 75
4.3.67 Inequalities
z* 2z5 172'
tan z=z+-+-+-+ ... 4.3.79 7%
sin x 2 (-;<x<;)
3 15 315
(- 1),-122*(2-- l)&, z2"- +

. . .
+ (2n)! 4.3.80 sin x_<x5 tan x (05x5;)
4.3.68
sin x
1 2 7 31 4.3.81 cos x5-<1 x - (O_<XSd
c8c z=-+-+- za+- z5+ . . .
z 6 360 15120
(-1)"-'2(2*'-'-1)B*, Z2#-l sin rx
4.3.82
+ (Zn)! +.. "<2(1--s)- <4
4.3.69 4.3.83 lsinh yI 5 lsin 21 5cosh y
z2 52' 612'
sec z=l+-+-+-+
2 24 720
... 4.3.84 (sinhyI 5 Icos zI Icosh y

(-1lnE2n ... 4.3.85 Icsc z(_<cschlyl


+ (2n)!
4.3.70 4.3.86 Jcoszl Icoshl zl

z 2 3 225 4.3.87 [sin zl_<sinh(z(


cot 2 s -1-------
z 3 45 945 * * *
6
4.3.88 Icos<lz 2, lsin 21 5- Izi (lZK1)
-(- 1)r-12*nB2#
Z2n- 1, 5
...
(2n)! Infinite Pmduct.
4.3.71
4.3.89
sin z
In --
z
-5 (-l)"22"-lB2,,
n - ~n(2n)!
Z2A k-1

4.3.72 4.3.90 cos z= I I (1-

(-l)n22n--1(22n- l)& Expansion in Partial Fractions


In cos z = C Z2*
n- I n(2n)!
" 1
4.3.73 4.3.91

(z#O,f*,f%,. . .)
. .

(I2I <*) 4.3.92 csc2 z=


k--m
c
m
1
-
(z-kT)2
where B, and E,, are the Bernoulli and Euler
numbers (see chapter 23). (z#O,fr,f%, . . .)
Limiting Values 4.3.93 csc 2=;+22
1 2
sin x
4.3.74 lini -=1
r+ 5 (z#O,f*,f%, . . .I
tan x Continued Fractiom
4.3.75 lim -- -1
E - r o X

4.3.76 lim nsin 2=x


n-im n 4.3.95
X a tan z (1-a') tan2 z ( 4 - 4 tan* z
4.3.77 lim n tan -=x tan az=-
n-im n 1+ 3+ 5+
4.3.78 lim cos :=I
w- n
76 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Polynomial Approximations 7
4.3.101 Olx<T
-4
4.3.96 OX
'<.
2

--x
sin
-1 +a29+ a,x4+t (2)
X

It(X)112X10-4 It(Z)1<2X 10-8


&=- 16605 U4=. 00761 a2=.33333 14036 a8=.02456 50893
~4=.1333923995 UIo=.00290 05250
4.3.97 o<x<E
-2 aE=.05337 40603 ~12=.0095168091
sin x-
-- 1 +&X2 +U4X4+U6X8 +a8x8+aloX'o+ t (x) 4.3.102 OlX< p
X 4
~t(z>~<2X10-~ * x cot x=l+a~x~+a,x'+e(x)

~2=--.1666666664 US= .OOOOO27526 ( t(x)~53x10-5

U4= .00833 33315 Uio= -.OOOOO 00239


~ 2 =-.332867 ~ 4 = - .024369
Ue=-.00019 84090
4.3.103 osxs E
4.3.98 o<x<E 4
-2
cos z=l+&x2+a4z*+t(x)
le(x)l<9X 10-4 lt(X)1.14X10-'0

= -.49670 .03705
CL~= uY= -.33333 33410 US= - .00020 78504
~4=-.02222 20287 a,,,= - .00002 62619
4.3.99 o<x<x
-2 ~ ~ = - . 0 0 2 1 177168
Approximations
cos x=l + ~ x ~ + a , x ' + a ~ x 6 + a ~ x ~ + u ~ ~ ~ ~ + ~(x) in Terms of Chebyshev Polynomials *

lt(z)ll2X 10-0 4.3.104 -1lxll

~ 2 -.49999
= 99963 US= .00002 47609 2'; (2)= cos n8, cos 6=2x- 1 (see chapter 22)
~ 4 = .04166 66418 u~O= -.OOOOO 02605 OD m
sin &X=X A,T,*(r2) COS + U X = ~A,TZ(X')
a6=-.00138 88397 n=o n-0

n An n An
4.3.100 O I X l ; 0 1.27627 8962 0 .47200 1216
1 -.28526 1569 1 -.49940 3258
tan
-- x- 1 +u2xz+a4x4+Q (x)
X
2 .00911 8016 2 .02799 2080
3 -.00013 6587 3 -.00059 6695
~t(s)~~lXl0-3 4 .OOOOO 1185 4 .OOOOO 6704
~2=.31755 ar=.20330 5 -.OOOOO 0007 5 -.OOOOO 0047

7 The a proximations 4.3.% to 4.3.103 are from I3. Carl- 8 The approxiinations 4.3.104 are from C. W. Clenshaw,
son, M. Eoldstein, Rational approximation of functions, Polyiioinial approsilllations to elementary functions,
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory LA-1943, LOBAlamos, Math. Tab1c.s Aids Comp. 8, 143-147 (1954) (with per-
N. Mex., 1955 (with permission). mission).
'See page U.
ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTION6 77
Differentiation Formulam 4.3.122
d
4.3.105 -sin z=cos z
dz
d z=-sin z
4.3.106 -cos
dz
4.3.123
d
4.3.107 - tan z=sec2 z z"cos zdz=znsin z-n
dz S&"''sin zdz
d 4.3.124
4.3.108 - csc z=-csc 2 cot 2
dz
d
4.3.109 - sec z=sec z tan z
dz
4.3.125 s--&dz=z tan z+In cos z
d
4.3.110 -cot z=-csc) z
dz 4.3.126
zsinz 1
4.3.111 cos" z (n- 1) cos"-' z- (n- 1) (n-2)cosn-2 z
(n-2) zdz
4.3.112 +
)- Jcosn-z

