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JYV ÄSKYLÄ STUDIES IN COMMUNICATION 8

Mikel Del Garant

Intercultural Teaching and Learning

English as a
Foreign Language Education
in Finland and Japan

Esitetään Jyväskylän yliopiston humanistisen tiedekunnan suostumuksella
julkisesti tarkastettavaksi yliopiston Villa Ranan Paulaharju-salissa
kesäkuun 7. päivänä 1997 klo 12.

Academic dissertation to be publicly discussed, by permission of
the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Jyväskylä,
in the Building Villa Rana, Paulaharju Hall, on June 7,1997 at 12 o'clock noon.

"=7
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ

JYVÄSKYLÄ 1997

Intercultural Teaching and Learning
English as a
Foreign Language Education
in Finland and [apan

JYV ÄSKYLÄ STUDIES IN COMMUNICA TION 8

Mikel Del Garant

Intercultural Teaching and Learning

English as a
Foreign Language Education
in Finland and [apan

...

UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ

JYVÄSKYLÄ 1997

Editors
Raimo Salokangas
Department of Communication, University of Jyväskylä
Kaarina Nieminen
Publishing Unit, University Library of Jyväskylä

ISBN 978-951-39-4013-3 (PDF)
URN:ISBN:978-951-39-4013-3

ISBN 951-34-0981-3 (nid.)
ISSN 1238-2183

Copyright © 1997, by University of [yväskylä

Jyväskylä University Printing House, Jyväskylä
and ER-Paino Ky, Lievesuore1997

ABSTRACT

Garant, Mikel Del
Intercultural teaching and leaming: English as a Foreign Language Education
in Finland and Japan
Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä 1997, 322 p.
(Jyväskylä Studies in Communication;
ISSN 1238-2183; 8)
(nid.), 978-951-39-4013-3
ISBN 9978-951-39 (nid-4013-3 (PDF)
978-951-39-4013-3 978-951-39-4013-3978-951-39-4013-3951-34-0981-3
Diss.

In Finland and [apan, as in all countries, cultural assumptions and norms
of foreign
underpin pedagogic decisions which determine the outcome
language teaching and leaming. This study was undertaken to offer a
(TEFL) is
framework for studying how teaching English as foreign language
a

planned and executed in relation to the educational culture present in specific
(1980; 1986,
leaming environments. The focus extends the use of Hofstede's
1990) model of cultural difference and examines how collectivism vs.
individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity vs.
(Ha111976) and politeness (Scollon and
femininity as well as aspects of context
Scollon 1983; 1995) influence TEFL and to what extent there are cultural
similarities and differences between [apan and Finland in the specific junior
high school educational cultures studied. The research model was applied to
language planning and textbook design, testing, leamer and
teacher attitudes,
transcribed c1assroom discourse and lesson segmentation data gathered in the
period. Results provide an overall perspective of
two countries over five-year
a

phenomena, including the [apan Exchange Teaching (JET) Program. While
communication in English was an expressed goal in the [apanese setting,
entrance tests were a major motivational factor. In
the Finnish setting, test
taking was only minor factor in English education
a and communication was
paramount. Classroom teaching methods, lesson segmentation and teacher-
found to be
student/ student-student interaction in both countries were
goals well as cultural factors.
influenced by textbook design and curriculum as

The Finnish setting reflected a more learner-centered teaching approach in
each other.
which teachers encouraged pupils to interact with themselves .and
This was conducive to communicative language teaching. The Japanese
TEFL c1assroom tended to be more teacher-centered
educational culture in the
with an emphasis on test training and structural teaching approaches. The
Finnish TEFL methods at the junior high school level appear successful in
other
establishing communication in the c1assroom and could prove useful in
settings, inc1uding [apan, that seek to provide pupils with the necessary
the emerging English-
language skills to become successful participants in
speaking global community.
JET
Key words: TEFL, Intercultural Communication, Finland, [apan, Education,
avoidance
Program, individualism, collectivism, power distance, uncertainty

Senior Lecturer Larry Walker (Osaka University of .I would liketo.. Professors Marni Atsuta. Busin.: They are toonurnerous to mentioIl individually.useful cO:mrnents on how to better describe contemporary English asa foreign Ian. would also like to thank my professors in Tampere.. as . For mistakes which remain in the work..Guruna-ken. Tazuko Savvada and ShinichiYamabe ofNara University of Education . Birmingham. My lecturers from Aston University. also a great heIp and deepened my understanding and culture. Minoru Wada (Meikai University) and Robert Juppe (Tsukuba University) for their help and encouragement. their collaboration withth1s project. deserves a warmthanks forhis support and. would like to thank Professor Jaakko Lehtonen for his 1support. University of Educationprovided inyaluable insight into Japanese educational culture which were incorporated into the pr sent study. College) who. Professor Hiroshi Kita. (University of Helsinki)also helpedin perfecting the larjguage andclarity of the work. Sauli Takala (Ulliversityof Jyväskylä) and AssistantProfessorMutsuko Takahashi (Miyazaki International. Universityof Jyväskylä provided valuable advice. coIlStructivesuggestions which contributed to .townoffice. who acted as myguarantor-and Monbusho Research Scholarship supervisor. Keith Richards and Dr. Ryuhei Hatsuse (University of Kobe). Maija-Liisa Nikkiand 1 Kari 1 Sajavaara from the University of Jyväskylä for their valuable cornrnents.. dissertation. Mika Merviö. David Charles were Dr.but each one deserves a warm.guage teaching in Japan. AssociateProfessor Liisa Salo-Lee..and teachers ofthe junior high school system 'and the... opponents for this .Without their generous help this I'roject could not have been completed. Jukka Paastela. am grateful to Professors Matti Leiwo. Susurnu Takahashi (University of Tokyo). Johann Garant. personai thanks. provided countless.I W2uld liketothankthe studentsand teachersofEmäkosld Nokianvirta junior high school in Finland and the students . The Departrnent of English at Nara. has eamed a warm thanksfor her encouragement and >support 1 during the completion of thisproject. would also like to thank Professors Glen Hook (University of Sheffield).of Kanra-machi.. Julian Edge and Lecturer 1 supportive in the early stages of this work. encouragement and understandiIlg which contributed tothe completion of this project. 1 alone am responsible. the completion of this work. the supervisor of this research.·Junko Kobayashi and Atsushi Kato from Osaka University of Foreign Studies were also helpful.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS and First. and serving as li1addition. and for providing writtencornrnents .ess andLaw) andProfessor Masaru Tongu (Nara Universityof Education) of Japanese language were.. England. Japan for.A. M. am grateful to Docent my Ctlstosduring the doctoral defense. Osmo Apunen and Olli Vehviläinen. College). The Department of Applied Linguistics. thank Professors Harurni Ito.. 1 would also like to extend many thanks to Professors Antony Corninos (Kobe Gakuin Women's Jr. Muneyuki Shindo (Rikkyo . Inaddition.

['il:k<ll1ashi(Japilnese Consulate. WSOY. 1 would like to thank my wife Johannafor her support and patience Whlle journeyin.ProgramwhiGh is..n. the Japan Association ofLanguageTeachin. Koivisto·.teachi.ce.DirectorJussi .cation .work atth I. New Orleans) and Information Officer Steve Clark (Japanese Consulate. and countless others who aretoo numerousto mention .Ritva Hummelin.the University ofJyväskyUi.-93 by my. My research from 1993-94 wasfundedby..research and. were..Clarke(Kawasaki ol1ege).ng here last August.have had to adjust to.Researcher Steve Buliard (Macquarie University).lv. . 1 wouldalso like to thank colleagues who provided feedback.participation in The Japan Exchange Teaching . Business . The Japanese Ministry of Education providedfundirlg fqr the proj ctfrom 1994-96 though aMonbushoResearch Student Scholarship.toDr.n. -. my students and colleagues at fue University of Helsinki Department of Translation Studies in Kouvola who have :made me feel welcomesince 1 begatl.spO)1soredby fhe Japanese Foreign . .Helsinld for graciously consenting' to allowme.IaisaMarM. Infor:mation Offic r Sanli lfilvo (Japanese Embassy. Ministry. (Monbusho Research Scholarship Students). my two children. 1997 Mikel.n.influenced this work..atl. in the layout. . Lecturer John .include e?<cerpts fromfueir textbooks inthis . Erkki and. (University of Helsinki). May 5. Sandra and Hank Garant. of Turku). Helsinki)..sca:nning andediting of the worl< J appreciate:r<:airyndo PUblishing.Helsinki and Weilin+GÖÖs.and my parents. Lecturer A.our long absences. and parents-in-law.study. Kouvola.. Tokyo.Del Garant . special thanks to Consul Shimizu'. 1 would like to thank. Minrl. Lecturer Eija. who.. Professor Risto Hiltunen. SpeciaLthanks . This research was funeledfrom 1991.. Home Ministry and Ministryof "Bdu. Finally.n.g back and forth between two.Atlanta).eMurray (Yamagata "University). (Arcada .school). On a personai note. A. feedback . (University. (Helsinki School of Econolllics).l'onyMondaand MiGhael Shultz. during the seminar on 'Regionalism in East-Asia' in Tampere. A.g Junior Senior High SchoolNSIG. born during the . Docent AndrewChesterman.University) and Hidetoshi Taga (University of Niigata) for their. Dale Bay (Tokyo).guage Center at . traveling process. rnaterials or otherwise. continents. typing.alfytti has eamed warm recognition for her assistatl. Kjällström. who.to. LanguageCenter .Heli PE!:k:kolaand eyeryone inthe .aandEric.

.................4......... 2..................................................... 62 2....................1 Hofstede's 4-D Model OfCultural Difference ..................................4........................1 ..... 60 2........................2 Exarnining Testing ........................... 30 2 FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS ..........................................1 Background ....3 Data Base ...........2 Characteristics RelatedTo The Power Distance 35 Dirnension .............................1..................................... 18 1.......................................................3 Characteristics Related To The Uncertainty Avoidance 36 Dirnension .................... .......... 63 3.....2 Cultural And Historical Sirnilarities And Developrnent .................................................... 25 28 1.............. ........................ 46 2........................ 63 3 GENERAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES .1 Exarnining Language Planning And Textbooks ...... 2................................5 Airn And Outline Of The Study ..................... 43 2.......................4 General Consideration For Classroorn Research .....1......2 Research Questions And Sub-Questions ............... 73 4.................................................7 Methods .... ........... 50 2................ 30 2...............................................lFernininity ................................................................4...................................................4 Surnrnary .........................................2 Context And Culture ... 49 2.....2 Levels 23 1.1 Characteristics RelatedTo The Individualism Versus 33 Collectivisrn Dimension ... Of Investigation .......3 Tearn-Teaching In'[apan ............................................ 18 1............. Activities And Tirning And 55 Classroorn Discourse .............................. 37 Dirnension .......... 57 2.............................................. 41 2... 2...................5 Teacher Training ........... 64 3....................................................................................................4. 16 1.................4......................... 72 3..8 Exchanges: Initiation................................................... 66 3.......................................................2 Current Situation In[apan And Finland ..............................................Response AndFollow-Up ..................4...6 Observation Of The Videos ..............................4 Cbaracteristics Related To The Masculinity VerslJ§............................4 Eliciting Teacher Responses ...........................................4............................................. 1...CONTENTS 15 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ 53 2..............................................................................................................1...........................1 Hypothesis And Research Questions ....1.................... 38 2..... 73 4 LANGUAGE PLANNING AND TEXTBOOKS .............. 2............4 Method Of Analysis .............3 Surveying Learner Attitudes ................ Societal Sirnilarities ..............3 Politeness .......... 2....... ............................................................................. 62 2.............. Of Text And Discourse Analysis 58 2............................................................................1......................................................1.........................................4................ 78 4.5 Exarnining Methods............6 Surnrnary ............................

.......................... 106 5.................4.... 130 6.......... 4........3 Uncertainty Avoidance ..................................................... 90 4..1......................4.........2....6 How Good Is Your English? ...1 Textbooks Re1ated To Strong Power Distance ........................3................1.........4 Do You Like ........................................ 124 6... 93 4......................................................4............. 108 5.....1......7 How Many Hours A Week Do You Study English At Home? 129 .....................4....... 6...............................2 Teacher Attitudes Re1ated To Collectivism 135 ..3 Testing AndUniversity Admission .................................................. 101 4...................................1 Ro1e Of Testing In Finland And [apan ...........................1...................Femininity Dimension ............................4 Textbooks Re1ated To Mascu1inity Versus ..............2......................... 99 4...................4.............................................. 81 4..............................2 ToWeak Uncertainty Textbooks Re1ated Avoidance Dimension ............2....... 97 4.........................4...............................1.........2.....................1. Individualism .........................2...... 126 6.....................................1...................................................................................4. 125 6....................................................... 104 5..................1........................8 Will You Use English In Your Life? ....... 104 5........................ 120 6...1 Teacher Attitudes Re1ated To Individualism .............2 Power Distance 4................................ 132 6......1 Summary ....4...............................1...............4 Culture And Textbook Design 90 .......2 Teacher Attitudes Re1ated To The Strong Power Distance Dimension 142 ................................... 89 4................................ 6......... 130 6..1................................................. 4....1.............................. 127 6................................................9 Summary ....................................1 Collectivism vs................... 116 6 LEARNER AND TEACHER ATTlTUDES 119 .............2........................ 95 4...........................English? ................................... 6................................................. 4..........................3..............................1 TextbooksRelated To Strong Uncertainty A voidance Dimension 99 .2 How Many Foreigners Have You Talked To? ................................................. 128 6..................................................1 Why Do You Study English? .......1....................1 Teacher Attitudes Re1ated To The Weak Power Distance Dimension ........ 101 4...... 119 6.......1 Learner Attitudes .............4 Surumary ............1 Textbooks In Collectivist Societies ..... 140 6................ 103 5 TESTING .........5 Surumary ...4....... 90 4...2.4..................3............... ........................ 132 6.............2 Textbooks In Individualist Societies ..........2 Teacher Attitudes .................2.2 Leamers And Tests ......2 Textbooks And WeakPower Distance .......3 Comprehensive School EFL Textbooks In Finland And InJapan .........................5 Do YouTake Private English Lessons? ..3 How Far Do You Wish To Pursue Your Education? ...................1......

.....................................................................................2.............. 9.............................. 215 215 9...........................................................2.............................................................1 Teacher Attitudes Related To The 146 Femininity Dimension ...........................4................... ...........2 Teacher Attitudes Related To The Masculinity Dimension ...............1................2 Results af The Study ................................2......3 Implications ..........................2 Discourse And Culture ...................2 Individualist Characteristics In Classroom Discourse ...2........... 223 231 9. 147 149 6...................2..........................2..................... 195 8............3.............................................1 Discussion .........4................................................................1 Summary ....................................1 Regular Japanese English Lessons .... 6.................................. 210 211 8...3........2........ 153 158 7.... 8....................................................... 178 7..............4..................................................................................................1 What Factors Contribute To The Perceived Differences 218 Jn English Proficiency In The Two Countries? ...... 217 9.........................................4................... 7....................................................2 Weak Uncertainty Avoidance ...............2........................ 185 189 7......4 Finnish Communication-Oriented Lessons ....2.......................................................................1............. 207 8............1 Teacher Attitudes Related To Weak Uncertainty A voidance ........ 7 CLASSROOM METHODS.........3.2.........................................1 Summary .............................3 Finnish Grammar-Oriented Lessons .......4...........1 Strong Uncertainty Avoidance ..............................................2...................... 143 6...................................... 6................................ 175 7..............................1 Research Method For Studying Educational Culture ............................................3.1 Masculine Society ....... 6......... ACTIVITIES AND TIMING ........................1 Large Power Distance ..................2.................3..................1......... 9............................ 162 7...................................... 9 CONCLUSIONS ..3 Summary .............................................1 Collectivist Characteristics In Classroom Discourse 196 ........ 184 7...............2 Feminine Society ......2............................ 198 201 8........ 8 ANALYSIS OF CLASSROOM DISCOURSE ...............................2 Teacher Attitudes Related To Strong Uncertainty A voidance 144 ................2....3 Summary ............. Small Power Distance ........................ 202 8..1 Analysis .......1 Classroom Discourse: Discussion .............2... 205 8.2...... 213 8....................... 192 193 8............ 8..........2....2 [apanese Team-Taught Lessons ..2 8.................................................. 153 7.....................................................2 To What Extent Are There Cultural Similarities And Differences Between [apan and Finland Jn Regard To The Educational Culture Of Specific Junior High School Settings? ........

.......................................... 253 Appendixl Appendix2 Appendix3 Appendix4 Appendix5 Appendix6 J\ppendix7 Appendix8 Appendix9 Appendixl0 Appendix 11 ................................................................REFERENCES ...

......................................... Table 5..............8 Tendencies In Textbooks Related To The Masculinity 103 Versus Femininity Dimension ...................2 Components Of Situation ............TABLES 17 Table 1.......................... Table4................3 Tendencies In Language Testing For College Bound Students In Finland And [apan ...............................3 Etic Categories UsedAnd TheType Of Data Collected ..................................................................2 Competition To Enter [apanese Universities ....................... Table 5.............................. 23 25 Table 1....2 Differences In Teacher-Student and Student-Student 35 Interaction Related ToThe Power Distance Dimension ..................5 Scores On Hall' And s Hofstede' s Dimensions Of Cultural Variability For Selected Countries On Scale OfO-l00 ....................1 Percentage OfPupilsWho Studied Different LånguagesIn Comprehensive School .... Table 2.... ..........................5 Similarities Related To Textbooks And The Individualism Versus The Collectivism Dimension .........3 Differences InTeacher-Student and Student-Student Interaction Related To Uncertainty Avoidance Dimension ...... 47 Table4..................6 Terms For Analyzing Textbooks .1 Teacher-Teacher Or Teacher-Stiident Interaction In Individualist And Collectivist Societies ...................5 Summary Of Learner Attitudes ........................................3 Self-Estimate Of Hours Spent Studying English At 129 Home (°lo) ....... Table4... Table 6... 34 Table 2... 94 Table4...........................................................3 Target Figures For Comprehensive School Language 76 Learners .1 Reasons For Studying English (%) 121 ... 36 Table 2......7 Tendencies In Textbooks Related To The Uncertainty A voidance Dimension 102 ................................. Table4.................................................................................. Table 1............4 HumanInstitutionsAnd Corresponding Role Pairs ..........6 Tendencies In Textbooks Related To ThePower 99 Distance Dimension .............................1 Competition To Enter Certain Finnish University 108 Departments ...................76 Trade 76 Table4.............................................. 39 Table 2........................... Table2......................................................... ......................... 117 Table 6.......... Table 2......2 Self-Assessment Of English Proficiency (%) 128 ...................................4 Tendencies Related To Textbooks And The Individualism Versus The Collectivism Dimension ............ ....................... 90 Table4............................................2 Needs OfFinnishIndustryAnd .............................................4 Differences InTeacher-Studentand Student-Student Interaction Related To The Masculinity Versus 37 Femininity Dimension ..........1 SummaryOf TOEFLScoresForFinland AndJapan ..................4 Likelihood Of sing English Later In Life U (%) 130 ..... 109 Table 5.............. ................................ Table 6................................ Table4..... Table 6............. · 22 Table 1............ 131 Table 6...

......2 Tendencies Related To Power Distance Characteristics ....................................................................1 Tendendes In Teacher-Student And Student-Student Interaction Related To Individualism And Collectivism In Transcribed Classroom Discourse ...... 209 Table 8... 149 Table 6........11 Tendencies In Learner And Teacher Attitudes Related To The ............................3 Tendencies Related To Uncertainty Avoidarice .................... Table 7.... 175 Table 7....... 200 Table 8.......................3 Between Method Triangulation ................... 213 FIGURES Figure2............10 TendendesIn LearnerAndTeacherAttitudes Related To The Uncertainty Avoidance Dimension .................... 189 Table 8................................ 150 Table 6........3 SummaryOf Finnish Grammar-Oriented English Lessons ........1 Model Of The 'Filter' Of Cultural Difference ......8 TendendesIn Learner And Teacher Attitudes Related To The PowerDistance DimensionSuggesting Differences ... 184 Table 7...Dimension Suggesting Differences .....1 Summary Of Japanese Regular English Lessons ................................................................... Masculinity VersusPemininity......................................................................7 TendendesInFinnishAnd [apanese Learner And Teacher Attitudes Related To The Individualism Versus Collectivism Dimension Suggesting Similarities .............. 150 Table 6........4 I-R-F Moves ............ 45 Figure 2.................................................. 150 Table 6......4 Tendencies Related To Masculine And Feminine Societies ..........2 SummaryOf Japanese Team-Taught Lessons .....................6 Differences In Finnish And Japanese Learner And Teacher Attitudes Related To The Individualism Versus Collectivism Dimension Suggesting Differences ............ 159 Table 7....Table 6..... 151 Table 6............................................... 44 Figure2.............................................2 Quantitative And Qualitative Research Methods ............. 61 ................................. 33 Figure2....................12 Tendencies In Learner And Teacher Attitudes Related To The Masculinity VersusFemininity Dimension Suggesting Similarities 152 ... 204 Table 8............. 151 Table 6...........................4 Summary Of Finnish Communication-Oriented Lessons .9 Tendendes In Finnish And Japanese Learner And TeacherAttitudes Related To The Power Distance Dimension Suggesting Similarities ....................

