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INGLES 3

SEGURIDAD E HIGIENE
2014
UOCRA
Prof: Virginia Alvarez

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EL PASADO SIMPLE

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El

La forma interrogativa del pasado simple

2 PARTE CUADERNILLO INGLES AÑO 2014

Verbos Especiales. “Modals”

PRACTISE

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PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE/ MOVEMENT PREPOSITION TRADUCCION 5 .

on Sunday” Outside Fuera de Over Encima de / por encima de Since Desde Through Através To A (destinación) Toward / hacia Towards Under / Debajo de Underneath Until Hasta With con Within Dentro de (distancia / tiempo) “ I am going to traval within the next week” Without sin 6 . on TV.About Acerca de / sobre Above Encima de / por encima de Across En frente de / cruzando After Despues Against contra Along Por (una vía paralela) “Go along this street” Among Entre (en medio de) Around Alrededor de At En / a Before antes behind Detrás de / atrás de Below Debajo de / abajo de beneath Debajo de / bajo beside Al lado de / junto a Between Entre (usualmente entre 2 personas u objetos) By Por (de autoría “The book was griten by Dan Brown”) / Por (vía de transporte) “I go to school by bus” During durante Except Excepto / salvo For Para (destinatario / uso / propósito) From De (origin / remitente) In en In front of En frente de Inside Dentro de Instead of En vez de / en lugar de Into En / a / con (movimiento de entrar) “Come into my office” Like Como / parecido / igual que Near Cerca de / junto Of De (posesivo) On Sobre / en “on the table .

8. We really …………………. to the new Sting album yesterday. they …………… . Her parents ………………….. Italy ………………… very well in the last World Cup. there! 7 . 5. B: I …………. work at exactly one o’clock. at the Bluenote Café. 1. the film but she didn’t like the music. The men …………………. They……………at the Oasis. 6. the concert last night. 6 ) Complete the conversation with WAS / WASN’T / WERE / WEREN’T. I just wondered. She …………………. I think. B: How do you know? A: Because I ……………. A: Where were you last night? I phoned you but you …………… at home. It was lovely. she ……………Why? A: Oh..out with Nick.out with friends... along the beach yesterday. They ………………… to us about their trip to Madagaskar. It’s great. 9.SIMPLE PAST PRACTICE 5) Complete these sentences in the PAST TENSE. She ………………… with friends in Brighton last summer.. B: She …………. A: No. you four times last night but you were out. A: …………… Julia there? B: No. We ……………. using the correct verb : * play * enjoy * watch * listen * talk * phone * stop * walk * travel * like * stay I watched the late film on TV last night. 7.. I …………………. It was very interesting. 10. by train from Shanghai to Moscow. 4. I ……………………. 3. We …………………. It was great! 2.

We ……………… (buy) some clothes and ………………. The police ……………. we / talk (x) about school at all 12) Read the text. 4. (go) to the Police Station. (go) to the Police Station.. One boy ……………… (come) up to me and ………………. On the first day we ……………… (look) at the beautiful buildings and ……………. I ……………… (drive) to the sea with my friend. She met some nice people and every night she danced with them at the disco.... (ask) me the time.. I ………………… (hear) a noise.Did you learn to speak Italian when you were in Italy? 1.7) Complete the man’s statement with the PAST SIMPLE form of the verbs in brackets: Last night I ……………… (go) to my favorite restaurant in West Street.. 9) Complete the story. (be) nice and we ……………. I ……………… (drive) to the sea with my friend. Then they ………………(run) away. 3. I ……………. 1. 10) Make negative sentences (x) or questions (?) using the PAST TENSE: Example: he / stay (x) in a hotel He didn’t stay in a hotel. I ………………. (take) my wallet. At six o’clock we ………………. (eat) in lots of restaurants. you / learn (?) speak Italian when you were in Italy. (swim) all day. (leave) the restaurant at about 11 o’clock. the food was very good. they / arrive (?) home late yesterday 4.. Write the questions below about Tamsin’s holiday: Last September Tamsin went to Bali. but the car ……………(be) there. (turn) and ……………… (see) three boys aged about eighteen. At six o’clock we ………………. The police ……………. 5. The next day ……………… (be) very hot so we ……………. he ……………… (hit) me and I ……………… (fall) to the ground. (leave) our clothes in the car and ………………… (sunbathe) and ……………. It was very hot. It ……………. …………………………………………………………………… Last September. (be) a warm evening and I ………………. We ………………. (walk) to our car. (leave) our clothes in the car and ………………… (sunbathe) and ……………. (look) down at my watch. …………………………………………………………………… By plane. …………………………………………………………………… In a big hotel. (drive) to the sea. …………………………………………………………………… It was very hot. (eat) in lots of restaurants. Where did she go? ………………………………………………. Another boy ………………. Use the verbs in the brackets: Last year I went (go) on holiday. 8) Complete the story. (swim) all day. Use the verbs in the brackets: Last year I went (go) on holiday. When I ………………. you / ask (?) her for Caroline’s address 5. I / use / (x) the school computer yesterday 3. (walk) to our car. She was happy because she wasn’t alone. he / enjoy (x) the concert in the park 6. she / like (x) the film 2.. but the car ……………(be) there.. Bali.. (drive) to the sea. Suddenly. The next day ……………… (be) very hot so we ……………. (sleep) in the police station.. so she swam every day. In the evenings she went to different restaurants. 8 . (decide) to walk along the beach. We ……………… (buy) some clothes and ………………. (shout) for help. We………………. I ………………. (sleep) in the police station. 2. On the first day we ……………… (look) at the beautiful buildings and ……………. She went by plane and stayed in a big hotel. (be) nice and we ……………..

