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qELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

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Wayne Tomasi, 5 edition

Introduction to Electronic Communications
Electricity began in 1837 when Samuel Finley Breese Morse invented A standard voice-band channel occupies approximately a 3-kHz
the first workable telegraph. bandwidth and is used for transmission of voice-quality signals;
commercial AM broadcast channels occupy approximately a 10-kHz
In 1894, Marchese Guglielmo Marconi successfully transmitted the first frequency band, and 30MHz or more of bandwidth is required for
wireless radio signals through Earth’s atmosphere. microwave and satellite radio channels.

In 1906, Lee DeForest invented the triode vacuum tube. The process of converting a frequency or band of frequencies to another
location in the total frequency spectrum is called frequency translation.
Commercial radio broadcasting began in 1920 when radio station KDKA
began broadcasting amplitude-modulated (AM) signals out of Pittsburgh, Frequency is simply the number of times a periodic motion, such as a
Pennsylvania. sine wave of voltage or current, occurs in a given period of time. Each
complete alternation of the waveform is called a cycle.
In 1931, Major Edwin Howard Armstrong patented frequency
modulation (FM). The basic unit of frequency is hertz (Hz), and one hertz equals one cycle
per second (1 Hz = 1 cps).
Commercial broadcasting of monophonic FM began in 1935.
The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is an international
The decibel (abbreviated dB) is a logarithmic unit that can be used to agency in control of allocating frequencies and services within the overall
measure ratios of virtually anything. frequency spectrum.

Zero dB-SPL is the threshold of hearing. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assigns frequencies and
communications services for free-space radio propagation.
The threshold of pain is approximately 120 dB-SPL.
Commercial FM broadcast band has been assigned the 88-MHz to 108-
dB represents the ratio of the signal level at one point in a circuit to the MHz band.
signal level at another point in a circuit.
Extremely low frequencies. Extremely low frequencies (ELFs) are
A power loss is sometimes called attenuation. signals in the 30-Hz to 300-Hz range and include ac power distribution
signals (60 Hz) and low-frequency telemetry signals.
dBm is a unit of measurement used to indicate the ratio of a power level
with respect to a fixed reference level. Voice frequencies. Voice frequencies (VFs) are signals in the 300-Hz to
3000-Hz range and include frequencies generally associated with human
When power levels are given in watts and power gains are given as speech. Standard telephone channels have a 300-Hz to 3000-Hz
absolute values, the output power is determined by simply multiplying the bandwidth and are often called voice-frequency or voice-band channels.
input power times the power gain.
Very low frequencies. Very low frequencies (VLFs) are signals in the 3-
Modulation is simply the process of changing one or more properties of kHz to 30-kHz range, which include the upper end of the human hearing
the analog carrier in proportion with the information signal. range. VLFs are used for some specialized government and military
system, such as submarine communications.
Digital transmission is a true digital system where digital pulses are
transferred between two or more points in a communications system. Low frequencies. Low frequencies (LFs) are signals in the 30-kHz to
300-kHz range and are used primarily for marine and aeronautical
Digital radio is the transmittal of digitally modulated analog carriers navigation.
between two or more points in a communications system.
Medium frequencies. Medium frequencies (MFs) are signals in the 300-
If the information is analog and the amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied kHz to 3-MHz range and are used primarily for commercial AM radio
proportional to the information signal, amplitude modulation (AM) is broadcasting (535 kHz to 1605 kHz).
produced. If the frequency (f) is varied proportional to the information
signal, frequency modulation (FM) is produced, and, if phase is varied High frequencies. High frequencies (HFs) are signals in the 3-MHz to
proportional to the information signal, phase modulation (PM) is 30-MHz range and are often referred to as short waves. Most two-way
produced. radio communications use this range.

If the information signal is digital and the amplitude (V) of the carrier is Very high frequencies. Very high frequencies (VHFs) are signals in the
varied proportional to the information signal, a digitally modulated signal 30-MHz to 300-MHz range and are used for mobile radio, marine and
known as amplitude shift keying (ASK) is produced. If the frequency (f) aeronautical communications, commercial FM broadcasting (88 MHz to
is varied proportional to the information signal, frequency shift keying 108 MHz), and commercial television broadcasting of channels 2 to 13
(FSK) is produced, and, if the phase is varied proportional to the (54 MHz to 216 MHz).
information signal, phase shift keying (PSK) is produced. If both the
amplitude and the phase are varied proportional to the information signal, Ultrahigh frequencies. Ultrahigh frequencies (UHFs) are signals in the
quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) results. 300-MHz to 3-GHz range and are used by commercial television
broadcasting of channels 14 to 83, land mobile communications services,
ASK, FSK, PSK, and QAM are forms of digital modulation. cellular telephones, certain radar and navigation systems, and microwave
and satellite radio system.
The term channel is often used to refer to a specific band of frequencies
allocated a particular service. Superhigh frequencies. Superhigh frequencies (SHFs) are signals in
the 3-GHz to 30-GHz range and include the majority of the frequencies
used for microwave and satellite radio communication systems.

Atmospheric noise is naturally occurring electrical disturbances that
Extremely high frequencies. Extremely high frequencies (EHFs) are originate within Earth’s atmosphere. Atmospheric noise is commonly
signals in the 30-GHz to 300-GHz range and are seldom used for radio called static noise.
communications except in very sophisticated, expensive, and specialized
applications. The source of most static electricity is naturally occurring electrical
conditions, such as lightning.
Infrared. Infrared frequencies are signals in the 0.3-THz to 300-THz
range and are not generally referred to as radio waves. Infrared refers to Consequently, at frequencies above 30 MHz or so, atmospheric noise
electromagnetic radiation generally associated with heat. relatively insignificant.

Visible light. Visible light includes electromagnetic frequencies that fall Extraterrestrial noise consists of electrical signals that originate from
within the visible range of humans (0.3 PHz to 3PHz). Light-wave outside Earth’s atmosphere and is therefore sometimes called deep-
communications is used with optical fiber systems. space noise.

Wavelength is the length that one cycle of an electromagnetic wave Solar noise is generated directly from the sun’s heat. There are two
occupies in space (i.e., the distance between similar points in a repetitive parts to solar noise: a quiet condition, when a relatively constant radiation
wave). intensity exists, and high intensity, sporadic disturbances caused by
sunspot activity and solar flare-ups
Wavelength is inversely proportional to the frequency of the wave and
directly proportional to the velocity of propagation (the velocity of Cosmic noise sources are continuously distributed throughout the
propagation of electromagnetic energy in free space is assumed to be the galaxies.
speed of light, 3 X 10^8 m/s).
Cosmic noise is often called black-body noise and is distributed fairly
The emission classifications are identified by a three-symbol code evenly throughout the sky.
containing a combination of letters and numbers. The first symbol is a
letter that designates the type of modulation of the main carrier. The Man-made noise is simply noise that is produced by mankind.
second symbol is a number that identifies the type of emission, and the
third symbol is another letter that describes the type of information being Man-made noise is impulsive in nature and contains a wide range of
transmitted. frequencies that are propagated through space in the same manner as
radio waves.
The bandwidth of an information signal is simply the difference
between the highest and lowest frequencies contained in the information, Man-made noise is most intense in the more densely populated
and the bandwidth of a communications channel is the difference metropolitan and industrial areas and is therefore sometimes called
between the highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will allow to industrial noise.
pass through it
Internal noise is electrical interference generated within a device or
Information theory is a highly theoretical study of the efficient use of circuit.
bandwidth to propagate information through electronic communication
systems. Information theory can be used to determine the information Shot noise is caused by the random arrival of carriers (holes and
capacity of a data communications system. electrons) at the output element of an electronic device, such as diode,
field-effect transistor, or bipolar transistor.
Information capacity is a measure of how much information can be
propagated through a communications system and is a function of Shot noise is randomly varying and is superimposed onto any signal
bandwidth and transmission line. present.

The most basic digital symbol used to represent information is the binary Shot noise is sometimes called transistor noise and is additive with
digit or bit. thermal noise.

In 1928, R. Hartley of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a useful Any modification to a stream of carriers as they pass from the input to the
relationship among bandwidth, transmission time, and information output of a device (such as from the emitter to the collector of a
capacity. transistor) produces an irregular, random variation categorized as
transit-time noise.
In 1948, mathematician Claude E. Shannon (also of Bell Telephone
Laboratories) published a paper in the Bell System Technical Journal Thermal noise is associated with the rapid and random movement of
relating the information capacity of a communications channel to electrons within a conductor due to thermal agitation.
bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.
Because this type of electron movement is totally random and in all
The higher the signal-to-noise ratio, the better the performance and the directions, it is sometimes called random noise.
higher the information capacity.
Thermal noise is present in all electronic components and
Electrical noise is defined as any undesirable electrical energy that falls communications systems.
within the passband of the signal.
The ac component produced from thermal agitation has several names,
Correlated noise exists only when a signal is present. Uncorrelated including thermal noise, because it is temperature dependent;
noise, on the other hand, is present all the time whether there is a signal Brownian noise, after its discoverer; Johnson noise, after the man who
or not. related Brownian particle movement of electron movement; and white
noise because the random movement is at all frequencies. Hence,
Uncorrelated noise is present regardless of whether there is a signal thermal noise is the random motion of free electrons within a conductor
present or not. caused by thermal agitation.

External noise is noise that is generated outside the device or circuit. To convert ‘C to Kelvin, simply add 273’; thus T = ‘C + 273’.

Correlated noise is a form of internal noise that is correlated (mutually
related) to the signal and cannot be present in a circuit unless there is a
signal.

Correlated noise is produced by nonlinear amplification and includes
harmonic and intermodulation distortion, both of which are forms of
nonlinear distortion.

Harmonic distortion occurs when unwanted harmonics of a signal are
produced through nonlinear amplification (nonlinear mixing).

The original signal is the first harmonic and is called the fundamental
frequency.

Amplitude distortion is another name for harmonic distortion.

Total harmonic distortion (TDH) is the ratio of the quadratic sum of the
rms values of all the higher harmonics to the rms value of the
fundamental.

Intermodulation distortion is the generation of unwanted sum and
difference frequencies produced when two or more signals mix in a
nonlinear device. The sum and difference frequencies are called cross
products.

Impulse noise is characterized by high-amplitude peaks of short duration
in the total noise spectrum.

As the name implies, impulse noise consists of sudden bursts of
irregularly shaped pulses that generally last between a few microseconds
and several milliseconds, depending on their amplitude and origin.

Common sources of impulse noise include transients produced from
electromechanical switches (such as relays and solenoids), electric
motors, appliances, electric lights (especially fluorescent), power lines,
automotive ignition system, poor-quality solder joints, and lightning.

Signal-to-noise power ratio (S/N) is the ratio of the signal power level to
the noise power level.

Noise factor (F) and noise figure (NF) are figures of merit used to
indicate how much the signal-to-noise ratio deteriorates as a signal
passes through a circuit or series of circuits.

Noise factor is simply a ratio of input signal-to-noise power ratio to
output signal-to-noise power ratio.

Signal Analysis and Mixing The bandwidth of a frequency spectrum is the range of frequencies
contained in the spectrum. The bandwidth is calculated by subtracting the
lowest frequency from the highest.
Signal analysis is the mathematical analysis of the frequency, bandwidth,
and voltage level of a signal.
The bandwidth of an information signal is simply the difference
between the highest and lowest frequencies contained in the information,
Electrical signals are voltage- or current-time variations that can be
and the bandwidth of a communications channel is the difference
represented by a series of sine or cosine waves.
between the highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will allow to
pass through it.
A description of a signal with respect to time is called a time-domain
representation.
When analyzing electronic communications circuits, it is often necessary
to use a rectangular pulse.
A standard oscilloscope is a time-domain instrument. The display on
the cathode ray tube (CRT) is an amplitude-versus-time representation of
The duty cycle (DC) for the waveform is the ratio of the active time of the
the signal and is commonly called a signal waveform.
pulse to the period of the waveform.
With an oscilloscope, the vertical deflection is proportional to the
Electrical power is the rate at which energy is dissipated, delivered, or
amplitude of the input signals, and horizontal deflection is a function of
used and is a function of the square of the voltage or current.
time (sweep rate).
With the discrete Fourier transform, a time-domain signal is sampled at
A description of a signal with respect to its frequency is called a
discrete times. The samples are fed into a computer where an algorithm
frequency-domain representation. A spectrum analyzer is a frequency-
computes the transform.
domain instrument.
In 1965 a new algorithm called the fast Fourier transform (FFT) was
With a spectrum analyzer, the horizontal axis represents frequency and
developed by Cooley and Tukey. With the FFT the computing time is
the vertical axis amplitude.
proportional to n log 2n rather than n^2.
Any repetitive waveform that is comprised of more than one harmonically
We can consider a communications channel to be equivalent to an ideal
related sine or cosine wave is a nonsinusoidal, complex wave.
linear-phase filter with a finite bandwidth.
To analyze a complex periodic wave, it is necessary to use a
In a communications system, bandlimiting reduces the information
mathematical series developed in 1826 by the French physicist and
capacity of the system, and, if excessive bandlimiting is imposed, a
mathematician Baron Jean Fourier. This series is appropriately called
portion of the information signal can be removed from the composite
the Fourier series.
waveform.
Fourier analysis is a mathematical tool that allows us to move back and
Mixing is the process of combining two or more signals and is an
forth between the time and frequency domains.
essential process in electronic communications.
The Fourier series is used in signal analysis to represent the sinusoidal
Linear summing occurs when two or more signals combine in a linear
components of nonsinusoidal periodic waveforms.
device, such as a passive network or a small-signal amplifier.
Any periodic waveform is comprised of an average dc component and a
In radio communications, mixing almost always implies a nonlinear
series of harmonically related sine or cosine waves.
process.
A harmonic is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. The
Nonlinear mixing occurs when two or more signals are combined in a
fundamental frequency is the first harmonic and is equal to the frequency
nonlinear device such as a diode or large-signal amplifier. With nonlinear
(repetition rate) of the waveform.
mixing, the input signals combine in a nonlinear fashion and produce
additional frequency components.
The fundamental frequency is the minimum frequency necessary to
represent a waveform.
Integer multiples of a base frequency are called harmonics.
Wave symmetry describes the symmetry of a waveform in the time
Nonlinear amplification of a single frequency results in the generation of
domain, that is, its relative position with respect to the horizontal (time)
multiples or harmonics of the frequency. If the harmonics are undesired, it
and vertical (amplitude) axes.
is called harmonic distortion. If the harmonics are desired, it is called
frequency multiplication.
If a periodic voltage waveform is symmetric about the vertical axis, it is
said to have axes, or mirror, symmetry and is called an even function.
A JFET is a special-case nonlinear device that has characteristics that
are approximately those of a square-law device.
If a periodic voltage waveform is symmetric about a line between the
vertical axis and the negative horizontal axis and passing through the
The cross products are sum and the difference frequencies.
coordinate origin, it is said to have point, or skew, symmetry and is called
an odd function.
If the cross products are undesired, it is called intermodulation
distortion. If the cross products are desired, it is called modulation.
If a periodic voltage waveform is such that the waveform for the first half
cycle repeats itself except with the opposite sign for the second half cycle,
Intermodulation distortion is the generation of any unwanted cross-
it is said to have half-wave symmetry.
product frequency when two or more frequencies are mixed in a
nonlinear device.
Frequency spectrum of a waveform consists of all the frequencies
contained in the waveform and their respective amplitudes plotted in the
frequency domain.

Synthetic quartz. and Frequency The Wien-bridge oscillator is the circuit that Hewlett and Packard used in Synthesizers their original signal generator design. signal generators to produce frequencies between 5 Hz and 1 MHz. automatic gain control (AGC) is added to the circuit. integer multiple of 360’. oscillator is also called a free-running oscillator. An oscillator is a device that produces oscillations. The close loop voltage gain is the over all voltage gain of the complete The axis that is perpendicular to the faces of the crystal is the Y. The mechanical vibrations are called bulk acoustic waves and are Frequency-determining components. Phase-Locked Loops. A self-sustaining The radio-frequency choke (RFC) is a dc short. which is change. low temperature coefficient. or crystals to allow the frequency of operation to be set or The piezoelectric effect is most pronounced in Rochelle salt. An oscillator must have a source of electrical energy. When the bridge is balanced. Hartley oscillators are used to tapped inductor. A feedback oscillator is an amplifier with a feedback loop. The open loop voltage gain is the voltage gain of the amplifier with the The longitudinal axis joining points at the ends of the crystal is called the feedback path open circuited. and high such as dc power supply. is used more often for frequency control in oscillators Power source. the difference voltage equals zero. According to the Barkhausen criterion. it is called a positive temperature coefficient. For a passive feedback network. X-cut crystals are approximately 10 times more stable that Y-cut crystals. for a feedback circuit to sustain oscillations. It is a relatively stable. generates electrical oscillations and Degenerative feedback is called negative feedback and supplies a vice versa. low- The temperature coefficient of a crystal varies depending on the type of frequency oscillator circuit that is easily tuned and commonly used in crystal cut and its operating temperature. where it is amplified. mechanical Q. bridge. To compensate for imbalances in the bridge and variations in component values due to heat. If the change in frequency is in the direction opposite to the temperature change. trigger to produce a change in the output waveform. to oscillate is to vibrate or change. An oscillator must have directly proportional to the amplitude of the applied voltage. however.Oscillators. structures. and a source of electrical power.A colpitts type oscillator using a series resonant tank circuit for improved stability A feedback oscillator generates an ac output signal of which a small portion is fed back to the input. part of a resonant circuit Oscillators that are not self-sustaining require an external input signal or to provide feedback. Oscillators that are not self-sustaining are called triggered or one-shot oscillators. Colpitts Oscillator uses a capacitive voltage divider instead of a tapped inductor to provide feedback. Amplification.or circuit with the feedback loop close and is always less than the open loop mechanical axis. which sets the fluctuating from one state to another. because of its permanence. If an oscillator is self-sustaining. An oscillator circuit must have a complete path for components. The lead-lag network and the resistive voltage divider make up a Wien The definition of oscillate is to fluctuate between two states or conditions. amplification. optical or Z-axis. . An oscillator circuit must be include at least one active device and be capable of voltage amplification. If the direction of the frequency change is the same as the temperature The feedback ratio is simply the transfer function of the feedback change. simply means that its phase aids the oscillation process and does not necessarily indicate a positive (+) or negative (-) polarity. capacitors. Frequency stability is generally given as a percentage of change in frequency from the desired value. network. frequency determination. noninverting voltage gain of amplifier. Free-running oscillators are feedback oscillators. frequency determining components such as resistors. and oscillating is the act of The ratio of the resistors in the voltage divider is 2:1. why it is the substance commonly used in crystal microphones. An electrical oscillation is a repetitive change in a voltage or current waveform. they occur at a periodic rate. the net voltage gain around the feedback loop must be unity Short-term stability is affected predominantly by fluctuations in dc of greater. the portion of the output signal to be return to the input. The Wien-bridge oscillator is an untuned RC phase shift oscillator that uses both positive and negative feedback. properties and Regenerative feedback is called positive feedback. Crystallography is the study of the form. voltage gain. Therefore. inductors. Long Term stability is a function of component aging and changes in There are four requirements for a feedback oscillator to work: the ambient temperature and humidity. and the net phase shift around the loop must be a positive operating voltages. feedback signal that inhibits oscillations from occurring. Clapp Oscillator . the feedback ratio is always less than 1. Crystal Oscillators are feedback oscillator circuits in which the LC tank circuit is replaced with a crystal for the frequency-determining Positive feedback. Piezoelectric effect occurs when oscillating mechanical stresses applied across a crystal lattice structures. where “positive” classifications of crystals. Frequency stability is the ability of an oscillator to remain at a fixed frequency and is a primary importance in communication systems. positive feedback. LC Oscillators are oscillator circuit that utilized tuned LC circuits for the frequency-determining components. it is called a negative temperature coefficient. the changes in the waveform are continuous and repetitive.