Integration formula^ 4.3.127


sinm+'z cos"-' z
s s i n mz COB" z dz=
4.3.113
S sin zdz=-cosz m+n

4.3.114
S cos zdz=sinz

4.3.115
4.3.116
Stan zdz=-In cosz=ln secz

1 1-cos2
S Z
csc zdz=ln tan --In
2- (csc z-co~z)=- In
2 l+cosz (m#-n)
4.3.117 4.3.128
seczdz=ln (secz+tanz)=Intan
=Inverse Gudermannian Function
gd 2=2 arctan e*--
r
+ m+n-2S
n-1
dz
sin" z cos"-% z
2
4.3.118 S c o t zdz=ln sin z=-ln csc z - -1
(m-1) sinm-' z z
4.3.119
m+n-2 dz
sz*sinzdz=-zncos z+n
S Z*'~COS zdz + m-1 J8inm-Z z cos" z

4.3.120

4.3.121 Sd&dz=-z cot z+ln sin z 4.3.130


Scot8zdz=--- n-1
scot"-'zdz ( n p l )
78 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

4.3.131
4.3.141 I s i n ' nt dt=lcosznt dt=-r
SafbdZsin z=-(a2-2b2)+a'ctan
a tan
(a2-b2)+
b (a2>b2) (;)+ 2
(nan integer, n#O)

1 SO t
1 a tan (;)+b--(b'--d)t OD sin mt r
4.3.142 dt=s (m>O)
-
--
(b2-a2)' In [a tan (;)+b+(b2-a*)' =O (m=O)
(b2>a2) ---
-
=2
4.3.132 si&- --tan 6~:) 4.3,143 L
O D cos a t i c o s bt
(m<O)

dt=ln @/a)
4.3.133 Z
(a-b) tan -
=- 2 a +arctan (~2-b2)t 2 (a2>b2)
$a+?cos z (a2-b ) 4.3.144 Lmsint2 dt=
LOD
cos t2 dt=-
2 2 'J"
=-(b2-!a2)4ln[
(b-a) tan g+(b2-a2)+

(b-a) tan z- (b*-az)+


z ] r
4.3.145
In sin t dt=
r2 In cos t dt=-- In 2
r
2

2
(b"a2) 4.3.146 Lm% dt=I e-"
2
4.3.134
-
&S -tan -
2 (See chapters 5 and 7 for other integrals involv-
ing circular functions.)
Z (See [5.3] for Fourier transforms.)
4.3.135 S A --cot
- -
2
4.3.147
4.3.136
Formulas for Solution of Plane Right Trianglee

S CZsin bz dz=- " (a sin bz-b cos bz)


a2+b2
4.3.137

s e"' COS bz dz=- e'" (a cos bz+b sin bz)


a2+b2
4.3.138
e" sin"-' bz
s P sin" bz dz= a2+n2b2 (a sin bz-nb cos bz)
If A, B and C are the vertices (C the right

+
n(n-1)b2Sp
a2+n2b2
sinR-2 bz dz
angle), and a, b and c the sides opposite respectively,
a 1
4.3.139 sin A=--=-
c csc A
$e'" cos" bz dz= e" cosR-1 bz (a cos bz+nb sin bz) b 1
a2+n2ba cos A=-= -
c secA
+n'Ft6,1Sp cos'+2bz dz
tan A=% - 1
b cotA
Deiinite I n w

versine A=vers A= 1-cos A


4.3.M L s i n mt sin nt dt=O
coversine A=covers A=l-sin A
(m #n, m and nintegers)
haversine A=hav A=+vers A
l c o s mt cos nt dt=O
exsecant A=exsec A=sec A-1
4.3.148 4.4. Inverse Circular Functions
F o r m u b for Solution of Plane Trhn&s DefiUitiOUO
4.4.1
80 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

FundamentalProperty 4.4.23 z=i Arccsch iz


A~CCSC
The general solutions of the equations 4.4.24 Arcsec z= fi Arcsech z
sin t=z 4.4.25 Arccot z=i Arccoth i z
cos t=z Logarithmic Representations
tan t=z 4.4.26 Arcain x=-iLn [(l-xz)++ix] ( 9 5 1 )
are respectively
4.4.27 Arccos x=--i L n [x+i(l-Z')+] (2811)
4.4.10 t=Arcsin z= (- l)* arcsin z+kr
4.4.28 Arctan x=2 Ln
i 1-ix i Ln i+x
i--2
4.4.11 t=Arccos Z= ~ ~ W C C O~S + 2kr l+iZ=Z

4.4.12 (5 r f4
t=Arctan z=arctan z+kr (9#-1)
where k is an arbitrary integer. 4.4.29 Arccac x=-i Ln [ (X*- I)++i
x ] (x*l1)

{
4.4.13 Interval containing principal value
Y x positive x negative 4.4.30 Arcaec x= -i Ln [l+i(;-l)+] (e1)
or zero
arcsin x and arctan x OSySrJ2 -rJ21y<O
4.4.31 i
Arccot x=2Ln (iz")
1
22-
;
- =-Ln (
E
;-
;)

*arccos x and arcsec x 0 S y 5rJ2 r/2<y Sr (x real)


&cot x and arccsc x O l y S r J 2 -r/2sy<O Addition and Subtraction of Two Inverse Circular
V
Functions
4.4.32
Arcsin Z l f h i n 22
=Arcsin [z~(l-z;)kt z*(1-zI)+]
4.4.33
Arccos z1fArccos 22
=8rccos ZlZ2T [(1-2;) (1-z;)]'}
4.4.34
FIGURE
4.5. Inverse CircuhrjunctiOnS. Arctan z1fArctan zl=Arctan - (
1zT1Zf lzZ2l)
Function#of Negative Argument. 4.4.35
4.4.14 arcsin (- z) = -arcsin z Arcsin z ~ f k c c o sz1
=Arcsin{zlz,f[(l-z:) (l-z;)]'}
4.4.15 arccos (-z) = r- arccos z
=Arccos [zl(l-z:)+T zl(l-z:)q
4.4.16 arctan (--)=-arctan z 4.4.36
4.4.17 arccsc (-z) = -arccsc z Arctan zlfAruxt z1
4.4.18 arcsec (-z)=r-arcsec z =Arctan (*)=kwh
ZaFZl
(-ZlZlfl
)
*
4.4.19 arccot (-z)=-arccot z Inverre Circular Functions in Tarme of R e d and
Imaginary Part.
Relation to Inverre Hyperbolic Functions (eee 4.6.14 to
4.6.19) 4.4.37
4.4.20 Arcsin z= --i Arcsinh iz Arcsin z=kr+(-l)& arcsin B
+(- 1)'s [a+(&-I)&] I n

