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dynamics

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dynamics

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(Section 14.1)

A force does work on a particle when the particle undergoes a

displacement along the line of action of the force.

and displacement components acting in

the same direction. So, if the angle

between the force and displacement

vector is q, the increment of work dU

done by the force is

dU = F ds cos q

By using the definition of the dot product r2

and integrating, the total work can be U =

written as

1-2 F dr

r1

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

WORK OF A FORCE (continued)

case) this becomes

s2

U1-2 = F cos q ds

s1

simplifies to

U1-2 = Fc cos q (s2 - s1)

same direction. If they are opposing, then the work is

negative. If the force and the displacement directions are

perpendicular, the work is zero.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

WORK OF A WEIGHT

(or weight of an object) can be calculated by using

y2

U1-2 = - W dy

y1

the particles weight and its vertical displacement. If Dy

is upward, the work is negative since the weight force

always acts downward.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

WORK OF A SPRING FORCE

develops a force of magnitude Fs = ks, where

k is the spring stiffness and s is the

displacement from the unstretched position.

s2 is s2 s2

s1 s1

particle is opposite to that exerted on the spring. Thus, the work

done on the particle by the spring force will be negative or

U1-2 = [ 0.5 k (s2)2 0.5 k (s1)2 ].

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

PRINCIPLE OF WORK AND ENERGY

(Section 14.2 & Section 14.3)

principle of work and energy can be written as

U1-2 = 0.5 m (v2)2 0.5 m (v1)2 or T1 + U1-2 = T2

U1-2 is the work done by all the forces acting on the particle as it

moves from point 1 to point 2. Work can be either a positive or

negative scalar.

T1 and T2 are the kinetic energies of the particle at the initial and final

position, respectively. Thus, T1 = 0.5 m (v1)2 and T2 = 0.5 m (v2)2.

The kinetic energy is always a positive scalar (velocity is squared!).

So, the particles initial kinetic energy plus the work done by all the

forces acting on the particle as it moves from its initial to final position

is equal to the particles final kinetic energy.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

PRINCIPLE OF WORK AND ENERGY (continued)

Note that the principle of work and energy (T1 + U1-2 = T2) is

not a vector equation! Each term results in a scalar value.

Both kinetic energy and work have the same units, that of

energy! In the SI system, the unit for energy is called a joule (J),

where 1 J = 1 Nm. In the FPS system, units are ftlb.

determine forces directed normal to the path, since these forces

do no work.

of particles by summing the kinetic energies of all particles in the

system and the work due to all forces acting on the system.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

WORK OF FRICTION CAUSED BY SLIDING

consideration.

Consider a block which is moving over a

rough surface. If the applied force P just

balances the resultant frictional force k N,

a constant velocity v would be maintained.

The principle of work and energy would be

applied as

0.5m (v)2 + P s (k N) s = 0.5m (v)2

This equation is satisfied if P = k N. However, we know from

experience that friction generates heat, a form of energy that does

not seem to be accounted for in this equation. It can be shown that

the work term (k N)s represents both the external work of the

friction force and the internal work that is converted into heat.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE

not stretched or compressed,

and the 10 kg block, which is

subjected to a force of 100 N,

has a speed of 5 m/s down

the smooth plane.

Plan: Since this problem involves forces, velocity and

displacement, apply the principle of work and energy to

determine s.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

Apply the principle of work and energy between position 1

(s1 = 0.6 m) and position 2 (s2). Note that the normal force (N)

does no work since it is always perpendicular to the

displacement. T + U = T S =0.6 m 1

1 1-2 2

S2

There is work done by three different forces;

1) work of a the force F =100 N;

UF = 100 (s2 s1) = 100 (s2 0.6)

2) work of the block weight;

UW = 10 (9.81) (s2 s1) sin 30 = 49.05 (s2 0.6)

3) and, work of the spring force.

US = - 0.5 (200) (s20.6)2 = -100 (s2 0.6)2

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

T1 + U1-2 = T2

(s2 0.6) = {-149.05 (149.052 4(-100)125)0.5} / 2(-100)

(s2 0.6) = 2.09 m

Therefore, s2 = 2.69 m

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I

down a smooth roof,

with vA=5 ft/s.

the distance d from the

wall to where the brick

strikes the ground, and

C

C its speed at C.

and determine the speeds at B and C.

2) Apply the kinematic relations in x and y-directions.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

Solution:

C

C

vC = 54.1 ft/s

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

Equation for horizontal motion

+ xC = xB + vBx tBC

d = 0 + 31.48 (4/5) tBC

d = 6.996 tBC

+ yC = yB + vBy tBC 0.5 g tBC2 C

d = 6.996 tBC = 6.996 (0.899) = 22.6 ft

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

CONSERVATIVE FORCE (Section 14.5)

independent of the path followed by the force acting on a particle

as it moves from A to B. This also means that the work done by

the force F in a closed path (i.e., from A to B and then back to A)

is zero.

