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442 Brazilian Journal of Physics, vol. 32, no.

2A, June, 2002

AC Hot Carrier Transport in 3C{ and 6H{SiC in
the Terahertz Frequency and High Lattice
Temperature Regime
E. F. Bezerra, E. W. S. Caetano, V. N. Freire,

Departamento de F
sica, Universidade Federal do Cear
a, Caixa Postal 6030,

Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Cear
a, Brazil

J. A. P. da Costa,

Departamento de F
sica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,

Caixa Postal 1641, 59072-970 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

and E. F. da Silva Jr.

Departamento de F
sica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,

Cidade Universit
aria, 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

Received on 23 April, 2001

The complex mobility of electrons in 3C{ and 6H{SiC subjected to intense high frequency electric

elds is calculated taking into account e ects of band nonparabolicity. The electric .

fast transient response [14-16]. is applied along the [0001] ([111]) direction in the hexagonal (cubic) polytype. The real electron mobility presents a characteristic maximum peaking around 6{8 THz.1-100 THz.eld. while the imaginary electron mobility is struc- tured. given by a dc component plus an ac component in the frequency range 0. Silicon carbide (SiC) polytypes have attracted at. with characteristic minimum and maximum around 2{3 THz and 20{30 THz. These mobilities are seen to smooth down for higher temperatures in both polytypes. E ects of an intense tention due to their promising applications in the . respectively.

eld electric .

Mickevicius and Zhao [8] studied recti.eld were computed using Monte Carlo simu- of high power. for instance. high temperature and high frequency lations and equations based on quantum and classical devices. High power SiC-based devices. transport theories.

which was shown to be shorter than 0. They pointed out the possibility of an overshoot in electric .ers. electron transport in 6H{. 4H{. static induc. as well as sensors operat. steady state (at 300 K and 600 K) and transient regime ing in hostile environment conditions.2 oped and tested with success [1]. power MOSFETs. The SiC breakdown ps. are being devel. and 3C{SiC for the tion transistors. MESFETs. (only at 300 K). thyristors.

which was more pronounced about ten times greater than in Si and GaAs. using balance transport equations in the re- than Si [1]. and its in the 3C{ polytype. In a recent work. the electron drift velocity.eld and thermal conductivity is. the calculated di erence laxation time approximation. overshoot in the electron drift velocity for electric . 2H{. On the other hand. [14]. 4H{. respectively. showed that there is an in the total energy per atom among the 3C{. Caetano et bandgap (near to 3 eV) is almost three times greater al.

elds and 6H{SiC polytypes is a few meV [1. However. higher than 150 kV/cm. Weng and Lei [13] have calcu- further fundamental research work is still necessary for lated the room temperature terahertz complex mobility a better understanding of some basic properties of the under low ac+dc . 2].

showing the existence of frequency dependent the case of their ac{transport phenomena. peaks in the complex mobility appearing around 1{5 THz. and the ultra. which is particularly true in 6H{SiC. includ. The purpose of this work is to study the in uence ing the investigation of the steady-state regime [3-12].elds (< 50 kV/cm) for electrons in silicon carbide polytypes. tron complex mobility in 6H{ and 3C{SiC subjected . of the lattice temperature on the terahertz hot elec- high-frequency transport properties [13]. The electron transport characteristics of the various SiC polytypes were studied in the past years.

443 to a high ac+dc electric . F. Bezerra et al.E.

elds applied along the [0001] .

E ) -1 0 where (!. For -15 10 higher lattice temperatures. t) 5 5 are found solving numerically the following balance 0 transport equations: 0 -5 -5 d(!. E ) -15 E =500 kV/cm dc -10 Edc=500 kV/cm 0 1 dv(!. chosen because of their high saturation velocities.s) 2 µ I (cm /V. t)[ = 3kB T (!. and 1073 K. which depends on the frequency ! of the ac . t) . which is a surprising -30 result if we take into account the di erence between the -45 0 physical properties of the polytypes. -2 -1 tron energy. They 2 µ R (cm /V. and shows a high nonlinear behavior. and  is the time necessary for both the electron and [111] directions.eld. t) (!. (1) dt  (. 673. 5 bilities are shown to be very close. The frequency dependent carrier drift velocity and energy are calculated for lattice temperatures 300. t) qE (!. -60 Edc=250 kV/cm -5 Edc=250 kV/cm The electron energy (!. t) L -10 = qv (!. These polytypes were drift velocity and energy to arrive at the steady state. respectively.s) allow to calculate the complex mobility behavior of the 0 15 carriers in the 0. t) and drift velocity v (!. (2) dt mc p (. the 6H{ and 3C{SiC mo. t) = .1 { 100 THz ac frequency range. t)E (!. t) v(!. t)=2] is the average elec.