4.4.21 A~CCOS
Z= f i kccosh 2 4.4.38
4.4.22 Arctan z= --i Arctanh iz (zt# -1) Arms z=2R*f (arooos@-i ln[a+(d-l)+l}

*See p q e 11.
ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 81
4.4.39 4.4.46 O_<X<l
22
Arctan z=kT+$ arctan T
arcsin x=-- (1 - z ) * ( ~ + u ~ ~ + u ~ x ~ + a ~ ~ ~
2
$42)
+u424+a525+agx6+a727)
where k is an integer or zero and le(r)l52X 10-8
a=3 [(2+1)2+ ?/"*+3[(x- l ) Z + y"* uo= 1.57079 63050 ~ 4 = .030S9 lSSl0
p=+[(x+1)2+y2]t-$[(x-l)2+Y2]*
uI= -.21459 88016 ~5=-.01708 81256
Series Expansions
4.4.40
-. -.
uZ= .OS897 S9874 f&= .00667 00901
z3 1 . 3 ~1.3.52'
~ ~3=-.05017 43046 -.00126 2491 1
arcsin z=z+-+- +. (14<1) ~ 7 =
2 . 3 2.4.5'2.4.6.7 * *

4.4.47 -1<x<1
44.41
arcsin (l-z)=~--(22)+[1+~ 1 . 3 . 5 . .. (2k-1)
2 k=l 22k(2k+l)k!
(121<2)
4.4.42 uI= .99986 60 ~7=-.08513 30
z3 z5 z7
arctan z=z--+--- +.. . (121<1 and z2#-1) ~ 3 = -.33029 95 %= .02083 51
3 5 7
US= .18014 10
r 1
=--- 1 1
. . .(1z1>1andz2#-1)
2 z+323-525+ 4.4.4 lo -lSX<1
-
--2 . . .] 2
arctaii z=-
1+.28x2+E (2)
(ZZZ-1)
Continued Fractions

2 zz 4z2 92' 16z2


4.4.43 a.rctan z=- ---- 4.4.49 l1 O<Xll
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9+"'
(z in the cut plane of Figure 4.4.) arctan x-
2
-1 t-5
k=l
arcsin z =-----
z 1 . 2 1~ .~2 3~ . ~4 3.422
~ ~
4.4.444
1- 3- 5- 7- g- . . *

(zin the cut plane of Figure 4.4.) ~ 2 = - .33333 14528 u~O= -.07528 96400
Polynomial Approximations9 ~ h = .19993 55085 ~12= .04290 96138
4.4.45 O_<X<l
a6= -. 14208 89944 ~14=-.01616 57367
T
arcsin z=s- (1-z)+(u,,+alz+azx2+a35C3)+e(z) Us= .lo656 26393 ulB= .00286 62257

le(.) I 55 x 10-5
UO= 1.57072 88 uZ= .07426 10
aq= -.21211 44 ~ 3 =-.01872 93
10 The approximation 4.4.48 is from C. Hastings, Jr.,
Note 143, Math. Tables Aids Comp. 6, 68 (1953) (with
permission).
11 The approximation 4.4.49 is from B. Carlson, M. Gold;
0 The approximations 4.4.45 to 4.4.47 are from C. Hast- stein, Rational approximation of functions, Los Alamos
ings, Jr., Approximat.ionsfor digital computers. Princeton Scientific Laboratory LA-1943, Los Alamos, N. Mex.,
Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1955 (with permission). 1955 (with permission).
82 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Approximations in Terms of Chebyehev Polynomiala **


4.4.51 d 1
- arccsc z=-
4.4.50 -15x51 dz z (22- 1)1
Integration Formulas
T:(x)=cos ne, cos e = 2 ~ -1 (see chapter 22)
m 4.4.58 Jarcsin z dz=z arcain z+(l-z%)t
arctan x=x A,C(2')
n-0
4.4.59 Sarccos z dz=z arccos z-(l-z')+
n A" n A"
0 .88137 3587 6 .OOOOO 3821
1 -. 10589 2925 7 -. 00000 0570
2
3
.01113 5843
-.00138 1195
8 .OOOOO 0086
9 -. 00000 0013
4.4.60
s arctan z dz=z arctan z-+In (l+z*)
4 .00018 5743 10 .ooooo 0002 4.4.61
5 -.00002 6215
Sarccsc z dz=z arccsc z f l n [z+(z*-1)+]
For x >1, use arctan x=&r-arctan (1/x)

4.4.51 -3JzIx53Jz
m
arcsin x=x AnT:(2x2)
n-o
4.4.62

m
S arcsec z dz=z arcsec zFln [z+(z2-1)*]

arccos x=+x A,,C(222)


a-0

n A" n A"
0 1.05123 1959 5 .OOOOO 5881
1 .05494 6487 6 .OOOOO 0777
2 .00408 0631 7 .OOOOO 0107 4.4.63
3 .00040 7890 8 .OOOOO 0015 $arccot z dz=z arccot z+3 In (l+z*)
4 .00004 6985 9 .ooooo 0002
For 3&x<l, use arcsin x=arccos(l--;C")+, arc- 4.4.64
COBx=arcsin (1-9)t
Sz arcsin z dz= (:---i)arcsin z+z4 (1-zS)i
Differentiation Formulaa
d 4.4.65
4.4.52 - arcsin z=(l-z*)-i
dz

(n#-1)
4.4.66
d 1
4.4.54 -
dz
arctan z=-
1+22

d -1 4.4.61
4.4.55 - arccot z=-
dz l+z'
d 1
4.4.56 -
dz arcsw 2= z (2'-1)* (n#-1)
u ,The approximations 4.4.50 to 4.4.51 are from C. W. 4.4.68
Clenshaw, Polynomial a proximations to elementary
functions, Math. Tables lids a m p . 8, 143-147 (1964)
(With permidon).
f.arctan z dz=-21 (l+z*) arctan z-- 2 Z

*see page 11.


ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL F"CTI0NS 83
4.4.69 4.5.8 cash COS iz
2n+1 1
2" arctan z dz=- arctan z-- %+IS G d Z
S n+l 4.5.9 tanh z= --i tan iz

(nz-1) 4.5.10 csch z=i csc iz


4.4.70 4.5.11 sech z=sec iz
1 Z
Jz arccot z dz=- (l+t) srccot z+- 4.5.12 coth z=i cot i z
2 2

4.4.71 Periodic propertiee

s 2'' mmot z dz=-zn+l arccot z+-


n+l
'
n+l 1+z2
$e&
4.5.13 sinh (z+2klri)=sinh z
(k any integer)
(nz-r) 4.5.14 cosh (z +2kn-i) =cash z
4.5. Hyperbolic Functions 4.5.15 tanh (z+kxi)=tanh z
DefinitiOIM
Rehtiona Between Hypembolic Functions
eZ-e-2
4.5.1 sinh z=- (z=z+iar> 4-53 wsh2 Z-Sinh' ~ = 1
2
4.5.17 tanh' z+sech* z= 1
e'+e-'
4.5.2 cash z=- 4.5.18 coth' z-mch2 1
2 Z=

4.5.3 tanh z=sinh z/cosh z 4.5.19 cosh z+sinh z=e'

4.5.4 csch z= l/sinh z 4.5.20 cosh z-sinh z=e-.


Negative Angle Formulaa
4.5.5 sech z=l/cosh z
4.5.21 sinh (-z)=-sinh z
4.5.6 coth z=l/tanh z
4.5.22 cash (-z)=cosh z

i 4.5.23 tanh (-z)=-tanh z


Addition Formulaa

4.5.24 sinh (zl+G)=sinh 21 cash 22


+cash 21 sinh ~p
4.5.25 cash (zl+zz)=coSh 2 1 msh ~z
+sinh z1sinh a
4.5.26 tanh (z1+zZ)=(tanh zl+tanh zz)/
(1 +tanh z1tanh zl)

4.5.27 coth (zl+zz)=(coth ZI coth ~,+l)/


4.6. Hyperbolicfunctions.
FIGURE
(coth zz+coth 21)
Relation to Circular Functionti (see 4.3.49 to 4.3.54) Half-Angle Formulaa
Hyperbolic formulas can be derived from
trigonometric identities by replacing z by iz 4.5.28
sinhz=( coshz-1
2 )t
4.5.1 sinh z=-i sin i2 2
84 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL F"CTION8

4.5.29
coshz=( coshz+l 4 )
4.5.44
cosh zl-cosh z2=2 sinh (%)
l+Z2 sinh (y)
2
4.5.45
4.5.30 sinh (zl+zz)
tanh z,+tanh zz=
cosh 2-1 +-cash 2-1- - sinh z cash 21 cash 2.2
tanh %(cash z+1) - sinh z cosh z+l
4.5.46
sinh (zl+z2)
Multiple-Angle Formulas coth Zi+coth ~ sinh z1sinh zz
2 =

2 tanh z
4.5.31 sinh 22=2 sinh z cosh z = ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~Between
Relatione ~ Squares of Hyperbolic Sines and
Cosines
4.5.41
4.5.32 cosh 22=2 cosh2 2-1=2 sinhPz+l sinh2 zl-sinh2 z2=sinh (zl+zz) sinh (2,-z2)
=COsh2 z+Binh2 z =wsh2 Z1-msh2 22
4.5.4
2 tanh z sinh2 zl+cosh2 zz=cosh (zl+z2)cosh (z1-z2)
4.5.33 tanh 22=
l+tanh2 z =cosh2zl+sinh2 z2

4.5.34 sinh 32=3 sinh 2+4 sinha z Hyperbolic Functions in Terms of Real and Imaginary
Parta

(z=x+iy)
4.5.36 sinh 42=4 sinha z cosh 2+4 coshaz sinh z 4.5.49 sinh z=sinh x cos y+i cosh x sin y

4.5.37 cosh 4z=cosh4 z+6 sinh2z coshs z+sinh' z 4.5.50 cosh z=cosh x cos y+i sinh x sin y
Producta of Hyperbolic Sinem and Cosinea sinh 2x+i sin 2y
4.5.51 tanh z=
cosh 2x+cos 2y
4.5.38 2 sinh z1 sinh z2=cosh (zl+z2)
sinh 2 x 4 sin 2y
-cash (21-22) 4.5.52 coth Z= cash 2x -cos 2y

De Moivre's Theorem
4.5.53 (cosh z+sinh z)"=cosh nz+sinh nz
Modulus and Phase (Argument) of Hyperbolic
4.5.41) 2 sinh z1 cosh zz=sinh (zl+zz) Functions

+sinh (zl-2,) 4.5.54 (sinh zI = (sinh2x+sin2 y)'


=[+(cash 22-COS 2y)]'
Addition and Subtraction of Two Hyperbolic Functions
4.5.55 arg sinh z=arctan (coth x tan y)
4.5.41
:")
sinh zl+sinh z2=2 sinh ('I - cosh ('y) 4.5.56 lcosh zl=(sinh2 x+cos2y)'
= [4 (cash 22+COS2y)]*

4.5.42
sinh zl-sinh z2=2 cosh ( z-
1iZ2) si& (y) 4.5.57

4.5.58
arg cosh z=arctan (tanh x tan y)
cash 2x-m~ 2y
(tanhzl=( cosh 2x+c0s 2y
4.5.43
~ 0 s h z ~ + c o s h z ~cosh
=2 4.5.59 arg tanh z=arctan (sx)
ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTION& 85
4.5.60 Relations Between Hyperbolic (or Inverse Hyperbolic) Functions
cosh x=a tanh x=a csch x=a sech x=a coth x=a

(a'- 1)' a(1 -a') -+ .-I a-y1 -a')' (02- 1) -+


U (1--a')-+ a- 1 (1 +a') ' .-I a(u'- 1)-'
u-l(a'- 1)' U (1 +a') - ' (1-a')' a-'
(a'- 1)-' a- I( 1 -a')' U a(1 -a') -' (a'- 1)'
.-I (1-a')' a(1 +a? -' U a-'(a'- 1)'
a(d- 1) -' .-I (l+a2)+ (1 -a') -' U

Illustration: If sinh x=a, coth z=a-*(a2+l)~


arcsech a=arccoth (l-a2)-t
4.5.61 Special Values of the Hyperbolic Functions 4.5.66
2' 5
sech z=l--+- z4-- 61 z 6 + . . Z. !+ E 2 n zn + .. .
r 3r 2 24 720
Z 2i ri -i
2
(24
(I zl < ;)
0 i 0 -i 4.5.67
1 z z 3 2 2'"BZ. Z2n-' + . . .
1 0 -1 0 coth z=-+---+-zS-.
z 3 45 945 . .+
7 (24
0 mi 0 -W i
(1 21
I .<

where B,, and E,, are the nth Bernoulli and Euler
W -i m i numbers, see chapter 23.
1 m -1 m Infinite Products
Q) 0 - 0 4.5.68