Barwund 1975. 10. Lehtonen and 1985). Sallinen-J(uparinen and Lehtonen 1985.1983.. ir colnlnuni<:ation systems (Adams 1990. . 6.909 from Can da (Ueda 1993: 32-39) Ainus and Japan (Yoshino and Murakoshi 1977). sub-cu1tures and minorities in the country. 28.3(j4:fromth D. Marsh 198Q: 137.andlearning in Finland and Japan from the perspective of intercultura] cOIIllllurucation. Regional cultural differences between Savo. Sajavaara 1985. This applies.. and Swedish are the officiallanguages.777 speaking other languages. The population of J Finland was approximately 5.429 Brazilians.566 foreigners in the country.000in 1993. Finland is a suitable cOuntry to c0tnPClre ". to Finland where 1988. differences Burakumin are also minorities in between the Kanto. Regional cultural.724 from Thailand. 1726 Lappish speakers.exarnines foreign languageteaching..872 Russian speakers and 49. culture.R. affects the process of foreign . Inaddition. 1n other words its pri:mary P1l1'POs is to examine ho". However. languagesnot related to English among the [apanese speaking and Finnish speaking populations and a high tolerance of silence as an integral part of th. . of classifying Japan as a homogeneous country in light of the regional differences.31-32). the existence of these factors also affects the concept (Skutnabb-Kangas The population of Japan was approximately 124. .De Mente 1989: . 24.S. Häme and otherregions and cities are characteristic ofFinland.aka1990: 25.9ystal 1987. Tan. countriesappeai. 49.092 PhilippillOS. Bodimer 1944.233 :from Yiet Nam and 4. 294. .339 Chillese. . Kansat and other regions and cities are characteristic of apan.S.Shibatani 1987. There were also 68.329 of whom were from the former U. 1994b.075.A..similarities such as basicaUy homogeneouspopulati0Ilsl.664 Swedish Finnish speakers. 10.317 foreign residents resided in Japan including 687. when this study was conducted. Widen. 150. on the surface to have some generalcultural ..940 Koreans.754. 826in 1995 including 4. (Finland Statistics 1995).206 :from the lJ·K. Ta}. 6.ith.<Clhashi (1995:.279 . Baldi. 15 1 INTRODUCTION Thisstudy.'I'akala 1993).116.787 Finnish speakers.043. 56. Branch 1987.125-127. also. 1. points out the proble1l1atic . 15. language teaching and learnirlg'Erlglish is the. nature.S.prim ry . Japan because the two .:from Peru.foreign language studied in thetwo countries and will therefore be the focus of this work (Monbusho 1994a.

Koivisto (1992) reported on "Pirmo- Japanese 1v1anagement Interaction'focusing on cultural friction which.and 1996-1997. It may be better. - 1996). In addition. and in [apan from 1991-1993 and 1994-96. a studyentitled 'Research ofJapan ina World Afflictedby Nationalism. where different ethnic groups and rninorities are a more central component of the national identity (Comager 1973j Nash et al.1 Hypothesis And Research Questions Based on my experience living. Goold and Madeley 1993aj 1993bj 1993cj Monbusho 1994b). . 1994aj 1994b). information technology and the future. 1. This research did not relate directly to education or English teaching or learning. A review of recent literature yielded few reports related to cultural comparisons between Finland and [apan. widespread equal educational opportunity and virtually universal access to English education (Nikki 1992j Monbusho 1994aj Takala 1993). What factors contribute to the apparent difference in English proficiency in the two countries? . Merviö (1993j 1995). former research comparing intercultural teaching and learning and English as a foreign language education between [apan and Finland was one reason for the present study. and Koivisto (1997aj 1997bj 1997c).1inks between Japan andFinland have . to state that Finland and [apan are more homogeneous than countries like the United States.Widen (1987) relates [apan to Finnish and American cross-cultural comparison. 1 formulated the primary research questions for the present study. studying and teaching in Finland from 1987- 1990..and 0mer Biases'. more recently. Educational.been outlined in Huhtala. Vatanen (1997) reports that there are 25 Japan-related research projects being conducted at Finnish universities in 1997 .328 Finnish and 2989 [apanese teenagers aged i4:to 18 on their opinions regarding themselves. There are institutional sirnilarities that exist in the two countries inc1uding a post-World War II history of centralized education and. studies. society. In addition. therefore. released an absentia conference paper. in most cases. 1. The almost complete absence of. there has also been a trend in the two countries to provide more autonomy in language planning at the local level (National Board of Education 1994aj Carter. this study states that Tokai University in JapaIl teaches Firmish and Finnish.1. other peoples and nationalities. 1993-1994.16 Stefanovic and Summa 1995j Takalo and Juote 1995). Pehkonen and Kawatake (1995) surveyed 2. Of these. on Finnish and JaPanese cultural sirnilarities. Since 1992. 5 are related to both Japan and Finland. Sallinen-Kuparinen and Lehtonen (1985). is not directl)' concerned with cultural comparisons between the two countries except forpresenting brief critical remarks on populist not acadernic beliefs on sirnilarities (Takahashi . has its origin in the Buddhist heritage of Japan and the Protestant heritage of Finland. Racism .

Before e:rnbarking on.. Narin et al. Finnish and 3 Amerlcans language professionals were also interviewed.'W'ith language professionals familiar with the two countries also suggest that their general impression is that communicating in English with Finns in Finland seerned much less problematie Japan3. 17 2 what extent are there cultural similarities and differences between . Pinland. the project. TABLE 1. Inforrnal interviews . Numerous studies and ongoil1. 1990.:343 586 83 Finnish speakers Swedish speakers' 5.5 Z. . The . Holtzc1aw 1986. August 1996.Test ofEllglishasa Foreign Language (TOEFL)was ehosen as a gallge because it is taken inlarge nurnbers bybOth Japanese and Finnish speakers.of investigatic>n this Study will Pttrsue is an examination of the many factors involved in English language teaching in the two countries.dinregard to the. Henning (1995a).350 494 36 Japanese speakers Finland 2.609 586 83 Source: Educational Testing Service 1995b The TOEFL scores suggest profound differences in English proficiency between the Japanese and the Finns. Way 1995) For a complete list see Educational Testing Service Criticisms of the TOEFL test can be found in Raimes (1990). 1995a: 9). It is administered by the Educational Testing Service(ETS) in the United Statesto 'evaluate the English proficiency of people whose native language is not English' (Anon. Swedish speakers have the same overall score as Finnish speakers. 3 16 Japanese. ed1lcational culture of the specific junior high $choolsettings? The primary line . Hale. the concept of 'Englishproficiency in th.309 494 36 [apan 274.449 587 83.1 Summary OfTOEFL ScoresForFinland AndJapan :# of Examinees Total score Percentile rank 278.e·two countries'. the than communicating In English with Japanesepeople in Swedish speakers have been included because Swedish is an officiallanguage in Finland..?research confirm the validity and reliability of the test (Pike 1979. . Schedl. In addition. Thomas and Stansfield and Duran 1984. AlI conveyed the1 same general impression of the level of oral proficiency in Japan and in Finland. have .To [apan and Finlan. 4-9. shQtlld be examined. 2 The '# of Examinees' column suggests that most Swedish speakers take the TOEFL test outside of Finland. Further. 1 Korean and 1 German language professional were interviewed informally 6 at the AlLA 11th Congress of Applied Linguistics in Jyväskylä. (1980) and other works. Stansfield and Webster 1986.

Schnider 1993..in the pres llt. Wada and Cominos 1995. difference vvilI be discussed in great . communicative . Sheen 1992.18 concept that the .. sch()ol settjngs usingmethods which will be described later.. Knight 1995. in specific Japanese and Finnish junio:r hi b. To what extent are there cultural similarities and differences between [apan and Finland in regard to the educational culture of the specific junior high school settings? Is classroom behavior culturally motivated and if so.2 Levels Of Investigation In order to search for answers tothese questions. 1 have met language teachers and others who feel that Finns have a low oral English proficiency. The second research question addresses cultura] siniilarities and .lte to this. Most agree that the TOEFL scores reflect the true levels of oral proficiency in Japan and Finland. work. Ellis 1992. diff r nces vvl1ich were observed and recorded. secondary queries which will be listed in the following section.2 Research Questions And Sub-Questions 1. performance is a recurring theme in research related to English teaching and leaming in [apan (Tanabe 1996.in thisstudy. What factors contribute to theperceiyed difference in English proficiency inthe two countries? How does language planning take place in the two countries? Are the curriculums the same? How are textbooks designed in Finland and Japan? What effect does testing have on the learning process? What are learner attitudes toward the target language? How do teachers view their role in the teaching and learning process? How are Iessons structured? How does c1assroom interaction take place? 2. a variety of different kinds of data was required. 1. . Research question 1 with accompanying sub-questions suggeststhat it will be necessary to investigate avariety of factors related to discussed the issue of foreign language proficiency in the two countries over the past 10 years with countless other individualswho mayor may not have any language teaching experience. Evans. Th . how? What characteristics can be observed? Which aspects of the educational culture correspond to the classifications chosen? What tendencies can be found in the educational culture in the two settings? 1. lengtb.. [apanese have · ·lessthan satisfactory .questions spur a multitude of .that coIltrib1.1. two central research .Wada cmdCOlninos1994. Ellis 1993) 'Ihe factors.1993. Occasionally.

adapted from Stern (1983: 179). Geertz 1973). the curriculum and syllabus level of selection for language teaching purposes 4. van Lier 1988).!nce(ChineseC1. and otherqualitative methods have gained-ground in fields inc1uding education and applied linguistics (Stern 1983: 192-217. the theoreticallevel of definingcategories (for example. .severalaspectsbut will also · trytoavoid hecoming blind to the risk ofoperating at too many Ievelsat once (Stern 1983: 278). Hofstede's '4-D Model of Cultural Difference' (1980. Over thepast 30 years. 1. 1966. areinc1udedin this study: . Richards and . Saville-Troike 1989. ethnographic description is essentially 'thick' by nature. refers to Ryles' concept of 'thick description' as opposed to 'thin description'. ethnography.. Shimaoka and Yashiro (1990) and Whittaker (1984» 3. as in 'a winker rapidly contracted his right eyelid'.dnvestigate. subjective . fhis study will. The reader should keepin mind thatthis study is based on my ohservations of the settings. Etlmography. Geertz (1973: 7). 1976)and Scollo1\andScoIlon (1983. the learner and ieacher attitudes level 6. 1991). an anthropologist. kinshipand other indigenous views(Hymes 1972.llture Connection . andteaching . . the descriptive leoel ofgathering language data on the sociolinguistics and pragmatics.and Coulthard (1975» 7. Richards. Harris (1990) puts forth the ideathat educational culture will elude researchers who study only one aspectofthe c1assroom. He alsostates that öhservations are subject tothe observers' interpretation when they write their descriptions. describes cultures. for example. is a branch of sociology concerned with how people organize language in daily life (Van Dijk 1985: 1-7. Platt and Platt . 1995» 2 th historical develppment level . 19 foreign language teaching and learning. Ethnographicdescription focuses on direct observation within the context ofrelevant baökgrouridinformation (Hymes 1972. in relation tocomparative religion. Scollon and Scollon1995.(for example.1987).exist but these commonly combine aspects of (1) and. 'Thick description'. .of a particl.l1ar language (a few discourse studtes.· my own. interpretations. the level of teaching methodology. usually exotic ones. Therefore. Stern (1983). Geertz states thata stratified hierarchyof meaning as a cultural category is at the heart of ethnography. includes background informatiori and interpretation as in 'practiclnga burlesque of a friendfaking a wink to 'deceive anvinnocent=into thinking a conspiracy was in motion'.1995: 26). ' . observation and description. when usedin anthropology. on the other hand.. Rogers (1986). Therefore. (2). ethnomethodology. The following levels of investigation.Hall (1959.Fasold 1990: 40. Thisstudy will basically'use an ethnographicapproach when dealing with learnerand teacherattitudes. also referred to as Conversation Analysis. 50.': which ishased on anthropology. Labov 1972. Another method of description. the 5th Dimension of Cultural DifferE.. Kalin.Sinc1air. methodology. the participantsand other factors ··and are influenced by. 1986. the materials development level · 5. 'Thin " description' describes only what happens.

the occasion and settirlg inwhich c()llllllunicatioll takes place. Atl<insonand Heritage 198 . calling the police) should only be citedbyan analyst when participants themselves explicitlyevoke such a feature (Schegloff 1986. Touse Ryles' terros. contextual features (e. This . Basically. There. this study will examine the discourse to see 'what is reallygoing on' (discourse analysis) rather. ethnomethodology advocates that analysts should examine contemporary transcribed conversations. information of the participants.1983)tend to treat such data asifthey are the 'Dead Sea. Thisfield studies turn taking. SaCl<S 1Q86. ultimately influences the information .birthday party. Schegloff and Jefferson1974). . Sacks. etic studies. to 'discover systematicproperties of sequential . .. Chapters Three through Seven will provide background..than the whole (H:ofstede 1QQ4:xi).ethnomethodologyrelies.: language education within actual context and social reality. (Sacks. interaction is inc1uded to provide concrete examples of specific traits related to the classroorn discourse within the educational cultural setting studiedinthe hopes . concentrate on .Inall of the societies .. Befu (1989) c1arifiesthese terms stating that eticutilizes concepts or measuring rods which are applicable across cultures. Intercultural..of adding support to c1aims made in other chapters of the study .informationbefore transcribed discourse is introduced in ChapterEight Transcribed classrcom .Thefocus tends tobe on thetext and not thecontext in which it is performed.. without having . Leyinson. Finland and Japan think about etic conceptsjn thesame way.. organization oftalk' . On the other hand.. .It provides insights into ritual functions and interaction structures (Goffman 1974.is another distinction which must be clarified. this is an ethnographic approach to examining foreign .communication theoriesand methods will also be incorporated in the work . This relates to the conceptof emic and etic distinctions which WaS originally introduced by Pike (1967)and became part of the standard vocabulary of social science.(conversation analysis or ethnomethodology) (Levinson 1983: 286-287).study willnot -rely heavily on ethnomethodology andwill instead .itself (Swales 1990: 111. The impressions of the writer and the way in which a text is written.' Like approachmg the Dead Sea Scrolls. usually focus on theparts ofthe whole rather . coming from the linguistic term phonemic. Concepts like 'school teachers' and 'English teaching' when applied cross-culturally are eticconcepts..g. Hymes (1974: 81) expressed concemabout the treafrneritof transcribed classroom discourse because efun0llleth0dologists . background .Scrolls.. according to Befu (1989) that people from the USA. According Jo this method. ethnomethodology.factors and insiders' perspectives when analyzing data. It is not important.or conversationanalysis.. Bazerman 1983: 1). coming from the linguisticterm phonetic. adjacencypairs and other aspects exhibitedby aparticular speakerand listener inacertain sociaLsituation.. . Schiffrin1987). further distancing it from . . which are necessary for an.. Schegloff and [efferson 1974.than using the text samples. usually take into account cultural.20 1992: 130).on 'thin' .. description. Emic studies. From my perspective.understanding of the topic.

TheIapanese town that was selected. culturally specific descriptions af these features which shouldprovidethe reader with a more an emic understanding of the subject. Befu (1989) cites Hamaguchi (1977) and Hsu (1975) suggesting that many concepts induding 'God' and 'individual' are culturally specificand. school teachers)consists of elements that . In the twocountries. the city in Finland was naturally much largerthan the one in Japan: the population of Kanra (14. Kanra-machi in Guruna prefecture.be established. The idea that such categories can. c1:"tarts. is smallwith about 26. From thisvperspective. My experience in the East and the Westsuggests that there is some truth in this line of questioning. However.can be defined in roughly the same way and. 21 mentioned. a Western ethnocentric assumption. intensive participation in the field setting.000 people (Yakuba 1990).lllethodsandatherfactors related 'to 'school. which is hardly enough to sustain a school for a comparative study. To conduct dassroom observation and gather other forms of data. he states.l1tural uniqueness of these instituti0ns and groups. They do not necessarily act as 'measuring rods' across societies. videotapes and (c) subsequent analysis and reporting by Ineans of detailed description as well as more general descriptions. junior high school students who were between 14 and 15 were observed.are subjective and culturallyspecific and canonly be described in emic terms. The Finnish city. this study will use eiic approaches to frame the institutions and groups that will be analyzedaIld emic approaches to address the c1. Even though the students were from a small town or .000) was . A town inFinland (population around 5. tapes and transcripts should be organized so that it is understandable and dear. problematic when used as research categories. settings in [apan and Finland were selected. Nokia. Ihavechosen to use 'etie' categories because this study 'is done in the 'Western scientific tradition'. Although it may entail a certain amount of etlmocentrism. examples of student work.city they hadaccess to a .000. is.000). Nokia and Kanrawere about the same distance from the next 'larger city'. Byelaborating on the attitudes. is a rural town of about 14.000.theetieconcept of.' the Ischool teachers'enablesöne to recognizeageneral social-unit thatcan bestudied. this studyhopes to provide . . descriptive statisties and summary tables (Erickson 1986: 121). the next large town was 10-15 minutes away by public transport. . Befu (1989) darifiesPike's term emic byputting forththe concept that all social systems are 'culturally unique'. Fieldwork. records. should indude (a) long-term.360 people (Nokian Kaupunki 1995).00013 of the entire population of [apan (approximately 124. In relation to the population of the country. according to this school of thought.000) that had the sameproportion ofpeople to the nation would have 564residents. and that eiic distinctions canbe made. according to this sc1:"t()oI of thought. therefore. Cross-cultural: observations . . the social group (forexample. Thisstudy has attempted this.compared across cultures.teachers' andother featureswithin· the educationalcultures studied. audiotapes. Erickson (1986) states that a corpus of materials collected from fieldwork induding field notes. In both cases. (b) careful recording of what happens in the field setting through memos.

1 withAmerican father) Sex (gender) Male and female Male and female Age Students 12-16 Students 12-16 Teachers 25-55 Teachers 22-55 Adaptedfrom Brown & Frazer(1979: 35) and Harris (1990) As my c1assroorn teachingexperience has shown me. The school setting.who live. The Finnish townhad aroundl000 students in . The town in [apanhad around600 students in itsjunior high school systernatthe tirne af the .the-same attitudesasstudents ..study.or large nurnbers of minority. whichmightinfluence their worldview. Both schools and systerns studied were basically hornogeneous and neither had recent influxes of !new immigrantst.2 Components Of Situation Finland Japan Setting Bystanders Researcher Occasional observers Locale Nokia Junior Kanra [unior High Schools High Schools Time School hours School hours Purpose Goals Learn English Learn English Activated Roles Teacher/ Teacher/ Student Student Topic English as a English as a Foreign Foreign Language Language Participants Individuals As Members Of Society Ethnicity Mostly Finnish. Virtually all of the students spoke Finnish at home. No minority students were in the classrooms 1 observed in Japan according to teachers and students interviewed.its junior high schools atthe tirne ofthe study .Iiving inthe larger city.in Finland isalso.22 bigger city. Students from Swedish speaking families tended to attend the Swedish school in the next city. The studentsin the settingschosen would notfeel as !isolated' as ·students . TABLE 1.students'.Tokyo or Osaka. twohours awayfrom the nearestlarger town. . no two groups of students are the same. All japanese speaking Finns (2 Gypsies. Large cities were avoided in. Exact equivalency is unattainable in groups of students as well as Two gypsies and one student with an American father were in the classrooms studied in Finland.fhis study because nothing in Finland cornpares to cities Iike . nor would they probablyhave .largerthan its counterpart in [apan.

Participant observation 'fas llsed in [apan because 1 was an.a.s<:11001sIobserved and did my best to get to know the teachers. They are recruited through the Japan ExchangeTeaching Program and other schemes to tearn-teach with Japanese language teachers in Japanese lower and upper secondary schools. It was induded . It is c1aimed that an observer who is a participant can understanda situation betterthan one who is mere1y observing (Richards.the. Teacher training is not included in this study because it was considered too wide a topic to be dealt 6 with in the scope of this dissertation. observation. cu1tura1 and historica1 simi1arities and an introduction to team-teachinginJapan. Development Language Planning and Textbooks Curriculum Design Articles. .inc1udedin tlri. anaccount of the eticcategories following usedin fhis studyas. To 11lake. 1 made a number of visits to the . Itwas not possib1e for me to work in.well as thetype of data collected to ana1yze them. articles. -Even so. not familiar withJapanatldFinland. observation Assistant English Teachers are ca11ed Assistant Language Teachers since 1996. pa.re .s study.rticipateq in . and students alike.scho?lsbecause do not possess certification 1 to teach in Finnish public schoo1s.3 Etic Categories Used And The 'Type Of Data Collected · Etic Categories Data General Insights and Historical Articles. This section hopes to present useful background information for those who are. However.Was sh14ied and. questionnaires.e is. 23 schoo1s and school systems. TABLE 1. Team- teaching is a major reform initiative inJaPatland shou1d be induded in order to present a dear picture of contemporary lower secondary school English education in Japan. issiies (Stern 1983i Richards and Rogers 1986i Shimaoka and Yashiro 1. interviews Textbook Design Books used in setting. tha. books. The present study inc1udes a section on the historica1 development 1eve1 which gives an overview of general insights into Finland and [apan. many of the 1essons that. up for the 1ack of insightthat might be caused by this. interviews. etc. reports.Assistant . P1att and Platt 1985). Direct observation was used in Finland because 1 observedthesch001settingswithout teaching there. 1 decided that the two educationa1 cu1tura1 settings were simi1areJ:lough to make the present study worthwhi1e. further investigation into teacher training would certainly provide further insight into the language teaching and learning process.because it was deemed necessary for a deeper understanding of the 1990). A more detailed description can be found in Chapter Three. English Teacher' in the 5<:11001syste11l.3 Data Base Th.t .

·questionnaires. journai. Lessons video tape.ll. books. journal.tape. Thechapter on testing examines Japanese and Finnish English tests. The textbook represents the core of the syllabus and 'can provide insights into language planning. audio . video tape. The first seven. questionnaires. audio tape. qu stionnaires Leal:'ner Attitudes Interviews. audio tape. 7 Regular observation journals tracking J apanese regular lessons were not kept because 1 thought my presence in them over a period of time would disrupt them.teachers and students and an examination of their design and implementation should yield valuable information related tomy research questions. Six lessons were videotaped both in [apan and in Finland.tests int rvj.. interviews.lires.tape. audio tape.of one tape from each country were transcribed in order to provide data for the discourse analysis section.. 1 relied on the video tapes and interviews with teachers to provide my data.video tape.tecJ:u1ical reports from Jap n. interviews Finnish Grammar-Oriented Qbservation. At the learner and teacher attitudes level. . video tape.interyiewS. interviews Finnish Communication-Oriented Lessons Observation. qu stionnaire!) Teacher Attitudes Intervi ws.and information from. student questionnaires. interviews with teachers workingin the twO countries. journai. Teaching methodology data inc1uded interviews with the teachers. qu stionni. an observation journai of 20 lessons from each that werenotvideo taped. video.articles and.24 Testing Artic1es. questionnaires. The descriptive level of gathering language data on the sociolinguistics and pragmatics of c1assroom discourse and the level of teaching methodology were addressed using the same data.books written on the subject. c1assroom teaching and educational culture as a whole (Sheldon 1988).ews. minutes . journi. and Finland. questionnaires were completed by the students and interviews were conducted with theteachers and students in both settings. This provided important data to address fhe research . The data on the materials development level of the study consists of common textbooks used in the settings as well as research artic1es on the subject and questionnaires and interviews with students and teachers in the settings. questions. interviews Classroom Interaction Observation. Testingissues influence decisions made by planners. questionnaires [apanese Team-Taught Lessons Observation. interviews with educators from the two countries and research artic1es and books onthe topic. transcription The present study addresses the language planntng' level in the two countries by inc1uding .observatiol1 Japanese Regular English Lessons Observation7.

