Lecture 1 Singapore – An Unlikely Nation

Define Nation-building
 Cohesive political community
 An abiding sense of identity and common consciousness
 Process prominent in new states after decolonization and in post-conflict states

 Economic
 Political
 Social

 External
o Globalization: compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world
as a whole Internal
 Internal
o Keep Singaporeans rooted to Singapore
o Maintain mutual trust among communities: ‘The discovery of the Jemaah Islamiyah (JI)
network after 911 shocked our people. I was worried that it could break the trust between our
Muslim and other communities’. (Goh Chok Tong, 2004)
o Ensure Singapore’s economic survival
Economic globalization may be defined as the process of accelerating economic
integration which privileges market capitalism and which places considerable economic
power in the hands of transnational corporations.
 Re-structure the economy
 Strengthen external linkages
 Embracing competition

 A city-state
 Undoubted success
 Weak state but strong city
o Strong in the way we maintain law and order
o Very little control over the conditions of its existence
 Three distinguishing features
o PAP is probably the only party in the world to have had competing moderate and Communist
wings, with the moderates coming out on top
o Singapore is the only country in Southeast Asia that has consistently held free elections since
independence and also has not resorted to the imposition of military or “emergency” rule.
o Singapore has been remarkably successful economically, despite its lack of natural resources
and its almost complete dependence on the skills of its population.

racialism. o History had no practical value and the past was perceived as a hindrance (no golden past. especially a small one.  History teaching reemphasized: 1979-1995 o By 1979. o In 1984. And it is with this historical perspective that they will be able to set a direction for the future.Lecture 2 History Importance of history  History as the shaper of national identity o The long-term survival of a country. poverty. a new history syllabus was implemented at lower secondary level o Efficienty-driven phace in education: history education serving the political agenda of promoting nationalism among the multiethnic Singaporean youth  History teaching given high priority through National Education: 1995-present o National Education (NE) launched in May 1997 o Evaluate sources. history was dropped from primary school curriculum. cultural and social issues relevant to their own and other societies o Value and relevance of learning about the past and its relationship with contemporary events . corruption.’ (Lee Hsien Loong. 1989)  History as the teacher of political lessons o History need not repeat itself if we are able to draw lessons from it. with Western materialistic culture threatening to infect the younger generation. Singaporeans [should] have a sense of the past so that they can have a better appreciation of the present. Singapore had achieved full employment and double-digit growth o But there was concern that the preceding decade of rapid modernization and growth had taken their toll on the country’s cultural heritage and contributed to the erosion of its undergirding Asian values. The case of Singapore  History teaching given low priority: 1965-1978 o Educational priority was therefore geared toward imparting scientific and technical skills to support Singapore’s industrial drive. national glory. reveal vulnerable) to nation-building: Colonialism. unemployment and squalor were clearly not worth preserving o In 1972. come to judgments o Contribute to their understanding of moral. depends in large measure on a strong sense of identity.

unity and identity Define nation  A single people  A well-defined territory  Speaking the same language  Possessing a distinctive culture  Shaped to a common mould by many generations of shared historical experience The provision of a Singaporean ‘nationalism’  Pre-1941: The British and ‘Ethnic’ Nationalism o No strong indigenous Singaporean nationalism had developed to challenge British rule. and contradicted the explicit ideology of the ruling party at that time.  Encounter no nationalist war of liberation. Indian identities .  Desire was to strength ethnic identity  Drawn to political developments in motherland  Distracted by being given a voice in public forums  Displaced by Singapore’s peace and prosperity  Disallowed by the British. Malay.  Post-1945: The onset of ‘Territorial’ Nationalism o The process whereby a nationalist movement arises among the heterogeneous populations within the confines of a colonial state with the aim of taking over from the colonial power.  Ethnic tensions and rivalry increased.  Enthusiastic reception for British ‘liberators’.  A national anthem was commissioned a national flag designed  A pledge of allegiance was written  These symbols were prominently displayed and rehearsed on ceremonial occasions and were introduced into the primary schools as part of the daily routine. o To develop a local identity. exacerbated relationships with neighboring states. too valuable to give up  1941-1945: The Japanese and ‘Ethnic’ Nationalism o No strong Singaporean nationalism developed. o An emphasis on Chinese ethnicity as the basis for nationalism would have excluded a quarter of the population.Lecture 3 Origin of Nationalism Define nationalism  Sentiment of loyalty to a nation  Ideological movement for attaining an maintaining autonomy. and adopting the latter’s administrative unit as the basis of the projected ‘nation’  Post-1965: The onset of ‘Singaporean’ Nationalism o A deliberate effort in 1959 to develop some national symbols for Singapore. as opposed to Chinese.