Lock range is the range of frequencies over which the PLL will accurately track or follow the frequency of the external input signal after The XR-2206 is ideally suited to communications. capacitance is enhanced when reverse biased. A phase comparator. The XR-215 is an ultrastable monolithic phase-locked-loop system The XR-2209 is a monolithic variable-frequency oscillator circuit featuring designed by EXAR Corporation for a wide variety of applications in both excellent temperature stability and a wide linear sweep range. and sweep or tone generation as well as for kilohertz. for the best frequency stability. frequency factors are quite high for crystals. a PLL is a closed-loop feedback control system in which the discrete Pierce is a good choice. and pulse waveforms with both a high degree of stability and accuracy. where it changes the VCO output frequency A varactor diode is a specially constructed diode whose internal by an amount proportional to its polarity and amplitude. or FM generation. and R is the mechanical friction loss. as well as for phase-locked-loop applications. and its input is a bias control device with two input signals: an external input frequency and the VCO signal that can be either a dc or an ac voltage. oscillator to generate the basic periodic waveform. consequently. Pull-in range is A waveform generator is an oscillator circuit that generates well-defined. (3) an optional AM modulator. A crystal oscillator module consists of a crystal-controlled oscillator and a voltage-variable component such as a varactor diode. an IC-based Pierce oscillator will suffice. A voltage-controlled oscillator is a free-running oscillator with a stable A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is an oscillator with a stable frequency of oscillation that depends on an external timing capacitance. voltage-to- freezing to boiling but is useful only a frequencies below a few hundred frequency conversion. extensively in modern electronic communications systems for performing a wide variety of functions. and (4) an output buffer amplifier to isolate the Lock range is defined as the band of frequencies centered on the VCO’s oscillator from the load and provide the necessary drive current.000 to synthesis. the capacitance of the diode can be adjusted. The lowest frequency the PLL can lock onto is called the lower capture limit. The term graded junction is often used when describing varactor diode fabrication. is a nonlinear The output from a VCO is a frequency. and the highest frequency the PLL can lock onto is called the A typical waveform generator consists of four basic sections: (1) an upper capture limit. The natural frequency is the VCO’s output frequency when the PLL is not The Pierce oscillator design develops a high output signal power while locked.1 H to well over 100H. the RLC half-bridge is the best running frequency. frequency generation. natural frequency over which a PLL can maintain frequency lock with an external input signal. and a wide variety of other electronic communications 100. Capture range is defined as the band of frequencies centered around the VCO natural frequency where the PLL can initially establish or Waveform and function generators are used extensively in acquire frequency lock with an external input signal from an unlocked communications and telemetry equipment as well as in laboratories for condition. phase-locked-loop applications when used in conjunction with an appropriate phase comparator. In essence. The open-loop gain is the product of the phase comparator gain. test and calibration equipment. Q. and control voltage. When there is no external input signal or when the feedback loop is open.000 and higher are not uncommon. Phase comparator is a frequency comparator until frequency acquisition (zero beat) is achieved. sometimes called a phase detector. function generator applications requiring sinusoidal tone. and lock. the VCO operates at a present frequency called its natural or free- However. If you need very good frequency stability and reasonably simple circuitry. including modulation. Q-factors in the range from 10. capture. L is equivalent to the mass of the crystal in vibration. and sweep or tone generation low-pass filter gain.The GT-cut crystal is almost a perfect zero-coefficient crystal from The XR-2209 is ideally suited for frequency modulation. frequency of oscillation that depends on an external bias voltage. A PLL has three operating states: free running. the The XR-2207 is ideally suited for FM. analog and digital communications systems. either the frequency or the phase of the feedback signal is the parameter of interest rather than the magnitude of the signal’s voltage or current. dissipating very little power in the crystal itself. Lock range is also manufactured by EXAR Corporation that is capable of producing high. (2) a waveshaper. FSK. quality sine. The beat frequency is amplified and when applied to the input to the voltage-controlled oscillator. timing resistance. known as tracking range. Lock range presumes that the PLL has initially The XR-2206 is a monolithic function generator integrated circuit captured and locked onto the external input signal. carrier and clock recovery. AM. and frequency lock has occurred. range. signal Typical values of L range from 0. processing. and by varying the reverse-bias voltage. then it becomes a phase comparator. the capture range expressed as a peak value. and the VCO gain. Capture range is sometimes called acquisition range. stable waveforms that can be externally modulated or swept over a given frequency range. the mechanical mass-to-friction ratio The phase-locked loop (PLL) is an extremely versatile circuit used (L/R) is quite high. choice. square. output signal. the amplifier gain. If low cost and simple digital interfacing capabilities are of primary concern. triangle. . ramp. In a crystal. instrumentation. Hold-in range is the lock range expressed as a peak value. demodulation. applications. The XR-2207 is a monolithic voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) The loop gain for a PLL is simply the product of the individual gains or integrated circuit featuring excellent frequency stability and a wide tuning transfer functions around the loop.

The goal of a digital PLL is to reproduce digital synchronization and timing signals rather than to extract information from an analog-modulated wave. With indirect frequency synthesis. 10 Hz. such as in clock recovery circuits. a feedback-controlled divider/multiplier is used to generate multiple output frequencies. With direct frequency synthesis. The minimum frequency separation between output frequencies for a synthesizer is called resolution. subtraction. 1 kHz. 100 Hz. Synthesize means to form an entity by combining parts or elements. multiple output frequencies are generated by mixing the outputs from two or more crystal-controlled frequency sources or by dividing or multiplying the output frequency from a single-crystal oscillator. Digital phase-locked loops are used to track digital pulses rather than analog signals. it is less expensive and requires fewer and less complicated filters than direct frequency synthesis. however. Prescaling is also necessary for generating frequencies greater than 100 MHz because programmable counters are not available that operate efficiently at such high frequencies. and division of a smaller number of fixed frequency sources. multiplication. and 1 Hz). The master oscillator frequency is a base frequency that is repeatedly divided by 10 to generate five additional subbase frequencies (10 kHz. Indirect frequency synthesis is slower and more susceptible to noise. . A frequency synthesizer is used to generate many output frequencies through the addition.Lock range is the range of frequencies in the vicinity of the VCO’s natural frequency over which the PLL can maintain lock with an external input signal.

The function of the preamplifier is to raise the amplitude of the source signal to a usable level while producing Amplitude Modulation is the process of changing the amplitude of a minimum nonlinear distortion and adding as little thermal noise as relatively high-frequency carrier signal in proportion with the possible. frequency carrier signal is called modulation. AM envelope.AM DSBFC-to isolate the DC power supply from radio frequency. Linear integrated-circuit function generators use a unique . thus. equal to the rms carrier voltage squared divided by the load resistance. AM modulators are nonlinear devices with two inputs and one output. rectangular. The information sources modulate the same carrier after it has been Coefficient of Modulation is a term used to describe the amount of separated into two carrier signals that are 90 degrees out of phase with amplitude change (modulation) present in an AM waveform. waveform made up of many frequencies. the modulation takes place prior to the the modulation techniques considered for stereo broadcasting of AM output element of the final stage of the transmitter. the output transistor in a transistorized transmitter. QAM is sometimes called phase-division multiplexing and was one of With low-level modulation. At 100% modulation the minimum amplitude of the modulated signal is Frequencies that are high enough to be efficiently radiated by an antenna zero. with a high input impedance. the modulation takes place in the final element of the final stage where the carrier signal is at its maximum amplitude and.the carrier is applied to the base and the modulating signal to the emitter. In high-level modulators. requires a much higher amplitude modulating signal to achieve reasonable percent modulation. requires the carrier recovery circuit to reproduce the original carrier frequency and phase and two balanced modulators to actually The average power dissipated in a load by an unmodulated carrier is demodulate the signal.modulating signal is applied directly to the collector. prior to the drain of the output FET in a FET transmitter or prior to the plate of the output tube in For now. The band of frequencies between fc and fc + fm is called upper sideband (USB). Its function is to isolate the oscillator from the high-power amplifiers. color signals in analog television broadcasting systems. Demodulation is the reverse process where the received signals are transformed back to their The preamplifier is typically a sensitive. sometimes called upward or downward modulation. which is a characteristic that makes them ideally suited for generating AM The process of impressing low-frequency information signals onto high. and any frequency within this band is called a lower Complex repetitive waveforms are complex waves made up of two or side frequency (LSF). An advantage of low-level modulation is that less modulating signal power is required to achieve a high percentage of modulation. The buffer amplifier is a low-gain. each other. carrier frequency at the same time without interferring each other. and triangular waves. Emitter modulation . in other words. quadrature AM is the modulation scheme used for encoding a vacuum-tube transmitter. Carrier shift is an indication of the average voltage of an AM modulated AM double-sideband full carrier (DSBFC) is probably the most signal. AM DSBFC is sometimes called conventional AM or simply AM. The bandwidth of an AM DSBFC wave is equal to the difference between Quadrature amplitude modulation is a form of amplitude modulation the highest upper side frequency and the lowest lower side frequency.demodulating quadrature amplitude signals percentage. and propagated through free space are commonly called radio frequencies. Collector modulator . class A linear voltage amplifier original form. side frequency (USF). or where signals from two separate information sources modulate the same two times the highest modulating signal frequency (B=2f). Non sinusoidal signal are complex waveforms comprised of two or more frequency. and the trapezoidal pattern comes to a point at one end. Percent Modulation is simply the coefficient of modulation stated as a Synchronous detection . prior to signals. One output is a single. Neutralizing capacitor . such as voice signals originating from different sources. waveforms. more harmonically related sine waves and include square. high-frequency carrier signal of constant amplitude and the second input is comprised of relatively low-frequency Trapezoidal patterns are used for observing the modulation information signals that may be a single frequency or a complex characteristics of AM transmitters.Amplitude Modulation Transmission arrangement of transistors and FET's to perform signal multiplication. and any frequency within this band is called an upper Complex modulated signals-can contain two or more unrelated frequency. Carrier shift is a form of amplitude distortion introduced when the positive and negative alternations in the AM modulated signal are not The modulated output waveform from an AM modulator is often called an equal. or simply RFs. high-input impedance linear amplifier. commonly used. The band of frequencies between fc – fm and fc is called the lower sideband (LSB). instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

With non-coherent. The third disadvantage of TRF receivers is their gains are not uniform over a very wide frequency range because of the nonuniform L/C ratios of Phase distortion is not particularly important for voice transmission the transformer coupled tank circuits in the RF amplifiers. or asynchronous. The tuned radio-frequency (TRF) receiver was one of the earliest types of AM receivers. Differential phase shift occurs when different frequencies undergo different frequencies undergo different phase shifts and may have a The preselector is a broad tuned band pass filter with an adjustable detrimental effect on a complex waveform. With a coherent. The primary disadvantage is their bandwidth is inconsistent and varies with center frequency when turned over a wide range of input frequency. between the minimum input level necessary to discern a signal and the input level that will override the receiver and produce distortion. or synchronous. The AM detector demodulates the AM wave and converts it to the original information signal. receivers. . The second disadvantage of TRF receivers is instability due to the large 1dB Compression point is defined as the output power when the RF number of RF amplifiers all tunes to the same center frequency. Third-order products often fall within the system bandwidth and produce a distortion called third-order intercept distortion. especially if the information is center frequency that is tuned to the desired carrier frequency. sophisticated radio receivers rather than noise figure. Dynamic range is the input power range over which the receiver is This is caused by a phenomenon called skin effect. shape of the modulated envelope. and the audio section simply amplifies the Equivalent noise temperature is a hypothetical value that cannot be recovered information. The mixer/converter section down-converts the receive RF frequencies to intermediate frequencies (IFs). AM demodulation is the reversed process of AM modulation. The sensitivity of a receiver is the minimum RF signal level that can be Non-coherent detection is often called envelope detection because the detected at the input to the receiver and still produce a usable information is recovered from the received waveform by detecting the demodulated information signal. an exact replica of the original source information. bandlimiting the total radio frequency spectrum to a specific desired band of frequency. encoded into the phase into the carrier as it is with phase keying modulation. Receiver sensitivity is sometimes called threshold. High frequency. frequency to intermediate frequencies. receiver. from entering the receiver. Frequency distortion can be reduced by using a square-law device. either no frequencies The corresponding reduction in the noise figure due to reduction in are generated in the receiver or the frequencies used for demodulation bandwidth is called noise figure improvement. and amplifying the received RF signal. and can generally be tolerated as long as all frequencies undergo the same amount of phase delay. Insertion loss (IL) is a parameter associated with the frequency that fall within the passband of a filter and is generally defined as the ratio of the The primary functions of the IF section are amplification and selectivity. because the human ear is relatively insensitive to phase variation. Frequency distortion is a result of harmonic and intermodulation Tuning the receiver . The primary purpose of the preselector is to provide enough intial bandlimiting to prevent a specific unwanted radio frequency. Heterodyne means to mix two frequencies together in a non linear device or to translate one frequency to another nonlinear mixing. TRF receivers are probably the simplest design radio The dynamic range of a receiver is defined as the difference in decibels receiver available today. produce at the output of the receiver. useful.. directly measured. Absolute phase shift is the total phase shift encountered by a signal slightly above or below the desired center frequency. multi stage amplifiers are susceptible to breaking into Fidelity is a measure of the ability of a communications system to oscillations. amplifier response is 1 dB less than the ideal linear-gain response. such as a FET.The ratio of two level bandwidth attenuation. It is also a parameter that is often used in low-noise. bandlimiting. It is an indication of Selectivity is a receiver parameter that is used to measure the ability of the reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio as a signal propagates through a the receiver to accept a given band of frequency and reject all others. Shape factor . Stagger Tuning .tuning the amplifier to slightly different frequency. in the front end of a receiver. Intermediate frequencies (IFs) are simply frequencies that fall somewhere between the RF and information frequencies. the frequency generated is the receiver and used for demodulation are synchronize to oscillator The noise reduction ratio achieved by reducing the bandwidth is called frequencies generated in the transmitter.the selection process of AM w/c is capable of distortion and is caused by non linear amplification. Second-order products are usually only a problem in broadband systems because they generally fall outside the bandwidth of a The RF section is the first stage of the receiver and is therefore often narrowband system. called the Amplitude distortion occurs when the amplitude-versus frequency image frequency. receiver. characteristics of a signal at the output of a receiver differ from those of the original information signal.Amplitude Modulation Reception Frequency distortion occurs when frequencies are present in a received signal that were not present in the original source information. power transferred to a load with a filter in the circuit to the power transferred to a load without the filter. bandwidth improvement (BI). The primary function of the RF section are detecting. It is also the result of nonuniform gain in Mixer Stage is a nonlinear device and its purpose is to convert radio amplifiers and filters. called receiver front end. are completely independent from the transmitter's carrier frequency.

unconditionally stable. in the receiver.the coefficient of coupling approximately 50% image-frequency rejection. frequency. The image-frequency rejection ratio (IFRR) is a numerical measure of the ability of a preselector to reject the image frequency. Sideband inversion is not detrimental to conventional double-sideband A Gilbert cell is a differential amplifier that that drives a balance AM because exactly the same information is contained in both sidebands. on board oscillator. called the Schottky barrier. tuned amplifiers that. Inductive or transformer coupling is the most common technique used The difference between the actual local oscillator frequency and the for coupling IF amplifiers. low power. self-inductance or simply inductance (L). Ganged capacitors are relatively large. the closer the RF is the image frequency. inductance (M). Intermodulation and harmonic distortion are both forms of non-linear . within a transmitter or receiver that fall somewhere between the radio frequency and the original source information frequencies. Critical coupling is the point where the reflected resistance is equal to the primary resistance and the Q of the primary tank circuit is halved and The closer the RF is to the IF.side frequencies undergo a sideband reversal The NE/SA602A is a low power VHF monolithic double balanced mixer during the heterodyning process. which prevents a portion the original source information. The audio section comprises several cascaded (LNA) as the input stage of the RF section to optimize their noise figure. Tuned primary tune secondary . balanced modulators. except that IF amplifiers equal to the intermediate frequency throughout the entire radio frequency operate over a relatively narrow. it is called low-side communication systems today. Balanced mixers are also called injection or low beat-injection. IF transformers come as specially designed tuned circuit in groundable metal packages called IF cans. if allowed to enter a receiver and mix with the local flux linkage and is directly proportional to the coefficient of coupling. One point is the desired impedance being significant enough to change the resonant frequency of location. switching cell. at the same time. change the local oscillator the IF signal is lower in amplitude than the RF input signal. fixed frequency band. audio amplifiers and one or more speakers. oscillator. Double spotting is caused by poor front-end selectivity or inadequate Optimum coupling . and voltage regulator. the preselector and. Gang tuning means that the two adjustments are mechanically tied This loss is called conversion loss (or sometimes called conversion together so that a single adjustment will change the center frequency of gain) because of frequency conversion occurred and at the same time. with input amplifier. expensive. and The ability of one coil to induce a voltage in another coil is called mutual they are somewhat difficult to compensate. band. it is called local oscillator tank circuit to sustain oscillations.IF section consists of a series of IF amplifiers and bandpass filters is distortion that increase the magnitude of the noise figure by adding often called IF strip. Sideband inversion . low noise. will produce a cross product frequency that is equal to the intermediate frequency. dual that. desired frequency is called tracking error. Image frequency is any frequency other than the selected radio The transfer of flux from the primary and secondary windings is called frequency carrier that. high-side injection or high-beat injection. product modulators and product detectors. the primary tuned circuit. Typically provides 18dB of gain at 45MHz. The detector is generally called audio detector or the second detector A cascoded amplifier offers higher gain and less noise than in a broadcast-band receiver because the information signals are audio conventional cascaded amplifiers. of the signal from radiating from their leads. greater than the critical value yields a good compromise between flat response and steep skirts. when used. and inaccurate. Corporation. Frequency conversion in the mixer/converter stage is identical to frequency conversion in the modulator stage of the transmitter except The NE/SA5200 is a wideband. Double spotting occurs when a receiver picks up the same station at Double peaking is cause by the reactive element of the reflected two nearby points on the receiver tuning dial. An RF amplifier is a high gain. The purpose of the detector section is to convert the IF signals back to Feedthrough capacitors offer less inductance. frequencies High Performance microwave receivers require a low-noise amplifier Audio amplifier section. is the first active stage encountered by the received signal. Self-excited mixer the mixer excites itself by feeding energy back to the When the local oscillator frequency is tuned above the RF. the frequencies are down converted rather than up gain linear integrated circuit RF amplifier manufactured by Signetics converted. correlated noise to the total noise spectrum. and the other point is called the spurious point. A MESFET is a FET with a metal-semiconductor junction at the gate of the device. Tracking is the ability of the local oscillator in the receiver to oscillate Intermediate Frequency (IF) amplifiers are relatively high gain tuned either above or below the selected radio frequency carrier by an amount amplifiers that are very similar to RF amplifiers. Balanced mixers are one of the most important circuits used in When the local oscillator is tuned below the RF. the bandwidth doubled. The ability of a coil to induce a voltage within its own winding is called The tracking error is reduced by a technique called three-point tracking.both the primary and secondary windings of the transformer t1 are tuned tank circuits. A special type of gallium arsenide FET most often used is the MESFET Intermediate frequencies simply refer to the frequencies that are used (MEsa Semiconductor FET).

the output waveform resembles a half-wave rectified signal. such as impulse noise.If the RC time is too short. A blanking circuit is another circuit option commonly used for reducing the effects of amplitude noise pulses. Forward AGC is similar to conventional AGC except that the receive signal is monitored closer to the front end of the receiver and the correction voltage is fed forward to the IF amplifiers. Delayed AGC prevents the AGC feedback voltage from reaching the RF or IF amplifiers until the RF level exceeds a predetermined magnitude. An automatic gain control (AGC) circuit compensates for minor variations in the received RF signal level. Net receiver gain includes only components within the receiver beginning at the input to the preselector. high-amplitude noise transients of short duration. the slope of the output waveform cannot follow the trailing slope of the envelope. A squelch circuit keeps the audio section of the receiver turned off or muted in the absence of a received signal. Rectifier distortion . The AGC circuit automatically increases the receiver gain for weak RF input levels and automatically decreases the receiver gain when a strong RF signal is received. can often be removed using diode limiters or clippers in the audio section of a receiver. System gain includes all the gains and losses incurred by a signal as it propagates from the transmitter output stage to the output of the detector in the receiver and includes antenna gain and transmission line and propagation losses. equally well. or the difference between the audio signal level in dBm and the RF signal level in dBm.CA3028A is a differential cascoded amplifier designed for use in communications and industrial equipment as an IF or RF amplifier at frequency from DC to 120MHz. The purpose of AGC is to allow a receiver to detect and demodulate. The purpose of a squelch circuit is to quiet a receiver in the absence of a received signal. Sporadic. Diagonal Clipping-If the RC time constant is too long. signals that are transmitted from different stations whose output power and distance from the receiver vary. . Another method of measuring signal strength relative to noise strength is called signal-to-notched noise ratio- Net receiver gain is simply the ratio of the demodulated signal level at the output of the receiver to the RF signal at the input to the receiver.