: Culture has been defined as the HumanEnvironment (Gudykunstand 'Ting-Toomey 1988: 28-29). the job. 1. The situation and setting where behavior occurs may also Interestingly.or culture. The humanpart ofthe environment.The next section wiU provide an overview of the primarymeans of analysis.·· It is closely connected with people's daily lives. and its effect on teaching of English as a foreign language will bethe focus of this study.Samovar and Porter (1991):point out that culture can be passed from generation to generation. buttare' instrumentai in transferring culture fromone generation to the next (Inkeles 1977 ). The study of culture is not a black and white issue. This study will adopt an intercultural approach. one should keepin mind that many factors are interrelated and although agroup may show observable tendencies. Hofstede (1986: 302) suggests that the major human institutions are the family. TABLE 1. the community and the school. 25 interviews with and. the analysis varied depending on which form of data was being examined. .Culture is learnedand inc1udes everydaypractices.4 Human Institutions And Corresponding Role Pairs" Institution Role Pair Pamily Parent-Child Man-Woman School Teacher-Student Job Boss-Subordinate Community Authority-Member Source:Hofstede 1986: 302 Many complicating factorsderive from the examination of culture. questionnaires and researeh artic1eson teachers the subject. Since this study has incorporatedso manyformsof data.4 Method Of Analysis There are literally hundreds of definitions of 'culture'. the English dassrooms in Finnish and Japanese junior high schools were selected as the focus of this study. customs and habits which make a group of people unique. Hofstede (1986) did not inc1ude co-workers or other roles hurnan beings assume in the workplace (Takala 1997).As schools do not only reflect a society. It also reflects the attitudes. students. When one seeks answers to cultural or intercultural questions.valuesand norms in a particular society or a particular settingwhich the participants themselves may not even notice (Salo-Lee 1995a: 13). exceptions and discrepant cases contrary to general tendencies are almost always present (Erickson 1986: 140).

collectivism is broader and more encompassing than the other dimensions (Hofstede. · Schwartz 1994. Carbaugh1990). These c1assifications will provide the theoretical framework for this study. like any cultural study. Since they. Results may not apply to other settings and may even change in the settings studied as the human participants and environment change. Carbaugh 1990. as a whole and may form co-culturesor subcultures and subgroupswhich holddifferent values from the dominant culture (Samovarand Porter 19Q2: 3). Cultures vary and may bediscussedfrom.w'ill be elaborated on in Chapter Two they will be omitted here.a general idea of the educationalculture will emerge. does notwish. In this study. Of the four categories. ·A Japanese person maybe very quietand obedient to his or her superiors at work in the office while outgoing. Naturally. Scollon and Scollon (1995: 154-6) suggest . 1991) outlines points with which to deterrnine individualism vs. Hofstede (1986. Keeping this in mind.. Individuals may. In his '4-D Model of Cultural Difference'. Schwartz 1994. Triandis 19Q4. The reader should keep in mind that the framework for. fernininity. the present study will examine only the behavior in two specific educational cultures.t one measurement cannot be used to completely explain what takes place in any given situation with any group.that stereotyping occurs when one . keeping in mind that .· reflect different characteristicsfrom the group c:u1ture.1980.. Scollonand Scollon 1995). ). . Jhis studywill base much of .this study. 1983. power distance. through . culture will be understood as being so complex thi3. Bond 1994. many yantage points (Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey1988). not individuals.put forth are theresult of my analysis and are not the only way theycould be perceived.cies it is .the researcher's impressions of them. . This study will focus on groups of people.: .. 1 will also use Hall's concepts of context and culture (1976) and modes of politeness (Scollon and Scollon 1983.. no individual is a typical example of the culture within which they live. By examining group tenden. Berry 1994. 1991) work-related values because his models have been used andreplicated extensively throughout the world in the study of culture (Kim 1994. individualism vs.. 1991) and has beenexamined by a nurnberof researchers (Kim 1994. Berry 1994. These concepts have been used extensively in research on interpersonal communication across cultures. Further.its comparison of data on Hofstede's (1980. Behavior and culture dependsonthe particularsetting (Dufva ·1991.this study. Bond 1994. collectivism.26 have agreat effect onparticipants.The cultural tendencies . describes culture . 1986. hoped that. 1995) in my analysis of the data. . .ideological statements based on polar opposites . all individuals are unique. uncertainty avoidance and masculinity vs.to stereotype. Triandis 1994.v. is limited to the particular setting and.talkative and..Ioud in a familiar restaurant withhisor her close friends .

because Finland is. whichthroughout p ople's lifeti:me continue ta protect them in exchallge for unquestioned loyalty. accepting personal risk. emotional. the dominant values within political and workorganizations are those of meno So. less-aggressive.inwhich. 27 Hofstede (1991: 51) defines individualism and collectivism as follows: Individualismpertains . weak. security . Masculinity as a characteristic opposes Femininity. in femininethey stress other types of quality oflife. Uncertainty Avoidance defines the e)(tent to which peoplewithin a culture are made nervous by situations which they perceive as unstructured. The Chjnese Cult1l1'e Connection 19 7) This aspectwas not addressed in thecurrent.. situations which they therefore try to avoid by maintaining strictcodes ofbehavior and a belief in absolutetruths. for thechildren and for the weak. but the degree to which it is tolerated varies between one culture andanother. 1983.non-material quality ()f life. Confucian work ethicsand other. strong and fast. 1991) work on cultural variability wasdevelopedfrom the. because the research was conducted over too short a period of time in order to analyze such factors.on the other hand. a Western . aspects among Chinese respondents (Hofstede. men need n()t"be alllbitious ()rcolllpetitive bllt may go for a different quality of life than material success. loose:everyone is expected to lookafterhimself orherself and hisorher i:mmediate family. Masculine cultures strive for a maximum distinction between what men are expected to do and what women are expected to do.aggressive. unemotional. Peminine cultures. cultures with a weak uncertaintyavoidance are contemplative. to strive formaterial successand torespect whatever is big. onwards are illtegrated into strong.to societies in which ties between . define relatively overlapping roles for the sexes. or unpredictable. as long-term and short-term thinking and.study .harmony. unc1ear. Hofstede's (1980. compulsive. They expect women to serve and care for the .and relatively tolerant. Later research by Michae1.individuals..1994: xi.. ambitious and competitive. and slow. .and intolerant. interpersonal relationships and concern for the weak. They expect men to be assertive. point of vie"" of western social science . . relaxed.. are :. Hofstede (1986: 307-308) defines the other c1assifications that will be used in the present study as follows: Power Distance defines the extent to which the less powerful in society accept inequality in power and consider it as normal.country where Confucianism is not preyalent. in masculine cultures these political/ organizational values stress material success· and assertiveness. seeking. Inequality exists within any culture. Collectivism as its opposite pertains to societies in which people from birth.()bviously. In both masculine and femininecultures.cohesive ingroups. Cultureswitha strong uncertainty avoidance are active. men may respect what is small.Bond suggests that a fifth dimension related to culture exists dealing with long-te:rrn versus short-terIn planning aBd thirlking.

grasping the. The curriculum and syllabus level of selection for language teaching purposesand the materials development level of textbooks will be dealt with in Chapter Four. lay fhe groundwork for this sort of analysis in the future. Understanding wiU be defined as . transition from the concepts in Chapter Two to Chapter Three to Chapter Four to Chapter Five is not easy. . however. which isrelatedto the previous aspects will be explained in Chapter Five. Testing will be analyzed bycornparing the testing systern in.1986. The 'first three chapters will provide background. inforrnation. the·· historical development of institutions in Finland and Japan. · chapter is the. Chapter Two will examine . The data coUected onthecurriculums. nature. To be more precise. 1. their views on . evaluated and analyzed in order to produce understanding.manner as to produce 01' contribute to an understancling of the two settings.1991) systerninthe sections that accornpany thern. This approach reflects rny background as aresearcher and myrnethod should prove usefulto others interestedin cornparativeeducational culture.related to social science. KirkandMiller (1986) put forth a qualitative research model in which observationand measurernent of thedatacollected=is interpreted.3. The next two chapters will discuss institutional factors which. theattitudes ofthe learners. elaborating on what data will be applied to each specific question and by giving a thorough discussion of how the data will be analyzed. Testing. Finland with that in [apan. Chapter Six will exarnme differences in the attitudes of the teachers and learners who participated in the study. intercultural communication andaspects of other fields. Chapter Three will examine. learner and teacher attitudes and teaching methodology. and classroomdiscoursein special Japanese tearn-taughtlessons willbe analyzed by integrating Hofstede's (1980. References to intercultural aspects of testillg can be found in the sections on the textbooks. This . significance and explanation ofthe topic-m addition to showing a syrnpathetic and tolerant view toward the twoeducational cultures (Mish 1988: 1287). yet the reader should keep in mind that the subjects are integrally related and essential cornponents of the systern. a generaloverview of the data and apreface of what methods will be used to address the data. introduction and contains thernain hypotheses and research questions. This study has atternpted to disCllss TOEFL in Finland and [apan in such .28 This study will. Phenornena are explained in their rnodel. influence c1assroorn behavior in the two countries.5 Aim And Outline Qf The 8tudy This dissertation airns to arrive at a deeper understanding of intercultural teaching and learning and foreign language education in [apan and Finland using an interdiscipHnary approach integ1'ating theories of applied linguistics. The . as this study suggests.the data at the theoretical level by defining research questions.

1994c. In an attempt to avoid being too 'subjective'.. a study of [apanese English education and the impact of native-speaker assistant language teachers in a particular Japanese junior high school setting. 1994b. 1992d). In tms study 1 have not attempted to provide a comprehensive description of foreignlanguage education of Japan or Finland. . Next. 1 have addressed many of the issues that are included in tms dissertation (Garant 1995a. Educational culture.. as 1 have stated throughout this chapter. my belief is that all observation takes on a personai perspective and it is only natural that tms will be incorporated in the text. been usedin 1992) Material . tms study was my unpublished Master's thesis.varies according to the particular setting. 1993b. Instead. Originally. 1991-93). toa certain extent. tms work to bolster claims. 1992b. 1992a. Garant (1992a. Garant (1992b). Chapter Seven will exarnine the level of ieaching methodology by describing what actually happens in the classroom. The study then moves to the descriptive level focusing on classroom discourse in Chapter Eight.· However. 1 have tried to present the informationas 'value-free' as possible (Merviö 1995: 15). uses a different system of classification for classroom teaching methods than the present study. 1 have provided a study of specific settings in the educational cultures of the two countriesat the time theywere studied. The conclusion will be presented in Chapter Nine. 1995b. be generalized. and the results of the present study should not. 1992c.entitled "Towards a syllabus for Team-Teaching". likeaU culture. 1992d. 29 language teaching and intercultural similarities and differences are examined. This chapter will explain how lessons are structured in the two countries and what takes place in them. for example. . Chapter Eight contains much ofwhat appeared in Garant(1995b) and Garant (1994b). The subjects 1 have included in the study have been selected over a long process of research and teaching in Finland and [apan. 1993a. therefore. is concerned more withcooperative development than the syllabus and curriculum of [apan (Edge fr0lll these publicationshas.Asidefr0In tms chapter. 1 have tried to avoid drawing too much material and examples from these earlier works. In my previous publications. Those interested these subjects in greater detail lllY should consult these earlier works. 1994d. 1994a.

divide thischapter into fhree sections. section will... Triandis 1994). data and re earch questions of the present study.. About thirty years ago. Lado (1957) put forth the argument that people understand information differently because their human environment trains them from the time they are born to screen information based on their culture.the data.30 2 FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS This . Dassen.utilize toaddress thequestions. There are many ways to examine these differences inc1uding national character (Inkeles and Levinsen 1969). He further suggested that an understanding of these cultural factors is beneficial to the understanding of teaching and leaming languages. Kim (1994). Samovar and Porter (1991: 21) state that 'culture cannot occur without communication'. 2.thlrd will put fortha description of the research questions. Human environments are essential to the development of human cultures. personalityat the culturallevel (Cattell . <lCita. citing Segal.nature offhis study. Thefirst$ecti0llvvill presenta detailed description of the intercultural communication theory that will serve as a basis of this dissertation. ethnographic and classroom research methods which apply . 1 have ehosen to. Berry.. The. and specific. will describe . cultures which have not developed in the same ecology are different. elaborate on the :methods.1 Hofstede's ·4-DModel Of Cultural Difference Culture can be defined as the 'human part' of the environment (Herskovits 1955. second. . The study of culture and communication are integrally related (Salo-Lee 1995ai 1995bi Hall 1959). Because of theinterdisciplinary .chapter will. methods that each . and Poortinga (1990).to. The . relates culture to ecology which refers to the relationships living things have with their physical environment.

individual looks af ter his /her own Interest as . For · example. However. realistic examinationof long-term andshort-term planning should. two countries may yield different data andresults. It is possible and probable that other settings within the. probablydid not reflect the ethnic make-up of the target society or its class structure. This study will not address this aspect becausethe primary source data wasgathered in Finland and Japan onlyfrom ·1991 to 1996. Finland is a Western country where Confucianism is not a prevalent philosophy. and strong): organizational-structure (sirnpleto . (1970)who .suggests that·a ·fifth ·dimension related to . These frameworksareuseful when examining ... Data from multinational corporations and the personnelof these companies may not present a clear picture ·of the cultures studied. Further. 1988. and Ting-Toomey . For the present study. This workwill studya particular educational culture rather than a multinational business culture. culture exists.to..exploitative): commandof theenvironment (weak.found that they contained themes . what is iexamined is culture . be conducted over a much longer period of time. class. 1990. .. Tn addition. age.. Hofstede(1980i 1986i 1991). (2) Power Distance which is concemed with the waythe less powerful in a-society accept inequalityandhierarchY.: 39). as in the presentstudy.patterns(rural tourban)ioccupational specialization(general tospecific). . 1986. . Hofstede's (1980.. inmy opinion... variability (Gudykunst .such asfhe functionof war (vengefuL to political) i .the mostuseful schema forexanriningdifferencesin educational cultures. Personnel at IBM.sex roles may overlap one another. Around 150 comparative culture studies wereexamined byNaroll. the Finnishand Japanese Juniorhigh schools that were chosen for this study were small enough to remain manageable when collecting and analyzing data. in which an . opposed. . dealing with long-term versus short-term planning andthinking involving Confucian workdynamism·(Hofstede 1994: xi.. leadership pattems (consensual to authoritative): distribution of goods (wealth- sharing to wealth hoarding): behavior-ofelites (responsible . Research by Michael Bond .include (1) lndioidualism. occupation) that may confuse resultsand. therefore. cultural .toCollectivism in which a person belongs to one or more tightin- gl'OUP8.. 1993) theory of cultural differentiation has been criticized for severalreasons. where the study was conducted. .Thefour dimensions. theyarenot . are Hofstede'sBelgians Flemish orFrench-speakers? dothe Americans comefrom the North or South? what is their ethnicity? Hofstede argues that using sUch subjects controlsother variables(e. complex): . The Chinese Culture Connection 1987).. 31 and Brennan1972)iand dimensions of nations (Rumrnel1972) .. (3) Uncertainty avoidance as a cultural phenomenon inwhichcodes of behaviorare maintained in order toprevent unclear or uncertain situationsiand (4) Masculinity which classifie8the maximum distinction within a society between what a man is expected to do and what a woman i8 expected to do as opposed to Femininity in which . population . the .. A . My feeling is that his study reflects IBM culture which may not be the same as the mainstream culture in the nations studied.conducted studies oncultural differences in work-related values asthey apply to groups of peopleandcreated what he terms the '4-D ModeloJCulturalDifjerence'.g.

32

tendenciesthat emerge in my data are meant to reflect only those settings and
notnecessarily the 'countries asa whole ... Gudykunstand Ting-Toomey (1988)
state that empiricalpoints such as what Hofstede asked and howhavealso been
criticized ..... My feeling is that any .study has its shortcomings .andone should
refer to a variety ofsourcesrather than rely on one study to gain anadequate
level ofunderstandingof atopic. Overall, my feeling isthata multitude of
problemsmay arisefrom attempting a study ofasmany as50countries.This
study will only examine specific settings in twoof thesecountries.Further, the
present studywill seek 'to verify if Hofstede' sdimensions and characteristics
.

can befoundin the data that wasgatheredin the two educationalculturesand
in what way, if any, they manifest themselves.
Finally, ithasbeen argued that Hofstede's theory is notapplicable in
interpersonali-communication
communication.· However, this is also
itis
because basedon organizational
anempirical question (Gudykunstand
Ting-Toomey 1988: 46). Hofstede's framework hasbeen used toexplain
cultural differences in affective communication(Gudykunst and Ting Toomey ...

1988), relationshipterms associated with cultural perceptionof communication
(Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey 1986), interaction episode perceptionsfforgas
and Bond 1984) and equality and equitynorms across culture (Bond, Leungand
Wan 1982). This study willapply .Hofstede's theory tospecific educational
culturesin Japan and Finland,usingit .as a filterto explainthe phenomena
examined.
Hofstede's (1980i 1986i 1990, 1993) projectcovered cultural differences
among societies in over 50 countries. 1171 000 employees from 40 countries were
surveyed on 32 values questionsand the results were tabulated and correlated
inrelation to each other. The additional 10 countries were added .during a
cross-checking phase of the survey. This study will focus on specific settings in
two countries, namely junior high schools in [apan and Finland. Hofstede's and
other models. willbe used as a 'filter' to analyzedata collectedin the two
countries. It 1S the hope of this researcher that the model willhelp unravel the
underlying cultural differencesand similarities between the settingsinthese
countries.
Figure2.1 shows how data gathered in Finlandand [apan will be put
through the 'filter' of Cultural Difference and c1assified as to cultural similarities
and differences. The model that I will use may beparticularly .suitable .for
intercultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures, because the
criteria thatare put forward apply to social features from these cultures,
Previous research suggests that in East Asia, Confucianism serves asthebasis
for collectivism and in the West,liberalism serves as the basis for individualism
(Kim, Triandis, Kagitcibasi, Choi and Yoon 1994: 6).
Scholars have tended to concentrate on the Individualism vs. Collectivism
aspect of Hofstede's model while virtually ignoring the other three dimensions
since it tends to be more encompassing than the others (Bond 1994: 69i Triandis
1995i Kim, Triandis, Kagitcibasi, Choi and Yoon 1994i Gudykunst andTing-
Toomey 1988i Triandis 1986i Hsu 1977). The present study will integrate
Hofstede's (1980,1986, 1991) complete 4-D model into the analysisofthe data

33

because the variety of data that was gathered provided the opportunity .to
utilizeall ofthe components.

FIGURE 2.1 Model OfThe 'Filter' Of CulturalDifference

Datafrom.:pinnish and Japanese settings

Language Policy andTextbooks
Testing
Learner and Teacher Attitudes
Classroom Teaching Methods Lesson Segmentation
-

Classroom Interaction
1
1

Cultural Filter
Hofstede's 4-D Model of Cultural Difference
High and Low Context (Hall 1976)
Politel1ess an(iFace (Scollon and Scollon (1983; 1991); Brown
and Levinson(1978))
1 1
1 1

Tendencies Tendencies
Suggesting Suggesting
Difference Overlap and
Similarity

The method used in this study will match Hofstede's. cultural components .to
features found in the data for three major reasons:

1. To support or disconfirm Hofstede's (1986) categories in relation
to features within the Finnish and [apanese educational cultural
settings studied.
2. To ease replication and provide additional information on how
future researchers can analyze their data.
1 perceive phenomena and relate
3. To provide insight into how
them to the categories.

Of Hofstede's (1986) categories, 1 have selected points which reIate specifica11y

to teacher-teacher or teacher-student interaction.

2.1.1 Characteristics Related To The Individualism Versus
Collectivism Dimension

In individualistsocieties, autonollly, emotional independence, rights toprivacy,
pleasure seeking, the need for specific personai friendships, universalism which
highly values Iaws and norms that apply to all individuals in society equally,
and the emphasis on 'I' consciousness are held in high esteem. Collectivist
societies, on the other hand, value 'we' consciousness, collective identity,
emotional dependence, group solidarity, sharing duties and obligations, the

34

need for stable pre-determined friendships, particularism whlchrefers to tight
in-group solidarity that can hamper more encompassing principles fhat protect
individuals regardless of group affiliation. Collectivism is also associated with
group decision-making (Kim, Triandis,Kagitcibasi, Choi and Yoon 1994;
Hofstede 1980; 1986; 1990; Kim 1994: 19-40).
The following is an account of Hofstede's (1986) points related to teacher-
student or student-student interaction in individualist and collectivist societies.