. 2. …………………………………… 7.. By bus.. ……………………………………… 2. How did you come to class? f. When was the beginning of term? e. You’re late. …………………………………………………………………… Some nice people. ……………………………………. Was / Were she your teacher? 9 . Who were you with at 4pm today? d. My brother and I ……………………. Toast and coffee. 7. Use past form of verb “ TO BE “: T O D A Y YESTERDAY Example: I’m at home. They wasn’t / weren’t interested in. …………………………………… 12. What was the month before last? h. What did you do last weekend? c. …………………………………… 9.Everyone is excited. He was / were a policeman. …………………………………… 10. It’s a sunny day.…………………………………… 5. Betty ……………………………. 3) Choose WAS or WERE and circle it: 1. 6. When did you learn to drive a car? a. Mary and Susan …… were ……… ill yesterday. PRACTICE: Past form of Verb “To Be “ 1) Fill in the blanks. at the football stadium on Saturday. January. 7. …………………………………… 11. 13) Match the questions with the answers: 1. The weather …………………….I’m not afraid. I’m thirsty. The news. John. The students ……………………. 5. 3. 4. …………………………………………………………………… She swam. Jane and Michael are tired. it cold yesterday? 2) Put these sentences into the PAST. …. You aren’t at school. I was / were at school. 5. 6th September. 8. last night? 3. Use WAS / WERE: 1. 2.. …………………………………………………………………… It was very good. 6.…………………………………… 8. It wasn’t / weren’t expensive. 6. I was at home……………………………… 1. 2. What did you eat for breakfast this g. morning? 8. . …………………………………… 4. On Saturday I played tennis and on Sunday I slept. She’s in the park. 5. ………………………….. …………………………………… 3. Three years ago. What did you watch on television b.. very hot last Saturday. We’re at the cinema. We was / were very happy. in Germany last summer. 4. We aren’t at work. …………………………………… 6.Paula isn’t happy. at the theater last night. 3.6. 7. Was / Were you happy? 4. They aren’t hungry.