Double sideband suppressed-carrier (DSBSC) modulators . third the bandwidth. one sideband is significantly attenuated. This loss A device that performs compression and expansion is called a results in a reduced signal amplitude at the output of the receiver compandor (compressor-expander). When the reactance of the bridge arms are equal and have the SSBRC is sometimes called single-sideband reinserted carrier. the circuit is out of balance. SAW filters use acoustic energy rather than electromechanical energy to The total power transmitted necessary to produce a given signal-to-noise provide excellent performance for precise bandpass filtering. It receives different modulating signals. and then converts them back to electrical energy at its output. power. the output signal is the product of A two-frequency test signal is used for the modulating signal for which the modulation signal and the carrier. The most prevalent use of single-sideband suppressed-carrier system is with multi-channel communication systems employing frequency-division The balanced ring modulator is sometimes called a balanced lattice multiplexing (FDM) such as long-distance telephone systems. however. the sidebands removed. Three transmitter configuration are commonly used for single sideband SSBSC requires half as much bandwidth as conventional double. AM independent sideband (ISB) is a form of amplitude modulation in which a single carrier frequency is independently modulated by two Mechanical filter is a mechanically resonant transducer. the modulation envelope. The operation of the crystal filter is similar to the operation of a bridge circuit. the single sideband waveform after suppressed carrier modulation has been performed and one of the sidebands has been removed. modulation in which one sideband is totally removed and the carrier voltage is reduced to approximately 10% of its unmodulated amplitude. The signal-to-noise ratio determines the degree of intelligibility of a The carrier recovery circuit is a narrowband PLL that tracks the pilot received signal carrier in the composite SSBRC receiver signal and uses the recovered carrier to regenerate coherent local oscillator frequencies in the Peak envelope power (PEP) is the RMS power developed at the crest of synthesizer. With sideband fading.If the diodes are not perfectly matched or if the as 1914. and the so-called sideband AM and considerably less transmitted power. converts it to mechanical vibrations. ratio at the output of a receiver is a convenient and useful means of comparing the power requirement and relative performance of single. Ceramic filters are made from lead zirconate-titanate. Reduction of the carrier level of a 100%-modulated information sources into a single composite waveform that is then wave will make the carrier voltage less than the vector sum of the two transmitted over a common facility without the two channel interfering sidebands. demodulator and. third method. the acoustic wave only in one direction. The SSBFC transmissions require only half as much bandwidth as reinserted carrier is called a pilot carrier. therefore. with each other. The transmitters used for single sideband suppressed and reduced AM single-sideband full carrier (SSBFC) is a form of amplitude carrier transmission are identical except that the reinserted carrier modulation in which the carrier is transmitted at full power but only one of transmitters have an additional circuit that adds a low amplitude carrier to the sidebands is transmitted. Reduced-carrier transmission is sometimes called exalted carrier because the carrier is elevated in the receiver prior to demodulation. the signals propagating through the two possible paths of the bridge cancel each other out. electrical energy. AM modulator is a product modulator. The carrier is transmitted at full did not become commercially available until the 1970s. experience different transmission impairments. Quadrature multiplexing (QM) is a multiplexing method that uses The most common and most serious form of selective fading is carrier. United States. double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission to combine two amplitude fading.Single-Sideband Communications Systems A circuit that produces a double sideband-suppressed carrier signal is a balanced modulator.modulator circuits that inherently remove the carrier during the modulation process. . successful communications link established between England and the and the carrier is not totally suppressed. With double sideband transmission. AM vestigial sideband (VSB) is a form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier and one complete sideband are transmitted. consequently. which exhibits the piezoelectric effect.a complex structure which is used to launch sideband to conventional AM system. AM single-sideband reduced carrier (SSBRC) is a form of amplitude The crystal lattice filter is commonly used in single sideband systems. the phase-shift method. Amplitude-compandoring single sideband (ACSSB) system provide Selective fading. modulator or simply balanced modulator. same sign. Single sideband was mathematically recognized and understood as early Carrier leak . the two sidebands narrowband voice communications for land mobile services with nearly and carrier may propagate through the transmission media by different the quality achieved with FM systems and do it with less than the one paths and. generation: the filter method. conventional double sideband AM. Unidirectional transducer . a 3-dB reduced signal-to-noise ratio. The circuit where the carrier is reinserted is called linear summer if the AM single-sideband suppressed carrier (SSBSC) is a form of resistive network and a hybrid coil if the SSB waveform and the pilot amplitude modulation in which the carrier is totally suppressed and one of carrier are inductively combined in a transformer bridge circuit. not until 1923 was the first patent granted and a transformers are not exactly center tapped. the two tones have equal amplitudes. but only part of Surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters were first developed in 1960s but the second sideband is transmitted.

amplitude modulation. This is called FM thresholding. H. With multiplication method of frequency up-conversion. signal at the rate to the frequency of the modulating signal. Linear integrated circuit voltage-controlled oscillators and function generators can generate a direct FM output waveform that is relatively The instantaneous phase is the precise phase of the carrier at a given stable. 2. non crystal carrier oscillator to a crystal reference oscillator and then produces a correction voltage proportional to the difference between two With angle modulation. the frequency of the carrier and is defined as the first time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation. producing an interference known as adjacent amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating channel interference. the modulation properties of the carrier can be increased at the same time that the Frequency deviation is the change in frequency that occurs in the carrier frequency is up-converted. The instantaneous frequency is the precise frequency of the carrier at a given instant of time and is defined as the first time derivative of the With the heterodyne method. Carson's rule approximates the bandwidth necessary to transmit an angle modulated waves as twice the sum of the peak frequency deviation Angle modulation results whenever the phase angle of a sinusoidal and the highest modulating signal frequency. instant of time. FM and PM demodulators can actually reduce 3. An automatic frequency control circuit compares the frequency of the The peak-to-peak frequency deviation is sometimes called carrier swing. and in quasi-stationary approach may be used. Carson mathematically proved that for a modulating-signal frequency. The purpose of the AFC loop is to achieve near crystal stability of the transmit carrier frequency without using a crystal in the carrier oscillator. unmodulated value is called frequency deviation. a phenomenon known as the capture effect allows a index or set the deviation sensitivity of an FM modulator. its resonant frequency.the most significant advantage of angle modulation transmission over amplitude modulation transmission. accurate.. A varactor diode is used to transform changes in the modulating signal The instantaneous phase deviation is the instantaneous change in the amplitude to changes in frequency. Direct FM is angle modulation in which the frequency of the carrier is The relative displacement of the carrier frequency in hertz in respect to its varied directly by modulating the signal. PM demodulator = FM demodulator followed by an integrator With the use of limiters.R. thus. remove the proportional to the integral of the modulating signal.this property is often used to determine the modulation With FM and PM. PM modulator = differentiator followed by an FM modulator.e. phase of the carrier at a given instant of time and indicates how much the phase of the carrier is changing with respect to its reference phase. Four commonly used equivalences are as follows: Noise immunity . modulation from the FM wave. A phase modulator is a circuit in which the carrier is varied in such a way that its instantaneous phase is proportional to the modulating signal. The highest side frequencies from one channel are allowed to spill over Direct phase modulation (PM): Varying the phase of a constant into adjacent channels.Angle Modulation Transmission In 1922. FM modulator = integrator followed by a pm modulator the noise level and improve the signal to noise ratio during the 4. a method of determining the bandwidth called the receiver) developed the first successful FM radio system in 1936. frequency deviation actually produced to the maximum frequency deviation allowed by law stated in percent form. J. angle modulated instantaneous phase. July 1939. wave is varied with respect to time. the first regularly scheduled broadcasting of FM signals began in Alpine. Carrier Null . 1. a relatively low frequency. deviation ratio (DR) is the worst-case modulation index Direct Frequency modulation (FM): Varying the frequency of a constant and is equal to the maximum peak frequency deviation divided by the amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating maximum modulating signal frequency. carrier when it is acted on by a modulating-signal frequency. A frequency discriminator is a frequency selective device whose output The unmodulated carrier is a single frequency sinusoid and commonly voltage is proportional to the difference between the input frequency and called the rest frequency. FM demodulator-PM demodulator followed by a differentiator demodulation process. A frequency modulator (often called frequency deviator) is a circuit in Wipe off . carrier along with its side frequency are applied to one input of a balanced modulator. Low-index FM systems are sometimes called narrowband FM. the which the carrier is varied in such a way that its instantaneous phase is feedback loop would cancel the deviation and. For a Major E. a frequency modulated wave cannot be accommodated in a Angle modulation was first introduced in 1931 as an alternative to narrower bandwidth than an amplitude-modulated wave. A preemphasis network is a high pass filter (i. Peak phase deviation is called the modulation index (or sometimes index of modulation).if the discriminator responded to the frequency deviation. receiver to differentiate between two signals received with the same frequency.375 radians. signal at the rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal. Direct PM is angle modulation in which the frequency of the carrier is The instantaneous frequency deviation is the instantaneous change in deviated indirectly by the modulating signal. . By definition. Transistor phase shifters are capable of producing peak phase shifts as high as 0. Armstrong (who also developed he superheterodyne high-index signal. a differentiator) and a The relative angular displacement of the carrier phase in radians in deemphasis network-is a low pass filter (an integrator). respect to the reference phase is called phase deviation. and directly proportional to the input modulating signal. percent modulation is simply the ratio of the frequencies. New Jersey.

and automatically compensates for changes in the carrier frequency due to 806 MHz to 947 MHz. and the maximum modulating-signal frequency is 3 kHz. and for limiting and FM quieting to occur. the information signal is spatially divided the output is filtered. and so on. The single-ended slope detector has the most non linear voltage versus frequency characteristics and therefore. and then modulating a single high Several circuits are used for demodulating FM signals.8MHz to is very similar to that of the balanced slope detector. and quadrature detector. A bandpass Limiter/amplifier (BPL) is essentially a class A biased tuned IF amplifier. signals above prescribed minimum input level. allowing the unwanted amplitude variations to be removed with special circuits called limiters. it requires an IF input signal sufficient enough to drive it into both saturation and cut off. The capture ratio of an FM receiver is the minimum dB difference in signal strength between two receive signals necessary for the capture effect to suppress the weaker signal.8 MHz to above 300MHz. the FCC authorized stereophonic transmission for the commercial FM broadcast band. The NE/SA614A is a high gain. and VHF frequency bands. The electronic push-to-talk (PTT) is used rather than a simple mechanical switch to reduce the static noise associated with contact With FM. 457MHz ABS disseminates information for the purposes of air navigation and air to ground communications utilizing conventional AM and various A ratio detector is relatively immune to amplitude variations in its input forms of AM SSB in the HF. Design for personal use without pecuniary interest. which is often called threshold. however. With mono transmission. ratio detector. 10kHz shared channels) public. instability in the transmit oscillator. Three primary frequency bands are allocated by the FCC for two-way FM A PLL frequency demodulator requires no tuned circuits and radio communications: 132 MHz to 174 MHz. an output voltage that is proportional to the instantaneous frequency at its input. The slope detector. 450 MHz to 470 MHz. Transmitters equipped with VOX (voice-operated transmitter) are automatically keyed each time the operator speaks into the microphone. Capture ratios of 1dB are typical for high quality FM receivers. It is possible to separate the information frequencies with special speakers.41 MHz (40. MF. the information is contained in frequency variations. Provides 2. each speaker assembly at the receiver reproduces exactly the same information. The final IF amplifier is specially designed for ideal saturation characteristics and is called a limiter. high frequency device that offers low power consumption and excellent input sensitivity at 455 kHz. or capture level. . A Foster-Seeley discriminator (sometimes called a phase shift discriminator) is a tuned circuit frequency discriminator whose operation Aeronautical Broadcasting Service (ABS). such as percussion. The process of placing two or more independent channels next to each other in the frequency domain. Provides 26. Class D citizens band radio. and ratio detector are forms of tuned-circuit The XR-1310 is a monolithic FM stereo demodulator that uses PLL frequency discriminators. or business use utilizing push to talk AM DSBFC and AM SSBFC. The maximum frequency deviation for two-way FM transmitter is typically A quadrature FM demodulator (sometimes called a coincidence 5 kHz. Foster-Seeley discriminator. such as woofers for low frequencies and tweeters for high frequencies. The TDA7000 is a monolithic integrated circuit FM radio system manufactured by Signetics Corporation for monophonic FM portable radios.Angle Modulation Reception and FM Stereo In 1961. into two 50-Hz to 15-kHz audio channels (a left and a right). The most common frequency carrier with the combined signal is called frequency division are the slope detector. Covers a broad frequency band from 1. PLL demodulator. signal. is seldom used. Foster-Seeley discriminator. The inherent ability of FM to diminish the effects of interfering signals is called the capture effect. Amateur (ham) radio. detector) extract the original information signal from the composite IF waveform by multiplying quadrature signals. horns. or sometimes passband limiter if With stereophonic transmission. techniques to derive the right and left audio channels from the composite stereo signal. it is possible to separate music or sound by FM demodulators are frequency-dependent circuits designed to produce tonal quality. bounce in mechanical switches.96 to 27. multiplexing (FDM). non commercial radio service for either personal A single-ended slope detector is a tuned-circuit frequency discriminator. quieting. string. A limiter the circuit that produces a constant amplitude output for all input regardless of whether the PTT button is depressed. The NE/SA614A is an improved monolithic low power FM IF system manufactured by Signetics Corporation. Also with stereophonic transmission. and a balanced slope detector is simply two single-ended slope detectors connected in parallel and fed 180’ out of phase.

and information phasor is not drawn. A constellation diagram. N=1 and M=2. The BPSK modulator-the carrier input signal is multiplied by the binary data. (ASK). the phase-locked loop (PLL). and a Offset QPSK (OQPSK) is a modified form of QPSK where the bit signaling element may represent several information bits. Amplitude-shift keying is sometimes called digital amplitude modulation (DAM). Baud is the reciprocal of the time of one output signaling element. Information capacity is a measure of how much information can be propagated through a communications system and is a function of The simplest form of PSK is binary phase-shift keying (BPSK). . except the mark and space frequency are synchronized with the input binary bit rate. The coherent carrier recovery circuit detects and regenerates a carrier signal that is both frequency and phase coherent with the original M-ary is a term derived from the word binary. Digital modulation is the transmittal of digitally modulated analog signals (carriers) between two or more points in a communications system.Digital Modulation The minimum theoretical bandwidth necessary to propagate a signal is Electronic Communications is the transmission. Digital Communications include systems where relatively high Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is another relatively simple. The most common circuit used for demodulating binary FSK signals is frequency shift keying (FSK) is produced. can be carried through a system in a given unit of time. higher the signal-to-noise ratio. that corresponds to the number of conditions. or combinations possible for a given number of binary variables. N=2 and M=4. As the input digital signal changes state. where bandwidth and transmission time. mathematician Claude E. Digital modulation is sometimes called digital radio because digitally modulated signals can be propagated through Earth’s atmosphere and Amplitude-shift keying is sometimes referred to as a on-off keying used in wireless communications systems. the better the performance and the higher the information capacity. expressed in bits per second (bps). QPSK is an M-ary encoding scheme where after encoding and modulation have occurred. the output signal is the In 1948. Other names for BPSK are phase reversal keying (PRK) and biphase Bit rate is simply the number of bits transmitted during one second and is modulation. If the phase of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal. Continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CP-FSK) is a binary FSK phase shift keying (PSK) is produced. Phase-shift keying (PSK) is another form of angle-modulated. capacity. or quadrature PSK as it is sometimes called. binary digital signals can be propagated through an ideal noiseless transmission medium at a rate equal to two OQPSK is sometimes called OKQPSK (offset-keyed QPSK). Nyquist frequency. transmission time. Quarternary phase shift keying (QPSK). Information is defined as knowledge or intelligence that is The simplest digital modulation technique is amplitude-shift keying communicated between two or more points. proportional to the information signal. which is usually binary. system technical journal relating the information capacity of a communication channel to bandwidth and signal to noise ratio. is similar to a phasor diagram except that the entir e relationship among bandwidth. a digitally modulated signal called amplitude shift keying (ASK) is produced. modulation except with psk the input is a binary digital signal and there are a limited number of output phases possible. (FM) except the modulating signal is a binary signal that varies between two discrete voltage levels rather than a continuously changing analog If the information signal is digital and the amplitude of the carrier is varied form. is an other form of an angle modulated. If the frequency is varied proportional to the information signal. where a binary information signal directly modulates the amplitude of an analog carrier. quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) results. Information theory is a highly theoretical study of the efficient use of bandwidth to propagate information through electronic communication PSK is an M-ary digital modulation scheme similar to conventional phase systems. levels. reception and the called minimum Nyquist bandwidth or sometimes called minimum processing of information with the use of electronic circuits. FSK is sometimes called binary FSK (BFSK). The low-pass filter (LPF) separates the recovered binary data from the complex demodulated signal. which is sometimes called a signal state- In 1928. times the bandwidth of the medium. constant-amplitude digital modulation. M simply represents a digit transmit carrier. waveforms on the I and Q channels are offset or shifted in the phase from each other by one-half of a bit time According to H. the phase of the output carrier shifts between two angles that are separated by 180 Information capacity represents the number of independent symbols that degrees. R. FSK is a form of constant digital information signals (digital radio) and systems involving the amplitude angle modulation similarly to standard frequency modulation transmission of digital pulses. A balanced modulator is a product modulator. if both amplitude and the phase are varied proportional to the information signal. low frequency analog carriers are modulated by relatively low frequency performance type of digital modulation. Bit rate refers to the rate of change of a digital information signal. Consequently.Hartley of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a useful phase diagram. Nyquist. constant Baud refers to the rate of change of a signal on the transmission medium amplitude digital modulation. Shannon published a paper in bell product of the two input signals. (OOK).

Carrier recovery is the process of extracting a phase coherent reference carrier from a receiver signal. however over standard telephone circuit using an encoding technique called trellis code modulation (TCM). sometimes. As with the 16-PSK. four bits (called quadbits) are combined. The input data are acted on in groups of four (2^4 = 16). With 8-PSK . This is sometimes called phase referencing. 8-QAM is an M-ary encoding technique where M=8. The squaring circuit removes the modulation and generates the second harmonic of the carrier frequency. The remodulator produces a loop error voltage that is proportional to twice the phase error between the incoming signal and the VCO signal. and there are 8 possible output phases.With 8-PSK. TCM is thought of as a coding scheme that improves on standard QAM by increasing the distance between symbols on the constellations (known as the Euclidean distance). there are 16 different output phases possible. Trellis code modulation is sometimes thought of as a magical method of increasing transmission bit rates over communications systems using QAM or PSK with fixed bandwidths. and transitions that do not follow this pattern are interpreted in the receiver as transmission error. which combines encoding and modulation to reduce the probability of error. 16-QAM is an M-ary system where M=16. With 16 PSK. This code is used to reduce the number of transmission errors. .an incoming information bit is XNORed with the preceding bit prior to entering the BPSK modulator. convolutional (tree) codes. producing 16 different output phases.n-3 M=8. Probability of error is a theoretical (mathematical) expectation of the bit error rate for a given system. Dr. forming tribits and producing eight different output phases. 16-PSK is an M-ary encoding technique where M=16. Bandwidth efficiency (sometimes called information density or spectral efficiency) is often used to compare the performance of one digital modulation technique to another. Bit error rate (BER) is an empirical (historical) record of a system’s actual bit error performance. thus improving the bit error performance. Using the Gray code results in only a single bit being received in error. the maximum distance code. Unlike 8-PSK. the output signal from an 8-QAM modulator is not a constant amplitude signal. Ungerboeck at IBM Zuerich Research Laboratory developed TCM. Trellis Coding also defines the manner in which signal state transitions are allowed to occur. three bits are encoded. Differential binary phase-shift keying . Gray Code or. Data transmission rates in excess of 56 kbps can be achieved. Differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) is an alternative form of digital modulation where the binary input information is contained in the difference between two successive signaling elements rather than the absolute phase. The Costas loop produces the same result as a squaring circuit followed by an ordinary PLL in place of the BPF. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is a form of digital modulation similar to PSK except the digital information is contained in both the amplitude and the phase of the transmitted carrier.

transmission medium. If fs is less than two time fa. QAM. which is accomplished in a sample-and- hold circuit. PAM is used as an intermediate form of modulation with PSK. systems is flattop sampling. Digital transmission is the transmittal of digital signals between two or The most common method used for sampling voice signals in PCM more points in a communications system. An integrated circuit that performs the PCM encoding and decoding . Pulse modulation consists essentially of sampling analog information signals and then converting those samples into discrete pulses and Droop is caused by the capacitor discharging through its own leakage transporting the pulses from a source to a destination over a physical resistance and the input impedance of voltage follwer Z2. which means that the magnitude change between any two successive codes is the same. where the most significant bit (MSB) is the sign bit and the remaining bit are With PPM. although it is seldom used by itself. which is Alex H. the position of a constant-width pulse within a prescribed time used for magnitude. The magnitude difference between adjacent steps is called the quantization interval or quantum. slot is varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. bits required to achieve a certain dynamic range to the actual number of PCM bits used. With PCM. such as the human voice. PCM is the only digitally encoded modulation technique that is commonly used for digital transmission. Serial to parallel converter converts serial pulses receive from the transmission line to parallel PCM codes. The digital-to-analog converter (DAC) converts the parallel PCM codes to multilevel PAM signals. high-speed digital signal and propagate it over either metallic or optical fiber cables. the amplitude of a constant width. constant-position pulse is varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. Digital signal processing (DSP) is the processing of analog signals using digital methods and includes bandlimiting the signal with filters. which are converted to serial binary data in parallel.Digital Transmission functions is called codec (coder/decoder). varied proportional to the amplitude of the analog signal at the time the signal is sampled. The resolution is equal to the voltage of the minimum step size. over The purpose of a sample and hold circuit is to periodically sample the metallic wire cables between telephone offices. With PAM. and pulse code modulation (PCM). the analog is sampled and then converted to a serial n-bit binary code for transmission. as the width of a constant amplitude pulse is distortion occuring. This error is called the switched telephone network because with PCM it is easy to combine quantization error. folded binary code. AT&T developed the first digital transmission system for the purpose of carrying digitally encoded analog signals. transmission systems. Codes on the bottom half of the table are a mirror image of the codes on the top half. The codes currently used for PCM are sign-magnitude codes. If the magnitude of the sample exceeds the highest quantization interval. Coding efficiency is a numerical indication of how efficiently a PCM to-serial converter and then outputted to the transmission line as serial code is utilized. AT&T at its Paris laboratories. antialiasing or antifoldover filter . Quantization is the process of converting an infinite number of possibilities to a finite number of conditions. pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). Sample and Hold circuit periodically samples the analog input signal and Dynamic range (DR) is the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the converts those samples to a multilevel PAM signal. The worst possible signal voltage-to-quantization noise voltage ratio (SQR) occurs when the input signal is at its minimum amplitude. Aperture error is when the amplitude of the sampled signal changes during the sample pulse time. digitized voice and digital data into a single. Reeves is credited with inventing PCM in 1937 while working for equal to the voltage of the least significant bit of the PCM code. continually changing analog input voltage and convert those samples to a series of constant-amplitude PAM voltage levels. overload distortion (also called peak limiting) occurs. Digital signals are also better suited than analog signals for processing and combining using a technique called multiplexing. an impairment called alias or foldover The four predominant method of pulse modulation include pulse width distortion occurs modulation (PWM). thus eliminating the ability of foldover length modulation (PLM). Three-bit PCM coding consists of linear codes. pulse position modulation (PPM). The analog-to-digital converter (ADC) convert the PAM samples to parallel PCM codes. because it is during this time that the ADC converts the sample voltage to a PCM code. and PCM.its upper cutoff frequency is choosen such no frequency greater than one half the sampling rate is allowed to PWM is sometimes called pulse duration modulation (PDM) or pulse enter the sample and hold circuit. The storage time of the capacitor is called the A/D conversion time amplitude equalization. The quantization error is equivalent to additive white noise as it alters the signal amplitude. except for the sign bit. Coding efficiency is the ratio of the minimum number of digital pulses. Quantization error is also called quantization noise. Any round-off errors in the transmitted signals are reproduced when the PCM is the preferred method of communications within the public code is converted back to analog in the receiver. PWM and PPM are used in special-purpose communications systems mainly for the military but are seldom used for commercial digital The magnitude of a quantum is also called the resolution. smallest possible magnitude that can be decoded by the digital-to-analog converter in the receiver. and phase shifting.