TABLE 2.1 Differences In Teacher-Student And Student-Student Interaction Related
To The Individualism Versus Collectivism Dimension

Individualist Societies Collectivist Societies

positive association in society with positive association in society with
whatever is 'new' whatever is rooted in tradition 1

one is never too old to learn; the young shouldlearn; adults
'permanent education' cannot accept student roles 2

individual students will speak up in individual students will speak up
class in response to a general only when called upon personally by
invitation by the teacher theteacher

Individuals will speak up in ·large individuals will only speak up in
groups small groups 3

sub-groupings in c1ass vary from large c1asses split socially into
situation to the next based on:
smaller,cohesive subgroups based
universalist criteria (e.g. task at on particularist criteria (e.g. ethnic
hand) affiliation)

confrontation in learning situations formal harmony in learning
can be salutary, conflicts can be situations should be maintained at
brought out in the open all times 4

face-consciousness is weak neither the teacher nor. any student
should ever be made to loose face

education is a way of .improving education is a
way of .gaining
one' s economic worth and self- prestige in one' s social environment
respect based on ability and and af joining a higher status group
competence (a ticket to ride)

diploma certificates have little diploma certificates are important
symbolie value and dispIayed on walls

acqwrmg competence is more acquiring certificates, .. even through
important than acquiring certificates illegal means (cheating, corruption)
.

is more important than acquiring
competence
(Continued)

35

(Continued)
teachers are expectedto he strictly teachers are expected to give
impartial preferential treatment to some
students (e.g. based on ethnic
affiliation or on. recommendation by
an influential person)

1. e.g. Trevino 1982
2. Lieh-Mak et a1.1 1984
3. Redding 1980: 211
4. e.g. Cox and Cooper 1977

Source: Hofstede (1986: 312)

2.1.2 Characteristics Related To ThePower Distance Dimension

Hofstede (1986) defines .. Power. Distance as the .extent to which the less
powerful in society accept inequality in power. In a strong or leirge power
distance society individuals, accept power as a .part of society and superiors
consider themselves different from their subordinates and vice versa. Small,
weak or low power distance cultures believe power should only be used when
it is legitimate and that power should be distributed more or less equally
(Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey1988: 47; Schwartz <1994: 86). Hofstede
elaborates on specific traits related to this cultural aspect in teacher-student or
student-student interaction.

TABLE 2.2 Differences In Teacher-Student And Student-Student InteraetionRelated
To The Power Distance Dimension

Small Power Distance Sodeties Large Power Distance, Societies

stress onimpersonal "truth" which stress on personaI 'wisdom' which is
can in principal he obtained from handed down by a particular teacher
any competent person (guru)

a teacher shouldrespect the a teacher merits the respect of
independence ofhis/her students his/her students 1

student-centered education teacher-centered education
(premium on initiative) (premium on order)

teacher expeets students to initiate students expect teacher to initiate
communication communication

teacher expects students to find their students expect teacher to outline
ownpaths paths to follow

students may speak up students speak up in c1ass only if
spontaneously in c1ass invited by the teacher
(Continued)

36

(Continued)
students are allowed to contradict or teacher is never contradicted or
criticize teacher public1y criticized 2

of learning related to
effectiveness effectiveness of learning related to
amount of two-way communication excellence of teacher
in c1ass3

outside c1ass, teachers are treated as respect for teacher is also shown
equals outside c1ass

in teacher / student conflicts, parents in teacher / student conflicts, parents
are expected to side with the student are expected to side with the teacher

younger teachers are more liked older teachers are more respected
than older teachers than younger

1. accordinl? to. Confucius, "teacher" is the most respected professionin society
2. e.g. Faucheux et al., 1982
3. Revens 1965; [amiesonand Thomas 1974; Stubbs and Delamont1976

Source: Hofstede (1986: 313)

2.1.3 Characteristics RelatedTo The UncertaintyAvoidance
Dimension

Hofstede (1986) defines uncertainty avoidance as the extent to which people
within a culture become uneasy- in situations which theyperceive as
.

unstructured, unc1ear, or unpredictable. Cultures with a weakuncertainty
aooidance are contemplative, less aggressive, unemotional,. relaxed, accepting
.

personai risk, and relatively tolerant. Cultures with strong uncertainty
avoidance tend to .develop strategies that reduce the likelihood of an.1illcertain
situation .developing. For example, they may have verbal cues to signal at
mealtime that it is time to begin eating. Weak uncertainty avoidance cultures
feel more at ease in unpredictable situations and need not develop such
strategies (Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey 1988: 47; Schwartz 1994: 86). Relating
to teacher-student or student-student interaction Hofstedeproposes the
·

following traits.
TABLE 2.3 Differences In Teacher-Student And Student-Student Interaction Related
To .The Uncertainty Avoidance Dimension

Weak Uncertainty Avoidance Strong Uncertainty A voidance
Societies Societies

students feel comfortable in students feel comfortable in
unstructured learning situations structured learning situations with
with vague objectives, broad precise objectives, detailed
assignments, no timetables assignments, strict timetables
(Continued)

37

(Continued)
"1
teachers are allowed to say don't teachers are expected to have all the
know" answers

a good teacher uses plain language a good teacher uses academic
language

students are rewarded for students are rewarded for accuracy
innovative approaches to problem in problem solving 2
solving

teachers are expected to suppress teachers are allowed to behave
emotions (and so are students) emotionally (and so are students)

teachers interpret intellectual teachers interpret intellectual
disagreement as stimulating exercise disagreement as personaI disloyalty

teachers seek parents' ideas teachers consider themselves experts
who cannot learn anythingfrom lay
parents and parents agree

1. Stroebe 1976
2. Triandis 1984

Source: Hofstede (1986: 314)

2.1.4 Characteristics Related To The Masculinity Versus Femininity
Dimension

The finallist ofcategories that will be applied to the data .relates to masculinity
and feIIlininity within society .. Masculine cultures expect m.en. to be assertive,
ambitious and competitive, Th.ey expect women to serve al1.d. care for the non-
material quality of life, for the children and for the weak. Feminine cultures, on
the other hand, have relatively overlapping roles for the sexes, in which men
need not be ambitious or competitive but may go for a different quality of life
than material success (Garant 1995b; Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey 1988: 47;
Schwartz. 1994: 86). Hofstede (1986) found these traita.related to teacher-
.

student or student-student interaction

TABLE 2.4 .Differences In Teacher-StudentAnd Student-Student Interaction Related
To The Masculinity.Versus Femininity Dimension

Feminine Societies Masculine Societies

teachers avoid openly praising teachers openlypraise good students
students

teachers use average students as the teachers use best students as the
norm norm
(Continued)

the prevailing values in society may be inferred from individual vaIues averaged across the members of the society (Hofstede 1980. As Dufva (1991) suggests. one mayassume that there is no such thing as a typical JapaIlese person.38 (Continued) system rewards students' social system rewards students' academic adaptation performance a student's failure in school is a a student's failure in school is a relatively minor accident severe blow to his /her self image and may in extreme cases lead to suicide students admire friendliness in students admire briIliance in teachers teachers students practice mutual solidarity students compete with each other in c1ass students try to behave modestly students try to make themselves visible corporal punishment is severely corporal punishment is occasionally rejected seen as salutary students choose academic subjects in students choose academic subjects in view of intrinsic interest view of career opportunities male students may choose male students avoid traditionally traditiona11y feminine academic feminine academic subjects subjects Source: Hofstede (1986: 315) The reader shouldkeep in mind that not all individuals in any group reflect all of the. Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey 1988. This study will presentan averaged value of the factors studied which can ' point to the vaIues in the specific educational cultures of the two settings. features of that group. 'There is no suchthing as a typical Finn.' Also. Still. . There are any number of variations in behavior between group members. 2.2 Context And Culture Applied researchers have becomeincreasingIy interested in low and high context communication and cuIture (Hall 1976. Schwartz 1994: 92). cultures are not uniform.

transmitted part of the message' (Hall 1976: 79). explicit. Inhigh-context communication 'most of the information is either in the physical context or internalized in the person. Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey (1988: 58-59) suggest significant differences in the communication systems of Finland and [apan.g.! Indi:ll.!lini CQnt!. Hall (1976) suggests that how and in what circumstances language 'is used varies according to societies and cultures.) - low 35 65 67 66 low Germany (F. These concepts will also be examined in the present study.) Great Britain 35 35 89 66 low Greece 60 112 35 57 high (Continued) . 'The mass of the information is vested in the explicit code' (Hall 1976: 79). TABLE2.!ntr Distan !.R. In 'low-context cultures'.idl.!xt Afghanistan high Africa (East) a 64 52 27 41 high 77 54 20 46 high Africa (West) b 80 68 38 53 high Arab Cultures c 49 86 46 56 high Argentina 36 51 90 61 low Australia Austria 11 70 55 79 low Bangladesh high Belgium 65 94 75 54 low Bolivia high Brazil 69 76 38 49 high Cameroon high Canada 39 48 80 52 low Chile 63 86 23 28 high China high (People's Republic) Columbia 67 80 13 64 high 35 86 15 21 high CostaRica Cuba high 18 23 74 16 low Denmark El Salvador 66 94 19 40 high Equador 78 67 8 63 high Finland 33 59 63 26 low France 68 86 71 43 low Germany (D. while very little is in the coded.5 Scores On Hall' sAnd Hofstede' s Dimensions Of Cultural Variability For Selected Countries OnA Scale Of 0 -100 Power Uncertainty CQl. Encoding is the process in which verbal and non-verbal information is interpreted based on the rules governing interaction and the rules of the language being used (Samovar and Porter 1991: 8). He classifies 'high-context cultures'as those in which situational features can be interpreted and relatively small amounts of information need to be explicitly encoded -.!alismMas l.R. 39 Samovar and Porter 1991).! Avoidan !. relatively little mformation is interpreted from the situations and verbaIcommunication is necessary in order to convey meanin.

40 (Continued) Guatemala 95 101 6 37 hlgh Honduras high HongKong 68 29 25 57 hlgh Hungary low Indonesia 78 48 14 46 hlgh India 77 40 48 56 hlgh Iran 58 59 41 43 hlgh Ireland 28 35 70 68 low Israel 13 81 54 47 low Italy 50 75 76 70 low [amaica 45 13 39 68 hlgh Japan 54 92 46 95 high Korea (S. 1983). NOTE: The low Ihigh designation for context is based on the cultures' score on individualismi collectivism (those below median are considered high- context.) 60 85 18 39 high Malaysia 104 36 26 50 hlgh Mexico 81 82 30 69 hlgh Nepal hlgh Netherlands 38 53 80 14 low Nicaragua hlgh Norway 31 50 69 8 low New Zealand 22 49 79 58 low Pakistan 55 70 14 50 hlgh Panama 95 86 11 44 hlgh Peru 64 87 16 42 hlgh Phllippines 94 44 32 64 hlgh Poland low Portugal 63 104 27 31 hlgh PuertoRico hlgh Romania low Singapore 74 8 20 48 hlgh South Africa 49 49 65 63 low Spain 57 86 51 42 hlgh Sri Lanka hlgh Sweden 31 29 71 5 low Switzerland 34 58 68 70 low Taiwan 58 69 17 45 hlgh Thailand 64 64 20 34 high Turkey 66 85 37 45 hlgh Uruguay 61 100 36 38 hlgh USA 40 46 91 62 low USSR low Venezuela 81 76 12 73 hlgh Vietnam hlgh Yugoslavia 76 88 27 21 hlgh SOURCE: Adapted from Hall (1976) and Hofstede (1980. . those above the median are considered low-context) or discussions of the culture in previous cross-cultural analyses.

There are manyways in which to analyze politenessaeross eultures. Inc1udes Kenya. . Brown and Levinson (1987)put forth the eoneept of positive and negative polarization. Nota great dealof independent ·diseussion will be inc1uded -as dt mightrestate information and appear redundant. Inc1udes Ghana. Table 2. Kuwait.. and Sierra Leone c. the eoneept of faee. Ethiopia. Face. . These will be diseussed in detail in the analysisseetion of the study. and United Arab Emirates The data gathered for this study exhibits a number of both high and low eontext eultural features. 'universals in language usage' (Brown and Levinson 1978i Seo on and Seollon 1995). Grice's maxi11ls (1975) put forth his rules of politeness which. Many studies suggest that low-eontext culture is closely related to individualism andhigh-eontexteultureis closely related toeolleetivism (Hall 1976i1983iDevito 1995: 29-33). Saudi Arabia. Lakoff (1983)elaborated on Grice's suppositions . Inc1udes Egypt. Terms related to this area of studywill be defined in this seetion. A face ihreaieningaci puts into or kasvot. the eoneept of faee. 2. jeopardy an individuals 'face' (Fasold 1990i Brown and Levinson 1987).sense of 'losing face' or being 1987i public1y embarrassed or humiliated (Goffman 1967i Brown and Levinson Carbaugh 1990). Libya.5 presented Hofstede's original findings along with the c1assifieation of low andhigh eontext in eulture . However. deaIing with other cultures with different ruIes of politeness is quite a different matter. It is usually used in the old English. Nigeria. is an individual's publie self-image. earries with it a eoneept ofhonor (Seollon and Seollon. Theseaspeets of eulture will bedealt with in relation to aspectsof individualismand eolleetivismfound inthedata. Tanzania. 1995: 34).3 ··Politeness The study of politeness phenomena has beeome an important aspeet of the study of. eanbe (1977) andLeech summarized as 'be polite' and 'make yourself clear'. In Japanese. 41 a. or menisu.. Lebanon. 'Being polite'or 'making oneself clear' is usually not problem within a one's own eulture beeause human beings are raised to knowtheir owncuIture's rules of politeness.: The tableserves toillustrate howindividualism is related to low eontextand eolleetivismisrelated to high eontext. In Finnish. Iraq.. a eoneept often assoclated with politeness. This study will ineorporate the following theoties. earries with it similar eonnotations. and Zambia b.

be incorporated as a secondary line of analysis. too much independence may. Source: Scollon and Scollon 1983: 169-170 Due to the nature of the data.not take a central role in this study. positive face: the want of every member that his needs and ideas be desirable to at least some others. weakness in using this terminology because 'negative' can easily be confused with 'bad' and 'positive' mayequallybe confused with 'good'.. Emphasis on social distance. From positive Jace comes posiiioe politeness which includesfhewants. be a m Illber ofthe in-group and havetheir ideasliked. They put forth.ntfeel that thespeaker wishes to have limited .42 negative face: the want of every 'competent adult member' that his actions be unimpeded by others. Source: Brown and Levinsen 1987: 62 From negative face derives negative politeness which is familiar toWestemers as formal.repels at thenegative poles.is the nature. Rather than induding a paradigm of positive and negative politeness whichmay suggest good and bad to the reader.the two categories of politeness which. instead. and Scollon.of individuals to.involvement.andaccepted by others(Brown and Levinson 1987: 59-71).been encroached upon. the concept of politeness will.Asian-Japanese data (Scollon and Scollon 1983.1Il. face in interaction. Emphasis on interaction.as a friend.make aparticipp. while. The.this study will be dejerencepoliterzess and solidarity politeness because they could be Illore applicable to th . (Scollor. 1995). Both forms of politeness are projected during all enc01.be treated. Scollon. they point out a . the terms solidarity politeness and dejerence politeness. of . Thatis to say. However.will be applied to . . terIlls are defined as follows: Deference Politeness: Imposition is assumed to be high and the more powerful speak 'downward'to the less powerfuL The less powerful speak 'upwards' Solidarity Politeness: Imposition is assumed low and communication is more or less equal.which attracts at the positive poles and.ters . Too much involvement may produce a jace threateningact in which an indiyidual feels that theirindependence has ..and Scollon (1995: 37-38) darify Brownand Levinson'spositive and negativepoliteness byequating itwith a magnet . however. . It will. individuals reflect both independence and involvement while interacting.non-impositionpoliteness. . and dear examples of politeness phenomena will be pointed out as they appear in the following chapters. 1995: 38) Such .

ethnomethodology whichwouldfocus onlyon 1983). asking and doing.researcher and the subjects of the study would have .aposition. The methods adopted for this study focused on watching. The figurealso indicates which methods were based on several lessons and which methods were used in only one lesson in order to c1arify this point.2 suggests that the majority of the methods used in the study are qualitative while they are reinforced by quantitative methods.Quantitative meihods 'social surveys are those that codify phenomena utilizing structured interviews.time to feel comfortable communicating with each other.better results than examining (1988: 4) takes the one classroom for 400 hours. in Japan and researcher in Finland. Frommy perspective.. time was allotted to get to knowthe teachers and students who partidpated. 'countable features'. This was.. participant observer. such mattersare. In order to relieve the tensions and apprehension that rnight havebeen caused by the projett. to initiate such activities in the lessons that were observed. van Lier . Controlling methods such as 1 experiments were not utilized primarily because was not in . Figure 2. While the familiarization process was under way. the chapter on curriculums examines when learners begin studying second languages and what the goals are.Finland andJapan.Richards(1989) provides an excellent discussion . c1assroom discourse (Sacks 1986i Atkinsonand Heritage 1984iLevinson was rejected in favor of an.not subject to negotiation but may be subject to interpretation.done so thatboth the.(1989)points out that' researchmethods oneducationalculture should inc1ude both qualitative and quantitativeaspects. On the other hand.. Quantitative methods will be used in examining aspects of language planning. This was done as an ongoing process sothe learners and the teachers would get used to having the researcher around. Brophy (1979: 743) advocates studying different c1assrooms stating that studying 20 classrooms for 20 hours each yields.of e. 43 2. and questionnaires. the researchermade notes of the teachers' commentsand opinions as well as of what was taking place within the schools. Two years were spent in Japan workingwithin the schools studied. Richards. the teachers.thical issu s that are inyolved in research. administrators and students concerned should feel that the researcher will not portray them in a bad light. Because of their human desire not to be ridiculed in public. as a . testing and textbook design because they tend to concentrate on objective. In contrast. diaries and open-ended and informal questionnaires (Griffin 1985: 100). For example. The resources for the present study consist of a wide corpus of materials gathered during fiveyears of research in .4 General Considerations ForClassroom Research Asforresearch methods. and one year was spent in Finland during which intermittent visitswere madeto the schools studied .ethnographicapproach hich looks at interaction within society and its culture (Hymes 1972i Scollon and Scollon1995i Saville- Troike 1982). qualitative meihods utilize observation.

and probably a good deal more than fifty lessons. Fanslow (1977.2 Quantitative And Qualitative Research Methods Quantitative Qualitative Measuring Observation Interviewing Transcriptlon o Learners M Questionnaires MO* Video taping M Teachers M Notes M Administrators M [Curriculum design] Teacher trainers M [Testing] [Textbooks] [] = institutional constraints M= many lessons o one lesson = Ql. FIGURE 2. where necessary.2). except if we have unlimited time at our disposal'. This study will strike a balance between the two positions. Also. English who taughtthem.44 position that 'one lesson may yield as muchusefulinformation as ten lessons. make generalnotesand observations(markedM onfigure. tlley .nthetw()co1lIltries.2). In * Chapter Seven. made it possible to make fairlyrelial>le conclusions concernirtg the English. This. 1992. in order to bring balance into my interpretations. This study will also use six videotaped lessons from Japanand six videotaped lessons from Finland to examine the specific subject of lesson segmentation and classroom activities (indicated by M in figure 2. consulted .2). unavoidably.Iapanese ori.2. However. Other Japanese English .. 1 have. My perspectives have.in Japanin order to.sectionofthe videotaped data. been incorporated into the analysis. 1993) puts forth the propositionthat no two people view the sameevent from identical perspectives. Thisapplies to the observation techniques in this study. Three regularJapanese English Iessons were videotaped by t:he Japanese teacherof. questionnaires were given to students focusing on one specific lesson. 20 Iessons were observed In Finland and 20 team-taught lessons were observed .usedsimilarmethoCisin their regular Iessons.lestionnair s were used to examine leamer opinions of many lessons.teachers suggested. Thiswill provide a cross.Einnish informants. transcribed introductions of one Finnish lesson.Theteacher stated that t:he lessons were typical English lessons. one regular [apanese lesson and one team- taught Japanese English lesson will be used to examine classroom discourse (indicated by 0 in Figure 2.classroom settings studied :i. .

(2) within method. lesson segmentation and discourse malysis. Secondly. FIGURE 2. Interviews.of . Observationdescribes what goes on inthe .and . . whether structured or unstructured.each withtheir own advantages and disadvantages.3). Observation diaries can provide valuable dnsights intothec1assroom butare difficult . the existence of formal harmony in the Japmese c1assroom is cross-checked in the textbooks. For example. The use. Burry-Stock 1995:2).learners (Oxford .Thestudy of institutional constraints inc1udingteacher training. Stern 1983. but they take a considerable amount of time.3 Between Method Triangulation Measuring Structured Questionnaires Institutional Factors Watching AskingIDoing Observation Interviews Videotapes Inforrnalsurveys The first two points concerning method triangulation of research have been integrated intothis study by double-checking information in more than orte set of data using more thm one method. Thefirst and foremost is thatitis essential forgaining an understanding of foreign language teachingand learning in thetwocountries (Lado 1957. Teachers. Widdowson1990).3) which includes the adoption of different methods. This study will include a discussion of these topics for two primaryreasons.phenomena such as reasoning or mental strategies.to comparebetweenclassrooms and groups . c1assroom but cannot provide information on unobservable. An overview of the institutional factors will provide the reader-with necessary background information. 45 Anumber of techniques were incorporated into this study. provide personalized information ontypes ofbeh(ivior whichjcannot ibe determined through observation. 1995).teacher attitudes. testing and the textbook designof [apan and Finlandprovides insights into c1assroom behavior. different kinds ()f data and assorted research tools is advocated by mmy researchers (van Lier 1988: 13). Data and method triangulation have also been called "ethnographic monitoring" (Hymes 1986: 56).few people are familiar with the institutions and education systems of eitherJapan or Finland and even fewer are familiar with both (Merviö 1993. of triangulatiqn (figure 2. and (3) investigator triangulation. . Cohen and Manion (1980) identify three types of triangulation: (1) between method (figure 2. sections. Hofstede 1986. Stubbs (1983: 234) states that researchers should double-checktheir account or interpretation of an event or etting.

1991b. such as: Are thecurrkulums the same in the two countries? If not. Textbooks represent the 'visible heart' of any EFLprogram (Sheldon 1988: 237). Haavisto. Other textbooks that are used in the two countries were not examined because they were not used in the settings where lessons were videotaped and observed. has a great importance in examining howEnglish teachingandlearning takes place in the specific settings in the two countries (Huhta 1996. compatible with each other? Who plans the system? Is it planned Iocally or centrally? The data inc1udes 'technical reports from [apan and Finland. In fhis study. the terms'curriculum' and 'syllabus' willboth mean "the specific teaching programor pedagogic agenda fora particular group of learnersin regardto a particular subject" (Widdowson1990: 127). 1986. what are the differences? How are they influenced by the culture? What are the. Central questions are how textbooks are designed in Finland and [apan and whether they reflect cultural characteristics of the two countries. TItis could rshed light on cross-cultural similarities and differences which influence language planning in the two countries.1990) '4 D Model of Cultural Difference'.4. 2. teacher trainers and applied linguists. Kairyudo 1987. The data was analyzed by comparing and contra sting the settings studied in relation to each other. Oda1996). as in any country.1 Bxamining LanguagePlanning And Textbooks The curriculum is an-irnportantinstrument of educational policy(Widdowson 1990: 127 l29). Kallela. This study concentrates on junior high school textbooks because the c1assroom research section of the present study was done in settings that used them (Arnold. Nikkanen and Suurpää 1991a. A number of questions willbe investigated. interviews with teachers working in the two countries and information from artic1es written on the subject.goals of the system? Are the goals. The textbooks used in the settings reflect the curriculum and will be examined in relation to the criteria put forth in Hofstede's (1980. The data inc1udes the textbooks used in the two settings as well as research articles on the subject. 1993). Therefore knowledge oflanguage planningandthe curriculum in [apanandPinlarid. Textbooks are closely linked to the curriculum and have therefore been inc1uded in the same chapter of the present study.46 researchers and-pupils provided investigator iriangulaiion through informal discussions aswellas throughfeedback at academicconferences where preliminary results were presented. Most of these are primarily concerned with situations where the teacher or local administrators have a wide . Several methods of examining textbooks have been proposed by various researchers.