Series Expansions
4.5.69
4.5.62
z3 zS z7
sinh z=z+-+-+-+'. .. (lzl< a)
3! 5! 7! Continued Fraction

2 2 z4 ZO z 2' 2' 2'


4.5.63 cosh z=I+-+-+-+ ... (Izl<m) 4.5.10 tanh z=- ---
2! 4! 6! l + 3+ 54- 74- * * *

4.5.64 tanh z=z--+-z3 2 z6--z717


3 15 315
Differentiation Formulas
*
+. .+2'"(2'"-1)Bzn
(271.) !
Z2n-1
+. . . d
- sinh z=cosh z
4.5.11
dz
(I zl< ;) d
4.5.65 4.5.12 -cosh z=sinh z
dz
1 2+- 7 -a,z
a c h z=--- 31
z 6 360 15120 zS+. . . 4.5.73
d
- tanh z=sech* z
dz
-W'"-'- 1 ) B z R zf,,- '+
...
(24! 4.5.74
(1 zl<4
86 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCl'IONS,

d 4.5.87
4.5.75 -sech z=-sech z tanh z
dz

4.5.76

Integration Formulas

4.5.77 Ssinh z dz=cosh z


(n#l)
4.5.78
S cosh z dz=sinh z (See chapters 5 and 7 for other integrals in-
volving hyperbolic functions.)

4.5.79 Stanh z dz=ln cosh z 4.6. Inverse Hyperbolic Functions


DefidtiOM

4.5.80 S csch zdz=ln tanh -


2
Z
4.6.1 (z=z+iy)

4.5.81 Ssech z dz=arctan (sinh z) 4.6.2 arccosh z=l* (t*--l)i


4.5.82 s c o t h zdz=ln sinh z arctanhz=l * dt
4.6.3 -
4.5.83 The paths of integration must not cross the fol-
n

J 2" sinh z dz=z" cosh z-n S z"-' cosh z dz lowing cuts.


4.6.1 imaginary axis from --im to --i and i
4.5.84 to i m
s z " cosh z dz=z" sinh 2-n
S 2"-' sinh z dz 4.6.2 real axis from - QD to +1
4.6.3 real axis from - to -1 and +1 to

Fm
+a

z cosh" z dz=- sinh"+' z cash"-' z Inverse hyperbolic functions are also written
m+n sinh-' z, arsinh z, d r sinh 2, etc.
4.6.4 arccsch z=arainh l/z
+e
m+n
Ssinh'"z cosh"-f zdz
4.6.5 arcsech z= arccosh l/z
4.6.6 arccoth z=arctanh l/z

-i
orcsinh 2
,T-p
-?
1 iy

orcmsh z
IiY
arctanh z

-
m+n-2S dz
m- 1 sinhm-zz cosh"z (m f 1) I iy li' liY
=- 1 1
n- 1 si&"-' z cash"-' z arccschz arcsech L arccoth z

4.7. Bmnch cuts for inmse hyperbolic


FIQURE
functions.
Functions of Negative Amumentn

{
4.6.11 arcsinh <-z) = -arcsinh z FIGURE
4.8. Inwrse hyperbolic functions.

*4.6.12 arccosh (-z) =ri- arccosh z


Addition and Subtraction of Two Inverse Hyperbolic
4.6.13 arctanh (-z)=-arctanh z Functions

Relation to Inverse Circular Functions (see 4.4.u) to 4.6.26


4.4.25)
Arcsinh z1f Arcsinh z2
Hyperbolic identities can be derived from trig-
onometric identities by replacing z by iz. =Arcsinh [zI(l+z:)4fz2(1 +z:)+I
4.6.14 Arcsinh z= -i Arcsin iz
4.6.27
4.6.15 Arccosh z= f i Arccos z
Arccosh z1f Arccosh z2
4.6.16 Arctanh z= -i Arctan iz
=Arccosh z1z2f[(2~-1)(2~-1>]'}
4.6.17 Arccsch z=i Arccsc iz
4.6.28
4.6.18 Arcsech z= f i Arcsec z

4.6.19 Arccoth z = i Arccot iz


Arctanh zlfArctanh z2=Arctanh
(;E3 ~

Logarithmic Representations 4.6.29

4.6.20 arcsinh s=ln [z+(z2+l)fJ Arrsinh z,fArccosh z2

4.6.21 arccosh z=ln [z+(xz- I)'] (x2l) =Arcsinh{z 1 z 2 ~ [ ( l + z ~ ) ( z ~ - 1 ) ] ~ }

1tz =Arccosh [z,(l + z V f zI(z:- 1)41


4.6.22 arctaiih x=$ 111 - (05 ZZ<1)
1--2 4.6.30

4.6.23 arccsch x=ln ['+(L+l)


-2 -22 f ] (xfO) Arctanh z,fArccoth z2=Arctanh
(zz3
~

4.6.24 arcsech z=ln [:+(-$-l)t] (O<s_<l) =Arccoth (+) 1 2f


IZZf:
21

*See page 11.


88 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCX'IONS

Series Expansionr d
4.6.31 4.642 dz
- arccothz=(l-$)-*
1 1.3
arcsinh z= z-- 2 3 * *+m Integration Formulas

4.6.43 Sarcsinh z dz=z arcsinh z--(l+z2)+

4.6.44 Jarccosh zdz=z arccosh z-(z2-1)*

4.6.45 Jarctanhzdz=z arctanh z+$ln (1-z*)

4.6.46 sarccsch z dz=z arccsch zf axcsinh z *

(according as 9 z i O )
(lzl>1)
4.6.32 4.6.47 Sarcsech z dz=z arcsech zfarcsin z *
. 1 1.3
arccosh z=ln 2z--- 2 . 2 ~2.4.4.2'
~ 4.6.48 Sarccoth z dz=z arccoth z+3 In (9-1)
-2 . 14 .. 36 .. 56 9 - * * 4.6.49

