You are on page 1of 8

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY

AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

1. IGEO 2008 (Question Num. 4)

Energy futures and sustainability
Study the source material below.
Using the material provided below, answer the multiple choice questions
1, 2 and 3, then respond to questions 4, 5 and 6.

Energy from renewable sources is regarded as an important contributor to
sustainable development. Different places have different distributions of
natural resources suitable for energy generation, and different patterns of
human activity in different countries lead to different patterns of energy
consumption per capita.

Please answer the three multiple choice questions by writing the
number of the right alternative, 1, 2, 3 or 4 on your answer sheet.

1 1m In terms of energy supply, the mature industrial economies shown in
source 1:
1. have uniform sources and patterns of energy generation,
2. are heavily dependent (more than 2/3 of energy supply) on non
renewable fuels alone,
3. use a significant amount (more than 1/5 of energy supply) from
nuclear energy sources,
4. have exploited renewable hydro-electricity extensively (more than
1/5 of energy supply).

2 1m With reference to renewable energy (source 2), which of the following
statements is NOT true:
1. the technologies of hydroelectricity generation are well known,
but further development is dependent on reliable runoff and
suitable dam sites,
2. new technologies like wind power generation have appeared and
grown rapidly in generation capacity partly as a consequence of
the limited supply and high price of fossil fuels,
3. geothermal options, using steam driven turbines to generate
electricity, are widely available geographically, with the potential
to provide 15% of global energy needs in the next 10 years,
4. 'Bio-fuels' like ethanol additives can complement oil-based
energy, but large scale conversion of croplands to grow fuel feed-
stocks may threaten existing food supply.

. 6 4m Coal and oil provided the fossil-fuel energy drivers of industrial economies since 1780. will fuel vehicles. mature industrial countries in temperate latitudes are the only major users of oil. Write a paragraph (between 100-200 words) about wind and geothermal generation as renewable sources of industrial energy supply. although controversial. They show 1. 2. 3. Biomass. as emerging economies. Hydro power has been used as a renewable energy supply for industry for about 100 years. China and India have higher levels of consumption per capita than countries in South America. 4. provide an analysis of the global patterns of energy use as indicated in the distribution of oil consumption per capita. more than half the world's population have oil use figures per capita that are in the lowest two levels of oil consumption.3 1m The geographical patterns of global oil use per capita are distinct (source 4). only countries that have high levels of oil production have high levels of oil consumption per capita. 4 3m Explain how the global distribution of natural resources contributes to differential patterns of sustainable energy generation. 5 3m Using source 4.

there are five broad types of renewable sources of energy: the sun. Flowing water is also a product of the Earth's climate and geography. the energy can be extracted and used to generate electricity. Runoff from precipitation at higher elevations flows toward sea level in rivers. the wind. flowing water.Source 1 National geographies of energy generation. Photosynthesis stores the Sun´s energy in organic matter. trees and organic matter. for example to pump water or grind grain. Biomass is a renewable source of energy because photosynthesis constantly produces new organic matter in the growth of plants. Natural conditions of climate and geography produce wind. and its radiation can be converted to electricity.  The Sun. "Biomass" includes plants.  Water power. Historically. Modern hydro-turbines use water power to generate hydroelectricity. Domestic applications include solar water heating. . by drilling a well to reach the heat source. Solar energy is energy directly from the Sun. geothermal energy is close enough to the surface that. Historically.  Biomass.  Wind Energy. In some locations. windmills were used to supply mechanical energy. Modern day wind turbines produce electricity provided to national power grids. electricity and (increasingly) liquid fuels. water wheels used the power of flowing water to turn grinding stones and to run mechanical equipment. biomass and heat from within the earth. 2006 source: Wikipedia Source 2 Sources of renewable energy In summary. Biomass is used to make heat.  Earth or "geothermal energy". The sun is a constant natural source of heat and light.

png .org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Wind_2006andprediction_en. http://upload. Wind currently produces just over 1% of world-wide electricity use.wikimedia. worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was over 90 gigawatts. but its predicted growth in installed capacity is greater than any other generation source in the short term.Source 3 Example of renewable energy production potential At the end of 2007.

0015 <.025 .07-.0015 http://en.02 .005-.005 .035 .015 .035-.025-.png .01-.015-.Source 4 Oil consumption per capita Consumption of crude oil barrels per capita per day by country: Oil barrels per person each day >.05-.02-.07 .05 .01 .org/wiki/Image:OilConsumptionpercapita.wikipedia.

2. On the copy of Source B1 Map B (below). mark in a different way and label one area which is likely to be affected by coastal erosion after the development is built. On the copy of Source 1 Map B (below). mark with an arrow the direction of longshore drift. Study Source 1 below first. IGEO 2012 (Question Num. 2) Impacts of Coastal Development 1. On the copy of Source 1 Map A (below).2. mark and label one area where sand is likely to accumulate after the development is built. 3. .

4. Study Source 1 in the Source Booklet. Include in your answer a range of different environmental impacts. . Identify 6 features of the proposed development shown in Source 1 Map B. Explain how each of these features will potentially impact on the natural environment. Use the table below to record your answers.

.............................................................................................................. .................... ........ 1: .................................................................................................................................. 2: ................................................................................................................................ 3: ................ briefly describe 3 other socio-economic impacts that would result from the developments in the area shown in Source B1....................................................... Apart from an increase in tourism.......... .......................................................................................................................5............................................................................................................. ........................... ...................................... .......................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................