. Subject content. study will .concentrates . The present . arl. incorporating much of his terminology.. Harmer (1991: 281-84) presents another system Jor evaluating textbooks in which he...cultures studied in Japanand Finlan4by a m. textbooks . Cunningsworth 1984.Guidance.his method. 47 rangeof options . arl.in theirchoices.41anguage textbooks doesnot take a central role inmany syllabll. .6 Terms For Analyzing Textbooks Rationale A vailability User Definition Layout and Graphics Accessibility Linkage Selection and Grading Physical Characteristics Appropriacy Authenticity Sufficiency Culture Bias StimuIus and practice revision Guidance EducationaI vaIue Overall Value . Candlin and Breen 1979. the relationshipbetween. although useful. analyze the textbooks used in the specific.d language planning. However...on other teaching . Language type.: materials. teachingaspects . Lado (1957). analyze te:x:tbooks. then use the information to analyze cultural features. Conclusion . He then suggests straightforwardquestionswith which to. comparinggeneral. Although all of his subcategories could be useful when actually selecting course books.Sheldon's method puts forth too marl. will firstexamine linguistic and teachingaspects.and design.forth a system for evaluationin which numberscales were used toevaluate textbook traits. the study of: which. Activities. Widdowson forth a system for examining materialsand methods butdoes notaddress textbooksdirectly. (1988) terms: This stu4ywill use the folIowingofSheldon's TABLE 2. culture.s instead on linguisticOr. not all Will be used in discussing the general differences between Japanese and Finnish textbooks. Tucker (1977) put ..is a different .san4textbook studies which tend to.This system was rejected because amore (1990: 156-80) .er studiE!s exaIIline the relationship between culture. Instead.Y subcategories.Which is somewhatsirnilar to HarIIler's method presente<i above. Layout . Surprisingly . thE! ql1estions that However.. F{utchinsonand Waters 1987).topic. than evaluating the textbooks of [apan and Finland. This study. suchas the UnitedStateswhere28major publishers offer 1623 textbooks for<ESL (Goodman and Takanashi 1987).put descriptiveapproach willcover the topic better . educational.odificationof the procedure of Sheldon (1988). focll.characteristics as"Was done in the present study. Y ()shio (1995)arl.d()th. Harmer's terminology WilI not be adopted because he uses are too specifiS for.with emphasis on learner needs(Nunan 1988. Skills. puts forththe f()lIowing categories: Practical considerations.

Doesthe book look duttered? . They answer the question: "Do the books dowhat they are supposed to do?" Are they easy to use and successful in the teaching situation? Do they cover the points that the learners need? . book can stand on its own or whether the teacher must prepare extra material in order to reach the target of the lessons. Authenticity rates whether textbooks use pative-like constructions or actual material from the target language and if not.isalso concerned with what needsanalyses were conducted .stereotyp s and what Sheldon (1988) calls 'presel1ting sanitized versions'of the United States and Brita.Is the artwork appealing? Accessibilityrateshowthe material is organized.· Layout and graphics are concerned with the way text and graphics interact on thepage.weaning preconceived notions.was written and what gaps it intends to fill.. and whatthebook's objectivesare. is modified to suit the ability of the learners. The terms Stimulus and practice revision will be used to rate if the material is interactive and if the texts provide opportunities for the students to practice what is presented. characteristics..Llser definitiondeals with the dear spedfication of who thebook is intended for.s.poyerty and other types of sodal problems. Is it too deep or too shallow for the students? Is the book useful when taking into. Is it possibleto c1early rate when progress is made? Are thereindexes.inregarding racism. suchas Council ofEurope . Availability is concernedwith whether the book ds easy to obtain. These topics will not be addressed as Sheldon (1988)presents them.scales (van Ek 1975). Appropriacy is col1cerned with whether the materialwill hold the attention . Instead. Is there appropriate delay between the adoption of the textbook and the beginning of its being used so that the teachers can familiarize themselves with the new materials? Is teacher training provided? Are there enough notes in the teacher's book? Is the book useful for non-native teachers? Educational validity and overall valueevaluate the other categories and sub- categories. unemployment.their culture. to what extent the language . book easy. Is the materiallikely to be retained and remembered by the learner? Are tests and ongoing revision exerdses inc1uded with the text and are self-checks provided? Guidance will be used to measure how the teacher is instructed to use the textbook. preciseentry lexit definitionsand what international standards the book conforms to. being more concerned with the level of the material.of the learners and whether theycan relate to the topics the book discusses. environrnent and religious topics. radal. It. hUJllor and philosophy. section headings.48 Rationale isconcerned with whythe textbook. account the learner'smother tongue? Is the. culture and how other cultures are presented in the textbooks will be inc1uded ine. Selection and grading is related to the previous point. Culture bias incorporatessodal.: vocabulary lists? Can the learners monitor their own progress? Is the learner given dear advice on how the books should be utilized? Linkage measures the way in which thechapters of the book andthe book seriesprogress. separate discussion. to carry?Can 'it be re-used? Are spaces provided for the students to make notes? These questions deterrnine the book's physical . Sufficiency measures whether the .

the entire dear picture of testing and its place within the educational culture. . 49 Following the discussion of these topics. this.imrortant.. how? What is the role of testing? How does it effect university admission? What are the learners' attitudes toward the tests thatthey take? How are the questions on the test designed? Are the tests reliable? Are the tests valid for their purpose? What is the purpose of testing in the educational culture? AlI of these questions will be addressed by the present study. chapter will seek to provide . Finland.died in Japan and . The discussion in this section will be primarily concerned vvith university admission tests because of their importance within the Japanese systern and. system of te sting should be.1. 2. Also. therE!fore. for tll1derstandirlg testing. the textbooks will beanalyzed through the filter of Hofstede is '4-D. The purpose of this inVestig-ation is to begin to explain cross-cultural similarities and differences inEnglish teaclrirlg and learning in the educational cultures stu.. In summary..2. Naturally.4.in order to paint a . locally constructed. on the educational culture of the setting studied. Testirlg raises a number of . teacher .. background inforrnation necessary. compare similarities and differences in language planningand . However.Difference' as presented in figure 2. examine how these two areas reflect cultural similarities and differences in the WO settings.Cultural.textbook design.and learner attitudes. ExaInining Testi:ng Testing is an essential component of any foreign language program and may have either a positive or negative effect on the syllabus(Brown and Y IIlashita 1995a.thatcenbeseen in language planningand textbookswill beexamined inorder to suggest differences and similaritiesin the textbooks from an intercultural perspective and to integrate the textbook sectioninto the wholeof thepresent study.. tests w-ere also .Model of. Harmer 1991). 2. the particular settings because the effects ofsystem-wide testing. Chapter Four wi11: 1. relevant questions: What effect does testing have on the learning process? Are testing and te sting design culturally motivated and if so.present d. . English teachlng methods and dassroom interaction in the two settings. This study will address testing within the two systems studied rather than. Thisand othercultural aspects.appeared to exert substantial influence on theEnglish dassrooms of the two countries.

. an essay.. or fairnessof scores ·resulting from the administration of a particular examination' (Henning 1987:74). 1995b). van Ek . magazines. learrting. If a test is regarded as important. as would.1991.. The participants polled were 100 Japanese and 129 Finnish junior high . Tests from the two countries will be analyzed by comparing their general characteristics in relation to each other based on the research questions that 1 have formulated for this study. consistency. preparation for it can dominate 'all other learning activities (Hughes1989:1).-there are a ifew· relevant terms ' . junior high school English tests inboth Japan and Finland will beaddressed andsample university entrance tests.interviews with educators from the two countries and research artic1es will be usedas data.each is the smallest unit which produces a score.translation exercise . Reliabilityand valid'ityare the mostimportant of these. dependability.3. Ellis 1985:. an item will be defined as 'the smallest distinct.unit within a test that yields separate . 2. It can be harmful or beneficial. In keeping with Brown and Yamashita (1995a. In order to discuss the topicof 'testing. For the purpose of thispaper. information' . according towhich 'a test is said to be valid when it measureswhat it is supposed to measure'. process (Richards 1990:. because .? How is your English? Questionnaires were used toelicit responses for the empirical analysis of this study.50 In addition.42-49. the students were polled as to the following: Why do you studyEnglish? How many foreigners have you talked to? Did you speak Englishwith the foreigner? Have you been abroad? What are your educational goals? Do you like English? Do you hate English? Do you take private lessons? How much do you study? Do you watch English movies? How many? What do you like in English class? Do you listen to English music? Do you read English books. Surveying Learner Attitu4es Learners' attitudes toward the target language play an important role in the . The backwash effect is the effect of te sting on teaching. or. Translaiion items will be defined as those in which the examinee must translate an item from L2 into L1 or vice versa.. etc.a . In order to determine what these attitudes were in the settings studied. For e:x:ample. Prabhu 1987: 75-78. For validity this paper willrelyon Henning's (1987:89) definition.103-126). reliability willbe'ameasure· ofaccuracy. which must be defined. a single multiple choice question would be defined as an itelll...4..

Myexperience when constructing the questionnaires andresults suggested that both Japanese andFinnishjunior.Iearners of . 51 school students.to teachin . -the survey induded items such as '1 try to talk to nativeEnglish speakers'. The questionnaires differed slightly between the two countries because of slight differences in their respective educational systems and the termino10gy used.townvand · taughtin the schoolsasanassistantEnglish . It shouldbenotedrhatalthough 1 didnotteach in the schoo1s where conducted research in Finland. in turn.The students in both countries werebetweel1. 1 feltthat a SILL type test was inadequate forthis study since it probably would not account for . necessaryfor . Locastro (1993) found the .for this study.more ·in. . questions vital to thisproject. The analysis could. to. response to Locastro that 'normal people who use the SILLunderstand the restrictions placed. Forexample.specific information. Phillips (1983) puts emphasis on participant. learnersare instructed to respond toquestions usinga. The questionnaires were writteninEnglishand explained and darifiedtothe Japanese 1earners in Japanese bythe J<:lpaneseEl1. Questions were structuredin several different ways inc1uding multiple choice questions.opservation.This .Ianguage Iearner strategies through the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning orSILL. Entrance examinations to senior high school which are common in Japan .worldwide . its length and because it did not contain . Iworked forthe Boardof Education in ··the .glishteacher when administered.one of themethods usedin the [apanese setting. Oxfordand Burry-Stock(1995) report on .based on extensive readingand discussions with numerous languageprofessionals. Englishbelped: provide . My questionnaire asked 'howmany'inordertogain specific information.high school students tried.because of . yes I no questions followed by open response questions and open response questions. However.and 15 years old when the surveyswere conducted. SILL isiasummativerating scale for assessing language Iearning strategiesusing questionnaires.on use and interpretation of this (and any other) cumulative rating scale'..which means'always or almostalwaystrueofme'. that would inform practicing teachers in Japan aboutJapanese learners..ana1yze the student's views toward foreign language teaching and learning and their place within the system.the schools Therefore... . be used for 1esson planning. A participant in a setting is better able to provide an insider'semic perspective.ish school .previous experience withFinnlsh . in the Finn. perspective tothe study.speak to 'native English .. speakers'. a .teacher.scale from 1.was.many countries and settingsbutwas rejected .: Participantobservation was not possibleinFinland becauseforeign teaching assistants do not teach . yes/no questions. felt 1 that constructing a questionnaire that would ask more specific questions would be effective in the settings that 1 studied. understanding the setting. state in. my.side . The present studyinitially set out to design a questionnaire.It has been usedin . which means-never or.same for herJapanese learners..in Finnish junior high schools and Ldid not possessthe proper qualifications ..I assumed therole of a researcher.almost nevertrueof me' to 5. 14. The responsescould beused to . . 1 setting. Oxford and Green (1995: 166). .

Eigo· kirai. And. 12.12.. not about other languages they were studying.14 and 15were concerned with studymotivation. 6. because the conceptof large numbers of students hating Englishis not common in the culture. Questions 8. 6. the questionnaires used in the twocountries were sirnilar .is shown inFinland. In Pinland. 1 · .Inorder to makethe questionnaires the . in the Japanese .19 questions were included in the questionnaire. meaning ·'EnglishHate'. Questions 1. idiomaticexpression. but not identical (Appendix 1). wanted to find out ifthe total was actually thathigh. In addition. Finally. 6. 1 had taught in Iapan for ayearbefore 1 designed the questionnaires and hadestablisheda re1ationship between myself and the learners.same. In the Finnish . 11.13. In Japan. 10 and 11 were concerned with how and why they studied the language. After informal discussions with teachers and students. 11.7. 12.9 and 10. 1anguage. 'no' and 'Idon'tknow'.team-taught 1essons. it would have been necessary to make the questions too general and thus . . Study motivation was addressed inquestions 1. This ··raises interesting omethodological questions for cross-cultural research..IikedEnglish: ·'Do you hate · English' was inc1uded in the Japanese questionnairebecausethere. questionnaireswere modified to reflect this. 14 and 15. 5. This probably increased the nurnber of genuine responses to each question and decreased the nurnber of 'joke answers'. . 3. ·10. Therefore. questionnaire. 5.: between cultures make · trans1ating certaineticconcepts problematic. 4. Only onequestion was completely restructured between the two countries becauseofculturalassumptions (Befu 1989i Hamaguchi 1977.13. So. The questionconcerned whetheror not the students . 6.rlvquestions were inc1uded. 9.52 are non-existent in regularPinnishsenior high schoo1s. distinctions . questions 2. 15 and 16 were concerned with intercultural topics.lose great deal of -their content. 13. 14 and 15. 12. 5.is an . My original goal was to determine how the students feIt in order to better teach them the target language as well as to investigate their . 11. 8. all those · surveyed were asked about their career goa1s. post-juniorhigh school options are different for students and moreEnglishlanguage television . Befu (1989) suggeststhat emic . In addition. Hsu 1975).: Concepts that were prob1ematic orvague whenadministeredto Japaneselearnerswere modified andexp1ained whengiven to the Finnish learners who also answered anEnglishquestionnaire thatwas explained and c1arified by their Finnish English Teacher. [apanese learners were also asked to respond to two questions (17and 18) regarding their irnpressionsof .. 4.5. 3. Finnish students wereonly asked about English.Popular belief among many JapaneseEnglish teachers and insociety suggests thatover SO%of thirdyear Japanese juniorhighschool studentshate English becauseof impending seniorhigh school entrance examinations (Araki 1995iWada 1992). 14. becauseof theinstitutional and cu1tura1 differencesbetween the two countries. intercultural topics were dea1t within questions 2.'Doyou like English?was askedwith themultiplechoice answers 'yes'. The Japanese questionnaire was constructed first. What and how they studied English was addressed in questions 7.13. The·questionnaires used inthis study werechangedinorder to adapt to fhis.

and surveys in general. they . This is problematie in apan. without putting constraints 01' pressure on them.Comlnos1995. systems.issues .were writtenin such waythat the a learners should havebeenable. Preparinga specific questionnaire for the teachers was ruled out because the studywishedto elicit the .to avoid confusion.in order to attempt to spotlight differencesin the way Finnish and [apanese teachersperceive c1assroom interaction. their roles as teachers and their foreignlanguageeducation. Therefore. Thisisconsistent with theconcept. 1 wanted to try and find out what J the teachers really felt. Scollon and Scollon1983. The questionnaires wereanalyzed bycomparing the Finnish responses to the Japanese responses. tend to be defensiveandavoid direct questions regardingfheir teaching (Bay . in the.Kobayashi and. the schools. he suggests. Kobayashi 1994). Edge's 1992 paperentitled "Co-operative Development"suggests that a need exists for teachers to work together in order to become better teachers.related totheir language education (Garant 1992). It was chosen.international . because the teachers may answer what they think they should answer rather than how theyreally feel (CLAIR 1992). the teach1ng act should be discussed dialogue. ofindirect communication in Japaneselanguage and culture which relatesto the face concerns and deference politeness discussed inChapter One (Kobayashiand Atler 1992.relationships within. 1992.to·understandthem. ratherthan have themanswer questions prepared by theresearcher which could be biased by the design ofthe questionnaire. Althoughthe questions were written inEnglish'inbcth Finland and [apan. This concept is instrumentai in eliciting information from teachers because mtimidation islikely to make them uncooperative. m . It was hoped that a more informalapproach would produce genuine differences in opinions as well as original perspectives on the c1assroom and language .teachers' personaLopinionsabout . Underhill (1989) stresses the need for educators to promote well-being and not be .4.views of.although some students needed c1arification. Triangulation techniquesweretherefore utilized to cross-check information.were orally translated to the students bytheir teacherin order .or how others in the class might respond. This was possible: becausethere were less than ten English teachers in each setting in the two countries. with questionnaires. 53 attitudes toward .4 Eliciting Teacher Responses [apanese teachers of English. with 'respect.many assistant language teachers. a variety of means were necessary in order to accomplish fhe goal of unraveling the views of the Japanese teachers of English involved in the project. empathy andhonesty'. 1995).teaching in general. 2. Students were instrueted to respond to thequestionnaires with their own opinions and not how they thoughtthey should respond. In m order to accomplish this.The questionson the surveys . while simultaneously maintaining positive working .order not tomtimidate individual teachers.foreign language teaching and learning in their schools.

In Finland. Tms c1early reflects different cultural traits. usually one on one in informal situations. Koivisto (1993b) suggests that openlyexpressed . teaching. The Finnish teachers responded well to questions andprovidedmany valuable insights as well as personai opinions onvtheir attitudes toward .produced mixed results because many Japanese . The lessons are ideally constructedin three ·phases by the assistant ·Englishteacher . or harmony. these concepts.54 antagonistic.(Yamane199Si Bay 1992).. experienceabroad. In Finland. are a facade intended to keep communication going. areexpressed. However. should be maintained at all times.. This also servesto illustrate that cooperative development isapart of the team-teaching process. consultations with the teachers before andafter. The 'in-lesson'phase takes place in the dassroom in which language .skills are presented. to be more receptive to the idea of dassroom research than fheir [apanese counterparts. honne.direct statements. theproject. This wasprobably »related. the teachers seemed. True opinions. greater confidence intheir Englishskills.their experience as. Japanese teacherrespondents wouldnot. the questioning of the teachers in both settings . often at expense of 'honne'.keptjn mind. The reader may.. must be read from the situation. When eliciting responses from teachers. 'Individuals who expressed true opinions regarding this project injapan couldhave done sobecause ofone-on-oneorinformal meetings. honne. andKing (1983) advocatesusing acounseling approach when dealing with fellow teachers. or true opinions (Tanaka 1990: 62).language teaching and learning and their contemporary education system.reasons.the lessons in addition to other informal conversations form the basis of evaluating their opinions on foreign . Koivisto (1993b) suggests that one-on-one meetingswith key individualsare important in: the Japanese decision makingprocess because during these meetingstrue opinions.to cultural' factors in Tapan: 'tatemae'. Tms 1S probably due to a variety of. find one informant being quoted repeatedly in certain sections of the work. forthis study. therefore. some of the informants who participated in the present studywerewilling tomake .convey personal opinions about-the teaching and learning process. . tatemae. opinions.teachers were intimidatedby the merepresence ofanassistantlanguage teacher.Therefore.were. Nevertheless. The 'pre-lesson' phase consists of formulating goals and planning the activities for the lesson.well as cultural traits. their personalities ora combinationoffhese andotherreasons.and Japanese teacher of English.This is followed by the 'after-lesson'phase in which the assistant English teacher and [apanese teacher of English discuss the good and bad points of the lesson (Brumby and Wada 1990: 10-19. Tanaka 1992: 3-S) .In many cases. practiced and produced. inc1uding their perception of theirEnglish ability. Such informants'direct opinions will bequotedoften· in thework when they were supported by indirect opinionsfrom other teachers or from data gathered by the other means used in the present study. The [apanese teacher's opinions toward the lessons became dear tothe researcher through the planning process of team-taughtlessons.