George: No.. he ………………. They are talking about their first house. it …. George: The local shops were good. in Bolivia on business. (the weather / nice?) ……………………………… 3. George: No. Jim / at home / last night. Do you know Mike? Jane :Yes. ? 7.. (your flight / OK?) ……………………………….. it ……………………………………………… 6. ? 8) Make negative sentences using WAS / WERE: 10 . Ask her some questions using WAS or WERE: Example: (your hotel / good?) ….4) Mary spent last weekend in Madrid... 7) Make questions using WAS / WERE: 1. It was lovely there. they ……………………………………………. and then my wife and I …………in Brazil for a holiday..……………………………………. Henry : ……………… you in South America last year? Steve : Yes. 3. (the shops / expensive?) ……………………………… 5. WERE or WEREN’T in the gaps in these conversations: 1. 5) George and Sally have been married for 50 years. in the office. I think he’s sick. George: The garden was small..…………………………………………? 3. (the museums / interesting?) ……………………………… 7. at home in London last week. we weren’t there. all your friends / at your party. We …………… at Mike’s house in Cornwall. (the streets / full of people?) ……………………………… 4. ? 5. 3. it ………………………………………………. (your room / comfortable?) ……………………………… 2. ? 6. the cinema / open / on Sunday. David / here / yesterday.……………………………………. Kate and Jane / late / yesterday. Sally : No.. George: The living-room was red. you / in the football team / last year. Sally : No.was cold. WASN’T. Paula: Philip and I ………………. 1. I ………………. Sally : No. I ………………….……… Was Jim at home last night?…? 2.. You / at school / on Monday. they …………………………………………… 5. George: The kitchen was old.. ? 4. they …………………………………………… 6) Put WAS. Was your hotel good?………… 1.. it ……………………………………………….………………………………………. Philip and I ………………. Sally : No.……………………………………. (the people / friendly?) ……………………………… 8. in Portugal in the summer. Was ……. 4. Sally : No..……………………………………. Peter : …. (the city / exciting at night?) ……………………………… 6. ……………………you there? Paula: No. at Mike’s party in Oxford in the summer.. Sally : The neighbors were French. 2. Sally : Our first chairs were expensive. Paul at work today? Julie : No. 2. Use WAS or WERE and a word from the box to complete their conversation: new Italian big green cheap cold bad Example: George : The house was warm.

………………………………………… 7. 8.. an hour ago. ………………………………………… 5. I / at the restaurant.. The students are in class today but they ……………………………. Jennifer is tall now but she ……………………. Nick / in class yesterday.. last week. It is rainy today but it ……………………… yesterday. It isn’t sunny now but it ………………………………. ………………………………………… 6. It / warm / yesterday.. Kevin / at my party. Our teachers / pleased with us. The shops are open today but they …………………………. wasn’t ……… here yesterday.. ………………………………………. 9) Fill in the blanks using WAS (NOT) / WERE (NOT): 1. We / at the match / yesterday. tall two years ago. 7. 1.. Etty / on the bus. My father isn’t at home now but he ………………………………….. ………………………………………… 4. identifique todos los verbos en tiempo pasado. 8. 10.. I’m here today but I ……. Clasifíquelos en “regulares” e “irregulares” y provea su traducción. EL PASADO SIMPLE APLICADO A LA LECTOCOMPRENSION Lea el siguiente texto. ………………………………………… 3. 2. 4. 2. …… Kevin wasn’t at my party………. We aren’t hungry now but we …………………………… twenty minutes ago. Tina and Jim / late. ………………………………………. Mr. 5. 6. an hour ago. 9. 11 .. 3. My car is clean today but it …………………………………… yesterday.. Smith is angry now but he ……………………………… an hour ago. on Sunday.

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Bob stepped on Jane’s feet while they …………………………………. (not / blow) 3. (cut) my hair yesterday. 7. I met my neighbor while I ………………………………………. 5. The customer ………………………… (pay) his cheque when he dropped his credit card.. 6. I met my friend. Tommy had a nightmare while he ……………………………... so they ……………………………. (come).. 9. He ……………………………….. (sleep) when the telephone rang. It …………………………………. (not / work). C) Complete the sentences with the words in parentheses using the SIMPLE PAST or the PAST PROGRESSIVE: 1. 8. (be) in the garage. Peter fell asleep while he …………………………………… (study). Yesterday afternoon I ………………………… (go) to visit the Parker family.. (knock) on the door.. Yesterday Tom and Janice ……………………… (go) to the zoo around one. Brown burned themselves while they …………………………. Fred …………………………… (drop by) to visit me. We …………………………………. Parker …………………. (dance) when she hurt her ankle. (walk) to the lab.. (ride) her bicycle along Park St. They ………………………… (see) many kinds of animals.. He ………………………………. (stop) at a small café and …………………… (have) a cup of coffee. They were very happy. 3. He wasn’t sleeping. It was very cold. (begin) to rain. 2. Smith came in. Parker………………………... 7. I ………………………………….. They …………………………………….. 16 . She …………………………………. 6. 6. …………………. The sun ……….. (work) on their car. was not shining. (walk) home from work. (watch) TV. (be)in the yard.. The wind ……………………………………. When he ……………………………….. My husband came home a little after five. B) Fill in the blanks with a correct form. (watch) TV last night. They stayed at the zoo for two hours. I cut myself while I ……………………………………. Jane …………………………………. While I ………………………………. (watch) a movie on TV. While they …………………………… (walk) home. 5. She ………………………………. He …………………………………… (not / recover) 8. As I …………………………………. D) Fill in the blanks with a correct form of PAST CONTINUOUS: 1. 10. 4. when Mrs. 2. (call) him last night while we ……………………………………. She ………………………………… (plant) flowers in her garden. it ……………. (enjoy) the party. (change) the oil. Fred …………………………… (come) at seven. (come) home.SUBJECT : Simple Past and Past Continuous Practice A) Fill in the blanks with a correct form of PAST CONTINUOUS: 1. He was getting worse. 5.. Alice hurt herself while she ……………………………………………. 5. Mrs. 8. 7. (look) at the ceiling.. 2. He ……………………………. (study) last night. and Mrs. (bake) cookies. (skate). The barber …………………………………. (get) there around two o’clock. My roommate’s parents …………………………………. He was at home. They …………………………………. It wasn’t a stormy night. 3. He …………………………………. (shave). (rain) hard when I got up. When I ……………………. It …………………………………. I ……………………………… (study) when Fred ………………………. 4. We …………………………………. (not / shine) 2.. Sally saw a friend while she ……………………………. Sally …………………………… (eat) dinner last night when someone …………………. 6. They were having a rest.. the PAST SIMPLE or the PAST CONTINUOUS: 1. Mr.thirty. (talk) with Mary. 4. (drive) so fast when the accident happened. (talk) to my mother on the phone. (travel) in the north of Turkey when we were on holiday 9.……. (sleep) at a friend’s house. (rain) hard last night. Mr. 3.. My mother called me around five. I began to study at seven last night. He ……………………………………. They ………………………………… (study) two hours last night. 4. 7. (dance) together.