S z arcsinh z dz =-
4
222+1 arcsinh 2-- 2
4
(z2+l)+

z3 z5 z7

s
4.6.33 arctanh z=z+-+-+-+ ... ((zJ<l) 4.6.50
3 5 7

4.6.34 arccoth z=-+-+--,+-+


1 1 1 1
...
S 2n+1
znarcsinh zdz=-n+l arcsinhz-- n+l - (~+zz)+~~
z 3 2 52 72' (n#-1)
(IZ1>1) 4.6.51
Continued Fractions 222-1 arccosh z--(z2-l)'
2
z arccosh z dz=- 4 4
z 22 422 922
3- -
4.6.35 arctanh z=-1- - -. . .
5- 7- 4.6.52

S
2n+1
(z in the cut plane of Figure 4.7.) znarccosh zdz=-
- n+l
4.6.36 (n#-l)
4.6.53
22- 1 2

Differentiation Formulas Sz arctanh z dz=- 2


arctanh z+-2

d 4.6.54
4.6.37 dz
- arcsinh z=(l+z*)-*

S
2n+1
zn arctanh z dz=- arctanh
n+l
d (n#-1)
4.6.38 dz arccosh
- z=(z*-l)-~
4.6.66
d *
4.6.39 - arctanh z=(l-z*)-'
dz s z arccsch z dz=-222 arccsh z f 1z (1+z2)+
d 1 (according aa 9 2 S O )
4.6.40 - arccsch z- T
dz z(1 +z')'
4.6.56

4.6.41
d
-
(according as 9 ~ 2 0 )

dz arcsech z=F z( 1 -2') 4


1
Sz%rccsch z dz=-p + 1 arccsch z f - 1 $ A d z
n+l n+l (z +I)*
*

(n#-1)
*See page 11.
ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 89
4*6*57 Z* 1 4.6.59
Jz arcsech z dz=- 2 arcsech ZT- (1-z2)+
*
2
(according as 9'zZO)
Sz arccoth z dz=- 22-
2
1
arccoth z+z2

I 4.6.60
I
4.6.58
p + 1 1 2" 2n+l 1 n+ 1
s z narcsech z &=- arcsech z f - S--_?gdz s z n arcc0t.h z dz=- arccoth z+-
n+l n+l (1 2 ) n+l
(nf-1) I (n#-1)
Numerical Methods
4.7. Use and Extension of the Tables Example 2.
Compute x-s/4 for z=9.19826 to 10D using the
NOTE:
In the examples given it is assumed t,hat Table of Common Logarithms.
the arguments are exact. From Table 4.1, four-point Lagrangian inter O ~ R -
tion gives log,, (9.19826)= .96370 56812. &en,
3
--4 log,, (~)=-.72277 92609=9.27722 07391-10.
Example 1. Coniput,ationof common Logarithms.
Linear inverse interpolation in Table 4.1 yields
antilog (T.27722)=.18933. For 10 place accurncy
To c0mput.e common logarithms, the number subtabulation with 4-point Lagrangian inter-
must be espressed in the form x. loa, (1 <x<lO, polants produces the table
- 03 S p 5 03 ). The common 1ogarit.hni of z 109 -
consists of nn integrnl part which is called the N loglo N A A7
characteristic and a decimal part which is called
the mantissa. Table 4.1 gives the common .18933 .27721 94350 29379
lognrithm of z. .18934 .27724 23729 29366 - 13
.18935 .27726 53095
X X.1OQ log,, x 10Q
*
By linear inverse interpolation
.009836 9.836. 3.99281 85=(-2.00718 15) x-~"= .18933 05685.
.09836 9.836. 2.99281 85=(--1.00718 15) Example 3.
.9836 9.836-lo-'
-1.99281 85=(-0.00718 15) Convert log,, x to In z for x=.009836.
9.836 9.836-10' 0.99281 85 Using 4.1.23 and Table 4.1, In (.009836)=
In 10 log,, (.009836)=2.30258 5093 (-2.00718 15)
98.36 9.836- 10' 1.99281 85 = -4.62170 62.
983.6 9.836-lo2 2.99281 85 Example 4.
Compute In x for x= .00278 to 6D.
Interpolat,ion in Table 4.1 between 983 and 984 Using 4.1.7, 4.1.11 and Table 4.2, In (.00278)=
gives .99281 85 as the mantissa of 9836. In (.278. 10-2)=ln (.278)-2 ln 10= -5.S85304.
Note that 5.99281 85=-3+.99281 85. When Linear intrrpolntion between 2=.002 and
p is negat.ive the common logarithm con be z=.003 would give ln(.00278)= -5.W8. To
expressed in the alternative forms obtain 5 decimal pliicc accuracy with linenr
interpolation it is necessnry that x>.175.

log,, (.009836)=3.99281 85=7.99281 85-10 Example 5.


= -2.00718 15. Compute ln x for x=1131.718 to 8D.
Using 4.1.7, 4.1.11 and Table 4.2
The last form is convenient for conversion from (1131.718 1131)
common logarithms to natural logarithms. In 1131.718=111
1131
The inverse of log,, x is called the antilogarithm
rrf x, and is written antilog x or lo The =In 1131.718+ln1.131 +In lo3
logarithm of the reciprocal of a nun&: ?s called 1131
the cologarithm, written d o g . =ln(1.00063 4836)+1n 1.1314-3 In 10.
*See page 11.
90 ELEMENTARY TELISNBCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Then from 4.1.24 Example 9.


In 1131.718=(.00063 4836)-4(.00063 4836)' Compute e'.- to 75.
+In 1.131+3 In 10=.00063 4836-.00000 0202 Using 4.2.18 and Table 4.4,
+.12310 2197+6.90775 5279=7.03149 211. e4.00?a0 w =e4.9e.09718w*
Example 6.
Compute In x working with 16D for with an error of 1X 10- , 9'
Linear interpolation ves e-m718w=1.10217 6

x=1.38967 12458 179231. eCm* w= (134.28978)(1.10217 67)= 148.0111.