in particular.  The ‘Continuity’ Perspective o The myth of western invincibility was not really destroyed in some cases. Said Zahari. they developed a realization that in a crisis Singapore must rely upon its own resources. the British returned to Malaya and Singapore as colonizers. the Japanese occupation during the Second World War. to become the paramount power in East Asia  Japan’s moves brought her into conflict with the US. it may be said that the Syonan years made a deep impression on those who. not decolonizers. Rajaratnam. a generation later assumed leadership of an independent Singapore. Fong Sip Chee). S. This view has been widely supported by many of Singapore’s post-war leaders (like Lee Kuan Yew. . o The war led to the launch of the Malayan Union scheme in its aftermath that resulted in Singapore’s severance from its Malayan mainland. through a programme of modernization and colonial expansion.  Food was always scarce. S. Among other things. the other major Pacific power. o The war provided valuable lessons for Singapore’s subsequent nation-building process. mobilize local menpower  Britain’s inability to provide adequate resources to Malay led to the swift defeat Period of Japanese Occupation  Japanese policy. o It is not at all certain Singapore’s wartime heroes were fighting for an independent Singapore. institutionalized ethnic distinctions and ossified communal differences. no less than Britain’s. old elites continued to be in power o Decolonization was not inevitable after the war. o Unleashed a territorial nationalism in its aftermath spearheaded by a new set of nationalist leaders. position forces correctly. Conclusion The war produced its own share of contradictions. The US saw Japanese expansionism in Asia as linked to German expansionism in Europe and responded by imposing economic sanctions on Japan Why “fortress Singapore” fell?  Local failure to construct defences.Lecture 4 A nation forged by war In Singapore. has been often been portrayed as a ‘defining moment’ in the making of the Singapore ‘nation’ Why did Japan invade Singapore?  Japan’s rise to power was brought about by the interplay of a series of international and regional forces that propelled Japan. In fact.R. The Japanese Occupation and the making of the Singapore Nation  The ‘Transformation’ Perspective o Destroyed the myth of western invincibility o Precipitated the rise of new anti-colonial elites: The war also led to the emergence of new mindset. who traced their political awakening to the Japanese Occupation. particularly in the importance of asserting its own responsibility in defense and not depending on outsiders to defend its sovereignty. and a determination to ensure that the island would never again be occupied and exploited by others. Nathan. (Again taking the longer view.

it would be governed by a moderate pro-British government that would ensure the security and accessibility of British bases there. o The Government of Lim Yew Hock (1956-1959)  Lim Yew Hock cracked down on the pro-communists before leading a more successful mission to London from March to April 1957 that saw Singapore being granted a self-governing constitution. 1955-1959 o The Government of David Marshall (1955-1956)  Weak rapport with the British  Weak governance  Weak options From April to May 1956. Failing in his mission. however. In the May 1959 elections. the PAP won 43 of the 51 seats it contested and formed the government that ruled a self-governing Singapore. and the rise of indigenous nationalism across the region. His party was defeated by the PAP.  Look Right o The Progressive Party (PP) in Power. . Marshall led an abortive mission to London to negotiate for independence for Singapore.  Increased presence as a reward of fighting Japanese  MCP starts armed struggle 1948 The British passed tough laws to constrict MCP open front activities. o Automatic registration of voters swelled the ranks of the electorate with non-English speaking voters. a dramatically altered post-war international landscape. spreading over a period of years  Look Left again: o Rendel Constitution that increased the number of elected seats from 9 to 25. Marshall resigned on his return to Singapore. Timely arrests of pro-communists within its ranks helped the moderate PAP to overcome the internal challenges and to survive politically. He was in office for only 14 months. 1948-1954  A gradual transfer of power. cost him politically at the 1959 election.  The Labour Front (LF) in Power. Singapore’s integration within Malaysia would place intolerable limitations on Britain’s use of the base.  The process of decolonization that begins in Asia in the aftermath of WW2 was brought about by a combination of post bellum political and economic fatigue in the European capitals.  The People’s Action Party (PAP) (a) Its Dilemma  Collaboration with the pro-communists  Danger of subversion from within and suppression from without (b) Its Deliverance On numerous occasions.  London had hoped that as Singapore progressed towards self.Lecture 5 Struggle for Independence Introduction  British post-war plans for redesigning Malaya and Singapore made what was previously implausible – territorial nationalism – now possible.  His repressive measures.government and eventual independence. 1946-1948  Increased potency: MCP exploited its war-time alliance relationship with the British to increase its strength and power  Increased prestige among the Chinese also increased as it assumed the leadership of the anti-Japanese resistance movement in Malaya. the moderate leadership of the PAP was nearly toppled by the radical pro-communist elements within the party. Onset of “Territorial Nationalism”  Look Left o The Malayan Communist Party (MCP) Above Ground.