the reconstructed signal has variations that were not With midtread quantizing. as the effects of the degradations introduced into the pulses as they travel to include an anti aliasing (bandpass) filter. now accomplished with a single integrated-circuit chip called a codec. Slope overload codes have the same voltage range as all the other codes. Special filters called equalizers are that are inserted in the transmission path to equalize the distortion for all frequency. quantization. Digit-at-a time coding is analogous to a balance The secondary lobes are called ringing tails. Formant vocoder simply determines the location of these peaks and encodes and transmits only the information with the most significant short term components. transmitter timing the entire PCM code word is determined simultaneously. noise and is converted to a PAM sample just as if it were a signal. called a feedback coder. Word-at-a-Time Coding. input sample has been converted to a linear PCM code and then expansion in the receiver prior to PCM decoding. Phase distortion. they are more suitable for high-speed Insufficient bandwidth. however. is more prevalent in analog signals that have steep slopes or whose amplitudes vary rapidly.the lowest magnitude positive and negative slopes and whose amplitudes vary only a small amount. This noise is called idle channel transmission of analog signals. and a bandpass filter in the receive Data transition jittter . This type of coding determines each digit of the PCM code sequentially. encrypted voice for transmission over analog telephone circuits. the step size increases with Line speed is simply the data rate at which serial PCM bits are clocked the amplitude of the input signal. a sample and hold circuit. This type of coding compares the PAM signal to a ramp waveform while a binary counter is being advanced at a Adaptive delta modulation is a delta modulation system where the step uniform rate. horizontal zero line at exact integer multiples of the symbol clock. The spectral power of most speech energy concentrates at three or four peak frequencies called formants. Word-at-a-time coders are flash encoders and are more complex. . the only input to the Delta modulation uses a single bit PCM code to achieve digital PAM sampler is random. One common kind of digit-at-a-time coder.the overlapping signal pattern does not cross the section.With nonlinear or nonuniform encoding. thermal noise.is a convenient technique for determining Most of the more recently developed codecs are called combo chips. out of the PCM encoder onto the transmission line. computer output signals. The slope of the analog signal is greater than the delta modulator can A way to reduce idle channel noise is by a method called midtread maintain and is called slope overload. uses a successive approximation register (SAR). Granular noise is more prevalent in analog signals that have gradual Midrise quantization . During times when where is no analog input signal. Timing inaccuracies. size of the DAC is automatically varied. With this type of coder. and the decoded time waveforms often only vaguely resemble the original input signal. and educational games. Eye pattern or eye diagram . Vocoders are designed to reproduce only the short-term power spectrum. In digital transmission systems. depending on the amplitude characteristics of the analog input signal. Timing errors are less likely to occur if the applications transmission rate is well below the channel bandwidth. Digit-at-a-Time Coding. Amplitude distortion. Vocoders typically produce unnatural sounding speech and. where known reference weights are used to determine an unknown weight. the first quantization interval is made larger in present in the original signal. inaccuracies cause intersymbol interference if the rate of transmission does not conform to the ringing frequency design into the communications channel. The first channel vocoder was developed by Homer Dudley in 1928. Granular noise . Linear predictive coder extracts the most significant portions of speech information directly from the time waveform rather than from the frequency spectrum as with the channel and formant vocoders. a hold circuit. Dudley’s vocoder compressed conventional speech waveforms into an analog signal with a total bandwidth of approximately 300 Hz. Filters are place in a communications channel to bandlimit signals and reduce or eliminate predicted noise and Digital companding involves compression in the transmitter after the interference. Level-at-a-Time Coding. an analog to digital converter in the transmit section and a digital to analog converter. Companding is the process of compressing and then expanding. therefore are generally used for recorded information such as “wrong numbers” messages. amplitude than the rest of the steps. and regenerator. A pulse is simply the superposition of a series of harmonically related sine waves with specific amplitude and phase Essentially every function of perform by a PCM encoder and decoder is relationship.

D2. Six additional framing bits in frames 1. Digital line encoding involves converting standard logic levels (TTL. Biphase M is used for encoding SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and A digital carrier system is a communication system that uses digital Television Engineers) time-code data for recording on videotapes. a technique called binary eight zero framing bits.544 Mbps. time. analog typically range from about 1 mile to over 50 miles. . The transmission bit rate (line speed) for a T1 carrier is 1. a substitution (B3ZS). A T1 carrier system time division multiplexes PCM-encoded samples from 24 voice-band channels for transmission over a single metallic wire Dicodes are multilevel binary codes that use more than two voltage or optical fiber transmission line. The coding technique use with T3 carriers is binary three zero To upgrade from one level in the hierarchy to the next higher level. and the like) to a form more suitable to telephone line including space. special device called muldem (multiplexers/demultiplexers) is required. This method is called binary six zero A data service unit/channel service unit (DSU/CSU) is a digital substitution (B6ZS). and logic using PCM-encoded analog signals. In bipolar transmission. The three most predominant methods of multiplexing signals are time- division multiplexing (TDM). and wavelength. troubleshooting. substitution (B8ZS) is used to ensure that sufficient transitions occurs in the data to maintain clock synchronization. connects. 5. 9. 1/8000 = 125 us). called E-lines. Digital biphase (sometimes called the Manchester code or diphase) is a popular type of line encoding that produces a strong timing component The frame time is equal to the reciprocal of the sample rate (1/fs or for clock recovery and does not cause dc wandering. to one or more destination over the same transmission medium. interface that provides the physical connection to a digital carrier network. picturephone is a low-quality video transmission for use frame with a framing bit. and the time it takes to transmit one TDM frame is called the frame time. The duty cycle of a binary pulse can be used to categorize the type of transmission. Early T1 carrier systems used D1 digital channel banks (PCM encoders including an 8-kbps framing bit. This is called dc wandering. of which 24 are With modern T1 carriers. The trench is considered to be the transmission medium. The extended superframe format consists of 24 193-bit frames. this QPSK is a form of phase-division multiplexing (PDM) where two data is called nonreturn to zero (NRZ). 17. transmissions from multiple sources occur on the same facility but not at the same time. A digital cross-connect (DSX) provides a convenient place to make patchable interconnects and perform routine maintenance and T1 carriers using D1. placed on special conditioned cables called T1 lines. With NRZ encoding. If the binary pulse is maintained for the entire bit time. With alternate mark inversion (AMI) transmissions. Time slot 17 is used for a common signaling channel (CSC). the encoding technique is called bipolar-return-to-zero alternate mark inversion (BPRZ-AMI) With time division multiplexing (TDM). channels modulate the same carrier frequency that has been shifted 90degrees in phase. Because return to zero (WDM). voltages are involved. The lengths of T1 carrier systems and decoders) with a seven-bit magnitude-only PCM code. transmission. a different version of T carrier lines is used. phase. bandwidth of approximately 300 Hz to 3000 Hz. between nondedicated subscribers. a long string of either logic 1s or logic 0s produces a condition in which a receive may lose its amplitude reference for optimum One eight-bit PCM code from each channel (16 total bits) is called a TDM discrimination between received 1s and 0s. successive logic 1s and the more recently developed wavelength-division multiplexing are inverted in polarity from the previous logic 1. Digital signals are routed at central locations called digital cross. This process is called robbed-digit framing. T2 carrier systems use an alternative method of ensuring that sample transitions occur in the data. pulse rather than analog signals to encode information. In Europe. If the active time of the binary pulse is less than 100% of the bit time. Ensuring that sufficient transitions occur in the data stream is sometimes Another framing format recently developed for new designs of T1 carrier called ones density. T carriers are used for the transmission of PCM-encoded time-division The system does not become a T1 carrier until it is line encoded and multiplexed digital signals. Each voice-band channels has a levels to represent the data. 13. 0 produces no transition at the end of the clock intervals unless followed by another logic 0. or D3 channel banks use added-digit framing. frequency-division multiplexing (FDM).Digital T-Carriers and Multiplexing Differential PCM is similar to conventional PCM except that the exact Multiplexing is the transmission of information from one or more source magnitude of a sample is not transmitted. frame. Muldems can handle bit-rate conversions in both directions. An alternative solution is to replace the least significant bit of every nth Essentially. Miller codes are forms of delay-modulation codes where a logic1 T1 stands for transmission one and specifies a digital carrier system condition produces a transition in the middle of the clock pulse. Space-division multiplexing (SDM) is a rather unsophisticated form of Unipolar transmission of binary data involves the transmission of only a multiplexing that simply constitutes propagating signals from different single nonzero voltage level. this is called return to zero (RZ). There are several domains in which multiplexing can be accomplished. two nonzero sources on different cables that are contained within the same trench. systems is the extended superframe format. CMOS. and 21 are used for error detection code called CRC-6 (cyclic redundancy checking). and u = 100. companding. totaling 4632 bits. is used. frequency.

With diffraction grating or prisms. There is an efficient alternative to synchronous TDM called statistical time-division multiplexing. multijumbogroups (7200 VB channels). intelligent TDM. is the first multiplexing step for combining message channels. . reflecting all other wavelengths. (This mode of operation is sometimes called the similar to conventional time-division multiplexing except SONET was burst mode. asynchronous TDM. With frequency-division multiplexing (FDM). Higher. added-channel framing is the same as added digit framing There are two types of mastergroups: L600 and U600 types. The variable-data rate mode allows for a flexible data input and output clock frequency. eight-bit samples from each channel are interleaved into a single 24-channel TDM frame. Add/drop multiplexer/demultiplexers are devices that separate a wavelength from a fiber cable and reroute it on a different fiber going in a Codec is a generic term that refers to the coding functions performed by different direction. Multiplexers or combiners mix or combine optical signals with different speed TDM systems and delta modulation systems use bit interleaving. digital handsets.800 VB channels).) developed to be used with optical fibers. The framing bit is made either higher or lower three U600 mastergroups. multiple sources that originally occupied the same frequency spectrum are each converted to a different frequency band and transmitted simultaneously over a single transmission medium. Baseband describes the modulating signal (intelligence) in the communication system. mastergroup may be further multiplexed and used for higher-capacity microwave radio systems. or simply stat muxs. Recently developed codecs are called combo chips because they combine codec and filter functions in the same LSI package. some property of the framing bit is A radio channel comprises either a single L600 mastergroup or up to different from the data bits. system. the second bit is a logic 1 in the central half of the Guard bands .a void band of frequency that is not included within any code range and a logic 0 at the extremes. Add/drop multiplexer/demultiplexers are similar to regular multiplexers A codec is a large-scale integration (LSI) chip designed for use in the and demultiplexers except they are located at intermediate points in the telecommunication industries for private branch exchanges (PBXs). data are input and output for a single The synchronous optical network (SONET) is a multiplexing system channel in short bursts. specific wavelengths are separated from the other optic signal by reflecting them at different angles. There are three basic types of WDM couplers: diffraction grating. a device that converts analog signals to digital codes and digital codes to analog signals. and the U600 bits. Mastergroup can be further multiplexed in mastergroup banks to form jumbogroups (3600 VB channels). The L600 except that digits are added in groups or words instead of as individual mastergroup is used for low-capacity microwave systems. which is formed by frequency-division multiplexing five groups containing 12 channels each for a combined bandwidth of 240 kHz. T1 carrier system use word interleaving. prism.Essentially. and digital echo suppresors. Statistical time division multiplexing is Demultiplexers or splitters separate signals with different wavelengths generally not used for carrying standard telephone circuits but are used in a manner similar to the way filters separate electrical signals of more often for the transmission of data when they are called different frequencies. With unique-line code framing. consequently. In the fixed-data-rate mode. it is not necessary to either rob or add digits. The message channel is the basic building block of the FDM hierarchy. in amplitude or with a different time duration. and superjumbogroups (10. voice store-and-forward systems.4 MHz. A group is the next higher level in the FDM hierarchy above the basic message channel and. wavelengths in a way that allows them to all pass through a single optical fiber without interfering with one another. A combo chip can provide the analog-to-digital and the digital-to-analog conversions and the transmit and receive filtering necessary to interface A dichroic filter is a mirror with a surface that has been coated with a a full-duplex (four-wire) voice telephone circuit to the PCM highway of a material that permits light of only one wavelength to pass through while TDM carrier system. The next highest level of multiplexing is the mastergroup. sipergroup band. With the gray code. With statistical framing. and dichroic filter. which can be physical cable or the Earth’s atmosphere. The next higher level in the FDM hierarchy is the supergroup. which is formed by frequency-division multiplexing 10 supergroups together for a combined capacity of 600 voice-band message channels occupying a bandwidth of 2. central office switches.

four pairs of wire capable of operating transmission up to 550Mbps. one conductor carries the signal. Parallel-wire transmission lines are comprised of two or more metallic Enhanced category 5 (CAT-5E) cables are intended for data conductors separated by a nonconductive insulating material called a transmission rates up to 250Mbps. one wire is at ground potential. Common-mode rejection ratios of 40 dB to 70 dB are common accommodate transmission rates up to 100 Mbps. voice grade telephone wire typically installed before the establishment of In free space (a vacuum). if four wire pairs are used. With longitudinal waves. 186. A transmission line is a metallic conductor system used to transfer electrical energy from one point to another using electrical current flow.793. achieved. The most common type is a narrowband balun.283 statute miles per second. Currents that flow in the same direction are called longitudinal currents. A circuit device used to connect a balanced transmission line to an unbalanced load is called a balun (balanced to unbalanced). continuous solid dielectric that ensures uniform spacing along the entire cable. Twin lead is another form of two-wire parallel-conductor transmission line. The minimum number of twists for UTP cable is two per foot.Metallic Cable Transmission Media Open-wire transmission lines are two-wire parallel conductors. Level 2 cable (sometimes called category 2) is only marginally better The distance of one cycle occurring in space is called the wavelength. can be any physical facility used to propagate electromagnetic signals between two locations in a communication system. than level 1 cable but well below the standards minimum level of acceptance. in balanced transmission lines. the displacement is in the direction of the propagation. called a choke. or 299.000 meters per second. both conductors carry current. Cable transmission systems are the most common means of Twin lead is essentially the same as open wire transmission line except interconnecting devices in local area networks because cable that the spacers between the two conductors are replaced with a transmission systems are the only transmission of digital signals. A twisted-pair transmission line is form by twisting two insulated conductors with each other. whereas the other wire is at signal potential. or balanced. however. including cable For relatively high frequencies. Category 5 (CAT-5) cable is manufactured with more stringent design specifications than either CAT-3 and CAT-4 cables. signal transmission. CAT-5 cable was designed for data transmission rates up to communications systems and computer networks today are parallel. and no two pairs within the same cable can have the same number of turns per inch.they often operate successfully at dielectric. provides a conduit in which electromagnetic signals are contained. or bazooka balun. and number of turns per inch (12 turns per baluns exist. operating at transmission rates of 4 Mbps. . and twisted pair. CAT-4 cables can also handle transmission rates up to 100 Mbps using cables containing four pairs of wires. This type of transmission is called differential. The rate at which the periodic wave repeats is its frequency. the direction of displacement is perpendicular to resistance. The most common parallel conductor transmission lines are open wire. 100 Mbps. TEM waves travel at the speed of light: c = the 568 standard. The size of twisted-pair wire varies from 16-gauge to 26 gauge. The higher the wire gauge. back toward the source are called reflected waves. path. the smaller the diameter and the higher the With transverse waves. can rejection. Level 1 cable is suitable only for voice-grade telephone signals are very low-speed data applications (typically under 2400 bps). Sound waves travel at approximately 1100 feet per second in the normal atmosphere. sleeve. insulation type. the direction of propagation. cable designed to meet tighter constraints for attenuation and crosstalk. data rates in excess of 500 Mbps are sometime conductor transmission lines and coaxial transmission lines. With two-wire balanced lines. several different kinds of transmission-line uniformity.000 mi/s and 3 X 10^8 m/s. The primary use of open-wire transmission lines is in standard voice- A cable transmission medium is a guided transmission medium and grade telephone applications. rates up to 350Mbps or higher.5 Token ring local are networks transmission. This type of transmission CAT-4 cable was designed for data transmission rates up to 20 Mbps. and the other conductor is the return Level 2 cables comply with IBM’s Type 3 specification GA27-3773-1. rounded off to 186. In essence. line is called single-ended or unbalanced. however. CAT-3 cable is used for virtually any voice or data The cancellation of common mode signals is called common-mode transmission rate up to 16 Mbps and. CAT-5 cable is the cable of choice for most modern-day local area The most common metallic cables used to interconnect data networks. signal which was developed for IEEE 802. sometimes inch for CAT-5). or level 2 cables and must have at least three turns per inch. Level 1 cable (sometimes called category 1) is ordinary thin-copper. Category 6 (CAT 6) cable is recently proposed cable type comprised of twin lead. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable consists of two copper wires Electromagnetic waves that along a transmission line from the source to where each wire is separately encapsulated in PVC (polyvinyl chloride) the load are called incident waves. Current that flow in opposite directions in a balanced wire pair are called Category 3 (CAT-3) cable has more stringent requirements than level 1 metallic circuit currents. Open- wire transmission lines consist simply of two parallel wires closely spaced Guided transmission media are those with some form of conductor that and separated by air. Category 4 (CAT-4) cable is more than little upgraded version of CAT3 With an unbalanced transmission line. and those that travel from the load insulation.

there is an inherent and unavoidable The wires and dielectric are enclosed in a conductive metal sleeve called power loss. wave through a given medium to the velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic wave through a given medium to the velocity of Quarter-wavelength transformers are used to match transmission lines propagation through a vacuum. for solid-core Foil twisted-pair is comprised of four pairs of 24 AWG copper wire transmission lines. consisting of two copper conductors separated by a solid dielectric material. Velocity factor (sometimes called velocity constant) is defined simply Standing waves cause power loss. SSTP cable is comprised of four pairs of the resistance ratio. When Zo = Zl. and ghost signals. The standing-wave ratio (SWR) is defined as the ratio of the maximum BNC connectors are sometimes referred to as “bayonet mount. low reliability. none of the power is absorbed. that is. . all the incident power is absorbed by the load. Category 7 shielded-screen twisted-pair cable (SSTP) is also called The ratio of the ac resistance to the dc resistance of a conductor is called PiMF (pairs in metal foil) cable.” as they voltage to the minimum voltage or the maximum current to the minimum can be easily twisted on or off. A coaxial cable with one layer of foil voltage to incident voltage or reflected current to incident current. and its physical properties. transmission line or when two sections of transmission line are connected together. When Zo <> Zl. such as wire diameter and conductor spacing. traveling in to construct. wave. 22 or 23 AWG copper wire surrounded by a common metallic foil shield followed by a braided metallic shield. N-type connectors are threaded and current of a standing wave on a transmission line must be screwed on and off. The reflection coefficient (sometimes called the coefficient of Shielding refers to the woven or stranded mesh (or braid) that surrounds reflection) is a vector quantity that represents the ratio of reflected some types of coaxial cables. to purely resistive loads whose resistance is not equal to the characteristic impedance of the line. Characteristic impedance (sometimes called surge impedance) is When a transmission line is terminated in either a short or an open circuit. encapsulated in a common metallic foil shield with a PVC outer sheath. which is called Voltage that propagates from the source toward the load is called plenum-grade PVC. Because electrical current flows through a metallic transmission line and the line has a finite resistance. Solid coaxial cables have lower losses than hallow cables and are easier With a mismatched line. to-performance ratio. and high maintenance. it is called a braid. dielectric breakdown. This is called a matched line. A difference of potential between two conductors of a metallic transmission line causes dielectric heating. is called an unmatched or mismatched line. and maximum power is not transferred to the load. Shielded-foil twisted-pair cable is comprised of four pairs of 24AWG copper wires surrounded by a common metallic foil shield encapsulated Coupling loss occurs whenever a connection is made to or from a in a braided metallic shield. SWR is often called the voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR). jacket. defined as the impedance seen looking into an infinitely long line or the there is an impedance inversion every quarter-wavelength. If the sleeve is woven into a mesh. and voltage that propagates from the load toward the source is called reflected voltage. The basic coaxial cable consists of a center conductor surrounded by a dielectric material (insulation). impedance seen looking into a finite length of line that is terminated in a purely resistive load with a resistance equal to the characteristic Power is transferred most efficiently to a load when there are no reflected impedance of the line. standing waves are present on the line. length of a transmission line. This to minimize losses. and some is returned (reflected) to the source. when the load is purely resistive and equal to Zo. and absorbed by the load.Shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable is a parallel two wire transmission line time delay in the path of an electromagnetic wave. Plenum is the name given to the area between the ceiling and the roof in a single story building or between the ceiling and the floor of the next Corona is a luminous discharge that occurs between the two conductors higher level in a multistory building. Radiation losses are reduced by properly shielding the cable. present on the line at the same time. of a transmission line when the difference of potential between them exceeds the breakdown voltage of the dielectric insulator. This is sometimes called conductor loss or conductor a foil. dielectric heating loss increases with frequency. heating loss and is simply an I^2R power loss. The characteristics of a transmission line are determined by its electrical properties. then a concentric (uniform distance from A transmission line with no reflected power is called a flat or the center) shielding. which does not emit noxious chemicals when ignited. Dielectric constant is simply the relative permittivity of the material. such as wire conductivity and insulator dielectric constant. However. there are two electromagnetic waves. some of the incident power is Rigid air-filled coaxial cables are relatively expensive to manufacture. it is all reflected back toward the source. and maintain. Plenum cables are coated with Teflon. noise. When incident waves of voltage and current reach an open termination. insulation and one layer of braided shielding is referred to as dual shielded. The two traveling waves set up an interference pattern known as a standing The primary disadvantage of coaxial transmission lines is their poor cost. A transmission-line stub is simply a piece of additional transmission line Delay lines are transmission lines designed to intentionally introduce a that is placed across the primary line as close to the load as possible. install. as the ratio of the actual velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic radiation. waves. incident voltage. and finally a rubber environmental protection outer nonresonant line. or special fire-resistant PVC. Propagation constant (sometimes called propagation coefficient) is Whenever the characteristic impedance of a transmission line and its used to express the attenuation (signal loss) and the phase shift per unit load are not matched (equal). opposite directions. the air insulator must be relatively free of moisture.

the return signal. . either a shorted or an open stub can be used. Stripline is simply a flat conductor sandwiched between two ground planes. especially at the higher frequency. Shorted stubs are preferred because open stubs have a tendency to radiate. Microstrip is simply a flat conductor separated from a ground plane by an insulating dielectric material. Echo .With stub matching. A technique that can be used to locate impairment in a metallic cable is called time-domain reflectometry (TDR).