X
Since -- 1.00048 32583 282384=1+a, using
1.389- Example 10.
4.1.24 and Table 4.2 we compute succeseivdy
Compute e" to 18D for
a= .OOO48 32583 282384 x= .86725 13489 24685 12693.
Let a=x-.867. Using 4.2.1, compute succw
- 2E L . 1167 693059 sively
1 . m o 00000 00000 oO000
aa=
3 .
376199 a= .OOO25 13489 24685 12693
a*
--
a' 315 88140 97019
--=-
A *
136 21- -
L

aa
--
In (l+a)= .00048 31415 965388 2646 54842
31- *

In 1.389 = .32858 40637 722067 a4


_- 16630
In x= .32906 72053 687455. 4!- *

Example 7. eO=l.oO025 13805 15472 81184


e*@'=2.37976 08513 29496 863 from Table 4.
Compute the principal value of In ( f 2 f3i).
From 4.1.2, 4.1.3 and Tablee 4.2 and 4.14. eOe.@7=e"=2.38035 90768 39006 089.
1 3 Example 11.
In (2+3i)=~In (21+3')+i arctan 3
Compute ew to 7s.
=1.282475+;(.982794)
X X
Let n=-
In 10 and d=the decimal part of In 10a-

In (-2+3i)=3 1 In 13+i (\
r-arctan -
23, Then
=1.282475+i(2.158799) exp x=exp
( "10 In 10)=exp [(n+d)In 101
I n

In (-2-33)=2 1 In 13+i --n+arctan 3


( 3,
=exp (ln 10") exp (dln 10)
=1.282475- i(2.158799) =lo" exp (d In 10)
1 From Table 4.4
In (2-3i)=-ln 13+i -arctan
2 ( (%In
In 10 lO)=exp (281.4228242 In 10)
=1.282475- i(.982794).
Example 8. exp (.42282 42 In 10)=10281exp .97358 8'
Compute (.227).08to 7D. =1W1(2.647428)= (281)2.647428.
Using 4.2.7 and Tablee 4.2 and 4.4,
Example 12.
(.227).~=~.60in (.227),e.w(--1.18280 OQ)
Com ute e-= for x=.75 using the expansion ii
-
-e-1.0)81a .35946 60. T:
Chebya ev polynomials.
ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FCJNCTIONE) 91
Following the procedure in [4.3] we have from Example 15.
4.2.48
7 Compute sin x and cos x for x=2.317 to 7D.
e-"=xAkE(X) From 4.3.44 and Table 4.6
k=O
sin (2.317)=sin (r-2.317)=sin (.82459 2654)
* where c ( x ) are the Chebyshev pol nomials
defined in chapter 22. Assuming b8= iTo=O we =.73427 12
generate bt, k=7,6,5,. . .O from the recurrence
relation COS (2.317)=~0~
( ~ - 2 . 3 1 7 ) = - ~ 0 ~(.82459 2654)
b,=(42--2)bk+,--b,+,+Ak =-.67885 60.
k bk Linear interpolation for x=.8!2459 2654 gives an
7 -.OOOOO 0015 error of 9X10-*.
6 .OOOOO 0400 Example 16.
5 -..oOOOO 9560 Compute sin x for x=12.867 to 8D.
4 .00018 9959 From 4.3.16 and Tables 4.6 and 4.8
3 -.00300 9164 sin (12.867)=sin 12 cos .867+cos 12 sin .867
2 .03550 4993 =.29612 142.
1 -.27432 7449 The method of reduction to an angle in the first
0 .33520 2828 uadrant which was given in Example 15 may
%so be used.
since f(x)=bo- (22- l)b,,
Example 17.
e-.76= .33520 2828-(.5)(-27432 7449)
Compute sin x to 19D for
=.47236 6553.
x=.86725 13489 24685 12693.
Example 13. Let a=.867, @=a+&. From 4.3.16 and
Express 38'42'32'' in radians to 6D. Table 4.6
sin (&+@)=sin a cos @+cos a sin @
1'=.01745 32925 19943 29577 r
sin a=.76239 10208 07866 22598
1'=.00029 08882 08665 72159 6 2 r
COS a=.64711 66288 94312 75010
1"=.00000 48481 36811 09535 9936r
With the series expansions for sin B and cos @ we
Therefore compute successively
38'=.66322 51 r
42'=.01221 73 r 1.ooOoo 00000 00000 00000
32"=.00015 51 r A!!=-.
21 315 88140 97019
38'42'32''= .675598 r.
16630
Example 14.
Exprms x= 1.6789 radians in degrees, minutes COS@= .99999 99684 11859 19611
and seconds to the nearest tenth of a second. @= .00025 13489 24685 12693
From Table 1.1 giving the mathematical con-
stants we have 88
--- 2646 54842
3!-- a

1 r=E=57.29577
.r 95130'. . ,
1
1.6789 r=96.19388' sin @= .00025 13489 22038 57852
.19388'X 60= 11.633' sin a cos @=.76239 09967 25351 31308
.633'X 60=38.0" cos a sin ,3=.00016 26520 67105 82436
1.6789 r=96'11'38.0". & x=.76255 36487 92457 1374
*See page 11.
92 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

This procedure is equivalent to interpolation with Example 22.


Taylor's formula 3.6.4.
Compute arctan 20 and arccot 20 to 9D.
Example 18. Using 4.4.5, 4.4.8, and Table 4.14 *

In the plane triangle ABC, a=123, B=29'16',


~ = 3 2 1 ;find A, b. arctan 20=L--arctan 1/20=1.52083 7931
2
b'=~'+~'-2a~COS B= (123)'+ (321)' A
arccot 20=--arctan 20=arctan .05=.04995 8396.
-2(123)(321) COS 29'16' 2
b=221.99934 00 Example 23.
. a sin B (123)(.48887 50196)=+2708639918 Express z=3+9i in polar form.
sin A=-=
b 221.99934 00
z =x +iy =refe, where T= (x2+yo)
4,
A= 15'42'56.469''
Example 19. @=arctan Y-+2uk,
X
k is an integer. For k=O,
In the plane triangle ABC, a=4, b=7, c=9, T= (3'+9')4= &6=9.486833
find A, B, and C.
@=arctan 9/3=arctan 3=1.24904 58.
Thus 3+93=9.486833 exp (1.24904 58i).
A=.43997 5954=25'12'31.6" Example 24.
sin A=.425917709 Compute arctan x for x= 113 to 12D.
From 4.4.34 and 4.4.42 we have
arctan x=arctan (xo+h)
=48'11'22.9''
h
=arct.an xo+arctan
1+xOh+x;
h h
= 106'36'5.6' '
where the sup lementary an le must be chosen for
K B
C. As a chec we get A + +C=18000'.1". We have
Example 20. x=3=.33333 33333 33 so that h=.00033 33333 33
Compute cot x for x= .4589 to 6D. and, from Table 4.14, arctan xo=arctan .333
Since x<.5, using Table 4.9 with interpolation =.32145 05244 03. Since h -
1 +xOh+xt--
in (x-'-cot x), we find -- cot(.4589)= .00030 00300 03 we get
.4589
.155159. Therefore cot (.4589)=2.179124 -
.155159=2.023965. arctan x=.32145 05244 03+.00030 00300 03

Example 21. -.ooooo 00000 09

Compute arcsin x for x= .99511. =.32175 05543 97.