North Borneo and Sarawak were merged and Malaysia was formed.  London’s reasons o Ensure their Singapore military bases should not fall into the hands of pro-communists. . It had too small a domestic market for its industrialization plans to generate jobs for its growing population.  Racial tension o The predominantly Chinese nature of its population that “just tips the balance” in favour of the Chinese would also “cause anxiety amongst the Malays” and cause them to be “dispirited and antagonized o The Chinese in Singapore disdained being discriminated against by the federal policies. Singapore. as both sides bargained hard and maneuvered tactically to improve their respective positions within the framework of the new constitutional arrangements then being established. Malaya.  Since Singapore’s separation from the Malayan Union in 1946. without the addition of the bigger common market that the Federation “hinterland” would afford upon merger o Political survival: The ruling PAP’s political position in Singapore would be untenable if independence from Britain could not be secured by 1963.  Singapore to be only the Economic Centre of Malaysia: Control over Singapore’s revenue and opening common market to Singapore On 16 September 1963.Lecture 6 Struggle for Independence The Impetus for Merger  Singapore’s reasons o Economic survival: Singapore’s economy was declining and facing intense competition. and especially in its immediate aftermath. PAP was all that the Alliance was not o PAP: left-wing and non-communal in outlook. o But KL changed its mind  Risk of a “Cuba” situation in Malaya’s backyard  Real danger of the PAP moderates losing power in Singapore Problem & Solution  The inclusion of the indigenous peoples of Borneo territories would act as a racial counterweight to Singapore’s Chinese population. o Ensure a measure of stability as the Malayan government would be responsible for Singapore’s internal security o British objective of a ‘Grand Design’ or ‘Greater Malaysia’  Kuala Lumpur’s reasons o KL not interested at first  Retard Malaya’s independence struggle. both territories had developed separately.  Complicate the consolidation of independence. although drawing its support base from a largely Chinese constituency o Alliance: right-wing and communal in its orientation. Other financial and economic benefits that were preferentially given to Malays. The Impetus for Separation  Worrying signs of the deep suspicion and innate incompatibilities that divided them had already been evident in the run-up to Malaysia. o The Race Riots in Singapore: UMNO’s intense anti-PAP campaign after the 1964 federal elections culminated in two race riots in Singapore. with a distinctly pro-Malay bias  Political Competition o The 1963 Singapore State Elections: The Alliance party supported its Singapore branches with the hope of replacing the PAP but lost badly o The 1964 Federal Elections: The PAP fielded a token team in the federal elections to challenge the MCA but won only one seat.

Singapore continued to face restrictions when trading with the rest of Malaysia o The Bank of China branch of Singapore was closed by the Central Government in Kuala Lumpur as it was suspected of funding communists. All my life. Separation  Singapore’s separation from Malaysia in August 1965 after fewer than 23
months in the Federation  The emotional trauma and crisis of the separation. my whole adult life. represented by its Prime Minister’s teary “moment of anguish”3 on national television on 9 August 1965  In a widely remembered quote.  Economic o Despite earlier agreement to establish a common market. it is a moment of anguish. I have believed in merger and unity of the two territories." . he stated: "For me.