eld component. T (!. t) is the electron tempera.1 1 10 100 0. 0. The elec. and kB is the Boltzmann constant.1 1 10 100 tric . -3 E =800 kV/cm dc -2 Edc=800 kV/cm ture.

applied along the [0001] (hexagonal struc. t) = Edc + Eac cos(!t). ω/2π (THz) ω/2π (THz) ture) and [111] (cubic structure) directions. Eac is keep . is given by E (!.eld. In the calculations here performed.

Figure 1.xed at 200 kV/cm. and Edc . Real and imaginary mobilities of 3C{SiC for lat- the .

and = (1 mc =m0 )2 for 6H{ At 300 K. respectively. where is tures of 300. lattice temperature TL . where m0 is the free space electron mass. respectively. The peak is very small when TL = 673 K temperatures TL = 300. t) minima and the maxima are smoothed when the dc- (3) component of the . q is the electron electric charge and mc its e ective mass. 1 (Fig. E ) THz for Edc = 250 kV/cm. 673 and 1073 K. Both the (!) = R (!) + iI (!) = e dt. in Fig. which are calculated through the cally disappear for Edc = 800 kV/cm. We take into account the band nonparabolicity quencies is shown. varies in the 250 kV/cm { 800 tice temperatures 300 K (solid lines).323 eV 1 for 3C{SiC . R (! ) decreases continuously for high frequencies tron mobility calculated in the time period T is the and low enough Edc . Increasing lattice steady-state relations vss  Edc and ss  Edc obtained temperature considerably reduces the peak of the real by Weng and Cui [9] for 3C{ and 6H{SiC at lattice mobility. 673 K (dashed lines). and practi- tum relaxation times. R (! ) presents a peak around !=2  6-8 SiC. In this The Fourier transform of the time-dependent elec. 0. T  E (!. kV/cm range. These critical points are 1 v(!.  (. t) +i!t more pronounced in 3C{SiC than in 6H{SiC. 673 and 1073 K. the energy and momen.eld dc component. 2). and disappears completely when TL = 1073 K. case. The maxima in R (! ) are and p (. strongly smoothed when Edc is increased. for 3C{SiC (6H{SiC) at tempera- according the relation ~2 k 2 =2mc = (1+ ). E ) are. L is the electron thermal energy at the and 1073 K (dotted lines). The imaginary mobility I (! ) dynamic mobility: in 3C{SiC and 6H{SiC at low temperatures (300 K) presents a minimum and a maximum around 2{3 THz Z  +T and 20{30 THz. which for the 3C{ and 6H{SiC polytypes were choosed here as those given in Weng and The behavior of R (! ) and I (! ) at terahertz fre- Cui [9].

eld increases. However. the maxima where R (! ) and I (! ) are the real and imaginary always exists in the dc-electric .

T vestigated. while the minima almost disappears for Edc is the time period of the ac component of the electric = 250 kV/cm.eld intensity range in- parts of the complex electron mobility. respectively. When the lattice temperature increases. .

444 Brazilian Journal of Physics. vol. so high ac-frequency range investigated. June. 2002 the minima and maxima are considerably smoothed. 2A. the the former more remarkably than the latter. 32. However. For low results should stimulate research on how the dielectric dc-electric . no.

elds. . a high lattice temperature can pre. constant change (when the high-frequency ac electric clude the existence of minima in the imaginary compo.