The photophone was a device constructed from mirrors and selenium constant density throughout). Wider bandwidth and greater information capacity. C. A single-mode step- index fiber has a central core that is significantly smaller in diameter than A German scientist named H. 9. Lamm successfully transmitted images any of the multimode cables. were granted patents for scanning transmitting Single-mode step-index fibers are the dominant fibers used in today’s television images through uncoated fiber cables. Ion resonance absorption is caused by OH ions in the material. Chromatic distortion occurs only in fibers with a single mode of transmission. Lower transmission loss. A step-index fiber has a central core with a uniform refractive index (i. Ultraviolet absorption is caused by valence electrons in the silica 2. Microbending losses generally contribute less than 20% of the total Visible. while injection throughout the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Immunity to static interference. through a single glass fiber. by bending the cable. A phenomenon called stress corrosion or static fatigue can result if the glass fiber is exposed to long periods of high humidity. Power loss is often called attenuation and results in a reduction in the Advantages of Optical Fiber Cables power of the light wave as it travels down the cable. Radiometry. A microbend is a miniature bend or geometric imperfection along the axis of the fiber and represents a discontinuity in the fiber where Rayleigh Infrared. 7. respond with wavelengths ranging between 390 nm and 770 nm. 6. L. refractive index surrounds the core. Infrared absorption is a result of photons of light that are absorbed by 5. 2. of information. Hopkins and N. The band of light frequencies that are too low to be seen by and generally occurs when fibers are bent during handling or installation. J. (DLP) indicates what signal frequencies can be propagated through a given distance of fiber cable and is expressed mathematically as the Plastic fiber are more flexible and. usually made from a semiconductor thermally in watts. 3. W. Constant-radius bends are caused by excessive pressure and tension Ultraviolet. 4. Optical power is sometimes called radiant flux. The light detector is generally a PIN (p-type-intrinsic-n-type) diode. H. The band of light frequencies that is too high to be seen by the scattering can occur. on the other hand. S.Optical Fiber Transmission Media Numerical aperture (NA) is closely related to acceptance angle and is the figure of merit commonly used to measure the magnitude of the An optical communications system is one that uses light as the carrier acceptance angle. or a phototransistor. fiber. Multimode step-index fibers are similar to the single-mode step-index In 1951. was invented in 1960. Coupling losses are caused by imperfect physical connections. consequently. human eye with wavelengths ranging between 770 nm and 10^6 nm. telecommunications and data networking industries.. glass. Specialized tools. In 1930. measures light Standard LEDs have spectral widths of 30 nm to 50 nm. Modal dispersion (sometimes called pulse spreading) is caused by the The light source is either an infrared light-emitting diode (LED) or an difference in the propagation times of light rays that take different paths injection laser diode (ILD). fibers except the center core is much larger with the multimode Kapany of England experimented with light transmission through bundles configuration. Durability and reliability. Human eye can detect only those lightwaves between approximately 380 nm and 780 nm. 8. Strength. and training. An outside cladding that also has a uniform detectors that transmitted sound waves over a beam of light. Baird. material from which fibers are manufactured. more rugged than product of distance and bandwidth (sometimes called linewidth). Safety and convenience. A. Disadvantages of Optical Fiber Cables Radiation losses are caused mainly by small bends and kinks in the 1. the cable’s density is maximum at the The laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) center and decrease gradually toward the outer edge. Optical fiber cables are more susceptible to losses introduced rates between the core and the cladding material. which is equivalent to joules per second and is the same power that is measured electrically or An LED is a p-n junction diode. van Heel of Holland and H. the human eye with wavelengths ranging between 10 nm and 390 nm. The band of light frequencies to which the human eye will attenuation in a fiber. a scientist from the United States. Interfacing costs. equipment. the refractive index of the cladding is less than that of the central core. 3. material such as aluminum gallium-arsenide (AlGaAs) or gallium- arsenide-phophide(GaAsP). Immunity to crosstalk. Thus. Environment immunity. of fibers.e. Photometry is the science of measuring only light waves that are visible to the human eye. which is used extensively in the medical field. Graded-index fibers are characterized by a central core with a nonuniform refractive index. Hansell. and C. and Bandwidth distance product (BDP) or Bandwidth length product APD (avalanche photodiode). Security. Mircobending occurs as a result of differences in the thermal contraction 4. down a fiber. 5. the atoms of the glass core molecules. Remote electrical power. Economics. S. laser have spectral widths of only 1 nm to 3 nm (1 nm corresponds to a frequency of about 178 GHz). 1. Their studies led to the development of the flexible fiberscope. . however. an English scientist.

IBM. The time it takes a light-induced carrier to travel across the depletion region of a semiconductor. Laser is an acronym for light amplification stimulated by the emission of radiation. and Lincoln Laboratories. The energy gap for silicon is 1. Light sensitivity. Soild lasers. An APD is a pipn structure. With heterojunction devices. Transit time. Liquid lasers use organic dyes enclosed in a glass tube for an active medium. The leakage current that flows through a photodiode with no light input. Burrus and Dawson of Bell Laboratories developed the etched-well LED. The minimum optical power a light detector can receive and still produce a usable electrical output signal. Liquid lasers. as they reflect back and forth.Photons are particles that travel at the speed of light but at rest have no mass. It is the ratio of the output current of the photodiode to the input optical power and has the unit of amperes per watt. Also in 1960. A PIN diode is a depletion-layer photodiode and is probably the most common device used as a light detector in fiber-optic communications systems. Gas lasers. light is emitted from the edge of the material and are therefore often called edge emitters.12 eV. Spectral response. The disadvantages of APDs are relatively long transit times and additional internally generated noise due to the avalanche multiplication factor. Semiconductor lasers (injection laser diodes) were manufactured in 1962 by General Electric. Javin of Bell Laboratories developed the helium laser. Thermally generated carriers in the diode cause dark current. APDs are more sensitive than PIN diodes and require less additional amplification. The mirrorlike ends trap the photons in the active region and. stimulate free electrons to recombine with holes at a higher-than-normal energy level. Gas lasers use a mixture of helium and neon enclosed in a glass tube. A. The range of wavelength values that a given photodiode will respond. Epitaxially grown LEDs are generally constructed of silicon-doped gallium-aresenide Heterojunction LEDs are made from a p-type semiconductor material of one set of atoms and an n-type semiconductor material from another set. for the active medium. Semiconductor lasers. cylindrical crystal. A measure of the conversion efficiency of the photodetector. such as ruby. . Solid lasers use a solid. Responsivity. Dark current. Uranium lasers were developed in 1960 along with other rare-earth materials. This process is called lasing. Semiconductor lasers are made from semiconductor p-n junctions and are commonly called ILDs.

such a surface may destroy the shape of the wavefront. and plane of polarization. reflection as bouncing. it is described as linear polarization. however. direction of travel. the wave is said to be vertically polarized. Refraction also occurs when a wavefront propagates in a medium that Electric fields are also invisible force fields produced by a difference in has a density gradient that is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The first absorption band due to water vapor peak polarization. (mirrorlike) reflection. and the angle of refraction is the angle formed between the refracted wave and the normal. space is approximately 8. propagation. If the called absorption. the dielectric insulator). power density is energy per unit time per unit of area and is usually given in watts per square meter. at approximately 22GHz. it is randomly scattered in many directions. A point source is a single location from which rays propagate equally in all directions (an isotropic source). wave attenuation. If the polarization vector rotates 360’ as the wave moves one wavelength through space and the field strength is equal at all angels of polarization. . resulting in a reduction in power density. Reflection also occurs when the reflective surface is irregular or rough. electromagnetic wave. The effect of rain on electromagnetic wave propagation is insignificant below approximately 6 GHz. space is called power density. Electromagnetic reflection occurs when an incident wave strikes a Permittivity is the dielectric constant of the material separating the two boundary of two media and some or all of the incident power does not conductors (i.85 X 10^-12 F/m.. to the square root of the ratio of its magnetic permeability to its electric permittivity. Refraction is sometimes referred to as the bending of the radio-wave the wave is described as having circular polarization. The characteristic impedance of a lossless transmission medium is equal however. Rays are used to show the relative direction of electromagnetic wave propagation. the wave is said to be horizontally polarized. such given material. The ratio of the reflected to the incident voltage intensities is called the The rate at which energy passes through a given surface area in free reflection coefficient. The reduction in power density with distance is equivalent to a power loss The essential properties of radio waves are frequency. intensity. Isotropic radiator is a point source that radiates power at a constant rate whereas reflection from a perfectly smooth surface is called specular uniformly in all directions. An electromagnetic wave is electrical energy that has escaped into free Since Earth’s atmosphere is not a vacuum. this is Electromagnetic refraction is actually the changing of direction of an described as elliptical polarization. and is commonly called wave attenuation. When an incident wavefront strikes an irregular surface. A wavefront is formed when points of equal phase on rays propagated The angle of incidence is the angle formed between the incident wave from the same source are joined together and the nominal. diffraction as scattering. A wavefront shows a surface of constant phase of electromagnetic waves. electromagnetic wave propagating in free space. and interference as colliding. path. Therefore. polarization remains constant. so no loss of energy occurs as a wave propagates through it. If the electric field is propagating parallel to the Earth’s surface. When the field strength varies with change in polarization. This is called attenuation frequency (RF) propagation or simply radio propagation. The portion of the total incident power that is not reflected is called the power transmission coefficient or simply the transmission Field intensity is the intensity of the electric and magnetic fields of an coefficients. The permittivity of air or free enter the second material. it contains particles that can space.e. The polarization of a plane electromagnetic wave is simply the orientation The reduction in power density due to nonfree-space propagation is of the electric field vector in respect to the surface of the Earth. Such a condition is called diffuse refection. Electromagnetic waves travel in a straight line at approximately absorb electromagnetic energy. they spread Free-space propagation of electromagnetic waves is often called radio out. Refraction can be thought of as bending. As waves propagate through free space. This type of reduction of power is called the speed of light and are made up of magnetic and electric fields that are absorption loss and does not occur in wave traveling outside Earth’s at right angles of each other and at right angles to the direction of atmosphere.Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Free space is vacuum. If the electric field is propagating perpendicular to the Earth’s surface. Water vapor causes significant attenuation of electromagnetic waves at Horizontal polarization and vertical polarization are two forms of linear the higher frequencies. The reduction in power density due to the inverse square law presumes Radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to light and free-space propagation (a vacuum or nearly a vacuum) and is called heat. as a conductor when current is flowing through it. voltage potential between two conductors. Refraction occurs whenever a radio wave passes from one medium into another medium of different density. The refractive index is simply the ratio of the velocity of propagation of a light ray in free space to the velocity of propagation of a light ray in a The magnetic field is an invisible force field produced by a magnet. and the first absorption band caused by oxygen peaks at approximately 60 GHz. electromagnetic ray as it passes obliquely from one medium into another with different an electromagnetic ray as it passes obliquely form one A ray is a line drawn along the direction of propagation of an medium into another with different velocities of propagation. and occurs in free space as well as the Earth’s atmosphere.

Skip distance is defined as the minimum distance from a transmit antenna that a sky wave at a given frequency will be returned to Earth. when the sun is at its highest point. Space wave propagation with direct waves is commonly called line of sight (LOS) transmission. electromagnetic wave as it propagates in a straight line through a vacuum with no absorption or reflection of energy from nearby objects. Radio-wave interference occurs when two or more electromagnetic The D layer is the lowest layer of the ionosphere and is located waves combine in such a way that system performance is degraded. and surface waves is Critical frequency is defined as the highest frequency that can be sometimes referred to as the ground wave. Fading can be caused by natural weather disturbances. The E layer is located approximately between 60 miles and 85 miles (100 The principle of linear superposition states that the total voltage km to 140 km) above Earth’s surface. which allows electron density toward regions of low electron density. Reducing the dielectric constant increases the velocity of propagation and causes electromagnetic waves to bend away from the regions of high Diffraction occurs around the edge of the obstacle. Earth is called terrestrial radio communications. such as irrigation. Ground waves require a relatively high transmission power. Surface waves propagation is commonly used for ship-to-ship and ship- to-shore communications. reflection. and diffraction are categorized as geometric optics. The radio horizon is approximately multiple transmission paths. The cumulative sum of the direct. and such waves would be short-circuited by the conductivity of the ground. The maximum usable frequency (MUF) is the highest frequency that can be used for sky wave propagation between two specific points on Ground waves must be vertically polarized because the electric field in a Earth’s surface. Electromagnetic waves that are directed above the horizon level are Diffraction is defined as the modulation or redistribution of energy within called sky waves. A surface wave is an Earth-guided electromagnetic wave that travels over the surface of Earth. electromagnetic waves from which other secondary waves (wavelets) are radiated outward. four-thirds that of the optical horizon. such as rainfall. Huygens’s principle states that every point on a given spherical The ionosphere is the region of space located approximately 50 km to wavefront can be considered as a secondary point source of 400 km (30 mi to 250 mi) above Earth’s surface. At frequencies below approximately 2 MHz. Therefore. density. The vectors. or skip zone because in this area there is no reception. . sky waves are radiated in a direction that a wavefront when it passes near the edge of an opaque object. of from commonly called the radio horizon. Refraction. water vapor content. The E layer is sometimes called the intensity at a given point in space is the sum of the individual wave Kennelly-Heaviside layer after the two scientists who discovered it. Sky waves are used for high-frequency applications. fog. Virtual height is the height above Earth’s surface from which a refracted wave appears to have been reflected. horizontally polarized wave would be parallel to Earth’s surface. surface waves provide the best coverage because ground losses increase rapidly with frequency. where d is the depth of the surface irregularity and ^ is between it and Earth’s surface. it disappears at night.Surfaces that fall between smooth and irregular are called semirough Refraction is caused by the troposphere because of changes in its surface. and for maritime mobile The area between where the surface waves are completely dissipated communications. principle of linear superposition of electromagnetic waves and occurs whenever two or more waves simultaneously occupy the same point in The D layer reflects VLF and LF waves and absorbs MF and HF waves. KHz. and varying terrains. ground-reflected. Ground waves are relatively unaffected by changing atmospheric Free-space path loss is often defined as the loss incurred by an conditions. E layer has its maximum density at approximately 70 miles at noon. which means that their behavior is analyzed primarily in terms of The amount of ionization in the D layer depends on the altitude of the sun rays and wavefronts. temperature. Electromagnetic waves traveling within Earth’s atmosphere are called terrestrial waves. and space waves are used for very high frequencies and above. the wavelength of the incident wave. is subject to the above the horizon. for radio navigation. The higher the ion density. and relative conductivity. Fading can The curvature of Earth presents a horizon to space wave propagation also be caused by man-made disturbances. The Rayleigh criterion states that a semi rough surface will reflect as if it A special condition called duct propagation occurs when the density of were a smooth surface whenever the cosine of the angle of incidence is the lower atmosphere is such that electromagnetic waves are trapped greater than ^/8d. Sky wave propagation is sometimes called ionospheric propagation. propagated directly upward and still be returned to Earth by the ionosphere. irregular Earth surfaces. Interference. Typically. Surface waves are used at frequencies as low as 15 and the point where the first sky wave returns to Earth is called the quiet. on the other hand. produces a relatively large angle with reference to Earth. Frequencies above the UHF range are virtually unaffected by the Direct and ground-reflected waves together are called space waves. approximately between 30 miles and 60 miles (50 km to 100 km) above Earth’s surface. secondary waves to “sneak” around the corner of the obstacle into what is called the shadow zone. A measurement technique called ionospheric sounding is sometimes used to determine the critical frequency. and communications between two or more points on The sporadic E layer is caused by solar flares and sunspot activity. hail and extremely cold air over a warm Earth. ionosphere because of their extremely short wavelengths. the more refraction. space. Diffraction is the phenomenon that allows light or radio waves to propagate (peek) around corners. snowfall.

and lobes in a direction exactly opposite the front lobe are orientation. That is. Antenna beamwidth is simply the angular separation between the two half-power (-3 dB) points on the major lobe of an antenna’s plane Basic quarter-wave antenna or a vertical monopole (sometimes called radiation pattern.e. A counterpoise is a form of capacitive ground system. Radiation resistance is the resistance that. A special coupling device called a diplexer can be used to direct the transmit and receive signals and provide the necessary isolation. natural parameter for describing the reception properties of an antenna. atmospheric absorption. above the ground. . Antenna gain is inversely proportional to beamwidth. capacitance is formed between the counterpoise and Earth’s surface. The not both). or Hertzian dipole. Power gain is the same as directive gain except that the total power fed to the antenna is used. assuming both antennas are radiating the same amount of power. frequencies above 2 MHz. reflection. mounted close to the antenna and the term far field or radiation field refers to the vertically with the lower end either connected directly to ground or field pattern that is at great distance.” A basic antenna is a passive reciprocal device. An elementary doublet has uniform current throughout its length. antenna. the conductors are spread out in a straight line to a total length of one-quarter wavelength. such as called back lobes. being only half as long. The radiation efficiency is the ratio of radiated to reflected energy. the atmosphere to transmission lines. or both. The term near field or induction field refers to the field pattern that is A monopole (single pole) antenna one-quarter wavelength long. Antenna bandwidth is vaguely defined as the frequency range over which antenna operation is “satisfactory. elementary dipole. they either transmit or receive but called the antenna input terminal or simply the feedpoint. wavelengths long and open circuited at the far end. if it replaced the antenna. grounded through the antenna coupling network. would dissipate exactly the same amount of power that the antenna A Marconi antenna has the obvious advantage over a Hertz antenna of radiates. and ground effects. Power gain is the natural parameter for describing the increased power density of a transmitted signal due to the directional properties of the Radio waves are electrical energy that has escaped into free space in transmiting antenna. The primary beam in a 90’ direction is called the major lobe. a related quantity called capture area is a more the form of transverse electromagnetic waves. it is called a relative radiation pattern. elementary doublet is an electrically short dipole and is often referred to simply as a short dipole. is called a Marconi antenna. The disadvantage of a Marconi antenna is that it must be located close to the ground. A waveguide is a special type of transmission line that consists of a conducting metallic tube through which high-frequency electromagnetic EIRP or simply ERP (effective radiated power) is the equivalent power energy is propagated. The plane parallel to the mutually perpendicular lines of the electric and The polarization of an antenna refers simply to the orientation of the magnetic fields is called the wavefront. wave propagation is affected by antenna is a side lobe).. a Marconi antenna). The antenna. A waveguide is used to efficiently interconnect high-frequency electromagnetic waves between an antenna and a transceiver. If it plots field strength or power density with respect to the value at a The linear half-wave dipole is one of the most widely used antennas at reference point. it is a multiple of quarter- lobe is called the front lobe (the front of the antenna). Because the major lobe propagates and receives the most energy. A half-wave dipole is called a Hertz antenna. electromagnetic waves. Antennas are used to interface transmission lines to the atmosphere. usually taken in one of the “principal” planes. electric field radiated from it. A radiation pattern is a polar diagram or graph representing field strengths or power densities at various angular positions relative to an The simplest type of antenna is the elementary doublet. that an isotropic antenna would have to radiate to achieve the same power density in the chosen direction at a given point as another antenna. The half-wave dipole is generally referred to as a Hertz antenna after Heinrich Hertz. Antenna input impedance is simply the ratio of the antenna’s input voltage to input current. who was the first to demonstrate the existence of Minor lobes represent undesired radiation or reception. that A Hertz antenna is a resonant antenna. Antenna efficiency is the ratio of the power radiated by an antenna to the sum of the power radiated and the power dissipated or the ratio of the power radiated by the antenna to the total input power. Lobes adjacent to the front lobe are called side lobes (the 180’ minor lobe In Earth’s atmosphere. feedpoint presents an ac load to the transmission line called the antenna input impedance. The point on the antenna where the transmission line is connected is Active antennas are nonreciprocal (i. If the radiation pattern is plotted in terms of electric field strength or power density. it is called an absolute radiation pattern. Radiation resistance is an ac antenna resistance and is equal to the ratio of the power radiated by the antenna to the square of the current at A counterpoise is a wire structure placed below the antenna and erected its feedpoint.Antennas and Waveguides Directive gain is the ratio of the power density radiated in a particular An antenna is metallic conductor system capable of radiating and direction to the power density radiated to the same point by a reference capturing electromagnetic energy.