“they kept plugging at it and we kept on learning by trial and error”  NS: overcome public resistance  Expension of SAF’s capabilities o 1st phase: quantitative expansion: army. such as many roads can be cleared to become runway.  Focusing on its capabilities and operational readiness o 3rd phase: quantum transformation. with an area of barely over 600 square kilometers  Little to no strategic defense. aging gunships and no air force  Seeking outside help: only positive response from Israel. operationally inexperienced. Simply put. navy o 2nd phase: qualitative development  Leveraging on technology: Strive tirelessly to upgrade its armory  Built from universal male conscription of two-and-a-half years. no buffer to give up and claim back later  Easy to be absorbed / conquered  No huge manpower  Ensure economic survival o Protect asset o Safeguard Singaporean’s economic future SAF  In the beginning. Singapore’s defense capabilities consist only of 2 battalions. some scholars have suspected that many in the SAF leadership are more interested in their career after the military than their time spent as an officer . security is the basic foundation on which Singapore sustain its nationhood and build its future.  Infrastructure in Singapore is also designed in case of defense.  Air force is also trained in other countries with air space much larger than that of Singapore. without a strong army force. Tony Tan put it. and restricted by training that sacrifices effectiveness for safety  Because the mandatory retirement age prevents any Singaporean from devoting his or her entire life to the military. capability to address a broad range of security challenges  Singapore’s Security Strategy o Not built on the premise of threat o Total Defence Institutional weakness of SAF  Personnel o Singapore’s multiethnic but Chinese-dominated society and unique geographical and political characteristics result in challenges in the recruitment of high-quality personnel into the army forces o SAF personnel are almost all extremely well-educated but are also very young. the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) is a high-tech military equipped with American built F- l6s and advanced.Lecture 7 Defence First and foremost. as Dr. 5000 men police force. there is no Singapore. air. Why SAF?  Ensure political survival o Uncertain neighborhood  Uneasy access to sea lanes  Uncertain relations with close neighbors: Malaysia pressure by threatening to turn off water in Johor o Small size  Singapore is among the 20 smallest countries in the world. locally produced infantry fighting vehicles.

.  Failure to use its female soldiers and officers to their maximum potential  While militaries in countries as USA are willing to accept a certain level of training-related injuries in exchange for a higher state of operational readiness in preparation of developments. we don’t want to put any of our soldiers in a difficult position where his emotions for the nation may come in conflict with his emotions for his religion. o Common experience o Inculcate in our citizen soldiers core values such as hard work. people’s national consciousness is awakened and people are more willing to participate in defense. Any such incidents quickly becomes a large scandal and frequently leads to the resignation of senior officials. because these are two very strong fundamentals. perseverance. as shown by the SAF Commandos’ expert handling of the 1991 hijacking of a Singapore Airlines plane. – Lee Hsien Loong  Fostering Singaporean identity o Through the spirit of every man fighting. this is not the case in Singapore.Lee Hsien Loong . well equipped and best trained force in all of Southeast Asia  SAF is more than capable of providing means to defend the territorial integrity of Singapore as well as conduct limited peacekeeping and support operations in and out of Southeast Asia.  Singapore’s special-operations forces are especially capable and would not require outside assistance in the face of terrorist activity inside its territory. if the SAF is called upon to defend our homeland. Achievements of SAF  Despite all the criticisms. SAF and nation-building  Safeguard the nation-state o SAF has deterred any potential aggressors from threatening Singapore’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. there can be no doubt that the SAF is the most competent. discipline. – Dr Tony Tan  Hinder o Malay minority and NS  Difficulty in developing the proper role in the military for Singapore’s Malay minority whom the government historically has seen as a security risk but who also have a strong cultural inclination toward military service  If there is a conflict. loyalty and commitment to excellence. Generations of NSmen have silently and effectively done their job. Any major injury or death during training causes a very public uproar among parents.