J.s) µ I (cm /V.. Acknowledgments E. V. Jr. N. W. On the other hand.s) 15 Department of the Universidade Federal do Ceara dur- 0 ing the development of this work. S. are thankful to the .eld is applied to the semiconductor) to include this nent of the mobility. intensities the minima and maxima always exist at high lattice temperatures. F. F. F. Bezerra and E.. A. -15 10 P. at high Edc e ect on the transport equations. C. and E. S. Caetano acknowledge the graduate fellowships they received from the Brazil- 2 2 ian National Research Council (CNPq) at the Physics µ R (cm /V.

Appl. Appl. F. [7] E. C. O. Petersson. 965 (1999).. Persson.. Petersson. and C. Phys. 3365 (1996).00. (b). Nilsson. Persson and U. (1998). Phys. Persson. P. in 3C{SiC and 6H{SiC subjected to intense high fre. quency electric . M. Appl. U.1 1 10 100 [6] H. Rude..1 1 10 100 0. S. -10 [2] C. S. Cui.00. Nilsson. 3161 tice temperatures 300 K (solid lines). 42 -3 E =800 kV/cm dc -2 Edc=800 kV/cm (1999). J. Phys. H. E. E. T79. and C.. Hjelm. Rev. and C. 86. 83. Petersson. 12. E. Figure 2. Physica Scripta. 201. B. and P. Hjelm. U. J.nan- -30 5 cial support from CNPq and the Ministry of Planning -45 0 (FINEP) under contract FNDCT/CTPETRO-1190/00 #65. -2 -1 [5] M. -60 E =250 kV/cm -5 dc Edc=250 kV/cm References 5 5 0 0 -5 [1] C. 80. Harris and A. Sol. Phys. the complex mobility of hot electrons [10] H. Phys. 82. Appl. L. Frojdh. Kackell. I. J. P. Mickevicius and J. Stat. Real and imaginary mobilities of 6H{SiC for lat. S. 0. 161 (1997). Nilsson. Appl. 27 (1999). Zao. U.80. Nilsson and M. Nilsson. Phys. J. H. Appl. Konstantinov. -1 [4] H. ω/2π (THz) ω/2π (THz) Sannemo. 2361 (1975). Ferry. 6230 0 (1999). K. -5 T79. 5496 -15 E =500 kV/cm dc -10 Edc=500 kV/cm (1997). E. San- nemo. 85.. Hjelm.. Phys. J. Physica Scripta. Phys. M. 0 1 [3] D. J. 3211 (1999). C. and 1073 K (dotted lines). In conclusion. C. 673 K (dashed lines). Brennan. Sannemo. [9] X. H. H. [8] R. Lindefelt. Belotti. Weng and H.02. 86. E.

E. Sci. [14] E. features (maxima and minima). Bezerra. cations. 539 (2000). Solid State Communi- SiC. V. S.elds was studied. (1999). F. Freire. Phys. tron mobility behavior and its modulus are very close in both polytypes (except for Edc = 800 kV/cm). K. da Costa. Freire.. and J. E. P. (b). N. N. P. Finally. S. A. F. P. which is a consequence of a lower e ective mass in 3C. Technol. Caetano. consequently the choice between 3C{ and 6H{SiC for 14. and J. one limitation [16] E. da Silva Jr. Joshi. S. W. Physica B. The modulus of the complex mobility for 3C-SiC was always larger than in [13] X. L. Sol. N. and [15] E. Freire. M. 1007 (1999). at high enough temperatures the elec. Ferry. Tsukioka. Caetano. Bezerra.. J. and E. 579 (1995). E. However. F. J. 29. D. even with the . Braz. F. types was shown to smooth down the complex mobility 185. 785 of the present work is the fact that changes on the di. W. A. 187. Lei. 78. 5518 (1995). Semicond. Weng and X.. 113. F. J. Caetano. high temperature devices must be based on the suitabil- ity of other physical properties. Phys. V. P. of an increase in lattice temperature for the SiC poly- [12] K. da Costa. electric permitivity were not considered. The overall e ect [11] R. 466 (1993). and D. Bezerra. V. A. 6H-SiC (except for TL = 300 K and Edc = 800 kV/cm). da Silva Jr. da Costa.. Phys. Vasileska. E. da Silva Jr. F. W. E. Stat. Appl.