9. 10. (look) out of the window. Mrs. (fly) off the Miami Coast. While the teacher …………………………………. She …………………… (die) while she ………………………….. 2. (talk).... 5.. While they ……………………………… (travel) to China. the students …………………. (look) at an insect on the ceiling. 8. While he ………………………………. 3. (have) dinner when the electricity …………………… (go) off.. White …………………………………. Marco ……………………. I ………………………. She ………………………………… (think) of something else while you ………………. (talk) to her. E) Complete the sentences with the words in parentheses using the SIMPLE PAST or the PAST PROGRESSIVE: 1. (see) her while I …………………………………. (see) sharks approaching the swimmers. The fireman ……………………………… (fight) the fire on a balcony below when he ………………………… (hear) someone’s shouts. (drive) past a house in Main Street when she………………………(see) the ground floor on fire. 6. 17 . the pilot ……………. (run) after a bus. (keep) a diary.. I …………………………………(not / sleep) when you came in. We ………………………………. 7. 4.

men or animals? 18 . habilidad. permiso. Verbos Especiales. Los “modals” más comunes son: should – must – ought to – can – may – could – might – would-will CAN Se lo emplea para expresar la posibilidad de hacer una cosa. Se lo traduce como “poder”. Which can better adapt themselves to different climates. “Modals” Siempre van acompañados del verbo principal en su forma BASE.

Debes / Deberías recordar los hechos y actuar en consecuencia. An error of calculus on the part of the pilot may be disastrous. MUST Se emplea para indicar obligación. En algunos casos se lo puede traducir como “quizás”. Se traduce como “deber”. An error of calculus on the part of the pilot might be disastrous. SHOULD Se emplea para expresar obligación. consejo. consejo o deducción. Se lo traduce como “deber”. los hombres o los animales? COULD Se traduce como “podría”. The testing of new planes could cause accidents. para dar instrucciones. “debiera”. You ought to remember the facts and act accordingly. El motor debe ser inspeccionado una vez por semana. OUGHT TO Implica obligación y recomendación. “debería”. WILL 19 . La prueba de aviones nuevos podría causar accidentes. necesidad. “podría”. Se traduce como “poder”. Un error de cálculo por parte del piloto puede ser / quizá sea / tal vez sea desastroso. MAY Expresa permiso o posibilidad. Se traduce como “deber”. Se traduce como “podía”.¿Cuáles / Quiénes se pueden adaptar mejor a diferentes climas. Un error de cálculo por parte del piloto podría ser / quizá fuera / tal vez fuera desastroso. You should protect the surface with a film of oil. MIGHT Es el pasado de “may” pero indica una posibilidad más remota. The engine must be inspected once a week. Podemos discutir el problema. Debe proteger la superficie con una película de aceite. “tal vez”. We may discuss the problem.