and at convincing capitalists that independence is in the interest of economic progress Central Provident Fund (CPF)  In operation since 1955  Structured for retirement purposes. education. town and country is aggravated by a corresponding cleavage along racial lines o Emphasizing of the material aspect of life. Government should aim therefore at fostering the re- integration of society through Nationalism.g. and even within this sphere there is no common standard of conduct. society and polity that are necessary to human existence and the means by which they can be provided. and there is a distribution of economic functions between the racial groups. maternity. the promotion of health and treatment of the sick. e.Lecture 8 Social Policy Definition of Social Policy  Welfare system that alleviates social problems: Singapore has comparable or superior standards of social welfare  Analysis of societies’ responses to social need. Labor regarded as an instrument of production o The plural society is unstable for lack of a common social. It should aim especially at bridging the gulf between natives and the modern world. and the education and training of individuals to a level that enables them fully to participate in their society  Healthcare. not meant to cover social contingencies. industry and agriculture. These basic human needs include: food and shelter. social security Colonial origins  Colonial plural economy and society o The component sections follow racial lines. nation-building via healthcare or CPF seems incompatible  Complicated by decolonization process and circumstances of gaining independence . leading to political pressures Nation-building via Social Policy  If taking a purely political and territorial perspective. Nationalism can provide an effective counter to economic forces. o Tensions caused by economic forces between different interests . death of breadwinner (contributory Social Insurance Scheme)  Post-1965 adjustments to CPF scheme o Public Housing Scheme o Residential Properties Scheme o Medisave o Education Scheme  A comprehensive social security scheme or level to manage economy? Healthcare  Immediate postwar focus: on expansion of medical facilities  Minimal government presence: comparatively low in national priorities  The National Health Plan (1983): Life expectancy at birth has risen while infant mortality rates have fallen steadily  Emerging social pressures o Aging population with limited access to savings o Raising healthcare costs o Social discontent. housing. unemployment. with the result that the economic motive is the highest factor common to all groups and prevails in its crudest form. the care and support of those unable to live a fully independent life. focused on aspects of economy.capital and labor. work injury. a sustainable and safe environment. o The mutual relations of these sections are confined to the economic sphere. sickness.

relief from income tax)  4. high-skilled. political instability and uncertainty o High population growth and high unemployment o Difficulties of merger and separation  Common market did not materialize due to competition from Malaysia and Tan Siew Sin  National concerns. oil and straits produce) to a labour-intensive industries o Initially import-substitution (ISI) and after August 1965 export-oriented manufactures (EOI) o Flagship organisations and landmarks: Singapore Airlines (1972). Singapore can successfully carry out the expansion programme Post-separation development  1950s – 1960s o Moving from entrepot trade dealing with staple products (e. it became apparent that there were structural limits to the expansion of the manufacturing sector in Singapore  The opportunities for Singapore as an export-manufacturing base were not as .g. higher value-added) industries. to a knowledge-based economy (e. tin.e. Indonesian confrontation. Changi Airport (1981). Malaysian hostility.close co-operation between employers and labour. research and development. becoming a global center for computer disk-drive industry  Yet. by the mid 1980s. that “Singapore has the basic assets for industrialization.g. open economy to foreign investment. withdraw of British military and its impact on local economy and society o Plans of Goh Keng Swee  1. chemical and aerospace underwent major technological upgradeings  Singapore found some significant production niches. e. With the resourcefulness of her people. relaxed immigration for foreign managers and technicians  3. an import-substitution industry  2. organized labour via trade unions cannot be ignored.this is the main point .Lecture 9 Economic Implications of Economy building  Transform physical landscapes  Social impact  PAP understood that only through real and substantive social and economic improvements for the working class could it survive electorally in the medium-to-long term Colonial legacies  Entrepot trading center in Southeast Asia  Industry limited to processing raw materials for trade Making Singapore economically viable  Late colonial period 1945-1965 o Anti-colonialism affected resumption of prewar economic activities. expansion of technical education and job training programmes  Rationale: Despite the political uncertainty surrounding the island-state in 1960/1. machinery.g. continued development of the Port of Singapore  Mid 1970s o From labour-intensive to capital-intensive (i. higher education) by the 1990s o 1970s to 1985: “Second Industrial Revolution”  witnessed refinements in the role of direct government investment  Some significant gains  Foreigh investment rose substantially  Industries such as electronics.g. and .g. Pioneer Industries status . an active industrial promotion programme by the Government. attractive terms (e. e. rubber.