The eommentsand justifieations for both team-taught . the [apanese teacher . and administrators . The first lesson was prepared for viewing by the research committee of Karua town.the class toviewthe lesson.4.class on film a beeause outside observers tend to make both the teachers and learners nervous and behave in different a or special manner. Principalsand . 55 took place.. will be used to analyze the data.teachers.to be bloeked from view and the [apanese teacher of English preferred to havethe camera in the back of the dassroom. 2.teachers wereinvited . They may findthemselvesasking the question. Toeontributeto a fullerunderstanding of the Japaneseteachers'view of the dassroom. the only outside observer .Pollewingthis.·. eulture? This study will use several methods to answer thesequestions Tms study will use .of English prepared and presented a paperonthe lesson for the membersof the committee. Hofstede's(1986) '4-DModel of Cultural Difference'. My experieneeas a dassroom teacher hasshownme that timing is an important· faetor inthe teaching and learning environment.': teachers . by positioning the eamera in the back of the dass.i.in a free. or watehing the event for themselves.lessonsare invaluable beeause they . diffe:rentaspeetsofthe system in which they work.5.videotape toreeord classroom sequenees beeause it provides visual information that audio tapes eould not provide. This was done in order totryand eapture regular .'did that take 5 minutes or 20 minutes?'. Timing was induded in the description to prevent such vagueness and to give the reader the feel of virtual witnessing. A report of this sort is culturally revealing. Activities And Timing And Classroom Discourse What goes on in Finnish and [apanese junior high school English lessons? In what ways are they similar or different? Howdo theyrefleet their country's . An examination of the eomments eollected in theabove manner presents a clear picture of both the Japanese andthe Finnish teachers' attitudes towa:rd the lessons that they taught and their opinions toward.two modellessons andtheir critique willalso beinduded in this study.. the dock was in viewthus making it easier to measurethe time of each sagmentwhile focusing on the teacher or teachers. Examining Methods. Layloek and Bunnag (1991: 46) reeommend that the eamera be positioned in the front of the dass in order to tape both the teacher and students.to . the same topics were covered in both eountries with both groups of..include explanations intendedfor Japanese . inevery lesson butone. pointed toward the teacher. Further. the reader may be left without a dear understanding of the way in which the lessons flowed. The video eamera was. Six lessons were reeorded in Kanta Number .loosely structured format. Without induding it in the deseription of the lessons. . The seeondsuch modellesson waspreparedto be evaluated bythe prefectural school inspector..This was rejected in [apan beeause a side view would have eaused one of the two teachers inthe team-taught dasses .However.

time andpersonnel constraintslimited the availabilityofa thirdpartytoact as a cameraman to film all but oneof the lessons.the presenceof only acamera. An angle where the teacher and learners both could be filmed was dedded to be best for filming.I dedded that the subject should be approached delicately with the Finnish teachers who agreed to partidpate in thestudy. Three were team- taught lessons and three were regular lessons.observed the reaction of [apanese teachers of English to the prospect of being taped.stalkative class was observed on one occasion to become quiet when a'stranger' partidpatedin the lesson. rnore of the Finnish teachers partidpated in .students were not familiar with' would disrupt the lesson more. exhibited many of the· same characteristics as those of the other teachers 1 worked with in [apan and . which wasfilmed by a third party. the videotaped data inc1uded in present study is based on the lessons of one Japanese teacher of English and four Finnish teachers of English. theresearcher was availableto tape thelessons. However. some of the Finnish English teachers became apprehensive at themention of video taping their lessons. it was determinedthatthe mosteffective way to pursue the project was to tape lessons at all three schools in the Japanese town withall six Japanese teachers of English and from these. Afterhaving . However. Japanese teachers of English were also observed to modify their classroom behavior when audio tapes were made of lessons . This demonstrates the problematie nature of using video or audio taping as a means of c1assroom research.. Initially. Two [apanese teachers of English who taught in a school where the other teachers agreed refused to be filmed. It was felt that since the researcher was nota teacher in the school that was studied. InFinland.56 Three [unior High School of: second yearEnglish c1asses.Like some of the [apanese teachers of English. investigation. refusedto be videotaped.select sections for further . than .. videotaping.the researcher filmedthelessonsthat weretobe examined. This was not without its drawbacks.' So.his filming would cause nomore disruption thanhis observing lessons. thiswas not possible becausehalfof the teachers · . a normally. It wasalso feIt that an external cameraman who the Japanese teacherofEnglish and . Some of the Finnish students wereobserved to shy away from the camera. 'distractions' of this sort occurred in the Finnish c1assrooms even when no camera was present. There were no clocks in the Finnish c1assrooms which eliminatedone concern when positioningthe camera. The methodof recordingdiffered from Japan forseveralreasons. This left only one [apanese teacher of English whose lessons could be recorded. Finnish students were observed to talk to the cameraman and ask him questions. .rlnjapan. in my opinion. itshouldbestressedthat the teachers andIearners were familiarwiththe researcher before taping began. This exerted group pressure thatwould have made taping in the school problematie. with some moving around the c1assroom in order to capture certain aspects of student-student and student-teacher interaction. These videotaped lessons. The Japanese learners in the particular educational setting studied did notexhibit this type of behavior. However. One teacher who agreed to be videotaped became so nervous in front ofthe camera thatthe lessons broke down.In Finland. For example. However.

57 observed in Finland and reflect the general situationof both educational cultural settings studied. Therefore. In addition. my feeling is that itshouldnot bepushed on colleagues who agree to participatein research projects..especiallyin [apan Fanslow (1992) arguesthat videotaping lessons isa helpful way in which lessonscan be analyzed and should beused more widelyin classroom research.. Yamazaki 1995. The apprehension expressed bythe Japanese teachers ofEnglish wasnot unwarranted. was accompanied by a research paper presented by the Japanese teacher of Englishthat explained his views toward team . recognized by such early works as Flanders'(1970)research on teaching styles andMoscowitz's (1967. .4. 1992b. thesubject was dropped.slight chance ofseeing 'everydaylessons '.6 Observation Of The Videos Classroomresearch has developed into many different forms since it was . However.These early studieswere initially hailed as a cure-all for everythingthat is bad in teaching and consisted of elaborate observation systems in which several types of behavior were checked off on a list as they were observed in the c1assroom (Allwright 1988). Once the tapes were made.when · teachershesitated atthe mention of.. or for assistant English teachers with professional knowledge to have bad relations with them (Cominos 1992a. Kobayashi1994). My experienceindicated that such researchers haveonly a ..Itwas hoped that thiswould clearlyshow the differences between classroom interaction in team-taught and regular lessons as well asthe variationof teaching techniques. The Finnish teachers who participated in the study allowed several different types of lessons to be taped. In [apan. the relationship between theresearcherandthe teachers mighthave been affected adversely. Sloss 1995). Otherwise. 1 decided to inc1ude three videotapes each of team-taught lessons and regular Iessons in whichthe assistant English teacher was notpresent. The importanceofmaintaininggood relations with [apanese colleagues is further discussed inHook (1992). Analyzing special or remarkable features within the classrooms of both countries was rejected. 2.. The risk ofoffending acolleague makes conducting ethnographic research in Japan as in many other settingsproblematic. There is sometimes a tendency forforeign professionals to become angry and criticize Japanese teachersofEnglish. 1968) studies which used classroom observation for interaction analysis.videotaping. since the goal was to present : a 'common classroom'. they were viewed by the researcher and notes were made as to significant aspects withinthe lessons. With the videotaping completed.in both Japanand Finland. a methodology for analyzing them was constructed. Consideration was given as to which sequences would be most representative of actual team- teaching and regular dassroom interaction . a videotaped modellesson was included in the material because it . teaching and howitcan be used asaneffective teaching tool. It also raises questions as to the validity of 'one-shot research' in which a researcher visits a school forone dayand observes (Smith 1995. These studies did great deal a .

clouded by the observer's perspective. are utilized. trainersandadministrators would usethe.4.cof: classroom discourse couldprovide important additional information.classroom interaction in what may properly be called a discourse analysis model in order to present concrete examples of how the factors that are discussed throughout the work affect the actual classroom environment.This will be followed by a section that matches the data to the filter of Hofstede's (1986) '4-D model of cultural difference'. 'FOCUS' analysis system attempted todo this. The model that will be used is relevant for the present study because it either supports or invalidates c1aims made throughout the study regarding teacher-centered and Iearner-centered classroom management styles as well as concrete evidence related to politeness strategies and other aspects of the present study (Sinc1air and Coulthard 1975).introductions of c1asses were transcribed according to Richards' (1991) model and analyzed in regard to . · He suggestedthata standardsystem of describing the teachingact beadopted so teachers.Therefore. no observation system can be objectivebecauseit is .Hofstede'sd-D Principles of cultural awareness. In addition to the analysis of lesson segmentation. .7 Methods Of Text And Discourse Analysis Chapter Eight of the present study will examine . His. Therefore. However. Lesson segmentation analysis consists of observing the transition points within lessons and which activities are inc1uded ineach 'section' of the .lesson . To answer the research questions in this study. two approaches. they began to be criticized for their failure to encompass the entire rangeof possibilities andtheir complexity. 1991).classrooms . the number and variation of activities. it was felt thata micro- level vanalysis. 2. - and Describing the Teaching Act' suggestedthat everyone observing an incident sees it from a different perspective.. Such data was included because it was hoped that it would support claims made in other sections of the present study.ees.were adopted toanalyzethe videos.58 to promote teacher awareness ofclassroombehavior. what .same terminology because no technicallanguage fordescribingtheteaching act existed. . In addition. Adescriptive section on lesson segmentation was includedin the study in order to providethe reader withan overall perspectiveof the English language .likethe previous systems.in Finland and [apan (E. .skills are emphasized and how textbooks . and recording whatactivitiesare performedand their duration (Garant 1992). The primary-concems of this type ofanalysis are the variation in lessons and lesson plans. Rashomon Conceptualizing .. some aspects of solidarity and deference politeness and context within the discourse samples will be examined (Scollon and Scollon 1995i 1983i Samovar and Porter 1991i Hall 1976). However.it toowas extremelycomplicated (Allwright1988). This will provide a description ofwhat takes place in the classroom and how it differs between and withinthetwo countries. by the 1970's. Fanslow's(1977) landmarkpaper ·'Beyond.

(1989) and Further. register and genre Halliday. controversy between ethnography {includes relevant background information in analysis) and ethnomethodology (concentrates only on what is actually said).1993). the levels of grammar and phonology. Brown and Yule (1983) and Tannen (1984. was discussed earlierm this work in relation to the . because -they coIlcentrate<on non-classroom settings.which concentrates on conversationanaly is.in linguistic-description.. Sinclair and Brazil (1982) and Coulthard (1987). but it is the minimum apparatus through whichc1assroomdiscourse can be shown with a reasonable amount of accuracy (Sinclair and Brazil1982:1-2). The only one of these works which contains an example of how to do an analysis based on this model is Sinclair and Brazil (1982). 1990)concentrate on non- institutional settings and talk among participants in social settings. McIntosh and Strevens . Perhapsthis lllethod will appear bit technical at a times. In some instances. however interesting. of analysis in. Halliday and Hasan (1957) concentrating on. and from audio tape. Their original work was reported in Toward an Analysis of Discourse (Sinclair and Coulthard 1975). Since Sinclair and Coulthard developedtheir model specifically to analyze classroom discourse. These. they were found inadequate for analyzing the institutional settings of the specific educational cultures that were studied.. The primary aim of using this method andform of analysis is to provide a simple and clear account of discourse inthe Finnish and Japanese classroom to the widest possible audience.when the teacher recognizes a student by pointing. the form . These books concentrate on theoretical issues withoutproviding an actual example of how transcribed discourse can be analyzed in written form.Brazil (1982) issomewhatconfusing. then. forexample. Conversation analysis and ethnomethodology are often seen as the same and were rejected for this study because of their propensity to exclude culture.the present studyhas adapted awritten form taken from the University of Surrey. Levinson (1983).and. such as Schiffrin (1987) which examines discourse markersorpragmatic particles. Therefore. in the caseof the regular Japanese and Finnish English lessons. analysis where not deemed suitable as models for this studyeither. body language is included 'in the : transcripts 'of the videotaped lessons where essential to the discourse. Sinclair . it is more suited to. However. Each of these previous works has its merits. It follows. However enlightening the model. 59 Sinclair and Coulthard's(1975) workis based on theassumption thatthe level oflanguage organization is different from. are difficult to relate to the theme of : teaching and learning in differertt: educational cultures. EIlglish Language Institute Coursebooks based on Sinclair and Coulthard's theories(Anon.that it.must be possible toanalyze discourse by a systematic description . yet analogous to. this study than sOrne other models. . The discourse itself was transcribed from video tapes. Modifications and further developments appeared in Coulthard and Montgomery (1981). in the case of the [apanese team taught lesson. studies including Swales (1990).

..indicate a plane or . These terms reflect the position.4. A: OK Organizational VVhatdayistoday? 1 B: Monday R C: Yes.is the assertion that every. and/or part. says somethingabout theprevious discourse . utterance. .. some diversion.. Accordingto Sinclairand Brazil(1982). A 'move' must beeither 1 or R or F. Sinc1air andBr zi1 (1982) suggest that a movemay also have a dual function of responding and initiating.. has a . organizational moves marking boundaries between exchanges will also be classified.60 2. Adistinguishing featurE!ofSinc1air arld Coulthard's (1975)I-R.It can also . Individual parts of discourse may be described in moredetaiL The moves were originally called Opening. Sinclair and Brazil(1982) propose the termR/l to.ard 1975). It can be an answer. This line of analysis obviously gives the same information twice and was therefore soon abandoned.45) Foll()w-up(F) .and Coulthard ·1975).Monday F Exchanges. expectations of. instead. Aninitiation (1) sets up . as in: A: VVhere's the notebook 1 B: In the cupboard? R/I A: No R In addition. c1assified as an opening move and an informative act if itbegan an exchange.. single prhne function . anutterancesuch as "It's three o'c1ock" would be. subjectchange. of an utterance. are obviously not the only feature.of the term 'utterance' because 'utterance' can imply a complete speech by one speaker..because it begins allexchanges... of the exchangesrather than their function.what will follow and occurs at the beginning .8 Exchanges: lnitiation. Answering and Follow-up (Sinc1air and Coultb. Sinclair and Brazil (1982) use the technical term mote . or l-R-F sequences. Response (R) follows the initiation.-F exchange system .discourse. Later versions incorporate the terms which this study will use to c1assify moves within the exchanges. or anything else (Sinc1air and Brazil1982: . A · typicall-R-F exchange is: A: VVhat time is it? 1 R B:Four-thirty. Response and follow-up (Sinc1air . it is the primary unit inclassroom. of the organization of discourse that can be described.describe suchphenomena.Response AndFollow-Up Thebasicunit of discourse is the exchange which consists of three elements. for example "1 don't understand". Theyare: Initiation. According to this system.of an exchange. F A: Thanks.

the following definitions will be restated: Exchange: basic structureI-R-F. An informing move can realize 1 or R. acknowledging F Teacher: These three move labels are sufficient toanalyze mostconversations as well as virtually all c1assroom discourse. There are various possibilities for the moves and the elements to be realized. FIGURE2.4 I-R-FMoves eliciting informing acknowledging Source: Huddleston 1991: 50 In this study. Anything that follows the head is the post-head and anything that precedes it is the pre-head. infonningand acknowledging. informing R Student: Cold. Theseand other sub-classifications were not inc1uded in this study because 1 felt that they didnot yield enough relevant information. Sinc1air and Coulthard (1975) furtherbreak down the moves into the main part or'head'. For example: Teacher: Hey Makiko. In summary. 61 In this study. eliciting How do you feel? 1 have cold. An acknowledging move can realize R or F. there are three possible moves: eliciiing.in an exchange whlch inc1udes the exchange of information. an eliciting move can only realize an I. Exchange T: Are you all here? 51: No T: No? .

to point out intercultural similarities and differences using the cultural comparison models that 1 have selected. it will not be addressed by this study because it is much too broad a subject an9. However. solidarity and deference politeness and context within culture (ScolIon and Scollon 1995. provide enough information onthe subject forfuture researchers to conduct further investigations into intercultural teaching and learning in [apan and Finland as well as in other educational cultural settings. Each method has been selected tocomplement the data it addresses. Samovar and Porter 1991.hopefully.62 Move basic structure - minimum contribution byone speaker Moves T: What d. as. 2. informing R T: Good. 2. This should provide insights into the two countries educational cultures and how this affectsEnglish. .6 Summary This study will incorporate a variety of methods to analyze the various types of data that were gathered. warrants anindependent study.will also try. My goal .is to propose a method that can provide some of the answers and. a foreign language . Hall 1976). Instead. My study .5 Teacher Training Teacher training is an important aspect of English as a foreign language education in Iapan and Finland. These frameworks have been described earlier in this chapter.ay is it today? eliciting 1 51: Tuesday.My belief is that no method addressing this topic can provide all the answers. Comparing foreign language teaching and learning in two countries is too complex for that. The transcribed discourse will then be examined inrelation to Hofstede's 4-D Model of Cultural Difference (1986). Tuesday. This study has not sought to employ one method to reveal all of the answers. acknowledging F An analysis of this kind will be applied to c1assroom discourse recorded and transcribed for this study in Chapter Eight.teaching and learning. it will utilize a variety of sources of data as well as several different methods in order to confirm c1aims through triangulation.

this chapter wpldiscuss team-teachinginJapan because it is atfhe forefront of Japanese foreign language . acknowledging that 1989) The cultural diversity mayrender.(Befu .will discuss .reform and itprovides thereader with background information needed to understand the information presented in this study.some siniilarities between the two.1 lllPlion people in 995 (StatisticsFinland 1996).educational. thereare a small minority of Swedes who mainly occupy the South-Western coastal areas. Diff rencesbetween the. Ih n... what the author perceives as sodetal similarities will be discussed because they provide necessary insight into topics discussed in this dissertation. the populationofboth countries is basically homogeneous. 63 3 GENERAL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES This chapter will provide background information on [apan and Finland that is related to the rest of the study. especially in the educational settings studied where no major minority group was present. twoc()untries al()ng with similarities will be inc1uded in Chapters Four through Eight. greatly with Japanhaving appr()x1nlately 124 million people in 1991 (Ueda 19 2: 32) and Finland having aboutS. Finally.o live throughout the country. 3. an . . There is also a small number Of new refugees .such classificati0l1sproblematic. a small minority of Lapps in the far l\l()rtht and gypsies. populations of.this section .comparisonbetween Japan andFinland.a means. overview of the history of the two countries as it applies to education will be outlined in order to familiarize the reader with the institutional development of [apan and Finland.of. However. Jn Finland. and tartars W1:).the two countnesvary. First.1 Societal Similarities Jn orderto establish. ..

64 primarily from Africa. interestingly enough. four years aft r the l\1eiji Restoration (Shimizu 1992). In Japan. in virtually all aspects of the society and will no doubt continue to dominate (Befu 1993). the. 1992). soci ty9.in1and averaging99. Chinese and Ainus. This created the need for the develöpment of·· private schools 'which inc1uded 'hanke': for samurai and 'terakoya' for commoners. despite regional differences and sub-cultures. 3.Withthe collapse of the Shogunate in 1868 and the establishment of the Meiji goverrunent.2 Cultural And Historical Similarities And pevelopment TheJiteracy rates of the two. the chrysanthemum. Kobayashi 1985: 696). educational reform began on a wider scale in Japan. considered to be the indigenous people of [apan.6% of the population are ethnic Finns (Baird 1990: 545). 93. as Finland and [apan did in the educational cultural setting studied. which is. High literacy rates in Finland can be attributed in part to. It has been proposed that a 'civil religion' has developed in [apan which is basically a shared set of 'beliefs' which most Japanese identify with. Although it is a problematic concept that fluctuates and does not apply to all members of. small groups of Caucasians. no major Swedish speaking population was present. The Japanese promoted literacy and generaleducation in Interviews that 1 conducted suggest that some Japanese people dislike the Imperial Institution mainly because of what they perceive as Emperor Showa' s involvement in W orld War II.rying degrees by the establishment through the national anthem.6%. In the setting studied. Having basically homogeneous populations. with [apan rating 99% a:n. . the exact year Finland's education wasput into secular hands . is perhaps even more homogeneous with the only major ethnic minority being Koreans at about 0. : (Whittaker 1984). Eastern Europe and South-East Asia who live throughout the country. In addition to the Koreans.9%. will affect the institutional factors of a society as well as groupdynamics within the c1assroom. thisvievvjssup'po ted inva. the officiallanguages being Finnish and Swedish. literacyincreased because of the need for educated individuals to administer the Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1868). The national educational system was first established in 1872. education was begun in the hands of the church and remained so until 1872 when secondary schools were taken from ecc1esiastical control and put into the hands 'of the civil authorities (Kurian 1985). However. [apan.dF. Finland is a bi-lingual country. the historical factthat in 1683 legislation was passed requiring Finns to prove their literacy in order to get a marriage license and take communion. (Kurian1985:389. also reside within the country (Baird 1990: 741-3). These beliefs are mostly centered around the royal family. countries arequite similar. imperial institutions and the national emblem. as presented for example in the death of Emperor Showa (Hirohito) or royal weddings (Davis 1983. Therefore.

or kokutai. rnany of the . Before the Second WorlclWar.ability to relate to traditionaLJapanese values. would graduate from acollegeoruniversity (Passin 1965:108).. underEmperor Taisho. . This suggests that similar events were. ..This inc1uded the concept that learningabout foreign countries reduced one's . Needless to say. anti-foreign ideas were instilled in the population through the schools.Uno Cygnaeus (1810-1888) wasaninstrumental figure in the development of the Finnish school system. the number of students whoreached secondary school prior to World WarII wasonly 10-20%·of the population (Shimizu .to promote nationalismbecameone of the [apanese system's... .ideas for the .system (Wendel1992: 38-41). taking place in the two .WorldWar II. many newuniversities and co:uegeshave been opened. In fact. development of both the . which would educate the population of the country .1992: 111). countries but for different reasons. admission to university is not as competitive as it once was although it continues to be a major theme. Passin (1965: 149) states that 'no modern nation state has used the schools so effectively for political indoctrination as Japan' . a small number of Imperial and private universities served a small nUIllber of elites. in the mass media both in and. 'Pinnlshnationality' and'Finnish education' (Whittaker 1984: 26). there were 97 national. spoke of the emergence of. or shushin. depending on the year. outof Japan (Thronson1992). One could argue that manyof the motivations amongFinnish educational reformers who significantly contributed to the development ofthe school .lcation ( Shimizu 1992). however. hl1945 and following the s. Out of every 1000 students who entered elementary · school. especially-from Germanyand France (Whittaker Usingthe schools . In 1991.panese. was put in the forefront.folk schoolasbeing a 'citizenshipschool' or medborgareskola. he saw the . democracy in ed1.. The study of Ja. 65 order to improve 'moral education'. Also. be noted that. Before. This study will not concentrate on Japanese education history and militarism.promoted the belief that to speak a foreign language fluently somehowdecreases one's '[apaneseness'. Such. during the pre-war period.sis on designed based loosely on American ideas which put an . The government used the schools to promote the idea ofreverence to the Emperor and the administration of education was brought under tight control (Passin 1965). Needless to say. Passin 1965). developing on the Danish educator Gruntvig's and other . abroad. the national language. .i. in 1888. However. 39 public and 378 privateuniversities.econd world war. competition was fierce. in addition to 592 junior colleges and 63 technical colleges (Ueda 1993: 223).ideas. His obituary. only between five and eight.primary functions beginning with the ImperialBducationRescript of 1890. By1912. system were the same asthose of their [apanese counterparts.anduniversities wasIimited in [apan and theyadmitted onlya small number of students. the number of colleges .historicalbiases underscore theradical aspectofthe current practice of introducing foreign assistant language teachers into the Japanese. These attitudes.Pinnish andthe Japanese school systems came from 1984. the Japanese schools were re- empha.It should. primary school attendance was estimatedat 990/0 (Kobayashi1985: 697-8). andnational loyalty'.Since 1945.