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C. Health & Safety at Work A. to emphasise the correct way. important not to do it another way-the only. Your new colleague has never worked in a scientific laboratory. Tell a new employee how to dress in the regulation uniform/overalls/safety clothes for their work. Microbiology: You work in a laboratory. wear and ‘take off’ the different items of clothing Using Should/Must or the Imperative. B. Tell a new employee how to dress in the regulation uniform/overalls/safety clothes for their work. Protective Clothing: Instruct your new colleague in how to ‘put on’. Health & Safety at Work: More practice with modals Remember! Should: suggestions. request. 22 .Using Should/Must or the Imperative. wish. Using Should/Must or the Imperative. Tell a new employee how to dress in the regulation uniform/overalls/safety clothes for their work. safe way. Give them instructions on health and safety. likelihood Must: law. Lifting and Carrying: Instruct your new colleague in how to lift and carry heavy boxes or difficult objects. an opinion.

Cuando el sujeto realiza la acción el verbo está en VOZ ACTIVA./ Las cosechas fueron atacadas por langostas. La Voz Pasiva En el lenguaje técnico y científico es frecuente el empleo de la voz pasiva. Ej. Por lo tanto se la reconoce por dicha estructura: BE + PARTICIPIO PASADO./ Las langostas atacan las cosechas. The crops were attacked by locusts. Traducción de la Voz Pasiva a) Cuando va seguida de “by” + quién o qué realiza la acción (complemento agente) la traducción es literal. Ej. Se construye con alguna de las formas del verbo “to be” seguido del participio pasado del verbo principal. 23 . Locusts attack the crops. Cuando el sujeto recibe la acción el verbo está en VOZ PASIVA.

sabe la respuesta.You are supposed to know the answer. Las cartas fueron entregadas por el cartero. por una oración pasiva con “se” y el verbo en voz activa. Se supone que Ud. Se dice que el agua hierve a 212 grados Fahrenheit. c) Cuando va seguida de un infinitivo ( be + participio pasado + to + base) se traducirá por: voz pasiva impersonal + que + (sustantivo) + verbo conjugado. 24 ..The pyramids of Egypt were never used for human sacrifice. b) Cuando no lleva el complemento agente se traduce.Water is said to boil at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. . por lo general.The letters were delivered by the postman. . . Las pirámides de Egipto nunca se usaron para sacrificios humanos.

Verbs – Exercise 1 Exercise 2 1) Look at the underlined words in this paragraph.3-2008 p. 26) Chapter I Scope and Definitions 25 . 2) What is the meaning of the word ‘shall’? Have you seen it before? (Taken from ASME B31.

Antiguamente se usaba como futuro (en lugar de “Will”). irregular. 3) Find all other verbs in the sentences and say whether they are regular. a full qualification programme shall be submitted to COMPANY. future. el uso de “shall” es muy frecuente.3 Approval of alternative painting systems For SUPPLIERS already approved as per Appendix 1. and for establishing the requirements for design. CONTRACTOR shall present a full contingency plan describing all the painting systems to be used. then the proposed painting 26 . Translate them.] TEORIA En los textos técnicos. In that case. Underline the phrases with shall 2) Try to translate them with the help of a dictionary. as well as the steps to be taken. “Shall” indica una obligación. past. including planning. COMPANY reserves the right to amend the qualification programme proposed and to witness testing at any stage. Accelerated corrosion testing shall be carried out according to the latest version of ISO 20340 but with 3mm maximum corrosion from scribe line for all paint systems to be qualified for C5M atmospheres. 9) 3. If CONTRACTOR eventually fails to fulfil its qualification programme in time. Se puede traducir como “debe…” Por ejempo. and Appendix Q. examination. In parallel. (d)(5). inspection. Other testing may be required depending on the specific industrial application. In Any case. [See paras. a formal derogation shall be requested from TDO/TEC/COR. 300(d)(4). new systems can be submitted for approval to COMPANY at any time and at SUPPLIERS expenses. The owner is also responsible for designating piping in certain fluid services and for determining if a specific Quality System is to be employed. should qualification tests fail. if CONTRACTOR wishes to use any painting system which is not listed in the present General Specification. pero ha caído en desuso y en la actualidad. un deber. Qualification of alternative systems will not be considered by COMPANY unless the contingency plan is submitted. 5) Now underline all the nouns and noun phrases.(b) Responsibilities (1) Owner. in the present. (e). 4) Complete the envelopes. The owner of a piping installation shall have overall responsibility for compliance with this Code. How many complete sentences can you understand? (Taken from GS_EP_COR_450_EN p. to qualify the alternative system. outlining the reasons for a new painting system to be used. and testing which shall govern the entire fluid handling or process installation of which the piping is a part. “The valve shall be closed” “La válvula debe ser cerrada” 1) Work in groups. for approval together with the name of the third party and independent laboratory which is proposed to perform the test programme. construction. with sufficient time to allow for the testing to be carried out.