” o This will make the Singapore population resemble more closely that of its colonial past. goods and services . extensive in middle level technology as they had been in the earlier phase of low value-added production o From 1990s: high-tech manufactures. contributed to social cohesion and political stability for the first couple of decades of independence o Continued from colonial period  Continued exposure to regional and global developments. and hence focused on individual needs. which in an earlier era were mutually reinforcing. increased competition from other countries Economy building and nation-building  Economic progress and national unity. wealth. when it was populated mostly by immigrants and transient workers. may now run counter to each other. health care. o Free enterprise system. dependent on individual initiative. o Inherent wealth inequality that is necessary for economic growth will not lead to “unity and contentment. revenue for social development: in terms of housing.overseas investment o Into 21st century  Expansion of service sectors  “one-stop” commercial and financial centre / international business hub  Important as the impact of 1997-1998 Asian crisis was. the enthusiastic official embrace of globalization and the so-called “New Economy” is the most significant feature of Singapore’s contemporary political economy  Features o Changing landscapes o Contributions and benefits: full employment by 1970s. exporter of capital . material security. and education. serving as a denationalized regional hub for inflows and outflows of labour as well as of capital.

1964 Home Ownership Scheme. is the very basis of building political capital. asset for investment/success symbol Facts  In contrast to other developed countries.  85% of the population in public housing and there remaining 15% in far more expensive private buildings PAP  Appreciation of the government’s effort. care is taken to avoid any possibility that housing provision should become a legal entitlement of citizenship .Lecture 10 Housing Why housing?  Basic needs  Tangible outcome of nation-building Colonial & before 1965  Priority given to housing low-income groups  Parts of places used for sleeping which during daytime was used for other purposes such as shops. To give all parents whose sons would have to do national service a stake in Singapore that their sons had to defend. otherwise we would not have political stability. etc  Rate of building houses affected by postwar political flux and other circumstances  Concerns that demand will push up cost of construction. of maintaining the popular support that legitimizes the government  That a successful national housing policy generates political legitimacy for the ruling government should be a truism that defies challenge  To incorporate the population is very much the motivation behind the PAP government’s promotion of “home-owning democracy” with 100 percent home ownership. he would soon conclude he would be fighting to protect the properties of wealthy. Home-owning society: “Householders should become homeowners. town builder. a source of national tensions  Change of role since 1960: flat-builder. If the soldier’s family did not own their home. The sense of ownership is vital for our new society which had no deep roots in a common historical experience” – LKY  Raising of monthly income ceiling to include more than low-income group  Relaxation of criteria  Opening of resale market in 1971  Focus on developing surrounding environments and provision of amenities and convenience  Social integration o Resettlement issues o Class integration: By removing class as a qualifying criterion. offices. the state eliminated the potential dissension of those who would have been excluded by the class-specific definition of eligibility and expanded the incorporated constituency and its own financial responsibility o Racial integration: public-housing program has been used to break up ethnically exclusive communities and mix them in housing estates 21st century  Limited supply of housing. factories. increasing demand  HDB flats priced out of reach of young generation  Income inequality  A symbol of national identity. Singapore has successfully achieved near-universal provision of public housing. However. hence limited building projects per year  Bukit Ho Swee fire in May 1961 Post 1965  Before 1964 all HDB flats for rental not purchase.