3 GHz to 3 GHz) and microwave (1 GHz to array by adding more elements. its physical length The typical directivity for a Yagi is between 7 dB and 9 dB. A helical antenna is a broadband VHF or UHF antenna that is ideally suited for applications for which radiating circular rather than horizontal or A Broadside array is one of the simplest types of antenna arrays. they elements. 90’ out of phase. By focusing the radio energy into a narrow beam between elements. It is vertical polarized electromagnetic waves are required. As a result. electromagnetic radiation is in a direction at Broadside array radiates at right angles to the plane of the array and right angles to the axis of the helix. beamwidth and direction can be changed electronically without having to physically move any of the individual antennas or antenna elements Parasitic element that is longer than the driven element from which it within the array. Loops have an advantage over most other types of antennas in direction Driven elements are directly connected to the transmission line and finding in that loops are generally much smaller and. the need for mechanically rotating antenna elements. there are two modes of propagation: normal and axial. the transmitting plane of the array. D. producing a total radiation pattern Very often. A widely used antenna that commonly uses a folded dipole as the driven Aperture number determines the angular aperture of the reflector. A reflector effectively reduces the signal strength in its direction and increases it in the opposite direction. A parasitic element that is shorter than its associated driven element is The primary application of phased array is in radar when radiation pattern called a director. antenna can increase the effective radiated power by several orders of magnitude over that of nondirectional antenna. from the initial work of V. The most common type of The rhombic antenna is a nonresonant antenna that is capable of antenna used for microwave transmission and reception is the parabolic operating satisfactorily over a relatively wide bandwidth. remains unchanged. R. although its effective electrical length is increased. With a helical antenna.H. An end-fire array is essentially the same element configuration as the Highly directional (high gain) antennas are used with point-to-point broadside array except that the transmission line is not crisscrossed microwave systems. Log-periodic An antenna element is an individual radiator. Yagi antenna is commonly used for VHF television reception because of A loading coil effectively increases the radiation resistance of the its wide bandwidth (the VHF TV band extends from 54 MHz to 216 MHz). J. function as a single antenna whose another parasitic element. it acts as if it were a concave mirror. axial direction and produces a broadband. reducing the overall antenna capacitance. making it ideally reflector. A Yagi antenna is a linear array consisting of a dipole and two or more A parabolic antenna consists of a paraboloid reflector illuminated with parasitic elements: one reflector and one or more directors.H. When an antenna is loaded. they A phased array antenna is a group of antennas or a group of antenna receive energy only through mutual induction with a driven element or array that.It is possible to increase the electrical length of an antenna by a technique called loading. the fields are additive in line with the that can be directed toward the receiving antenna. In the axial mode. The wheel increases the shunt capacitance are common. when connected together. antennas are log-period antennas. A class of frequency-independent antennas called log periodics evolved Top loading is awkward for mobile applications. such as half-or quarter. DuHamel. . Therefore. easily adapted to mobile communication applications. with element is the Yagi-Uda antenna. The primary advantage of log-periodic antennas is the independence of their radiation resistance and radiation pattern to frequency. 100 GHz) must be highly directive. to ground. links. a metallic array that resembles a spoked wheel is each other. the parabolic dish. therefore. more receive power from or are driven by the source. The primary advantage of phased array antennas is that they eliminate Therefore. In the normal mode. E. TV antennas advertised as “high-gain” or “high-performance” that is the vector sum of the individual fields. relatively directional pattern. Turnstile antenna gains of 10 or more dB placed on top of the antenna. reduces it in the opposite direction. The elements are physically placed in such a way that their radiation fields interact with each other. Dyson. The folded dipole is essentially a single antenna made up of two Parabolic reflectors resemble the shape of a plane or dish. antennas have bandwidth ratio of 10:1 or greater. Rumsey. radiation is in the radiates very little in the direction of the plane. Isbell at the University of Illinois in 1957. microwave energy radiated by a feed system located at the focus point. Gains of over 40 and are very popular for microwave radio and satellite communications (16 dB) have been achieved with rhombic antennas. and D. antenna by approximately 5 ohms. named after two Japanese scientists indirectly determines how much of the primary radiation is reflected by who invented it and described its operation. An antenna array is formed when two or more antenna elements are combined to form a single antenna. The purpose of an array is to increase the directivity of an antenna The most fundamental loop antenna is simply a single-turn coil of wire system and concentrate the radiated power within a smaller geographic that is significantly shorter that one wavelength and carries RF current. receives energy is called a reflector. Parasitic elements are not connected to the transmission line. therefore. A director increases field strength in its direction and must be capable of being rapidly changed to follow a moving object. area. suited for HF transmission (range 3 MHz to 30 MHz). it acts as if it were a convex lens. Parabolic reflector antennas provide extremely high gain and directivity Rhombic antenna has a maximum efficiency of 67%. made by simply placing several resonant dipoles of equal size in parallel with each other and in a straight line. A turnstile antenna is formed by placing two dipoles at right angles to With top loading. Directivity can be increased even further by increasing the length of the Antennas used for UHF (0. wave dipole. are sometimes called parabolic dish antennas or simply dish antennas.

A waveguide does not conduct current in the true sense but rather serves as a boundary that confines electromagnetic energy. . therefore. The Cassegrain feed is commonly used for receiving extremely weak signals or when extremely long transmission lines or waveguide runs are required and it is necessary to place low-noise preamplifiers as close to the antenna as possible. frequencies above the cutoff frequency will not be propagated by the waveguide. Horn feed. When a propagating electromagnetic field reaches the mouth of the horn. Group velocity is the velocity at which a wave propagates. the primary antenna is placed at the focus. A waveguide is a hollow conductive tube. reflect electromagnetic energy from their surface. equipment. it spreads latterly. The cutoff wavelength is defined as the smallest free-space wavelength that is just unable to propagate in the waveguide. Rectangular waveguides are the most common form of waveguide. Conversely. th The Cassegrain feed is named after an 18 -century astronomer and evolved directly from astronomical optical telescopes. Reactive stubs are used in waveguides for impedance transforming and impedance matching just as they are in parallel-wire transmission lines. in accordance with Huygens’s principle. Phase velocity is the velocity with which a wave changes phase in a direction parallel to a conducting surface. however. and the wavefront eventually becomes spherical. Energy radiated waveguide. toward the reflector is reflected outward in a concentrated beam. circular waveguides are used in radar and microwave applications when it is necessary or advantageous to propagate both vertically and horizontally polarized waves in the same waveguide. The cutoff frequency is an absolute limiting frequency. Group velocity is the velocity at which information signals of any kind are propagated. A conical horn antenna consists of a cone that is truncated in a piece of circular waveguide. Group velocity is the velocity of a group of waves. A flexible waveguide consists of spiral-wound ribbon of brass or copper. and phase velocity is the velocity at which the wave changes phase. In other words. Rectangular waveguides are by far the most common. Phase velocity is the apparent velocity of a particular phase of the wave. A ridged waveguide has more loss per unit length than a rectangular Center feed. called the cutoff wavelength. It is also the velocity at which energy is propagated. only frequencies with wavelengths less than the cutoff wavelength can propagate down the waveguide. waveguides have a maximum wavelength that they can propagate. The walls of the waveguide are conductors and. such as the walls of a waveguide. The horn is simply a flared piece of waveguide material that is placed at the focus and radiates a somewhat directional pattern toward the parabolic reflector. Electromagnetic waves travel down a waveguide in different configurations called propagation modes. it continues to propagate in the same general direction. except that. the primary antenna is a small horn antenna rather than a A flexible waveguide is also used extensively in microwave test simple dipole or dipole array. usually rectangular in cross section but sometimes circular or elliptical. Short-circuited waveguide stubs are used with waveguides in the same manner that they are used in transmission lines.

called numbers. local exchange office. The ringing signal is nominally a 20-Hz. This condition is called blocking and occurs into the telephone network through the local subscriber loop. part of a global communications network called the public telephone network (PTN). switching machines. The equipment busy signal is sent from the switching machine back to The microphone converts acoustical signals in the form of sound the calling station whenever the system cannot complete the call because pressure waves from the caller to electrical signals that are transmitted of equipment unavailability. such as calling and human voice (speech). an apparatus for reproducing sound. DTMF was originally The first telephone set that combined a transmitter and receiver into a called Touch-Tone. when 1100 Hz plus 1700 Hz. subscriber’s location to the closest telephone office. Station signaling is the exchange of signaling messages over local loops between stations (telephone) and Telephone Company switching The simplest and most straightforward form of telephone service is called machines. ranging from 90 ms to 120 ms. Siemens Company first introduced dial tone to the public switched telephone network in Germany in 1908. Hz. If there is no bell in the telephone set. Dial tone is an audible signal comprised of two frequencies: 350 Hz and The basic telephone set is a simple analog transceiver designed with the 440 Hz. which is usually a tone oscillator digits. Dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) was first introduced in 1963 with 10 buttons in Western Electric 1500-type telephones. . more than a simple single-throw. MF codes are used to send information between the control equipment that sets up connections through a switch when more than one switch is RJ-11 is the most common telephone jack in use today and can have up involved in completing a call. Thomas Watson filed for the first ringer patent. and so on) that are used to regulate the amplitude and The station busy signal is a two-tone signal comprised 480 Hz and 620 frequency response of the voice signals. Alerting signals indicate a request for service. such as busy or conductor is most likely a pair of 116. The speaker converts electrical signals received from the local loop to The equipment busy signal is sometimes called a congestion tone or a acoustical signals (sound waves) that can be heard and understood by a no-circuits-available tone. ring-back signals. DTMF is a simple two-of-eight encoding scheme single handheld unit was introduced in 1878 and called the Butterstamp where each digit is presented by the linear addition of two frequencies. and this enables the caller to enter the destination telephone circuit. double-pole (STDP) switch placed across the tip and ring. The insulating material is generally a polyethylene plastic coating. the ringing signal is used to The dialing circuit enables the subscriber to output signals representing trigger another audible mechanism. Dial pulsing (sometimes called rotary dial pulsing) is the method originally used to transfer digits from a telephone set to the local switch. consisting of transmitting and receiving instruments connected by a lin e or wire which conveys the electric current.to 26. Speech is sound in motion. The local loop is the most fundamental component of a telephone circuit. primary purpose of converting speech or acoustical signals to electrical signals. to six conductors. pair). especially that of the Addressing signals provide the routing information. a number no longer in called an end office. The ringing signal is sent from a central office to a subscriber whenever wire circuit (the local loop) into a four-wire circuit (the telephone set) and there is an incoming call. telephone. 90-Vrms signal that is on for 2 seconds and then off for 4 seconds. at a great distance.Telephone Instruments and Signals Call progress tone and call progress signals are acknowledgement and status signals that ensure the processes necessary to set up and Anyone who uses a telephone or a data modem on a telephone circuit is terminate a telephone call are completed in an orderly and timely manner. service. and so on. The purpose of the ringing signal is to ring the vice versa. consisting of two insulated conductors twisted together. The hybrid network (sometimes called a hybrid coil or duplex coil) in a telephone set is a special balanced transformer used to convert a two. such as going off hook or A local loop is simply an unshielded twisted-pair transmission line (cable ringing the destination telephone. bell in the telephone set to alert the subscriber that there is an incoming call. which involves subscribers accessing the public telephone network through a pair of wires called the Interoffice signaling is the exchange of signaling messages between local subscriber loop (or simply local loop). number. which is commonly such as number changed to another number. 1878. plain old telephone service(POTS). The key pulse (KP) signal is a multifrequency control tone comprised of The telephone ringer has been around since August 1. Multifrequency tones (codes) are similar to DTMF signals in that they Sidetone helps prevent the speaker from talking too loudly. Equalizers are combinations of passive components (resistors. involve the simultaneous transmission of two tones. and the Supervising signals provide call status information. RJ stands for registered jacks and is sometimes described as RJ-XX. capacitors. Telephone. thus enabling full duplex operation over a two-wire circuit. by means of electricity. The subscriber loop provides the means to connect a telephone set at a Controlling signals provide information in the form of announcements. whenever the system is overloaded and more calls are being placed than can be completed. or central office. The start (ST) signal is a multifrequency control tone used to indicate The on/off hook circuit (sometimes called a switch hook) is nothing the end of a sequence of dialed digits.gauge copper wire. human being.

Cordless telephones are simply telephones that operate without cords attached to the handset. The ring-back signal is an audible combination of two tones at 440 Hz and 480 Hz that are on for 2 seconds and then off for 4 seconds. . FLEX is designed to minimize power consumption in the portable pager by using a synchronous time-slotted protocol to transmit messages in precise time slots.The ring-back signal is sent back to the calling party at the same time the ringing signal is sent to the called party. FLEX. although local telephone companies have only recently offered it. Caller ID enables the destination station of a telephone call to display the name and telephone number of the calling party before the telephone is answered. Caller ID (identification) is a service originally envisioned by AT&T in the early 1970s. The most recent paging protocol. Cordless telephones originated around 1980 and were quite primitive by today’s standards. Paging system are simplex wireless communications system designed to alert subscriber of awaiting messages. was developed in the 1990s.

destination. such as a local loop. decrease the attenuation.The Telephone Circuit rn (reference noise). Line conditioning improves the high-frequency response Distribution cable (F2). Envelope delay distortion is an indirect method of evaluating the phase delay characteristics of a circuit. Drop wire. such as degrees or radians. copper wires (a pair) twisted together. less wire pairs. The transmission level (TL) at any point in a transmission system is the The phase difference at the different carrier frequencies is envelope ratio in dB of the power of a signal at that point to the power the same delay distortion. This characteristic is sometimes referred to as frequency response. C-type conditioning specifies the maximum limits for attenuation Subscriber or standard network interface (SNI). and improve transmission levels for circuits longer than 18. Loading coils Attenuation distortion is simply the frequency response of a allowed local loops to extend three to four times their previous length. therefore. as it is the means by which subscriber locations are connected to the local telephone company. locations. usually with a large Aerial. conductor spacing. A smaller version of a feeder cable containing of a message channel and reduces power loss. Loading coils placed in a cable interconnect two or more PBXs. frequency. Transmission level point (TLP) is defined as the optimum level of a test Envelope delay is the time required to propagate a change in an AM tone on a channel at some point in a communications system. The location A private branch exchange (PBX) is a relatively low-capacity switching where individual cable pairs within a distribution cable are separated and machine where the subscribers are generally limited to stations within the extended to the subscriber’s location on a drop wire. The local loop is a metallic transmission line comprised of two insulated Psophometric noise weighting is used primarily in Europe. and 1004-Hz deviation. Serving area interface (SAI). same building or building complex. C-type conditioning pertains to as the demarcation point between local telephone company responsibility the line impairments for which compensation can be made with filters and and subscriber responsibility for telephone service. number of stations. the larger the diameter. . either basic or C-conditioned requirements. envelope through a transmission medium. and phase distortion occurs when two or more frequencies undergo different amounts of Private-line circuits are direct connections between two or more phase shift. Bridge taps are unused sections of cable that are a destination is called propagation time. The local loop is the primary cause Psophometric weighting assumes a perfect receiver. The DLP is always 13 dB below the voice level for the same point. A telephone circuit is comprised of two or more facilities. circuits. signal would be at a 0-dBm transmission level point. transmission. That portion of the local loop that is strung between poles. The process used to improve a basic telephone channel is called line conditioning. the less resistance. weighting curve corresponds to the frequency response of the human ear only. Private switched networks are telephone systems provided by local telephone companies dedicated to a single customer. Bridge angular units. its of attenuation and phase distortion on a telephone circuit. transmission medium referenced to a 1004-Hz test tone. dBrn 3-kHz flat noise measurements are noise readings taken with a The local subscriber loop is the only facility required by all voice-band filter that has a flat frequency response from 30 Hz to 3 kHz. interconnected in tandem. is called phase delay. equalizers. usually 3600 pair of copper wire placed underground or in conduit. A device that serves distortion and envelope delay distortion. and the conductivity of the wire. increase the line impedance. Distribution cable and drop-wire cross-connect point. whereas DLP is used as a reference for data signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and nonlinear distortion. to provide a transmission path between a source and a dBrn is the dB level of noise with respect to reference noise ( -90 dBm). dielectric constant of the insulator particular frequency with respect to the circuit gain of a reference separating the wires. The Common-usage access lines and trunk circuits are required to inductors are called loading coils. Reference noise equals -90 dBm. The transmission characteristics of a cable pair depend on the wire Attenuation distortion is the difference in circuit gain experienced at a diameter. The largest cable used in a local loop. D-type conditioning neither reduces the noise on a circuit nor improves Data level point (DLP) is a parameter equivalent to TLP except TLP is the signal-to-noise ratio. Attenuation is an actual loss is signal strength. The final length of cable pair that terminates at the SNI. The absolute phase delay is the actual time required for a particular frequency to propagate from a source to a destination through a The lower the wire gauge. adding inductors periodically in series with the wire. Feeder cable (F1). dBrncO is the amount of noise in dBrnc corrected to a 0 TLP. taps were used for party lines to connect more than one subscriber to the same local loop. The difference between the absolute delays of and the lower the attenuation. communication channel. differential gain. Loading. A bridge tap is an irregularity frequently found in cables serving The time delay encountered by a signal as it propagates from a source to subscriber locations. D-type conditioning is sometimes referred to as high-performance conditioning and can be applied to private-line data circuits in addition to dBmO is dBm referenced to a zero transmission level point (0 TLP). It simply sets the minimum requirements for used for voice circuits. all the frequencies is phase distortion.000 feet. and the delay measured in connected in shunt to a working cable pair. A cross-connect point used to distribute the largest feeder cable into smaller distribution cables. rn is the dB value used as the reference for noise readings.