For x>.95, using Table 4.14 with interpolation
in the auxiliary function f(x) we find If x is given in the form b/a it is convenient to
use 4.4.34 in the form
T
arcsin x=s- [2(1-x)]ij(x) b b-axo
arctan -=arctan xo+arctan a-

arcsin (.99511) =;- [2(.OO489)]4f( .99511)


a
In the present example we get
a+bzo

=1.57079 6327-(.09889 388252)


(1.O0040 7951) 1 1
arctan -=arctan .333+arctan
=1.47186 2100. 3333
-+

3
ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 93
Example 25. 1 +.96035 1.96035
arctanh .96035=3 In =$In-

Compute arcsec 2.8 to 5D. 1 -.96035 .03965


Using 4.3.45 and Table 4.14 =$ In 49.44136 191
(Z2-1)l =3(3.90078 7359)= 1.950394.
arcsec z=arcsin -
z
[(2.8)'-1]4 Example 27.
arcsec 2.8=arcsin
2.8 Compute arccosh x for x=1.5368 to 6D.
=arcsin .93404 97735 Using Table 4.17
= 1.20559 arccosh x-arccosh 1.5368-
(x2-1)' - [(1.5368)2-1]' --.852346
or using 4.3.45 and Table 4.14
arccosh 1.5368= (.852346)(1.361754)l
arcsec z=arctan (z2-1)+
= (.852346)(1.166942)
arcsec 2.8=arctan 2.61533 9366
= .994638.
?r
=-- arctan .38235 95564,
2
from 4.4.3 and 4.4.8 Example 28.
= 1.570796-.365207 Compute arccosh x for x=31.2 to 5D.
= 1.20559. Using Tables 4.2 and 4.17 with l/x=1/31.2
= .03205 128205
Example 26.
arccosh 33.2-ln 31.2=.692886
Compute arctanh x for x=.96035 to 6D.
From 4.6.22 and Table 4.2 arccosh 31.2= .692886+3.440418=4.13330.

References
Texts [4.11] British Association for the Advancement of Science,
Mathematical Tables, vol. I. Circular and hyper-
[4.1] B. Carlson, M. Goldstein, Rational approximation bolic functions, exponential, sine and cosine
of functions, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory integrals, factorial function and allied functions,
LA-1943 (Los Alamos, N. Mex., 1955). Hermitian probabilit functions, 3d ed. (Cam-
[4.2] C. W. Clenshaw, Polynomial ap roximations to
elementary functions, Math. Ta&es Aids Comp.
6
bridge Univ. Press, ambridge, England, 1951).
[4.12] Chemical Rubber Com any, Standard mathematical
8, 143-147 (1954). tables, 12th ed. (Aemical Rubber Publ. Co.,
[4.3] C. W. Clenshaw, A note on the summation of Cleveland, Ohio, 1959).
Chebyshev series, Math. Tables Aids a m p . 9, [4.13] L. J. Comrie, Chambers' six-figure mathematical
118-120 (1955). tables, vol. 2 (W. R. Chambers, Ltd., London,
[4.4] G. H. Hardy, A course of pure mathematics 9th ed. England, 1949).
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Tables arcsinh 2, 052<3.5; arccosh x, 1 52<3.5;
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1916). p=3(3)15, 15D.
94 ELEMENTARY TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCMONB

(4.191 National Bureau of Standards, Table of natural [4.281 National Bureau of Standards, Table of arcsin z
logarithms for ar umenta between zero and five (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, N.Y., 1945).
to sixteen decimaf laces, 2d ed., Applied Math. arcsin z, z=0(.0001).989(.oooOl)l, 12D; auxil-
Series 31 (U.S. eovernment Printing office, iary table of f(u)- jr-arcsin (1-u)]/(2v)",
[4.20] NZZ?&eau
n, D.C., 1953). z=0(.0001)5, 16 D.
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v=O(.oooO1).0005, 13-b
[4.291 National Bureau of Standards, Tables of arctan z,
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14 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washin - ment hinting Office, Washington D.C., 1953).
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18b, z= l(.OOOl) 2.4999 15D, z=2.5(.001)4.999, [4.301 National Bureau of Standards, Table of hyperbolic
15D, z=5(.01)9.99, 12b, z= -.oooo99(.000001) sines and cosines, 2=2 to 2-10, Applied Math.
.000099, 18D, ~=-100(1)100, 199 %=-9X Series 45 (U.S. Government Printing O5ce,
10-"(10-~)9X10-1, n= 10, 9, 8, 7, 186; values of Washin@on, D.C., 1955). 2=2(.001)10, 95.
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[4.23] National Bureau of ktandards, ables of circular
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arguments, 2d rintin (Cblumbia Univ. Press, mln and arccot m/n, O<m<n<100, 12D; r e
New York, N . 3 , 1947f. tan z, cot z, tanh 2, ductions of arctan m/n, O<m<nSlOO; reduc-
coth z, 2=0(.0001)2, 8D or 8S, z=O(.l)lO, tions of arctan n for reducible nS2089.
10D. (4.37) U.S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic
[4.25] National Bureau of Standards, Tabie of sines and Survey, Natural sines and cosines to eight decimal
cosines to fifteen decimal places at hundredths of places, S ial Publication No. 231 (U.S. Gov-
a degree, Ap lied Math. Series 5 (U.S. Government ernment E k i n g Office Washington, D,C., 1942)
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COB 2, ~ = 0 ~ ( . 0 1 ~ ) 915D;
0 ~ , supplementary table
[4.38] C. E. Van Orstrand, .r)ables of the exponentiai*
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t4.27) National Bureau of Standards Tables of functions trigonometrical functions (G. E. Stechert & Co.,
and of ienm of functions, dollected short tables New York, N.Y., 1905); loglo 2, 2=1(1)1OOOOO;
of the Com utation Laboratory, Applied Math.
series. 37 ~u.s.Government Printing office, logarithms of the trigonometrical functions for
Washngton, D.C., 1954). every ten seconds.
+see page 11.