In Japan. Althollgh<small differences exist inthe age students begin their education. Primary school enrollment inboth countries ·was similar . studentsstudy2. assistant language teachers and Japanese teachers of English because they arean integral part of this foreign language teaching reform in [apan (Wada and Cominos 1994i 1995). universal education exists. . and Australia to team-teach in secondary schools (Wada 1991). dramatic steps. This information is necessary to understand the information presented in Chapters Six.2%in Finland (Kurian 1985). however.in 1985 with [apan standing at 100% and Finland at 98% (Kurian 1985). team-teaching. 3.: Sincethe second world war. The goal is to produce a larger number of high school and university graduates who are able to assist in [apan's increasinginternational activities (Cominos 1991). The Finnish Ministry of Education quotes slightly higher figures of 100. The program has been in existence for over ten years and should continue to ' develop (Kaneko 1997). enrollmentincreased graduallyand not bysuch . virtuallyall of thestudents study English as an elective subject because it is generally the only foreign language offered (Monbusho 1994a: 60- 61.In Finland. Seven and Eight. secondary and tertiary education is enough to statethat the systems are similar in general (Kurian 1985: 1344-85).9% in 1986 and 100. Thepurpose of this section is tointroduce key concepts related tothe Japan Exchange Teaching (JET) Program. These figures show 'that at the primary school level.8%in 1986.66 Such profound changes did rtot happen in the Finnish system from: the 1890'stothe 1940's .5languages on average whenexamining the average across an entireage group (Takala 1997). Ireland. Canada.. In [apan. the way in which the 12 years of primary and secondary education aredivided (6+3+3) as well asthe enrollment percentagesin primary.3 Team-Teaching In Japan The ·Japanese government set about to change the language teaching system within the country with the broad-scale intr6duction of native speaker English teaching assistantsfrom the United States. This reflects the focus in [apan on 'internationalization at the local level'. The foreign language policy of the two countries will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter Four. where foreign culture and language learning are intertwined through the introduction of foreign teaching assistantsinto 'local school systems . .New Zealand. access to education improved drasticallydn Finland wherethe enrollment ofstudents andthe numberof teachers increasedbyabout one-half between 1950 and1970in secondary schools. Secondaryschool enrollment stands at 92% in [apan and 98% in Finland while tertiary education stands at 30%in [apan and 32.· Thepercentagesexceed100% because somestudents repeatgrades (MinistryofEducation 1988: 41).Britain..

As moreEnglish teaching consultants were p1aced direct1y in schoo1s to team-teach.. The program is impressive in scope as demonstrated by the approximate1y 3.English themselves. in the 1993-94 academic year (CLAIR 1993: 3). It developed 1977-1987 from theMonbusho English Fellows program which ran from and recruited 35 American English Teacher Consultantanationwide in ·1979-81 ' 1978 (Yamane 1995: 3) and the BritishEnglish Teachers 5cheme which ran from to 1987 and p1aced a small number of British teachers in secondary 'schools (CLAIR 1993). the nature of fhe program changed and thus 1ed to the establishment of the JETprogram as.the Government ischQolsystem.vvho . Fewoutside the systemappear to disagree withthis assessment. . which inc1ude Assistant Language Teachers and some 300 Coordinators of Internationa1 Re1ations. despite the fact that it teaches very little usable English. The participants in theseprograms were recruited to act more as teacher trainers for the [apanese English teachers. henceforth CIRs. 67 Cominos (1991) statesthat through the years there hasbeen scathing criticismofEnglish education inIapan in both the Japanese and foreignpress.700 program participants.of the Japanese society can trave1 abroad have increased the need for using .e with which. In addition the whole school system finds useful the present utilization of English for examination purposes. And behind the school system sit the bureaucrats af the Ministry of Educationwho. h11987. or in order to improve the public secondary school system's foreign Ianguage education andpromote internationalization at the Ioea1 1evel.English for communication and the need for reforming English education. My feeling is that Watanabe (1991) is correct in his assessment of the historic ro1e of English training in Japan. Source: Reischauer 1988 Language education in [apan-has relied heavily on structura1 theories and methods. it currently exists (CLAIR 1992: 8-9). which has 1ead to the fee1ing that most Japanese cannot communicate 1996). like bureaucrats everywhere.eas.. throughout [apan. the [apanese Ministryof Education..50. have little desire for change.Cominos (1991: 115) cites the examp1e of [apanese professor who a believes that thetraditiona1 approach to English 'has contributed great1y to the intellectua1 training of the Japanese peop1e since Meiji' (Watanabe 1991). However. in the target language andare 'tongue-tied giants'(Tanabe these methods are not a1ways seen in negative a light. However. along with the Foreign Ministry and Home Ministry responded to this need and JET Program.OOO teachers of English in . Through the JET program. inaugurated the [apan Exchange and Teaching Program(me).any reform of the system.currentimproveIllents in Japan's economicposition and the recent . henceforth Monbusho.these feelings citing the followingquote: A keystumbling block [in reform] consists ofthe rOl..lgh!y. the government recruits foreign teaching assistants for junior and senior high schoo1s . Wada(1988) summedup.for the most part cannot really speak. They feel threatened by .rnany mernbers .

was designed 'to makeedueational structures and practices. given to the Prime . a report.curriculum. Now. Indeed. 1993c). .. the eontribution made to eultural exchange shouldnotbe underestimated (Yamane 1995). been suggested that the program beealled.impact.this number had to 4. and the number should increased eontinue .does not speeify how native speakerassistant language teachers are to be used in the system (Juppe 1993: 4-5.on English education in Japanese junior high schools. This study will focus primarilyon the teaching aspeet of the program. The goals of the JET program are: 1.68 In 1995. In some eases it is defined by the eooperation between specialists and EFL teachers in order to teaeh ESP such as De Escorcia's (1983) work on team-teaching eeonomics in a .While on the program.185. However. as stated in. who gave us gum and chocolate. Ta develop the student's ability to use foreign Ianguages. Specifieally it divided oral communieation classes into eonversation. the first foreigners 1 saw were American GIs after the war. albeit jokingly. In effect. .who expressed that 1 was theonly foreign person they had ever talked. 1 met many Japanese people. . A junior high school principal stated at a planning meeting that: .Minister by the National Council on Educational Reform.toincreasednthe future (Murayama 1995). 1993b. and its . It made us happy.local . it is better for our students to meet foreigners in their schools as their teachers.level for the development of communicative language teaching. listening and oral debate.as teachers inthe eommunity. The importanee of the internationalization aspeet of the JET Programis such that it has. which was introduced Into upper secondary sehools in 1994. Madeley and Goold 1993a.simplythe 'JapanExchange Program' (Juppe 1992b: 2-3). and to deepen internationalunderstanding (globalawareness) Source: Niisato 1995 Beginning in spring 1993. To foster student's positive attitudes towards communicating in positive attitudes 3.. Carter. this provided more autonomy at the . Team-teaching has many forms throughout the world. not the international vrelations aspect. Such expressions refleet the desire to provide international eontaets for students in sehools and toportray foreigners ina positive light. .with. the new . internationalization and development toward an information-oriented society' (Wada 1991).... To cultivate students' interest in language and culture.as means of cOIfimljnication (communicative competence) 2. eorrespond to such contemporary changes as . Monbusho instituted a new curriculum for junior high sehools which.

an. considering [apan's history of English education. the Japane$e EnglishTeacher and the Assistant EIlglish Teacher are engaged in communicative activities.concertedendeavor made jointly . Olendorf 1879.the proposition that speaking was therefore not emphasized.situations 5. assistantEnglish teacher in an.inwhich· grammar-translation . Kanda 1908. He puts forth interesting examples of militarism in Japanese English textbooks (Hasegawa 1936).toone in which communication is emphasized(Wadaand Brumby 1990: intro. the [apanese teacher . in vvhich the StudeIlts. However. Tanabe English education during this period tended to make the strange familiar by transformingthe 'foreignness' of Englishintofamiliar Japaneseculturalcodes. Monbusho. one . 1990 In addition.learning which is .andUsaburo 1860).the Meiji Restoration (Shimizu . Motivation for communication in the target language 2. during which the basis forthe modern education system was created bysuch (1996) puts forth that reformers as Fukuzawa Yukichi (Horio 1988). [apan experienced about 250 years of voluntary isolation followed by the Meiji Restoration whichbegan in 1868.efore ...example of an English book from b.former curriculumidirector of .theseand other booksto illustrate how English education in Japan has tended to . 69 Colombian universityand Dudley-Evans' (1982) study on teachingEnglish for Operational Purposes.the .iShimaokaand Yashiro 1990:1-3). methods are used in the . team-teaching was introduced to transform the English education . He cites examples from early Japanese English textbooks including Kambe 1914.by. One element of this is the emphasis on visual. the Chinese writing system. Tanabe (1996) usesexamples fror:n. EIlglish languagec1assrooII). lnteractive activities 6.of English and . It follows then that teaching communication to non-Western language speakers will take not only specific linguistic efforts but Tanabe's work will address both an overall socio-cultural effort. Minoru Wada. He puts forth. system from. statesthatthe generally aecepted definitionin the Japanese context is as follows: Team-teaching is a . Clear objectives and procedures 4.use acculturation devices to adapt the 'useful' aspects of the language while discarding unnecessary elements. Nakahama1886 andFukuzawa1Q27. This study like . Presentations of. classroom .. Unlike any other country in the world.necessary to learn 'kanji'. Cross-cultural understanding 3. the first English pronunciation book of English published in Japan (Takenobu 1886) and. this may not be an easy task. Teaching materials development 7. Source: Brumby and Wada. Niisato (1995) states thatteam teaching should provide: 1. On-the-job training These goals are whatone should strive for when team-teaching.

Language laboratories enhance the English teaching process. Charles Carpenter Fries was invited to [apan in 1956and. The most influential. Beginning in around 1965. Although Horio's views are perhaps slightly exaggerated it is clear after a careful viewing of lessons that in Japanese junior highschools students are encouraged to sit and listen to the . . rather than beactive as participants in the learning . Japanese language was stressed becauseof nationalistic political ideology to students of both elite and non-elite backgrounds. However. The number of foreign experts continued to increase in the following years. the study of English was banned.teacher.cqmtitute the structure of language' and mastery of the sound system ofEnglish . Professor Hiroshi Kita of. docile workers. Hornby summed up his method by saying that students should first identify the sound by listening. Palmer taught and acted as a professional advisor in [apan from 1922 to 1936. Fouryearsafter the Meiji Restoration in 1872.\Most taught in the newly createduniversities. then senior high schools. Horio (1988) suggests that despite the reforms that were institutedafter 1945. In the setting studied. My view is that language laboratories can be useful when used in unison with team team-teaching andthe newcommunicative syllabus. a1though some have suggested otherwise. During the Pacific war. advocated the descriptive structurallinguistic approachdeveloped at the University of Michigan in the United States (Shima()ka andYashiro 1990: 14-15).sthat .S.along with A. The structuralor. Before WorldWar Two. willnot · .fuse itby repeating it and finally acquire the ability to operate in the language (Shimaoka andYashiro1990: 11-12). dt...are not in conflict with team-teaching or the new communicative syllabus. Hornby who advocated what""ascalled the Oral teadung' method for 'En. the education system designed duringthatperiod has been carried through to today and is designed to provide trained. Hornby worked in [apan from 1924 to 1941.cultural aspectsof language teaching.70 linguistic and . Pallner. 16 American and 50 French consultants helping the Japanese construct a modern nation (Takanashi 1979: 12). examine thehistoryof textbooks beyond this brief discussion.glish. 'Michigan Method' is probably what is being referred to when 'grammar translation'English teaching methods are spoken about in regard to [apan. language laboratories began to be installed in universities. fix 01' . Informants' opinions that were solicited reflected the stillprevailing positive attitude among Japanese educators towards the traditionai methods. one of the three junior high schools in the district had a stateof the art language lab.Nara University ofEducation stated to me: Language laboratories have made a positive contribution ta English education in Japan and. and A. 'feature. English was studied mainly bya smallnumber of elites whostrived toenter oneofthefewuniversities in the country.S.They arenow fairly common in Japan.then junior high schools. Fries (1945:3) stressed the mastery of.of these wereH. Foreign books used in education were and still are translated into Japanese making it unnecessary to read English in order to study (Hoshiyama 1978:104-114). E. Hornby..there were119 British.

2. Garant 1993... 71 process. as stated in Wada and Brumby (1990). their usefulness as teachers increases.a: .or. This affects language lessons in which the students who<hayebeen trained to sit and listen are suddenly told that they are supposed to speak and provide input during team-taught activities. study was condMcted. Tanaka 1992.. these cannot be accessed by most assistant language teachers because they cannot speak Japanese. CLAIR. In G1.By 1991. Shimaoka and Yashiro 1990.4).(Yarnane 1 95.one-shots aJld 12. However. of junior lligh sc:hool to senior. Garant. a need arises for a greater understanding of their place within the system.same students vvitJ:t the same JapaneseEllglish teachers duringtJ:teirstayjnJapaJl· . . the work tends to be prescriptive. This study will look at how teachers within the system perceive these goals in addition to their personal goals and how they enact them within the c1assroom.espeqally jurrior high schools.l. which is one of the things this study has sought to achieve. 9ftheworld. 1992b..190-191). ThepMrpose oftheir presence in thesc:hoolis.l988.in1991 was 2:1.jn Japall team-teachirlgis most COIllIllOnin secondary schools. This suggests a trend away frorn Olle ..teachers. its Therefore. 1992.in the prefecturedid.had base schools or semi-regular positions.assistant language. tJ:te24 in jurriorhigh schools .semi-regular situations (CLAlR 1992. The goals of team-teaching in regards to the student. . a need exists to conduct more research on team-teaching and effect on the Japanese English c1assroom (Juppe 1992b. Some studies based on c1assroom research have been conducted (Garant 1992.. In these siWations. often rnore to increase tJ:te stllclent's internatiOllalM11derstanding. Therefore. are (1) to communicate in English with the native speaker or with their c1assmates. As assistant language teachers move more and more into regular positions.b: 2. Juppe 1990) and many other studies have been published in Japanese language journals such as the Japanese Association of College English Teachers' Bulletin and The English Teachers' Magazines. Cominos 1992a.4 in junior high sCl1oolto12 inseni9r high sch901s (CLAIR 1Q92a:)90-191) . It will also examine how team-taught lessons compare with regular English lessons in Japan.the ratio. 1995). six of the assistant language teachers .CLAlR . . 18 of wereinbase. 1992). ways of thinking and culture. (3) to be motivated by seeing English in action between the assistant language teacher and JTE and (4) to increase their awareness of foreign values.IUIlq prefE!cture where the . OnE!-shot assistant language teachers visit a.. In.tJ:tanto teach English . shotteachirlg· The number of assistant language teachers and their wide distribution even in rural areas have made it so that every secondary school student in [apan has at least some contact with a native speaker teacher (Juppe 1993). language teachers. Wada and Cominos 1994.asslstan.high school.schools . differentsch00l every day . Unlike inother parts.teach the. 1991. However. Much has been written on team-teaching in Japan (Wada and Brumby 1990. (2) to realize that English is a living language through contact with the assistant language teacher. This study will investigate some of the questions involved with team-teaching in Japan.

both countries have had relatively few foreign residents and.especially in The.sub-cultures and minorities.despite regional'"differences.72 3.4Summary There . Japan is a monolirlgual country witha largepopulation while Finland is bi-lingual with a small population.related to team-teaching in [apan willoccur throughout this study. Finland does not have a similar program . . studied. Despite . .Team-teaching in Japanwas discussed because it is atthe forefront of Japanese foreign language educational reform.. Japan and Finland haveboth borrowed Illanyaspects of their educati0llal institutional structure. homogeneous populations... Still. .the many differences. educational cultural settings that were.arec1early many differences betweenJapan 'änd Finland.: basically . from other countries and now divide their primary andsecol1dar)' school years in a 6+3+3 fashion.there are someinteresting historical similarities whichlIlayhave aneffect on todaY'seduca on systems in JaPanand Finland. . Terms .: This chapter has sought to provide a brief discussion of background information necessary for the reader.

Recently. This section willexamine language policy issues in [apan and Finland and the design of English textbooks and how they reflectthe cultures of the respective countries according to the criteria put forth in Chapter Two. Maxwell and Walton 1996).interest in comparing ·languageplanning between countries and cultures (Sajavaara. electronic International LanguagePolicy Forum to collect and share information on the subjectviatheInternet/World Wide Web(Brecht.there.socialand educational contexts for Ianguage.hasbeena spate . economic. This is especially true of the publie school situations such as those studied. and. Countries such as the United States have a decentralized education system in which a great numberof differences in what is taught exists between school districts and even between schools within the same .teaching-and learning in 27 countries. .of . administrators and ministry of education (Nikki 1992.(Cumming and Dickson 1996).: . 73 4 LANGUAGE PLANNING AND TEXTBOOKS Studying the curriculum is a fairly new field in education. 4.. in a more restricted sense. The LanguageiEducation Study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement studies the national. Lambert andMorfit 1993) This includesthe establishment of an . Takala.1 Background At the baseof what goes onin the classroom in any given institution is the curriculum which used 'is to advance the goalsset out. as the content or course of study of a particular subject: English education(Stern 1983:435 6).. by the teachers. This study will refer to the curriculumas the substanceof theeducational program. in the case ofFinland and [apan. Monbusho1994b).

radical reforms had not apparently taken place in the educational cultures studied. Forthe Japanese. Finland has recently granted local administrationsthe power to decide what is to be taught in their schools based on loose guidelines issued by the National Board of Education (National Board of Education 1994b: 18-19. Firmish schoolsarenolongerrestricted. Since the early 1990's. education ministries in both [apan andFinland formulated language policyand created a generalcurriculum.leaming of severa1languages beginning in elementary school (Takala 1993). In Japan. From 1976 to 1979. [apan and Finland have had centralized planning for much of their foreign language education since the Second World War (National Board of Education 1993: 10-11.This will be followed by a discussion ofhow these features reflect cultural traits of the two . Therefore.promote the .While Tapan'seducational policy is still formulated at the top. Until recently. Even so. Recently. foreign language proficieney is more of an optionbeeausethe country has.These needs analysis surveys influenced the multi-language teaching policy of Finland also based on the Council of Europe recommendations which. there has been a trend toward local control in both countries. the schools that were studied continued to use the same English textbooks they had been using before. The same can be said of [apan (Kiguchi 1995). TnFinland. foreign language proficiency 1s essentialbecause the country hasa population of only five million and must use foreign languages to trade and maintainrelationswithforeign countries (Takala 1993).a domestic market of aboutone-hundred twenty-four-millionpeople ·who all speak ]apanese (Ueda 1993). education ministries in both [apan and Finland provided a list of approved textbooks for selection by the schools. . Huhta (1996) suggests that despite decentralization. inc1udingrecommended textbooks and guidelines for what was to be taught..74 district (Sjogren 1986: 7). The information . a high-level committee conducted comprehensive surveys in business and governmental institutions in an attempt to determine the needs of . The section on textbooks at the local leve1 will inc1ude a more detailed discussionon curriculums atthe localIevel.in their textbook selection. Huhta 1996). country's economy.language teaching in Finland is still fairly uniform due to similar materials and teacher training. Despite the new local autonomy. Huhta 1996). Monbusho 1995). The curriculum can be best understood by examining technical reports issued by the respective ministries in each country and textbooks that are recommended for use in the schoo1s. Monbusho bases the Course of Study on recommendation from the Curriculum Council which is comprised of persons of 'learning and .the. Until recently. The following section will explain the 1anguage policies of both countries and current influences of these policies by examining curriculums and textbooks. a limited variety of English and other foreign 1anguage textbooks are used in the publie schools of both countries (Juppe 1992. gathered was then consulted by the committee who formulated language policy.. The different environments of the two countries suggest that language planning may take place in different ways. and subsequently sent their decisions down tothe local level. educational cultures studied.

significant reforms have not taken place and the same problems are still present today. in the 1970s. Teaching Foreign. However.t1:le. The JET Program 5.than English. The Revision of the Cumulative Record 4.Nine measuresfor improving Englisheducation have been adopted. Pilot Schools for Team-Teaching 9. mainly French and German.nning. The revision of the course of study will be explained in this section. producing.improving students'. Central to any discussion of foreign language education in Finland is the early age at wlUch students. Teaching foreign languages ()ther . beginning at grade three· (around age 9) of elementary school. The revision of the cumulative record gives students greater access to their own permanent school records. English teaching in ele1ll. The new teachers .languages and .Languages other than English in Elementary Schools 8. sta.. 75 experience' including and researchers (Monbusho . when Finland. Overseas Teacher Training Programs alIow language teachers to study abroad . The goal of these measures is to shift away from so called 'grammar- translation' teaching methods which are perceived to inhibit communication skills (Nozawa 1995). Intriguingly enough. The Revision ofthe Course of Study 3. Overseas Teacher Training Programs 6. number .Teaching The Research Committee on Improving Foreign. Pilot schools for tea1ll. 1994b). The JET Program WaS discussed in Chapter'I'hree. In the setting studied. among other publications. The Teachingof English in [apan which outlined many of the problems with [apanese foreign language education (Koike. Course ofStudy concentrates pn . [apan was studying the matter.Englishcommunication skills (Niisato 1995). The main problem with this program is that there are too many [apanese English teachers to send them all abroad and ()ther subject teachers rnight not like the idea that English teachers get to study abroad while they donot.. most Finnish students studied English as their first foreign . schools is still.of languages that they study by the end of their education. Igarashi and Suzuki 1978).Language Education studies proposals for bettering English teaching and learning in the schools. in thepla. takes place in some high schools in the country (CLAIR 1992: 24).entary. The Research Committee on Improving Foreign Language Education 2.-teachlng swdythe process of this type of instruction in order to suggest improvements and a Handbook for Team-Teaching assists assistant language teachersrand [apanese English : teachers plan more effective communicative language lessons. begin stlldying . the currkulum offered the students English as their first foreign language. They are: 1. vvas embarking on language reform. Matsuyama. es aIld will be discussed in this section. At the time of the present study. Handbook for Team. English Teaching in Elementary Schools 7 .