channel by signals in other communications channels. random change in the gain of a circuit resulting in transmission media is called coupling crosstalk. Electromagnetic coupling between two or more physically isolated A gain hit is a sudden. The hybrid set is used to Two classifications of nonlinear distortion are harmonic distortion match impedances and to provide isolation between the two directions of (unwanted multiples of the transmitted frequencies) and intermodulation signal flow. Frequency shift is when the frequency of a signal changes during transmission. unwanted tones within a message channel. power comparable to the power of an actual message transmission. or terminating. distortion (cross products [sums and differences] of the transmitted frequencies. such as those using frequency-division multiplexing when the received carrier is not reinserted with the exact phase relationship to the received signal as the transmit carrier possessed. are caused by transients produced when transmission facilities are switched.D1 conditioning specifies requirements for two-point circuits. circuits. Nonlinear distortion is an example of correlated noise and is produced When a two-wire circuit is connected to a four-wire circuit. and provide more isolation between the two directions of transmission when operating in either the half. The tones are called spurious tones and are often caused by crosstalk or cross modulation between adjacent channels in a transmission system due to system nonlinearities. whereas data course of a day. and D2 Two-wire circuits require less wire. thus less money conditioning specifies requirements for multipoint circuits. Four-wire transmission involves four wires (two for each direction-a signal and a reference) or a circuit configuration that is equivalent to using four wires. distance telephone call. Far-end crosstalk (FEXT) occurs at the far-end receiver and is energy Phase hits (slips) are sudden.and full-duplex transmission. Two-wire transmission involves two wires (one for the signal and one for a reference or ground) or a circuit configuration that is equivalent to using only two wires. that travels in the same direction as the signal in the disturbing channel. Generally. Single-frequency interference is the presence of one or more continuous. have less crosstalk. short duration having an approximately flat frequency spectrum. phase jitter occurs at a 300-Hz rate or lower. uncontrolled variation in the zero crossings of a signal. Nonlinear crosstalk is a direct result of nonlinear amplification in analog Impulse noise is characterized by high-amplitude peaks (impulses) of communication systems. Phase intercept distortion occurs in coherent SSBSC systems. Crosstalk is a potential problem whenever two metallic conductors carrying different Loaded is a communications term that indicates the presence of a signal signals are located in close proximity to each other. than their four-wire counterparts. by switching delays. a temporary change in the signal level. sometimes called fluctuation noise or cross-modulation Echo cancellers eliminate the echo by electrically subtracting it from the noise).or the full duplex mode. random changes in the phase of a signal. as in a long- from nonlinear amplification. circuits generally require more twists per foot. less circuitry and. Four-wire circuits are considerably less noisy. Two-wire circuits are ideally suited to simplex transmission. and interface circuit called a hybrid. Transmittance crosstalk is caused by inadequate control of the transfer Impulse noise is the primary source of transmission errors in data characteristics or transmittance of networks. Four-wire circuits are ideally suited to full-duplex transmission. Dropouts are characteristics of temporary open-circuit of a circuit and travels in the opposite direction as the signal in the conditions and are generally caused by deep fades on radio facilities or disturbing channel. The primary cause of gain hits is noise transients (impulses) on transmission facilities during normal Standard telephone cable pairs have 20 twists per foot. set is used to affect the interface. Harmonic distortion is measured by applying a singe-frequency test Crosstalk can be defined as any disturbance created in a communication tone to a telephone channel. A dropout is a decrease in circuit gain of more than 12 dB lasting longer Near-end crosstalk (NEXT) is a crosstalk that occurs at the transmit end than 4 ms. although they are often used for half. although they can operate in the half-duplex mode. original signal rather than disabling the amplifier in the return circuit. Phase hits. like gain hits. Phase jitter is a form of incidental phase modulation-a continuous. and its primary cause is low- frequency ac ripple in power supplies. .

transmit and receive signals into and out of the telephone network. Signaling System No. which is now the telephone industry standard for most of the civilized word. and government agencies. or simply central. based on a of the instrument as the station. Local loop is simply the dedicated cable facility used to connect and instrument at a subscriber’s station to the closest telephone office. Interoffice calls are sometimes called interswitch calls. only two years after the invention of the telephone.The Public Telephone Network Common Channel Signaling System No. Connecticut. central wire center. and trunk circuits that terminate in tandem switches are appropriately called tandem trunks or sometimes intermediate trunks. or video signals propagate. A subscriber is the operator or user of proprietary. Signaling refers to the exchange of information between call The instrument is often referred to as station equipment and the location components required to provide and maintain service. The first commercial telephone switchboard began operation in New Haven. or a data modem. The first local telephone exchanges were switchboards (sometimes called patch panels or patch boards) where manual interconnects were accomplished using patchcords and jacks. The signaling network for the telephone system is SS7. and control. SS7 or C7) is a global standard for telecommunication defined by the International The public telephone companies are sometimes called service Telecommunications Union (ITU) Telecommunications Sector (ITU-T). Mexico. making the birth of the public switched telephone network. providers. such routing. The term point-of-presence is a telecommunications term that describes either temporarily or on a permanent basis. central office exchange. which is used to determine how subscriber’s voice and data signals are routed through the A trunk circuit is similar to a local loop except trunk circuits are used to network. A tandem office is an exchange without any local loops connected to it (tandem meaning “in conjunction with” or “associated with”). A tandem switch is called a switcher’s switch. switches. The switching network is the portion of the telephone network interconnect two telephone offices. The North American Telephone Numbering Plan (NANP) was established to provide a telephone numbering system for the United States. Comitee Consultatif International Telephonique et Telegraphique (CCITT) . Switching machines are programmable matrices that provide temporary signal paths between two subscribers. 7 (SS7). A circuit is simply the path over which voice. as a 2500-type telephone set. central exchange. A central exchange is also called a central telephone exchange. as they lease equipment and provide services to other private companies. a cordless telephone.7 (i. Exchanges connected directly to local loops are often called local exchange was installed in 1878. that actually transports the voice and data from one subscriber to another. An automated switching system is a system of sensors. and other electrical and electronic devices that allows subscribers to give instructions directly to the switch without having to go through an operator.. SS6. An exchange is a central location where subscribers are interconnected. the legal boundaries for the responsibility of maintaining equipment and transmission lines. data. A circuit switch is a programmable matrix that allows circuits to be connected to one another. The switchboard served 21 telephones attached to only eight lines. high-speed data communications network. Interoffice call are calls placed between two stations that are connected to different local exchange. central office (CO).e. 1878. on January 28. The SS7 standard defines the procedures and protocol necessary to exchange information over the PSTN using a separate digital signaling An instrument is any device used to originate and terminate calls and to network to provide wireless (cellular) and wireline telephone call setup. evolved into the instrument. organizations. and Canada that would allow any subscriber in North America to direct dial virtually any other subscriber without the assistance of an operator.

A connection that is momentarily broken during the cell-to-cell transfer is The smallest cells (called microcells) typically have a radius of 1500 called a hand handoff. thus creating more cell areas. cell sites. The locations of these radio-frequency all calls were handled by an operator). Adjacent-channel interference is most prevalent when an adjacent channel is transmitting very close to a mobile unit’s receiver at the same time the mobile unit is trying to receive transmissions from the base station on an adjacent frequency. Adjacent-channel interference result from imperfect filters in receivers that allow nearby frequencies to enter the receiver. Mobile telephone services began in the 1940s and were called MTSs The radio network is defined by a set of radio-frequency transceivers (mobile telephone systems or sometimes manual telephone systems. A flawless hand-off is called a soft handoff and normally takes Microcells are used most often in high-denstiy areas such as found in approximately 200 ms. antennas located 30 meters above the ground require a separation of eight wavelengths. by both the mobile unit and the base station. or independent component coverage areas of a cellular system. Segmentation is a means of avoiding co-channel interference. . and sectored directional antennas are used in edge. As a rule. Segmentation divides a group of channels into smaller groupings or segments of mutually exclusive frequencies. although the delay may be disruptive when transmitting data. In essence. although it lowers the capacity of a cell by enabling reuse inside the reuse distance.and corner-excited cells. The purpose of cell splitting is to increase the channel capacity and improve the availability and reliability of a cellular telephone network.1 W and 1 W. Adjacent-channel interference occurs when transmissions from adjacent channels interfere with each other. Cell splitting is the resizing or redistribution of cell areas. Decreasing co-channel interference while increasing capacity by using directional antennas is called sectoring. which is normally prohibited. large cities and inside buildings. feet or less with base station transmit power between 0.Cellular Telephone Concepts Dualization is a means of avoiding full-cell splitting where the entire area would otherwise need to be segmented into smaller cells. provided the cells are separated by sufficient distance. This is called the near-far-effect and is most prevalent when a mobile unit is receiving a weak signal from the base station. and 15 miles with base station transmit powers between 1 W and 6 W. Omnidirectional antennas are normally used in center-excited cells. The transfer of a mobile unit from one base station’s control to another Large cells (called macrocells) typically have a radius between 1 mile base station’s control is called a handoff (or handover). which is imperceptible to voice telephone users. transceivers are called base stations. Frequency reuse is the process in which the same set of frequencies (channels) can be allocated to more than one cell. as located within each of the cells. are assigned their own segment of the channel group. Cell splitting is when the area of a cell. and the interference between them is called co-channel interference. cell splitting is the process of subdividing highly congested cells into smaller cells each will their own base station and set of channel frequencies. MTS system utilized frequency modulation and were generally assigned Roaming is when a mobile unit moves from one cell to another-possibly a single carrier frequency in the 35-MHz to 45-MHz range that was used form one company’s service area into another company’s service area. This is called the maximum traffic load of the cell. which are within the reuse distance. and antennas located 50 meters above the ground require a separation of 11 wavelengths. is further divided. Two cells using the same set of frequencies are called co-channel cells. The point when a cell reaches maximum capacity occurs when the number of subscribers wishing to place a call at any given time equals the number of channels in the cells.

such as call waiting. A special device called a duplexer is used in each mobile unit and base station to allow simultaneous transmission and reception on duplex channels. all calls except those specified by the subscriber are automatically forwarded to forwarding destination without ringing the subscriber’s handset. Visitor location register (VLR) is a database that stores information about subscribers in a particular MTSO serving area. Home location register (HLR) is a database that stores information about the user. such as AMPS. . The mobile identification number (MIN) is a 34-bit code. With the private mode. call hold. With the screen mode. which is a 32-bit binary code permanently assigned to each mobile unit. Equipment identification registry (EIR) is a database that stores information pertaining to the identification and type of equipment that exists in the mobile unit. Transmissions from base stations to mobile units are called forward links. The Personal Communication System (PCS) is a relatively new class of cellular telephony based on the same basic philosophies as standard cellular telephone systems (CTSs). The screen mode is the PCS equivalent to caller ID. Standard cellular telephone subscribers access the AMPS system using a technique called frequency-division multiple accessing (FDMA). The available mode allows all calls to pass through the network to the subscriber except for a minimal number of telephone numbers that can be blocked. the name of the calling party appears on the mobile unit’s display. whereas transmission form mobile unit to base stations are called reverse links. including home subscription information and what supplementary service the user is subscribed to. which allows PCS users to screen calls. and call conferencing (three-way calling). call forwarding. such as whether the unit is on or off and whether any of the supplementary services are activated or deactivated. Another identification code used with AMPS is the electronic serial number (ESN). which in the United States represents the standard 10-digit telephone number.Cellular Telephone Systems Simultaneous transmission in both directions is a transmission mode called full duplex (FDX) or simply duplexing. The system identifier (SID) is a 15-bit binary code issued by the FCC to an operating company when it issues it a license to provide AMPS cellular service to an area.

Open systems interconnection (OSI) is the name for a set of standards Network architecture is a set of equipments. and how bit synchronization is achieved. all stations and devices on the network share a and 0s) through a transmission medium. A network is a set of devices (sometimes called nodes or stations) interconnected by media links. J. Data communications is the process of transferring digital information which includes the sequence in which the data are sent. Therefore. whereas secondary stations (nodes) within a network (sometimes referred to as network architecture is a set of layers and protocols that govern the hop-to-hop delivery). and for communicating among computers. of a connectivity device is a hub. A data communications network is any system of computers. The Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) promotes research of importance to the evolution of the future Internet by creating focused. A hub is a transparent device that samples the incoming bit stream and simply repeats it to the other A protocol is a set of customs. no addresses Connectivity devices connect devices on cabled networks. data generally are defined as an unplanned fashion without prior coordination between endpoints information that is stored in digital form. the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). Syntax refers to the structure or format of the data within the message. five-by-five matrix representing 25 letters (I and J were combined). venders. D. and researchers Agency (ARPA). with the first message conveyed over this system The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is an being “What hath God wrought!” international professional organization founded in the United States and is comprised of electronics. Data-link layer. receive information between two or more locations. The first general-purpose computer was an automatic sequence. Morse in 1832 called the telegraph. research arm of the Department of Defense. and communications engineers. operators. the bit rate.Introduction to Data Communications and Networking Connectionless protocols are protocols where data are exchanged in In the data communications world. which allowed signals form up to six different telegraph machines to be transmitted The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is the official simultaneously over a single wire. Data communications standards are guidelines that have been generally accepted by the data communications industry. industry. C. however. Created in 1946. Thus. or precedence. Point-to-point networks have only two stations. data communications can be summarized as the transmission. was created in response to the Soviet Union’s launching of Sputnik. operation of the network. such as diplomatic or military protocol. or regulations dealing with formality devices connected to the hub.. Information is defined as knowledge or intelligence. facilitates the orderly flow of data between of reliability for data moving through the network. Physical layer. and technology. The UNIVAC computer. In 1874. reception. Carl Friedrich Gauss developed an unusual system based on a original company. architecture.S. The internet is a public data communications network used by millions of people all over the world to exchange business and personal information. B. or computer peripheral equipment used to transmit and/or protocols. The ISO is a voluntary.S. the was the first mass-produced electronic computer. Emile Baudot invented a telegraph multiplexer. The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is the leading controlled calculator developed jointly by Harvard University and trade association in the communications and information technology International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation. nontreaty organization whose membership is comprised mainly of members from the standards committees of various In 1840. often a royalty must be paid to the In 1833. and processing of digital information. The physical layer is the lowest level of the OSI hierarchy and is responsible for the actual propagation of unstructured data bits (1s With broadcast networks. The data-link layer provides the final framing of the information signal. transmission media. invented by Samuel F. (usually in binary form) between two or more points. represented. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large international The Internet began to evolve in 1969 at the Advanced Research Projects community of network designers. built in 1951 by Remington Rand Corporation. which includes how bits are single communications channel. association that establishes and recommends industrial standards. voting representative for the ISO. An example are needed. 1844 the first telegraph line was established between Baltimore and Washington. Open system standards. Proprietary standards are generally manufactured and controlled by one company. concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. and in governments throughout the world. rules. computer long-term and small research groups working on topics related to Internet terminals. procedures that ensures that a specific sequence of events occurs in a network in the proper order to produce the intended results. . 1946. computer. the International Standards Organization (ISO) is the The first successful (and practical) data communications system was international organization for standardization on a wide range of subjects. standards agency for the United States and is the U. Presper Eckert and John Mauchley at the University of Pennsylvania are given credit by some for beginning modern-day computing when they The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) is a nonprofit U. Morse secured an American patent for the telegraph. The 1957. trade developed the ENIAC computer on February 14. applications. Connection-oriented protocols are designed to provide a high degree provides synchronization. any company can produce compatible equipment or software. Internets are private data communications networks used by many companies to exchange information among employees and resources. The data-link layer is responsible for providing error-free Data communications protocols are sets of rules governing the orderly communications across the physical link connecting primary and exchange of data within the network or a portion of the network.

but they must be between the same two topologies to form a larger. and two types of basic services to an upper-layer protocol: connectionless oriented and connectionless. A star topology is a multipoint data communications network where Application layer. communication format. Transport layer. transparent transfer of data between two endpoints. stations. voice. on other computers. programs. one computer is designated the integrity of the data message propagated through the network between server. LANs use a network operating system to provide two-way Servers are computers that hold shared files. both physically and logically. Transmission media are the facilities used to interconnect computers in a network. A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a high-speed network similar to a Clients are computers that access and use the network and shared LAN except MANs are designed to encompass larger areas. mainframe computer (host) to many personal computers or to interconnect many personal computers. such as in the File servers allow users to access and manipulate disk resources stored same room. The network layer provides details that enable data to be routed between devices in an environment using multiple networks. with all the network layer include routers and their software. long-distance transmission of A local operating system (LOS) allows personal computers to access data. In the full/full duplex (F/FDX) mode. A station is sometimes called a node. In a mesh topology. computers and servers that allows the computers to communicate over a network. Wide area network (WAN) are the oldest type of data communications network that provide relatively slow-speed. which acts like a multipoint connector. . The mesh topology is sometimes both directions but not at the same time. and other components within a data Transport layer responsibilities include message routing. A point-to-point topology is used in data communications networks that transfer high-speed digital information between only two stations. computer terminals. coaxial cable. Presentation layer. and the rest of the computers are clients.nodes. how the computers. of an entire city. The bus topology is the simplest and most common method of A two-point configuration involves only two locations or stations. communications network are interconnected. data transmission is unidirectional. transmission is communications network in which 10 to 40 computer users share data possible in both directions at the same time but not between the same resources with one or more file servers. other computers on the network. The presentation layer provides independence to the application processes by addressing any code or syntax conversion A multipoint topology connects three or more stations through a single necessary to present the data to the network in a common transmission medium. called fully connected. Session layer protocols provide the logical connection entities at the application layer. whereas interconnecting computers. segmenting.. In the simplex (SX) mode. Mbps and higher between a large variety of data communications equipment within a relatively small geographical area. equipment. or both. In the half (HDX) mode. A ring topology is a multipoint data communications network where all stations are interconnected in tandem (series) to form a closed loop or Simplex. information can be sent in only one direction. workstations.5 Mbps to 10 Mbps and range five miles to a few hundred miles in length. and have and use one or more disk and CD dispersed geographical areas. which is the location of because this configuration allows all stations to receive every computers. In the full-duplex (FDX) mode. data storage and processor capacity). a multipoint configuration involves three or more stations. such as a country or an entire continent. error recovery. circle. (i. and the logical topology describes how data actually flow through the Session layer. cables. and The network operating system (NOS) is a program that runs on provides the physical addressing information. A peer-to-peer client/server network is one in which all computers subnetworks. and son. A bus topology is a multipoint data communications circuit that makes it A station is simply an endpoint where subscribers gain access to the relatively simple to control data flow between and among the computers circuit. data transmission is possible in link to every other station on the circuit. two stations. print to a local printer. transmission are possible in A hybrid topology is simply combining two or more of the traditional both directions simultaneously. The physical topology describes how the network is actually laid out. outlines procedures for error detection and correction. drives that are located on the computer. more complex topology. and the network communications at bit rates typically in the range of 10 Mbps to 100 operating system. Local area networks (LANs) are typically privately owned data Full/full duplex. such as hard drives. every station has a direct two-point communications Half duplex. or building complex. MANs typically operate at speeds of 1. The session layer is responsible for network availability network. Networking components that operate at the share their resources. usually that network resources. The transport layer controls and ensures the end-to-end In a dedicated client/server network. A bus topology is sometimes called multidrop or linear bus and all A multipoint network is generally used to interconnect a single stations share a common transmission medium.e. The application layer is the highest layer in the remote stations are connected by cable segments directly to a centrally hierarchy and is analogous to the general manager of the network by located computer called a hub. and optical fiber cable. printers. such as twisted-pair wire. building. providing access to the OSI environment. which provides for the reliable. and video information over relatively large and widely files. two devices. Full duplex. and other digital computing transmission over the network. Network layer. Network topology describes the layout or appearance of a network-that is.

5 Mbps to 2. MANs. enterprise backbones. WANs typically operate at bit rates from 1. GANs operate from 1. . A campus backbone normally uses optical fiber cables for the transmission media between buildings.5 Mbps to 100 Gbps and cover thousands of miles. A campus backbone is a network connection used to carry traffic to and from LANs located in various buildings on campus. such as campus backbones. The term hierarchical simply means that the upper level protocols are supported by one or more lower-level protocols. A building backbone is a network connection that normally carries traffic between departmental LANs within a single company. WANs. A building backbone generally consists of a switch or a router that can provide connectivity to other networks. Global area network (GAN) provide connects between countries around the entire globe. An enterprise network includes some or all of the previously mentioned networks and components connected in a cohesive and manageable fashion. or GANs.WANs typically interconnect cities and states.4 Gbps and cover a distance of 100 to 1000 miles.

without requiring a retransmission. transmits. A 2D bar code stores data in two dimensions in contrast with a Character synchronization involves identifying the beginning and end of a conventional linear bar code. given data string are in error. error detection called redundancy. Multiple-bit errors can affect one or more characters within a message. Synchronous data generally involves transporting serial data at relatively high speeds in groups of characters called blocks or frames. be able to reconstruct the entire message once all frames have been successfully transported through the system. A discrete bar code has spaces or gaps between The Hamming code is an error-correcting code used for correcting characters. Redundancy is an effective but rather costly means of detecting errors. an early pioneer in transmitted message to enable the receiver to determine when an error telegraph printing. ASCII is the standard character set for source coding the alphanumeric Retransmission. character within a message. Continuous code. Single-bit errors affect only one character within a message. band modems. A continuous bar code does not include spaces Hamming bits (sometimes called error bits) are inserted into a between characters. codes are possible. or interprets data messages. A burst error is when two or more consecutive bits within a given data string are in error. synchronous transmission of data between a DTE and a DCE. Burst error can affect one or more characters within a Data terminal equipments (DTE) can be virtually any binary digital message. 2^8. Checksum is another relatively simple form of redundancy error Asynchronous modems can be generally classified as low-speed voice- checking where each character has a numerical value assigned to it. The widths of the bars and spaces along with their Forward error correction (FEC) is the only error-correction scheme that reflective abilities represent binary 1s and 0s. receives. has occurred.Fundamental Concepts of Data Communications A lost message is one that never arrives at the destination or one that arrives but is damaged to the extent that it is unrecognizable. especially with long messages. Discrete ARQ uses acknowledgements to indicate the successful or The extended binary-coded decimal interchange code (EBCDIC) is unsuccessful reception of data. although only 139 of the 256 codes are request the retransmission of a specific frame (or frames) of data and still actually assigned characters. Error detection is the process of monitoring data transmission and Data communications equipment (DCE) is a general term used to determining when errors have occurred. contains one or more transmission errors. occurred within a message and is therefore sometimes called message parity. A French postal engineer named Thomas Murray developed the Baudot Error-detecting codes include enough redundant information with each code in 1875 and named the code after Emile Baudot. such as digital T1 carrier or an analog telephone Duplicating each data unit for the purpose of detecting errors is a form of circuit. The Baudot code (sometimes called the Telex code) was the first fixed- A damaged message is one that is recognized at the destination but length character code developed for machines rather than for people. transmission errors in synchronous data streams. With eight bits. Asynchronous data transmission is sometimes called start-stop transmission because each data character is framed between start and A multiple-bit error is when two or more nonconsecutive bits within a stop bits. describe equipment that interfaces data terminal equipment to a transmission channel. character at random locations. . A bar code is a series of vertical black bars separated by vertical white bars (called spaces). such as the TWX/Telex system and radio with each message to enable the receiver to determine when an error teletype (RTTY). set. as they are typically used to transport asynchronous data Longitudinal redundancy checking (LRC) is a redundancy error The 103 modem is capable of full-duplex operation over a two-wire detection scheme that uses parity to determine if a transmission error has telephone line at bit rates up to 300 bps. which stores data along only one axis. is when a receive station requests character set that humans understand but computers do not (computers the transmit station to resend a message (or a portion of a message) only understand 1s and 0s) ASCII is a seven-bit fixed-length character when the message is received in error. 2D code. Probably the most reliable redundancy checking technique for error detection is a convolutional coding scheme called cyclic redundancy checking (CRC). Discrete code. as the name implies. UART is used for asynchronous transmission of serial data between a DTE and a DCE. device that generates. an eight-bit fixed-length character set developed in 1962 by the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). Continuous ARQ allows the destination station to asynchronously or 256. The Baudot code is a five-bit character code that was used primarily for Error-correcting codes include sufficient extraneous information along low speed teletype equipment. Vertical redundancy checking (VRC) is probably the simplest error- detection scheme and is generally referred to as character parity of A universal synchronous receiver/transmitter (USRT) is used for simply parity. has occurred and which bit is in error. and combinations of bits actually detects and corrects transmission errors when they are received identify specific items.

