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18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel laureate in physics. and worked on spectroscopy. Emma Swindells. came from a local textile family. Crookes worked in chemistry and physics. 1931) was an American inventor and businessman. There he was asked by physicist Julius Plücker to design an apparatus for evacuating a glass tube. Ambrose Fleming was born in Lancaster and educated at University College School. made of glass and used as a low pressure gas-discharge tube. His mother. He was a pioneer of vacuum tubes.[1] He found work in different German universities. London. He is known for inventing the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube. famous for his invention of the Geissler tube. He entered St John's College. Manchester. who has been described as America's greatest inventor. Crookes made a career of being a meteorologist and fierce lecturer for multiple studies and courses. Joseph John Thomson OM PRS[1] (/ˈtɒmsən/. inventing the Crookes tube which was made in 1875. Joseph John Thomson was born 18 December 1856 in Cheetham Hill. Sir William Crookes OM PRS (/krʊks/. Geissler descended from a long line of craftsmen in the Thüringer Wald and in Böhmen. and University College London. eventually including the University of Bonn. England. and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle. Cambridge in 1877 . Heinrich Geissler (26 May 1814 in Igelshieb – 24 January 1879) skilled glassblower and physicist. Lancashire. 17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was an English chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London. 1847 – October 18. credited with the discovery and identification of the electron. His experiments were notable for the originality of their design. Sir John Ambrose Fleming FRS[1] (29 November 1849 – 18 April 1945) was a British electrical engineer and physicist. Thomas Alva Edison (February 11.

1903 in Hamilton. and the first born west of the Mississippi River. Atanasoff's father. John Vincent Atanasoff (October 4. Iowa. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10. to the family of a prosperous merchant. the son of Anna Margaret (née Robbins) and Henry Swift DeForest. Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin was born in Murom. Herbert Hoover was born on August 10. then in Ottoman Empire. Atanasoff was born on October 4. Russia. July 29 [O. on July 29 (old style July 17). self- described "Father of Radio". Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18. best known for developing FM (frequency modulation) radio. 1964) was an American politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression. Philo Taylor Farnsworth (August 19. His mother. July 17] 1888 – July 29. 1982)[1][2] was a Russian inventor. Emma Swindells. 1874 – October 20. 1995) was an American physicist and inventor. 1971) was an American inventor and television pioneer. . in 1888. Lee de Forest (August 26. Armstrong was born in the Chelsea district of New York City. Lee de Forest was born in 1873 in Council Bluffs. Joseph John Thomson was born 18 December 1856 in Cheetham Hill. and a pioneer in the development of sound-on-film recording used for motion pictures. 1874. 1906 – March 11. New York to an electrical engineer and a school teacher. 1890 – January 31. came from a local textile family. born in 1876 in the village of Boyadzhik. 1961) was an American inventor. close to Yambol. Lancashire. Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin (Russian: Влади́мир Козьми́ч Зворы́кин. Manchester. and pioneer of television technology. engineer. Iowa. the oldest of John and Emily (Smith) Armstrong's three children. 1873 – June 30. in West Branch. 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. 1903 – June 15. Vladimir Koz'mich Zvorykin. best known for being credited with inventing the first electronic digital computer. Ivan Atanasoff was of Bulgarian origin. He is the only President born in that state.S. England.

1961) and Russell Harrison Varian The brothers showed an early interest in electricity. they grew up in a home with multiple creative influences. 1959) and Sigurd Fergus Varian were brothers who founded one of the earliest high-tech companies in Silicon Valley. Fujian. developing the mathematical models behind the explosive lenses used in the implosion-type nuclear weapon. 1903 – February 8. and after independently establishing careers in electronics and aviation they came together to invent the klystron. along with fellow scientists John Bardeen and William Shockley. Born to theosophist parents who helped lead the utopian community of Halcyon. China. telecommunications and other microwave technologies. 1898 – July 28. February 10. 1902 – October 13. to American parents Ross R. the Atanasoff–Berry computer (ABC). Walter Houser Brattain (/ˈbrætən/. 1901 – October 18. John von Neumann (December 28. Sigurd Fergus Varian (May 4. Russell Harrison Varian (April 24. Von Neumann was born Neumann János Lajos to a wealthy. acculturated and non-observant Jewish family (in Hungarian the family name comes first and his given names equate to John Louis in English). California. This was followed by a postgraduate study in physics which in 1941 resulted in a master's degree. Berry studied electrical engineering at Iowa State University and passed 1939 with a bachelor's degree. 1963) helped John Vincent Atanasoff create the first digital electronic computer in 1939. Brattain and Ottilie Houser Brattain. 1918 – October 30. 1957) During World War II he worked on the Manhattan Project. invented the point-contact transistor in December 1947. . Walter Brattain was born in Xiamen. which became a critical component of radar. 1987) was an American physicist at Bell Labs who. Clifford Edward Berry (April 19.