2) Try to translate them with the help of a dictionary. 27 . it is essential to check the consequences of horizontal and vertical movements at changes of direction.4. Passive voice – Exercise 1 (Taken from GS EP PVV 178 p. etc.system will be refused by COMPANY without any further discussion. 3) Now underline all the verbs and translate them. as part of the flexibility study. For the vertical parts of the piping. 9) 1) Look at these paragraphs and underline the modal verbs. If the vertical section is supported near its base. and the contingency plan will be used. be supported by the horizontal parts of the pipe. variations in length. 4. effects of wind.2 Vertical lines It is important to install a support (anywhere along the piping) for any vertical section more than 3 m high. Very high columns (suspended or riser) must be considered as special cases and be covered by a specific study taking into account: supporting structure. as a general rule. In all cases. as shown in figure 8B. guide collars with protecting saddles must be used. vibration. Figure 8/Appendix 1 shows typical examples of this type of support. Modal Verbs – Exercise 1 (Taken from GS EP PVV 178 p. 3) Now underline all the verbs and modal verbs and translate them. 4) Add them to the envelopes. 11) 1) Look at these paragraphs and underline the passive voice instances. it is essential to avoid any movement due to the wind or vibration of the supports during polymerization if bonded joints are executed on site. 2) Try to translate them with the help of a dictionary. During erection. Vertical sections of less than 3 m may. variations in length shall be permitted by an appropriate support structure.

This method is used to clamp. Por lo general aparece precedido de la partícula “to”. following Appendix 2 for the material class concerned. Su traducción dependerá del contexto en que aparece. 6. b) in order to / so as to + base = para + infinitivo . . shall be gathered in a report: • Date of assembly and realisation • Reference of the used procedure • Temperature and relative humidity recorded at the assembly time • Curing temperature and duration • Tg • Bonder and inspector names and signatures.3 Laminated assembly The piping assemblies by manual lamination shall be avoided on site.To obtain good results the treatment must be repeated daily. … Para comparar la resistencia de sustancias diferentes.3. These assemblies are performed by qualified staff. in workshop plant.In order to compare the resistance of different substances.You must use the dictionary to find the meanings. Para obtener buenos resultados el tratamiento debe repetirse diariamente. The following information. Verbos no conjugados: El Infinitivo y la Forma “ing” El Infinitivo Es la forma base del verbo. Debes usar el diccionario para encontrar los significados. concerning each laminated assembly performed on site. 4) Add them to the envelopes. flanges or collars on pipes or to make prefabricated parts. Interpretación y traducción del infinitivo a) to + base = para + infinitivo . as far as possible. … 28 .

He tried to understand. .Reading is always a pleasure for him.You must be careful in analysing this substance. b) preposición + ing . Esta sustancia hace que la reacción se detenga. . Para mejorar sus características . c) posición inicial .Psychiatrists may help more people by assisting and advising other medical professions. Leer es siempre un placer para él.This substance causes the reaction to stop. Debe ser cuidadoso al analizar esta sustancia.A microscope is an instrument used for looking at small objects. Al permitir que escape parte del vapor podemos aliviar la presión de la caldera.. El investigador le pidió que llevase a cabo el experimento y que informarse acerca del método usado. . . Los psiquiatras pueden auxiliar a mayor número de personas ayudando y aconsejando a otras profesiones médicas.. Un microscopio es un instrumento usado para mirar objetos pequeños. La forma “ing” La forma “ing” como verbo no conjugado presenta distintas traducciones según el contexto en que se encuentra. c) casos en que se traduce como “a” / “de” + infinitivo.By allowing some of the steam to escape we can relieve the pressure in the boiler..So as to improve its characteristics .. .The researcher asked him to carry out the experiment and to report the method used.I came to see you.. Trató de entender. . a) by + ing . Vine a verte. d) casos en que se agrega la palabra “que” y se traduce el infinitivo conjugándolo según el contexto. d) when + ing 29 .