in the first phase one computer for every five students. the integrated school system. with the other they should stretch forth means of intellectual improvement  The period of 1900 to the outbreak of the Second World War was also the period which saw the growth and extension of compartmentalization of education – education in Christian mission schools. quality of teaching staff and teaching method Education for Self-Government and Independence  PAP  Parity of treatment for all languages  Bilingual education in primary schools. trilingual education in secondary schools  Use of Malayan-centered textbooks and syllabuses  Teaching of civics: In the area of education for national cohesion. and later on for every two students  The past four decades have demonstrated that education is central to the ways in which the state makes itself relevant to its citizens. control and supervision and types of management. Chinese. differences in types of curricula.Lecture 11 Education Colonial society  Raffles’ ideas: education to keep pace with commerce. government Malay schools. such as the flag raising and pledge taking ceremony in all schools. while one hand they carried to the shores of the islands the capital of their merchants. the compulsory study of civics and the emphasis on extra-curricular activities continued to be actively pursued Education for a Nation  A real need to turn out a better educated and suitably equipped workforce to meet the new manpower needs of an industrializing and modernizing economy  The aims and content of education are being reoriented to evolve an education system which will support and develop the Republic as a modern industrial nation with a cohesive multi-racial society  Thinking School Learning Nation (TSLN) 1997 onwards: A nation’s wealth in the 21st century will depend on the capacity of its people to learn. Their collective capacity to learn will determine the will-being of a nation Effect of Globalization to Education  The decade of the 1990s was also the time that the government began to realize the potential of computers to enhance learning by providing access to new information sources. differences in financial assistance. their ability to seek out new ideas and technologies. and any-time-any-where learning. and to apply them in everything they do will be the key source of economic growth. community and estate-run Chinese and Tamil school. Their imagination. Malay and Tamil. reform measures which were introduced in the previous period. IT’s potential contribution to enhancing learning has been recognized with a commitment of two billion Singapore dollars to provide. and to the ways in which it engages with the wider international community . education through the media of English. self-paced and often interactive learning.

economical. the emergence of the national school system with English as the first language for all students signaled the end of the Chinese school system  Development o Creation of a national identity o Return to cultural roots  Speak mandarin campaign 1979  LKY argued that the persistence of dialect use among school children explained by mandarin had failed to become the more widespread language among the Chinese  Television programs in dialect were replaced by mandarin to shape how language use to better reflect official policy requirement  The effort to position mandarin as the preferred household language over dialects is obviously paying off  By the mid-1980s. who are the indigenous people of Singapore.Lecture 12 Ethnicity and Language Post 1965  Stark realities: Singapore’s geo-political position. for instance. examination and attainment requirements. respond. to treat languages as a resource and to engineer language development to targeted ends  Effective bilingualism is defined as communicative competence to speak. religious. involving exposure time subject-language matching. it was clear that dialect use was more persistent than had been realized. generally along ethnic lines  Education o Equal treatment of four languages in education. Late 1970s till now  Switch to English language o The merger of Nanyang University with the University of Singapore to form NUS in 1980 effectively closed down a distinct achievement of Chinese-educated and a powerful symbol of oppositional Chinese power o Then. was implemented by a series of detailed guidelines. yet another finding was that amongst the younger generation. safeguard. understand. i. read and write in English and mandarin as first language level  The requirement of school bilingualism. bilingual policy  The basic strategy adopted by the government for dealing with the fact of pluralism and consequent multilingualism has been the adoption of a policy of equal treatment. social and cultural interest and the Malay language o Malay as national language since 1959  Defence: no call-up to Malays for NS until early 1980s  Economy: inherited colonial division of labour. support. Chinese-majority island state in a sea of Malay  Legal measures o It shall be the responsibility of the government to care for the interests of the racial and religious minorities in Singapore o The government shall exercise its functions in such manner as to recognize the special position of the Malays. foster and promote their political. educational. while less dialect was spoken. in 1987.e. and accordingly it shall be the responsibility of the government to protect. more in that group used English compared to mandarin o Increase ethnic consciousness within Asianisation 1990-1999 o Emphasizing common space in overlapping circles 2000-present  Multiracial electoral politics: In introducing the Group Representation Constituency (GRC) scheme in 1988 to insure a racially balanced Parliament with adequate minority representation  Global development and local implications: economic liberalization of China .

rather than ethnic. terms must be cultivated o Put emphasis on civic education in schools and the promotion of genuine and sustained interaction between different races o Malay-Muslim Singaporeans’ loyalty should not be called into question .Summary  Multiracial peace has provided the foundations for meaningful socio-economic and political development.  In such matters one has to find a middle path between uniformity and a certain freedom to be somewhat different  Singaporeans have to seek greater understanding of the different races. racial and religious harmony is enshrined as one of Singapore’s five shared values  Recommendations for a more suitable and meaningful multiracialism o Greater effort and resolve should be devoted to the development of the Singaporean- Singapore identity o The ethnic Chinese must also be conscious of their role as majority ethnic group – their commitment to multiracialism is critical o There should be a concerted effort to reduce the role of ethnic self-help groups in socio- economic life. religions and cultures with an appreciation of our diversity  Today. A resolve to think in national.