F d r = 0 z F

B

A

The work done by a conservative y

force depends only on the positions

of the particle, and is independent of x

its velocity or acceleration.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

CONSERVATIVE FORCE (continued)

use of a potential function (V) and partial differential

calculus, as explained in the text. However, even without

the use of the these more complex mathematical

relationships, much can be understood and accomplished.

typically written using the potential function V. There are two

major components to V commonly encountered in mechanical

systems, the potential energy from gravity and the potential

energy from springs or other elastic elements.

Vtotal = Vgravity + Vsprings

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

POTENTIAL ENERGY

conservative force will do when a body changes position.

the potential function (V) as a function of position. The work

done by conservative forces as the particle moves equals the

change in the value of the potential function (e.g., the sum of

Vgravity and Vsprings).

potential energy and how to calculate their magnitudes.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

POTENTIAL ENERGY DUE TO GRAVITY

weight (W = mg), is the force multiplied by its elevation from a

datum. The datum can be defined at any convenient location.

Vg = W y

datum and negative if y is

below the datum. Remember,

YOU get to set the datum.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY

important to realize that the potential energy of a spring, while

it looks similar, is a different formula.

Ve (where e denotes an

elastic spring) has the distance

s raised to a power (the

result of an integration) or

1 2

Ve = ks

2

Notice that the potential

function Ve always yields

positive energy.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY (Section 14.6)

forces, the work done by these forces is conserved and the

sum of kinetic energy and potential energy remains

constant. In other words, as the particle moves, kinetic

energy is converted to potential energy and vice versa.

This principle is called the principle of conservation of

energy and is expressed as

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 = Constant

T1 stands for the kinetic energy at state 1 and V1 is the

potential energy function for state 1. T2 and V2

represent these energy states at state 2. Recall, the

kinetic energy is defined as T = mv2.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE

velocity of 2 m/s at A.

The spring constant is 400

N/m. The unstretched length

of the spring is 0.2 m.

B.

B. Set the gravitational potential energy datum at point A

or point B (in this example, choose point Awhy?).

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

. Datum Note that the potential energy at B has two

parts.

0.3 m

0.5 m VB = (VB)e + (VB)g

. VB = 0.5 (400) (0.5 0.2)2 4 (9.81) 0.4

The kinetic energy at B is

TB = 0.5 (4) vB2

Similarly, the potential and kinetic energies at A will be

VA = 0.5 (400) (0.1 0.2)2, TA = 0.5 (4) 22

The energy conservation equation becomes TA + VA = TB + VB.

[ 0.5(400) (0.5 0.2)2 4(9.81)0.4 ] + 0.5 (4) vB2

= [0.5 (400) (0.1 0.2)2 ]+ 0.5 (4) 22

vB = 1.96 m/s

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I

coaster car is

released from rest

at A.

around inside loop at B without leaving the track. Also find the

velocity of the car at C for this height, h, of A.

Plan: Note that only kinetic energy and potential energy due

to gravity are involved. Determine the velocity at B using the

equation of motion and then apply the conservation of energy

equation to find minimum height h .

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

Datum

Solution:

1) Placing the datum at A:

TA + VA = TB + VB

0.5 (800) 02 + 0

= 0.5 (800) (vB)2 800(9.81) (h 20) (1)

leave the track.

Equation of motion applied at B:

2 NB 0

v

Fn = man = m r

(vB)2 =

800 (9.81) = 800

7.5 man

mg

vB = 8.578 m/s

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

Datum

Now using the energy

conservation, eq. (1), the

minimum h can be determined.

h = 23.75 m

TA + VA = TC + VC

0.5 (800) 02 + 0 = 0.5 (800) (vC)2 800(9.81) (23.75)

VC = 21.6 m/s

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II

s = 100 mm and released.

When s = 0, the spring is

unstretched.

Assume all surfaces of contact to

be smooth. Neglect the mass of

the spring and the size of the ball.

Find: The speed of the 0.3-kg ball and the normal reaction of the

circular track on the ball when q = 60.

Plan: Determine the velocity at q = 60 using the conservation

of energy equation and then apply the equation of motion

to find the normal reaction on the ball.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)

Solution:

1) Placing the datum at A:

TA + VA = TB + VB

60

where B

Datum

TA = 0.5 (0.3) 02 A

TB = 0.5 (0.3) 02

VB = 0.3 (9.81) 1.5 (1 cos 60)

The conservation of energy equation is

0 + 0.5 (1500) 0.12 = 0.5 (0.3) (vB)2

+ 0.3 (9.81) 1.5 (1 cos 60)

vB = 5.94 m/s

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)

Free-body diagram Kinetic diagram

n W n

60 60 mat

man

t t

=

N

2

v

Fn = man = m B

r

5.942

N - 0.3 (9.81) cos 60 = 0.3

1.5

N = 8.53 N

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

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