1910 – August 12. Shockley was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor. William Bradford Shockley Jr. February 13. Jack St. to American parents. 2005) was an American electrical engineer who took part (along with Robert Noyce) in the realization of the first integrated circuit while working at Texas Instruments (TI) in 1958. (/ˈʃɑːkli/. Clair Kilby (November 8. on May 23. May 23. California. 1923 – June 20. Kansas. 1908 – January 30. Wisconsin. Missouri. Born in Jefferson City. The three scientists were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for "their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect. the first dean of the University of Wisconsin Medical School. John Bardeen was born in Madison. 1908.[8] He was the son of Charles Russell Bardeen. and raised in his family's hometown of Palo Alto. graduating from Great Bend High School. Jack Kilby grew up and attended school in Great Bend. Shockley was born in London. 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. . 1991)[4] was an American physicist and electrical engineer. and again in 1972 with Leon N Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for a fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity known as the BCS theory. John Bardeen (/bɑːrˈdiːn/. from age three.

a still better evacuated tube (a Crookes tube). the assumption was wrong and that the flow was from negative to positive. Whatever it was. TV Channel 1's last location was 44 to 50 MHz. Crookes demonstrated this by placing a piece of metal in the tube and showing that it cast a shadow on the glass on the side opposite the cathode. one could refer to it as a "radiation". had assumed that the current flowed from the concentration arbitrarily named positive to that named negative. Aside from the shared frequency issue. this part of the VHF band was (and to a some extent still is) prone to higher levels of radio-frequency interference (RFI) than even VHF 2 (System M). Sir William crookes found the current in vacuum tubes seemed to consist of what particles? The English physicist William Crookes (1832-1919) had devised. where it struck the neighboring glass and created the glow of light. in which the electric current through a vacuum could more easily be studied. . in actual fact. Crookes had now shown that. Indeed. so the FCC reallocated the Channel 1 frequencies for public safety and land mobile use and assigned TV channels 2-13 exclusively to broadcasters. in 1876. by 1875. beginning with Benjamin Franklin.) At the time physicists did not know what an electric current might be and they could not easily tell just what it was that was moving from the cathode to the anode. (The electrical experimenters of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. with the entire band displaced upward at one point due to an early 40 MHz allocation for the FM broadcast band. During the experimental era of TV operation. so without committing oneself to any decision as to its nature. FM was moved to its current frequencies in 1946. This shared allocation was eventually found to be unworkable. so the historical Channel 1 (System M) is exclusively a US allocation artifact.Where does the channel 1 allocation and its frequency? In North American broadcast television frequencies. Neither Canada nor Mexico allocated television frequencies until 1946. the German physicist Eugen Goldstein (1850-1930) named the flow cathode rays. It seemed quite clear that the electric current started at the cathode and traveled to the anode. Channel 1 was moved around the lower VHF spectrum repeatedly. channel 1 is a former broadcast (over-the- air) television channel. it traveled in straight lines (as it cast sharp shadows). . Land Mobile Radio and television broadcasters shared the same frequencies until 1948.

what is the bandwidth of high frequencies? High frequency (HF) is the ITU designation[1] for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) between 3 and 30 megahertz (MHz). and speed of aircraft. direction. among other uses. It is also known as the decameter band or decameter wave as its wavelengths range from one to ten decameters (ten to one hundred metres). .82 MHz). government time stations. distance. and other objects. by sending out pulses of high-frequency electromagnetic waves that are reflected off the object back to the source. so communication at these frequencies is often called shortwave radio.31–25. Frequencies immediately below HF are denoted medium frequency (MF). amateur radio and citizens band services. what is radar? a system for detecting the presence. ships. Because radio waves in this band can be reflected back to Earth by the ionosphere layer in the atmosphere – a method known as "skip" or "skywave" propagation – these frequencies are suitable for long-distance communication across intercontinental distances. while the next band of higher frequencies is known as the very high frequency (VHF) band. weather stations. aviation communication. The band is used by international shortwave broadcasting stations (2. The HF band is a major part of the shortwave band of frequencies.