printers. Bus topology. Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). such as line control Carrier sense. A bit-oriented protocol is a discipline for serial-by-bit information transfer over a data communications channel. The topology or physical architecture of a LAN identifies how the stations (terminals. Binary synchronous communications (BSC) is a synchronous character-oriented data-link protocol developed by IBM. transmission formats. a transmission from one station enters the central node. and so on) are interconnected. adjacent stations are interconnected by repeaters in a closed-loop configuration. A virtual call (VC) is logically equivalent to making a telephone call through the DDD network except no direct end-to-end connection is made. BSC is sometimes called bisync or bisynchronous communications. the bus topology is a multipoint or multidrop circuit configuration where individual nodes are interconnected by a common. CSMA/CD is units and front-end processors. XMODEM is a relatively simple data-link protocol intended for low-speed applications. where it is retransmitted on all the outgoing links. an access method used primarily with LANs configured in bus topology. Ring topology. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a relatively new data communications technology that uses a high-speed form of packet switching network for the transmission media. modems. multiple access with collision detection. Character-oriented protocols interpret a frame of data as a group of successive bits combined into predefined patterns of fixed length. Star topology. With stop-and-wait flow control. shared communications channel. remote stations can have more than one PC or printer. the transmitting station sends one message frame and then waits for an acknowledgment before sending the next message frame. A permanent virtual circuit (PVC) is logically equivalent to a two-point dedicated private-line circuit except slower. With a ring topology. usually eight bits each. A data-link protocol is a set of rules implementing and governing an orderly exchange of data between layer two devices. The preeminent feature of the star topology is that each station is radially linked to a central node through a direct point-to-point connection. Flow control defines a set of procedures that tells the transmitting station how much data it can send before it must stop transmitting and wait for an acknowledgement from the destination station. A public switched data network (PDN or PSDN) is a switched data communication network similar to the public telephone network except a PDN is designed for transferring data only. baseband formats use the transmission medium as a single-channel device. A poll is a solicitation sent from the primary to a secondary to determine Ethernet is a baseband transmission system designed in 1972 by if the secondary has data to transmit. In addition. With synchronous data-link protocols. With a star configuration. In essence. Enquiry/acknowledgement (ENQ/ACK) is a relatively simple data-link- Token passing is a network access method used primarily with LANs layer line discipline that works best in simple network environment where configured in a ring topology using either baseband or broadband there is no doubt as to which station is the intended receiver. Synchronous data-link control (SDLC) is a synchronous bit-oriented protocol developed in the 1970s by IBM for use in system network architecture (SNA) environments. .Data-Link Protocols and Data Communications Networks Baseband transmission formats are defined as transmission format that use digital signaling.

System gain is the difference between the nominal output power of a Frequency diversity is simply modulating two different RF carrier transmitter and the minimum input power to a receiver necessary to frequencies with the same IF intelligence. electromagnetic wave as it propagates in a straight line through a reshaped. Fading is a general term applied to the reduction in signal strength at the input to a receiver. supergroup. block the transmission path. IF repeaters are also called heterodyne repeaters. multiplexed voice-band channels. This arrangement combines the operational advantages of began operation. the surface wave provides the primary A microwave repeater is a receiver and a transmitter placed back to coverage. With baseband repeater. With systems that are longer than 40 miles or when geographical Examples of commonly used low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) are tunnel obstructions. Intermodulation noise is a major factor when designing FM radio systems. group. zone. antennas that are physically separated by an appreciable number of wavelengths. Free-space path loss is often defined as the loss incurred by an the received RF carrier is down-converted to an IF frequency. however. It combines frequency. the purpose of using diversity is to increase the microwave links operating between 2 GHz and 6 GHz. and the sky wave helps extend this coverage at night when the back or in tandem with the system. Fading can occur under conditions of heavy ground The baseband frequencies are generally less than 9 MHz. IF frequencies are in the range 60 MHz to 80 MHz. Multipath fading occurs primarily during nighttime hours on typical In a microwave system. either originate or terminate. or even channel level. Frequency modulation (FM) is used in microwave radio systems rather Repeater stations are points in a system where baseband signals may than amplitude modulation (AM) because AM signals are more sensitive be reconfigured or where RF carriers are simply “repeated” or amplified. At frequencies below 1. The isolator is used in conjunction with a channel-combining network to The preemphasis network provides an artificial boost in amplitude to the prevent the output of one transmitter from interfering with the output of higher baseband frequencies. vacuum with no absorption or reflection of energy from nearby objects.Microwave Radio Communications and System Gain Hybrid diversity is a somewhat specialized form of diversity that consists Microwaves are generally described as electromagnetic wave with of a standard frequency-diversity path where the two transmitter/receiver frequencies that range from approximately 500 MHz to 300 GHz or more. . Quad diversity is another form of hybrid diversity and undoubtedly provides the most reliable transmission. and receiver diversity into one system. amplified. both carriers are demodulated. A diversity system offers 100% protection only to the first working channel to fail. and the one that yields the better-quality IF signal is Fade margin (sometimes called link margin) is essentially a “fudge selected. signals to a given destination. it is also the most expensive. factor” included in system gain equations that considers the nonideal and less predictable characteristics of radio-wave propagation. space. A microwave generator provides the RF carrier input to the up-converter. such as a mountain. to amplitude nonlinearities inherent in wideband microwave amplifiers. polarization. then transmitting both RF achieve satisfactory performance. absorption of the ionosphere is at a minimum. At the destination. Microwave radios propagate signals through Earth’s atmosphere between transmitters and receivers often located on top of towers spaced Terminal stations are points in the system where baseband signals about 15 miles to 30 miles apart. which is typically frequency-division. With polarization diversity. amplified. The baseband signal. Receiver diversity is using more the one receiver for a single radio- frequency channel. With diversity protection. dedicated backup or spare channel. pairs at one end of the path are separated from each other and connected to different antennas that are vertically separated as in space On august 17.5 MHz. the output of a transmitter is fed to two or more multipath propagation (multipath loss) and terrain sensitivity. and then further demodulated to the length of one-half wavelength form an ellipse that defines the first Fresnel baseband. frequency diversity with the improved diversity protection of space diversity. whereas the fog or when extremely cold air moves over warm ground. 1951. a single backup channel is made available to as many as 11 working channels. channel. each working radio channel has a short distances. reliability of the system by increasing its availability. are needed. such as interstate and backbone route Hot standby systems offer 100% protection for each working radio applications. is further demodulated to a mastergroup. and then retransmitted. a single RF carrier is propagated with two different electromagnetic polarizations (vertical and horizontal). Intrastate or feeder service microwave systems are generally categorized as short haul because they are used to carry information for relatively With hot standby protection. With an IF repeater. repeaters diodes and parametric amplifiers. An isolator is a unidirectional device often made form a ferrite material. Long-haul microwave systems are those used to carry information for relatively long distances. up-converted to an RF frequency. the received RF carrier is down-converted to an All points from which a wave could be reflected with an additional path IF frequency. the first transcontinental microwave radio system diversity. filtered. such as With space diversity. another transmitter.

facsimile. a 150-pound conical-shaped satellite. the barycenter. The simplest type of satellite is a passive reflector. which transmitted primary and the satellite. Earth) following an elliptical path. Earth communications system. Intelsat stands for International Telecommunications Satellite Satellites in high-elevation. which is a device German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the laws that simply “bounces” signals from one place to another. Score was a delayed repeater satellite as it received transmissions from earth stations. Kepler’s second law states that for equal intervals of time a satellite will sweep out equal areas in the orbital plane. rotation around Earth is counterbalanced by Earth’s gravitational pull. and used by a single Perigee. the law of areas. which was the first transponder-type satellite. circular pattern with an angular velocity equal to that of Earth. meaning “lightning. and If the satellite is orbiting in the opposite direction as Earth’s rotation or in then rebroadcast them later to ground stations farther along in its orbit. (known as the perigee). The line perpendicular to the major axis and halfway between the perigee and apogee . regenerating. nonsynchronous circular orbits between Organization. The moon became the first passive satellite in 1954. reshaping.S. a publicly owned company called Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat) regulates the use A satellite is a celestial body that orbits around a planet. the United States launched Explorer 1. reshaping. Kepler’s third law. Major axis. the first active earth satellite. announced in 1619. stored them on magnetic tape.” Apogee. The line joining the perigee and apogee through the center of In 1972. Kepler’s second law. In 1960. balloon with an aluminum coating. amplifying. and data transmissions and accomplished the first successful transatlantic video Geosynchronous satellites are high-altitude earth-orbit satellites transmission. NASA launched Score.66-GHz frequency band and orbit between 6000 miles and 12. AT&T launched Telstar1. and transmitting information. The Syncom 3 satellite was used to broadcast the 1964 Olympic Games from Tokyo. Earth. NASA in conjunction with Bell Telephone Laboratories and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory launched Echo. using Echo. the orbit is called a retrograde orbit. and operation of U. Russia launched Sputnik 1. is known as In 1957. Later in the orbit is proportional to the cube of the mean distance between the same year. Score rebroadcast President Eisenhower’s 1958 Christmas message. the first active satellite to simultaneously receive and transmit radio signals. of which a satellite may A satellite remains in orbit because the centrifugal force caused by its have many. Motorola’s satellite-based mobile-telephone system. Iridium.Satellite Communications In the United States today. The point in an orbit that is located closest to Earth country. focused at An active satellite is capable of receiving. sometimes called line of apsides which is an Inuit word meaning “little brother. Russia launched Sputnik 1. Navy Kepler’s first law states that a satellite will orbit a primary body (like successfully transmitted the first message over this Earth-to-moon-to.” Minor axis. that govern satellite motion. 19. the same direction with the angular velocity less than that of Earth.000 miles above Earth are said to be in near- synchronous orbit.5-GHz The first transatlantic transmission using a satellite was accomplished frequency range. If the satellite is orbiting in the same direction as Earth’s rotation (counterclockwise) and at an angular velocity greater than that of Earth. Nonsynchronous satellites rotate around Earth in an elliptical or circular In 1958. is a MEO system with a constellation of 21 working satellites and six spares orbiting approximately 9500 miles above Earth. and retransmitting information. Telstar 2 was used for telephone. the Department of Defense launched Courier. when the U. The third law states that the square of the periodic time of Sputnik 1 transmitted telemetry information for 21 days.300 miles above Earth’s surface. is sometimes known as the harmonic law. the first active earth satellite. communications. Also in 1960. With an on board tape recording.000 miles and 25.0-GHz to 2. The former Soviet Union launched the first set of domestic satellites (Domsats) in 1966 and called them Molniya. enunciated with the first law in 1609. is a LEO system utilizing a 66-satellite constellation orbiting approximately 480 miles above Earth’s surface. Most commercial communication satellites are in geosynchronous orbit. Intelsat 1 (called Early Bird) was the first commercial Geosynchronous or geostationary satellites are those that orbit in a telecommunications satellite. Canada launched its first commercial satellite designated Anik.2-GHz to 1. An active satellite is capable of receiving. regenerating. television. and the velocity will be least at the farthest point from Earth (known as the apogee). satellites and also sets their tariffs. a 100-foot-diameter plastic Most nonsynchronous satellites revolve around Earth in a prograde orbit.000 miles above Earth. operating primarily in the 2-GHz to 18-GHz frequency spectrum with orbits 22. The point in an orbit that is located farthest from Earth Domsat are satellites that are owned. Most low earth orbit (LEO) satellites operate in the 1. The velocity will be greatest at the point of closest approach to Earth In 1957. pattern. A satellite radio repeater is called a transponder. MEO satellites operate in the 1. NAVSTAR. telemetry information for nearly five months. In 1962. Score was the first artificial satellite used for relaying terrestrial the orbit is called a prograde or posigrade orbit. amplifying. operated.S.

therefore. have EIRPs that are 3 dB or 50% lower than those transmitted by spot beams that typically cover only 10% of the Earth’s surface. One sidereal day for Earth is 23 hours and 56 minutes. Angle of elevation (sometimes called elevation angle) is the vertical angle formed between the direction of travel of an electromagnetic wave radiated from an earth station antenna pointing directly toward a satellite and horizontal plane. who first suggested its existence in 1945 and proposed its use for communications satellites. typically have proportionately higher EIRPs than those targeting much larger areas because a given output power can be more concentrated. Spot and zonal beams blanket less than 10% of the Earth’s surface. A geosynchronous earth orbit is sometimes referred to as the Clarke orbit or Clarke belt. Spot beams concentrate their power to very small geographical areas and. Azimuth is the horizontal angular distance from a reference direction. which means “lightning” in Russian (in colloquial Russian.All satellites rotate around Earth in an orbit that forms a plane that passes A link budget identifies the system parameters and is used to determine through the center of gravity of Earth called the geocenter. Molniya can also be spelled Molnya and Molnia. a footprint of a satellite is the area on Earth’s surface that the satellite can receive from or transmit to. The geographical representation of a satellite antenna’s radiation pattern is called a footprint or sometimes a footprint map. Azimuth angle is defined as the horizontal pointing angle of an earth station antenna. An equatorial orbit is when the satellite rotates in an orbit directly above the equator. Molniya means “news flash”). Gain-to-equivalent noise temperature ratio is a figure of merit used to represent the quality of a satellite or earth station receiver. Molniya satellites are used for government communications. either the southern or northern most point of the horizon. the projected C/N and E/N ratios at both the satellite and earth station receivers for a given modulation scheme and desired P(e). Hemispherical downlink antennas typically target up to 20% of the Earth’s surface and. telephone. A polar orbit is when the satellite rotates in a path that takes it over the North and South Poles in an orbit perpendicular to the equatorial plane. television. therefore. while an internal subsystem provides roll and yaw stabilization. Clarke. the body remains fixed relative to Earth’s surface. . The process of maneuvering a satellite within a preassigned window is called station keeping. The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Molniya is an interesting orbital satellite currently in use. All geosynchronous satellites are in equatorial orbits. A spinner satellite uses the angular momentum of its spinning body to provide roll and yaw stabilization. The wideband carrier power is the combined power of the carrier and its associated sidebands. A sidereal day is sometimes called the period or sidereal period. Inclined orbits are virtually all orbits except those that travel directly above the equator or directly over the North and South Poles. after Arthur C. Satellites remain in orbit as a result of a balance between centrifugal and gravitational forces. and video. Three-axis stabilizer. usually in a circular path. In essence.

significant landmarks. Navigation can be defined as the art or science of plotting. of an electromagnetic wave as it moves from a transmitter to a receiver. access method used today. Loran-C. direction and distance are determined from Frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) is a method of multiple precisely time sightings of celestial bodies. FDMA. Dead(ded) reckoning is a navigation technique that determines position SPADE is an acronym for single-channel-per-carrier PCM multiple. consists of 24 operational satellites revolving around Earth in six orbit planes approximately 60’ apart with four satellites in each plane. Anik is an Eskimo word meaning “little brother”. sometimes called the space segment. and accurate means of radio navigation. time slot but have no restriction on what frequency or bandwidth it may use within a specified satellite system or channel allocation. reliable. continually change the frequency of the carrier. Time-assignment speech interpolation (TASI) is a form of analog TDMA. on time or bandwidth. The Anik-E communications satellites are Domsats (domestic satellites) operated Frequency hopping is a form of CDMA where a digital code is used to by Telsat Canada. and GPS is an abbreviation of Global Positioning System. Such a code is called an orthogonal code. Navstar is and acronym for Navigation System with Time and Ranging. have no limitations on when they may transmit or directing the course of movements. Earth station’s transmissions are encoded with a unique binary word called a chip code. the resultant would be zero cross correlation Multiple accessing is sometimes called multiple destinations because between chip code. may be preassigned or demand assigned. barns. water towers. each earth station transmits a short burst of information during a channel compression that has been used for suboceanic cables for many specific time slot (epoch) within a TDMA frame. for all practical purposes. The standard positioning service (SPS) is a positioning and timing service that is available to all GPS users on a continuous. which makes CDMA ideally suited for military applications. Satellite multiple accessing (sometimes called multiple destination) A digital noninterpolated interface assigns an individual terrestrial implies that more than one user has access to one or more radio channel (TC) to a particular satellite channel (SC) for the duration of the channels (transponders) within a satellite communications channel. The U. The first FDMA demand-assignment system for satellites was developed mountain peaks. there are no restrictions basis with no direct charge. With CDMA. accessing where a given RF bandwidth is divided into smaller frequency bands called subdivisions. highly precise position. the transmissions from each earth station are received by all the other earth stations in the system. The satellite segment. transmit. and the most recent version. Each station has a unique chip code. same frequency at the same time. CDMA. With radio navigation. Loran-A was developed during World War II. all earth stations transmit within the same frequency band and. position is determined by measuring the travel time Time-division multiple access (TDMA) is the predominant multiple. all earth stations within the system may transmit on the 1995. by Comsat for use on the Intelsat series IVA and V satellites. and bodies of water. Telecommunications Administrations. they a satellite channel only when speech energy is present on the TC. or on which carrier frequency. worldwide basis to users authorized by the DoD. the CEPT sets many of the European telecommunication standards. and time information satellite channel or system but have no restriction on when they can to land-. such as railroad tracks. Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS) is produced when a bipolar data-modulated signal is linearly multiplied by the spreading signal in a Communications satellites operating in the C-band are allocated to total special balanced modulator called spreading correlator. sea-. velocity. an earth station’s transmissions are restricted to a precise by the United States Air Force. access demand-assignment equipment. ascertaining. stations within a satellite network through a common satellite transponder. Loran (Long Range Navigation) was the most effective. With celestial navigation. and timing service that is available on a continuous. by extrapolating a series of measured velocity increments. although the incoming voice-band signals Navstar GPS is a satellite-based open navigation system. including the stars and moon. surfaced in CEPT is the Conference of European Postal and 1980. and space-based users. years.S. United States Department of Defense (DoD) developed Navstar to With FDMA. each earth station’s transmissions are assigned specific uplink A digital speech interpolated interface assigns a terrestrial channel to and downlink frequency bands within an allotted satellite bandwidth. The Navstar Satellite System was completed in 1994 and is maintained With TDMA. call. earth stations are limited to a specific bandwidth within a provide continuous. worldwide With code-division multiple access (CDMA). There are 21 working satellite and three satellites reserved as spaces. . bandwidth of 500 MHz symmetrical around the satellite’s center frequency. TASI also uses 2:1 compression ratio. TDMA is a store-and-forward system. The most significant advantage of CDMA is immunity to interference (jamming). positioning. Earth stations can transmit only during their specified time slot.Satellite Multiple Accessing Arrangements If half the bits within a code were made the same and half were made exactly the opposite. air-. velocity. TDMA is a method of time-division multiplexing digitally modulated carriers between participating earth Until recently. The precise positioning service (PPS) is a highly accurate military CDMA is sometimes referred to as spread-spectrum multiple access. are continuous. Air Force Space Command (AFSC) formally declared the Navstar GPS satellite system as being fully operational as of April 27. Piloting is fixing a position and direction with respect to familiar.

in essence.42 MHz and L2 = 1227.6 MHz. Differential GPS works by canceling out most of the natural and man-made errors that creep into normal GPS measurement. . Differential GPS makes standard GPS even more accurate. The GPS system works by determining how long it takes a radio signal transmitted from a satellite to reach a land-based receiver and then using that time to calculate the distance between the satellite and the earth station receiver.Each Navstar satellite continually transmits a daily update set of digitally coded ephemeris data that describes its precise orbit. All Navstar satellites transmit on the same two L band microwave carrier frequencies: L1 = 1575. an astronomical almanac. Ephemeris is a term generally associated with a table showing the position of a heavenly body on a number of dates in a regular sequence.