When placing an object in the sun.These are the forces operating within the liquid. Derivados: Se forman agregando el sufijo “ly” (mente) a un adjetivo slow (adj) slowly (adv) lento lentamente Compuestos: Se forman a partir de la unión de dos o más palabras nowadays anyhow hoy en día de cualquier modo 30 . f) sustantivo + ing . El libro trata del nuevo y fascinante campo de la física gravitacional.The book deals with the fascinating new field of gravitational physics. a un adjetivo o a otro adverbio. We often meet at the lab. se calienta. it becomes hot. e) ing + sustantivo . Estas son las fuerzas que operan dentro del líquido.. A menudo nos encontramos en el laboratorio. Leerán el trabajo nuevamente. EL ADVERBIO Es la parte de la oración que modifica a un verbo. Los adverbios pueden ser: Simples: No se reconocen con facilidad por su forma dentro de un texto They will read the paper again. Al colocar un objeto al sol.

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(See also size of weld and throat of a fillet weld. 2) Read them and underline all the adverbs you can find. Shielding is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas.) Gas metal-arc welding (GMAW): an arc-welding process that produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work. 3) Choose one of the definitions and attempt a translation. Some variations of this process are called MIG or CO2 welding (nonpreferred terms). 3) What are they modifying? 4) Use your dictionaries to understand their meanings. ADVERBS Exercise 1 1) Below you will find some definitions taken from the list you have. 2) Use your dictionaries to understand their meanings. 32 . Exercise 2 1) Now use the same definitions to find all the adjectives. or corner joint. Petroleum refinery: an industrial plant for processing or handling of petroleum and products derived directly from petroleum. a treating plant. Fillet weld: a weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other in a lap joint. or an integrated refinery having various process units and attendant facilities. Such a plant may be an individual gasoline recovery plant. tee joint. a gas processing plant (including liquefaction). or gas mixture.

no sooner … than Disyuntivos: or. not so … as …. LOS CONECTORES Los conectores o conjunciones son palabras que usamos para unir dos o más frases o dos palabras dentro de la misma oración. not as … as …. else. While there is no difficulty in melting two different metals and mixing them together in a molten state. owing to. not only … but also …. due to. as a result of. even though. however. whether. for. furthermore. As this process takes place. providing. in case of Concesivos: although. Identify them and place them in the correct parts of the sentences so that the meaning of the text is not altered. otherwise Condicionales: if. both … and …. the two metals will not necessarily fuse properly. on the other hand. in addition to Adversativos: but. Once the joint has cooled. besides. neither … nor …. whether … or …. just as … so …. Copulativos: and. provided. this can result in 33 . liquid metal forming the weld pool starts to cool. some of the connectors in this version have been mixed up. hence. not only … but … as well. instead of. it is much more difficult to weld components made of two dissimilar materials than it is to weld those made of the same base metal. However. so. moreover. Aquí se presentan los conectores más comunes agrupados en categorías. though. in case. either … or …. nonetheless. not even if. since. instead. despite. as Comparativos: as. so that. so as not to. regardless of Conclusivos: therefore. However. yet. as though Funcionales: so. It is possible for components made of different metals to be welded together. as if. unless. as … as …. consequently Continuativos: then. problem occur once the hot. in spite of. Due to. because of. steel can be welded to copper and to brass. even if. so as to. as long as. on the contrary Causales: because. thus. in order to Recycling exercise for the following class: 1) We have already read and analyzed the text below. still.

such as cracks. powerful residual stresses can build up. However. Once the joint has cooled. 3) Underline connectors and classify them according to their theory SPECIFIC VOCABULARY 34 . In addition. As this process takes place. For instance. While there is no difficulty in melting two different metals and mixing them together in a molten state. as the metals contract at different rates (due to different coefficients of thermal expansion). but also in the wider heat-affected zone near the joint. not only in the joint. it is much more difficult to weld components made of two dissimilar materials than it is to weld those made of the same base metal. but also in the wider heat-affected zone near the joint. liquid metal forming the weld pool starts to cool. the two metals will not necessarily fuse properly. such as cracks. ANSWER KEY It is possible for components made of different metals to be welded together. problem occur once the hot. not only in the joint. steel can be welded to copper and to brass. powerful residual stresses can build up. discontinuities. this can result in discontinuities. For instance. at the heart of the weld zone. at the heart of the weld zone. as the metals contract at different rates (In addition different coefficients of thermal expansion).

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