# Chapter 7

Internal energy

and Us decreases . measured from the equilibrium point Energy in a Oscillating Spring-Mass System As the compressed spring As the stretched spring expands K of the block contracts K of the block increases. 7. and Us decreases increases.1 Potential energy of macroscopic springs Ideal Spring Potential Energy Us = (1/2)kss2 s is stretch.

Energy in a Spring Mass System • A block sliding on a frictionless system collides with a light spring • The block attaches to the spring .

1 Potential energy of macroscopic springs Flow of Energy in the Spring-Mass System (in absence of friction) ΔE = 0 → Ef = Ei → Kf + Us.2 kg is attached to a horizontal spring whose stiffness is 12 N/m.f = Ki + Us.5 m/s. a) What is the amplitude (maximum stretch) of the oscillation? b) What is the maximum speed of the block? . At t = 0 the spring has a stretch of 3 cm and the mass has a speed of 0. 7. Friction is negligible.i Example: Energy in a spring-Mass System A mass of 0.

and Us decreases increases.1 Potential energy of macroscopic springs Ideal Spring Potential Energy Us = (1/2)kss2 s is stretch. 7. and Us decreases . measured from the equilibrium point For a system of a mass and ideal spring. K of the block contracts. K of the block increases. all the state are bound states: K+U <0 Energy in a Oscillating Spring-Mass System As the compressed spring As the stretched spring expands.

7. attract each other at intermediate distances.2 Potential energy of a pair of neutral atoms Two neutral atoms interact very little when far apart. representing the potential energy of two interacting neutral atoms as a function of separation . and repel each other at very short distances The Morse potential energy function UM .

3 At separation r1.X. what is the physical significance of the quantity A? Of the quantity B? Of the quantity C? 7.2 Potential energy of a pair of neutral atoms 7.X.4 Which of the states are bound states of a two-atom system? Which are unbound states? .7.

the change in ΔU is zero Potential energy difference is A particle moves from A along independent of the path between a path and returns to A the initial and final locations. . For a round trip.3 Path independence of potential energy Path Independent of Potential Energy Change in potential energy ΔU doesn’t depend on the path taken. 7.

7. a) The block continues downward. it strikes the top of a relaxed vertical spring 0. compressing the spring.4 m in length. The stiffness of the spring is 2000 N/m.3 m above the floor. what is the speed? b) The block eventually heads upward. What is the maximum height reached by the bottom of the block above the floor? c) What approximations did you make? . When the bottom of the block is 0.4 m above the floor. When the bottom of the block is 0. loses contact with the spring.3 Path independence of potential energy Example: A Rebounding Block A metal block of mass 3 kg is moving downward with speed 2 m/s when the bottom of the block is 0. and continues upward.8 m above the floor.

” More vibration means more internal energy in the form “vibrational energy.” Internal energy = Ethermal + Erotational + Evibrational + Echemical + ….” More rotation means more internal energy in the form of “rotational energy. 7. .4 Internal energy and thermal energy Two objects with the compressed spring has more “internal energy.

If the container is well insulated (so that all of your energy input goes into increasing the energy of the water). 7. We say that the specific heat capacity of water is 4.4 (Continue) Specific Heat Capacity C per-gram Basis c = DEthermal/(mDT) m in grams Energy input of 4.2 J/K/gram Example: Energy Input Raises the Temperature You stir 12 kg of water vigorously.000 joules of work. doing 36.2 joules into a gram of water raises the temperature by 1 K. what temperature rise would you expect? .

. At these temperatures the specific heat capacity of aluminum is approximately 1. and the specific heat capacity of iron is approximately 0.42 J/K/gram. 7. Calculate Tf . Within a few minutes the two blocks reach the same common temperature Tf .4 (Continue) Example: Thermal Equilibrium A 300 gram block of aluminum at temperature 500 K is placed on a 650 gram block of iron at temperature 350 K in an insulated enclosure.0 J/K/gram.

watts) = f · v Instantaneous Power Power = F .7 Power: energy per unit time Power Energy per unit time (J/s. dr = F . 7. What is the power output of this motor? Power = 857 J/s = 857 watts . v Problem: A certain motor is capable of doing 6000 joules of work in 7 seconds.

A bank is an open system A house is an open system .8 Open and closed systems For any closed system. inflow = outflow = 0. so D Euniverse = 0 The Universe as a whole is the most important example of a closed system Open systems can all interact energetically with their surroundings. 7. so D Esystem = 0 The energy of a closed system does not change The Universe consists of all matter and energy.

mgh . W = 0 Ef = Ei + W Kf + Uf = Ki + Ui Kf = Ki + W 0 + mgh = (mvi2)/2 0 = (mvi2)/2 .7.9 The choice of system affects energy accounting DEsystem = 0 System: ball System: Earth + ball Ef = Ei + W.

7.9 The choice of system affects energy accounting DEsystem = 0 .

normal force.7.11 Potential energy and “conservative” forces Types of Forces • There are two general kinds of forces – Conservative • Work and energy associated with the force can be recovered • Examples: gravitational force. tension. spring force. air resistance . electric force – Nonconservative • The forces are generally dissipative and work done against it cannot easily be recovered • Examples: static and kinetic friction force.

Gravitational force is a conservative force.11 Potential energy and “conservative” forces Version 1 A force is conservative when the work it does on a moving object is independent of the path between the object’s initial and final positions.7. the work done by the gravitational force on the ball is: Wgravity  mg ho  h f  .

.7. starting and finishing at the same point.11 Potential energy and “conservative” forces Version 2 A force is conservative when it does no work on an object moving around a closed path. Wgravity  mg ho  h f  ho  h f A roller coaster track is an example of a closed path .