5% 20.7% 3.3% 4. . the country'sother official nationallanguage was a mandatory subject beginning in seventh grade.6% 3.1% 5.0% 0. 6% Swedish).1 Percentage Of Finnish-Speaking Pupils Who Studied Different Languages In Comprehensive School First choice in 1994 English Swedish Finnish German French Russian 87. Russian. · .3 Target Figures For Comprehensive School Language Learners: Finnish Speaking population: First foreign language English Swedish German French Russian 70% 15% 5-7% 2-3% 5-7% Source: Mehtäläinen and Takala 1990 10 Because the country is bi-lingual (93% Finnish. TABLE 4. offered.1% Saame Latin Other languages 0.1% 0.1% 1.1% Source: Strömmer 1997 These figures do not fully refIect the needs of industry and trade as indicated by needs analysis surveys conducted in Finland between 1986 and ·1989 (Mehtäläinen and Takala 1990). German and French asa third language begimring in eighth grade. to a lesser extent. additional languages werealso .2% Languages studied by end of comprehensive school in 1994 English Swedish Finnish German French Russian 98.76 language. Students could choose from English.2 Language Needs Of Finnish Industry And Trade INDUSTRY TRADE ENGLISH 76% 61% SWEDISH 67% 52% GERMAN 45% 27% FRENCH 12% 12% RUSSIAN 11% 13% Source: Mehtäläinen and Takala 1990 TABLE 4.1% 7. TABLE 4. Swedish.. At the time. Because thestudents spoke Finnish as their mother tongue't..7% 92. Finnish-speaking students must study Swedish and Swedish-speaking students must study Finnish (Nikki 1992a). There is a growing need in Finnish companies for speakers of German and.5% 1.5% 0.

Officially.Study. which they have acquired from cram schools or other sourc:es.Ph. third ofthe boys inupper secondaryscho()l indieate th ttheY"W0uld choose to . English is seen asthe dear choice in foreign 1anguage education becauseof itsusefulness as an (Kuroda 1995). French or Chinese.language.tteachers have been recruited to provide ora1 skills dasses focusing on commurucation. systeIIlwhere virtually all of the students.students in Tapan (CLAIR 1993). James 1995). advantage in . large ntlIIlbers of native speaker assistan.However. foreign 1anguage educationin.1angllage. the situation provides a legitiIllCl.She found that 77 percTnt of the Firlrrish junior high selloo1 students she surveyed preferred to have Swedish as an optlonal subjeet. 77 The diserepancy between the languageneeds of .n. Although the Pinnish-speaking students are give. arE! private extra- study schools where Japanese parents send their chi1dren for extra.only one foreignlanguage if given the option and isskeptieal ofdependingon choice . argues that because motivationisa prime factor in efoI1d language aequisition. Th!i! concept of lowering the age at Which stuc:lents begin to study English is gen.. Nikki(1992).: as one of. [apanese students begin studying English when they enter junior high school at around age 12 in the seventh grade.<.this policyhas Y!i!tto be adopted.thepublie sch00lsystem basically means English education. dissertation. tend to want to learn English.school or on entrance examinations (Brown 1995). and pilot programs have been established to test the idea (Toda 1992.erallyaccept!i!d by t!i!achers andparentsin Japan (Murakami 1995. Cram sch()ols.te comparison to .the. 11 . Japanese students set out to master both vocabulary and grammar forms primarily using the grammar-translation methods discussed.as a faetor on Illotivati()Il' Because such a majority of the learners in. it is an optional subject but. the. Monbusho is making a concert!i!c:l effort to institute oral communication skills and has 1995). allovved to ch00se bpth langu<tge theystudy. they must . the tw0 mandatory languages. At the beginning of study. beeause they are given a choice.. In [apan. Swedish-speaking students must study Finnish.Swedish .learn . Japanese .choiee as. or juku.-curricular lessons irt academic subjE!cts to give them an. regular Japanese English lessons (Garant 1992). based on sllryeys .a . it is studied by almost 100% of the . Japan. learners should be.trade and inc:lustryand what languages are aetually studied demonstrates that the learners. t() their first language. FinlaIldchooseEnglish as their first . . in Chapters Seven . Niisato1995). . In adoptec:l an oral skills curriculum to promote this goal (Izumi 1995iLe addition. Takala (1993)states that a.ll.D. studyEnglish. conducted for her . they generally have some knowledge of.. suggest that elemeI1tary school English education may b!i! adopted in the near future. primarily because of theentrance examinations discussed in Chapter Six. IntE!rviews with language professionals in. A small minority of senior high schools internationallanguage offer other languages such as German. and Eight on.

specifically debate. exaIIrinations (Npzawa 1992ai 1992b) In GunmaPrefecture where this study took place no . for entrance examinations . school had ehosen Oral Communication C by 1994. This illustrates the problematie nature of introducing some. In Japan.ers saw preparing the students.B teachgrammar as they have always donebecause they feel it is the only way in which the students willpass their university entrance " examinations.B.none of the schools had adopted it by 1995.Education (Monbusho) based. 11 schools adopted Oral B and 15 schools adopted Oral A and Or(ll.Band C approach was incorp()ratedinto the junior high school.curriculum appears to be most problematic. have them buy the books. speech ll1aking and discussion(Oral c:omll1unication C) (Monbusho 1993i 1994) The complete lower secondary schpol English Course of Study can be found. (Iapanese Teacher Informant 1) The Oral Communication C . Two schools in the prefecture adopted Oral A. Parents do not understand the new system and prefer to have the teacher train the students. Onlytwo textbooks were available.coIl1Il1unication. . listerrirlg. schools adopted Oral A.then notopen themand A.t with the goal of helping the students . new curriculum is not consistell. . mah11ybe<:auseteac11. cultivating international understanding.A). published by Kihara Shoten and Tokyo Shoseki (Izumi 1995). and public speaking such as (lebate. The c()tl!se concentrates onthree areas: everyday conyersation (Oral COlUmunication . on the growing needs of trade and industry and the current emphasis on internationalization. Although many ofthe teachers like the concept of teaching cOIl1Il1unication.. in Ishikawa Prefecture. (Monbusho 1993) .curri<:t1lurnin JaPan in sprirlg 1993and into the senior high schoolcurriculum in spring 1994. B and C. there. a numberof them are of theopinion that ti1e. get into the top univarsities (Nozawa 1995). was an. The overall objectives are: To develop students' basic abilities to understand a foreign language and express themselves in it. for the entrance.. Until 1993. When these broad guid. "1 have heard that some senior highschool teachers enroll their students in Oral or e.elines were firstpublished. and to deepen interest in language and culture. into the Japanese educational culture...78 4.. uproar.e examinations in addition to. 21.in. For example. these guidelines stressedskills 1l10st needed to pass university entranc.: as a priorityover teachirlg.2 Current Situation In JapanAnd Finland The'Oral Communication A. curriculum design is based on the guidelines put forth by the Ministry of. (Oral COJ)1lUunication B). communication through team-tattght lessons. Since 1993. these guidelines have stressed communication. af the 49 public senior high schools. Appendix10. to foster a positive attitude toward communicating in it. aspects of English communication.

as well as intellectual and becomes interested in foreign languages and cultures. teachers expressed that the former curriculum has a great influenee on their eurrent praetiees. The only modifieation was some experimentation withstreamliningclasses aeeording tolevel and ability. .t are characteristic of the target * language and its culture: receives.the importanee of beginning foreign . major changes have not generally taken place in the Finnish foreign language edueation system. emotional and challenging'.5tudents begin learning at age 12 and the subjeet is optionaI. are vivid. and challenges**12.and .foreign languagestudyis that the student: life . Stern (1967) emphasizes .the new loeal autonomy. What was meant was that language study would provide experiences that make an impact.language edueation early. receives. *. Despite thefact that it is no longer legally binding.learns to beresponsible * for his studies. English university. informationabout the countries. through teaching and study.had not abolished the old national eurriculum. people and cultures of the * language area and has an open mind toward different cultures and its representatives: *develops his study skills alone and in groupsi develops his ability toevaluate himself. The previous public school curriculum requiredFinnish students to begin studying their first foreign language in grade three at age nine (Karppinen 1993: 74).Between theage of 12. Therefore. * Source: National Board ofEducation 1994b: 74 ** National Boardof Education 1994a: 70 Jn theedueational culture studied.Iater.tneaningful experiences. not dull and repetitive (Takala 1997).gets along in the language he is learning' in everyday * communication. The mainobjeetive of . impressions. There is a small problem in the translation of "ell1myksellinen" which has been rendered as "emotional". although virtually every student takes it. and19 they must learn English to passtheir seniorhigh schoolentranee examataroundage 16 andtheir universityentrance exam three years . in Japan. 1992 The Commission for the Development of Language Teaching in suggested that foreign language teaching should begin even earlier. the upper secondary school curriculum translation was included in this study. 79 However. Huhta (1996) suggests that despite new 10ea1 autonomy.entranceexaminations arestill in place ereating a paradox within the system. in The junior high school objectives have been translated as 'experiences the teaching and study 12 as meaningful. local: autonomyregarding textbooks and language planning was grantedin 1993 tobe implemented beginning with thesehool year 1994- 1995 (National Board ofEdueation1994b). Theseexaminations: generallydo not emphasize communication and areoften extremely diffieult (Brown and Yamashita 1995ai 1995bi 1995e). . knows Ways to communicate tha. InFinland.

80

kindergarten. They aIso recommended an emphasis on oraI skills and content-
based language teachingusing mathematics, history the sciences and
I

geographyin the foreign Ianguage, .classroom. Theserecommendationscan
now.be freely implemented bythe schooIs.
According: to the teachers, the goals of the curriculum in- the Finnish
. .

setting were compatible with the official goaIsput forth by the Finnish Ministry
ofEducation. Theteachers wantedtoprovidethe studentswithEnglish
communication skills. Structureand vocabulary were aIso seen as Important,
but not.as important as communication.There appearedtobe somewhatof a
balance of emphasis betweenreading,writing, speaking and listening· skills.
Textbooks, workbooks and tapes provided most of the material that was used
in the lessons with some supplementary handouts. Theexaminationofthe
textbooks will go into more detail on curriculum content.
The two countries' curriculum goals emphasize internationalization. The
Finnish goaIs are more specific in definirlg exactly what aspects ·of foreign
.

cultures should be sought for while the [apanese goaIs state merely that
'internationaI understandlng' . should he .attained. Cultivating "learner
autonomy is aIso mentioned in the .Finnish document in addition to the stated
communication goaIs.
In eonclusion, the foreign language plarming .process .in both countries is
influenced by avariety of factors, including the cultures ofthe two countries
which will be diseussed in relation to the textbooks used in the setting studied.
The policy eoncerning the diversification of language study in Finland was
.

designed to refleet the needs of trade and industry and the new curriculum
emphasizes the need for students ta. communicate in foreign languages in order
to promote internationalization. Finnish learners are required to study two
languages, one of which is the country's otherofficial language: Finnish
speakers must study Swedish and vice versa. The study of the first foreign
language, usually English, typically begins at around age nine. The new
guidelines in Finland grant curriculum design powersandafreehand in
textbook selection to loeal administrations withingeneral guidelines. However,
the previously binding national curriculum still had a great deaI of influence in
the educational cultural setting studied.The new Course of Studyin [apan
gives Ioeal authorities the choice between three types of English courses each
with its own emphasis and textbooks. Loealauthorities may choosetextbooks
from a set list preseribed by Monbusho.
These objectives are integrated into the textbooks which reflect the
curriculum. The following section will deal with textbooks and analyze them in
somedetail through Hofstede's (1986,1991) 4-D model.

81

4.3 Comprehensive School EFL Textbooks In Finland
AndJapan

About .30 years ago,Lado (1957: 2) stated.that textbooksbasicallylook the same
on the. surfaee, but closer inspecti0ll will tell ifthe books. presentlanguage and
culture forllls in a pattern that can be studied. This section will ex n:tine the
texfbooks used .in the educational .cult\lres studied in terms af linguistic and
pedagogic eontent and fOlloW that analysis by an examinatioll in .terllls of .

cultural colllparisons.put forth in ChapterTwo .. Thlstwo-foldanalysis stems
from my eonvietion that a purely linguistic descriptionvv0uld be inadequate to
explain the differences between the .textbooks and curriculums in the two
.

countries.
Sheldon's (1988)metho and terminology foranalyzing textbookswill
s rve asthe model for this section of the.study
(seeChapter Two formore
specific details and eriteria). Karppinen (1993)poirtts out. that'good and
r levant'. textbooks for Gerlllan, French and Russian are not available inFinland
to the. same extert. s for English. Therefore,. the textbook. discussion. that
followsanly applies to the English books .l.lsedin the setting ... The terms are
.

discussed in detail.in Chapter Two, This seetion will discuss each term as it
relates to Finnish textbooks, then discuss it in relation to [apanese textbooks.

Terms For Analyzing Textbooks

Rationale A vailability
User Definition Layout and Graphics
Accessibility Linkage
Selection and Grading Physical Characteristics
Appropriacy Authenticity
Sufficiency Culture Bias
Stimulus and practice revision Guidance
Educational value Overall Value

Source: Sheldon(1988)

In regard to availability, which isconeerned with whether the book iseasy to
obtainj textbooks are provided
... free to students in Japan and in the Finnish
educational culture that was studied (Monbusho 1994b: 66-67). In Finland, loeal
authorities can adopt any textbook theyfeeliseompatible with their curriculum
(National Board of Education 1994b). In Finland, the English department of the
1 visited.in the
schools decided which textbook to adopt. So, the twoschools
same school system in Finland were using different textbooks.
In Finland, 1 chose to focus on You Too 7, and 9. The Japanese textbooks
8

that were examined were Sunshine 1, and for junior high school. At the end
2 3

ofjunior high school, most Finnish learners have studied.Englishfor six years,
whereas their Japanese counterpartshave studied for only three years (CLAIR
1
1991i 1992). Therefore, inaddition to junior high school textbooks, examined

82

some Finnish elementary .school. textbooks .... However, .the. main fO.C11S.of this
section is on junior high school textbooks used in the settings stuWE:!d.
Standard textbooks are recommended by the Ministry of Education in
Japan where distribution networks are key in the adoption of textbooks by
school systE:!llls. th1;ou hout the. cOuntry (Juppe 1992.a).. Salesmen visit the
.: .:
inwvid1lal .school systelUs and . prolUote their.. prociuct Iines 'to the teacl1ers.
.: .

Localauthorities in both countries decide whichtextbook, or books, to use in
..

local schools.i.In JapCl.n this was done onaschool system basis so that all of.the
schools in .the. settin9studiE:!d used thE:!. same b.ook. .Someof the teacl1ers
..
cOlllplained that the ]1E:!W" textbook adopted .in 1992 was .n,ot. the ..one .they
.

p eferred. T.h.ey wonderE;!dwho cl10sethCl.t particular book a.ndwhy. Neither
they, nor 1, found .the answer to this question,.
User definition deals with the clear specification of who the books are
intended for, their culture, preciseentry/ exit definitipl1s and to .what
internationalstandards the booksconform, such as the Alllerican Council of the
Teaching of Foreign Languagesor the Coun,cil of Europe scales. In Finland, the
intE:!ndE:!d .us.ers are Finnish juniorhigh school students. Finnish textbooks are
largely pased on the. approach prolUotE:!d by the CouncU of Europe frameworks
and rE:!commendation, (Takala 199.3:S4).:EntrYCl.l1,dexit defirritions for lev ls of
proficien,cy are basE:!d on several criteria induding ()verall skills,pronunciation,
accuracy of structurE:!S anci vocCl.bulary, fl1lE:!ncy. and perforIn,ance (Shelcl0n
.
.

1988).
The textbooks used in the Japanese setting wereintended .for JapCl.l1ese
.

junior high school students. Japanese textbooks do not appear to be based on
anyinternational standard. Instead,they are designed to pass Monbusho
approval (Monbusho 1994b ).Precise entry and exit definitions are based on
grammar points in the Japanese textbooks specified in the Monbusho Course of
Study which lists lexisand grammar the students are required tolearn (see
Appendix 10). Although new Oral COlUlUunication textbooks Or workbooks
which stress communication have b en introduced(see A.ppendix 9).
Layout and graphics are con,cerned with the way texts anci graplUcs interact
on the page. Does the book look duttered? Is the artwork appealing? This is
one area in which good things can be said of both Finnish and Japanese English
textbooks. They are colorful and interesting without appearing duttered and
haveample room for the learners to make notes in the margins. (see Appendix
8). In Finland, Karppinen (1993: 74) states that language textbooks for
languages other than English, for example Russian and German, are not atthe
samehigh standard astheEnglish language textbooks, whichmay be one
reason why other languages arenot as popular among learners. However,
although· textbook design may .contributeto language choice, English is
probably more popular because of itsuseas an internationallanguage .and its
prevalencein popular culture (Pennycook 1994).
In Japan,one senior Japanese English teacher remarked that the 1993
editions ofthe recommended junior high school English books looked more like
comic books than textbooks which illustrates that there is some resistance to
change in that educational culture. The students appeared tO find the new

83

colorful appearancemore. appealing. The new textbooks also Iooked more
familiar and appealing to this Western viewer.
Railonale isconcerned with why the textbook was written andwhat gaps it
intends tofill. It isalso concerned with what. needs. analysesstudies wel'e
conducted andwhat the book's objectives are. InbothcoWltries,thetextbo.oks
arewritten for elementary tojuniorhigh schoollev(;!lEnglish education. In
Finland, widespread.needs analysis surveys havebeen conducted in .trade and
industrywhichmay influence .textbook writers \ (Karppinen .199$). The
textbooks at thisIevel concentrateon structures, vocabulary. acquisitionand
communication. The communicative objectivesare.clearly.seendnfhe number
and varietyof exercises thatthe textbooks and workbcoks offer which .make it
necessary tonegotiate.. meaning and verbalize respons(;!s.
.: Each workbook .

section contains between 4 and 15 different activitiesinc1uding pair-work.fill in
the blank, listening comprehension, .puzzles, completethe .sentence, elaborate
on the theme or other exercises. For . concrete examples.please refer . to
.. .

Appendix7.
The .Pirmish textbooks did not .. appear to incorporate
.. specialized
professional vocabulary .. Jnstead, they presented intercultural information from
the variouscountries whereEnglish is spoken and topics related i.to the
students' lives such as rock music, sports, moviesand other items from .popular
culture. The informationthe books provicledappeared. to be common .

conversation subjects for.teenagers.
In Japan,needs analyses surveys have not beenconducted to the extent
that theyhave in Finland. The .textbooks concentrate on .structures and
.

vocabulary acquisition .. The following is. an extractfrom the table of .co11.tents in
the [apanese English textbook,

Contents

1 Kumi's Trip to London
Pop Box (1) Where is My Friend?

2 What Does That Mean? was,were

3 Interesting Things in Australia be going to /May -? There is
[are]
Source.. Sunshine English
2 (1993): contents. (SeeAppendix 9)

The t.opics of the. q.,.apters .l'eflect international i11.terests, for example, 'London'
Chapter 2. Since
and 'Austl'alia', and grammar, for example, the simple past in
the. books are intendecl for beginners, they. do not,.l1.aturally, inc1ude. any
specialized vocabulary.They present English as an internationallan.guage
thr0ugh popwar culture items. sllch. as rock. music and sports as well as
.

tl'aditional folk tales so they also strive to provide teenagers the English. they
need to communicate at their own level.
Selection and grading is related to the previous point. However, it is more
concerned with .the level of the material. Is it too deep or too shallow tor the

84

students? .

Is thebook useful when taking intoaccountthelearners' mother
tongue?
In the Finnish elementarytextbooksthat wereexamined,5 to 12 new
vocabularyitems were introducedper section.The material was always in the
presenttense with no pasttense (see Appendix 6). During the next three years
in juniorhigh school,additional vocabulary, usually over20new words per
chapter ,and more complex grammar pointsare introducedin the textbooks.
'

The Finnish junior ·high school textbooks tended to .offer ·muchmore text per
page thanthe Japanesetextbooks,apparently inanattempt to stimulate
students. Samples willbe Iisted in Appendix 7.
Selection andgradingcan also .berelated totheway inwhichlearner
autonomy is cultivated .. Workbooks· are required and are essential in classroom
activities.The workbooks containmany activitiesand the teachers use them to
do pair-work which builds learner autonomy.The workbookswere often used
in class in the educationaI culture studied.
In [apanese textbooks, the major features for the first three years seem to
contradict thecurriculum which .emphasizes communication (Knight ·1995).
.

The textsexaminedtended torfocus primarilyon grammar despitethe
expressedrationale ofcommunication. VocabuIary acquisition was also
emphasized.' Selection and grading in the Japanesetextbooks ismainly based on
vocabulary, as demonstrated by the new vocabulary . items presented per
section. The textbooks basically concentrate on the 1000 words specified by the
syllabus,usuallypresented 2 to 10 words per page or 15-25wordsper chapter.
Inaddition, selection 'is heavily based on grammar points which appear from
the beginning of the course in the [apanese books, forexample, see the contents
pages in the Appendix. The combination of vocabulary and grammar tends to
promote teacher-centered methods which Iimit communication in the
classroom. Past tense is introduced in the first book of the Sunshine series.
This is necessary because of the number of grammar points that are spedfied in
the course of study.
Despite the new curriculum which emphasizes communication, the
content of the [apanese English textbooks appears to be.similar to the previous
editions (see Appendix 8). However, the new textbooks do not present the
reIevant grammar point in terms of a 'key sentence' which the teachers are used
to. This appears problematic for teachers because they must retrain in order to
adapt to the new books. Still, considering the beginning leveI of the students
and the demands of .the sylIabus, grammar appears to me to be an essentiaI
component. Removing clearly presented grammatical. objectives from the
texfbooks while leaving them.
in. the curriculum goals without large scale
.

..

additional .in-service training gave me the impression that the syllabusand the
new textbooks in Japan were.somewhat.at odds with each other. In addition,
simply not stating the grammatical objective in the textbook doesn't make the
book less grammar-oriented or more communicative. Certainly, many teachers
in the setting feIt this way and expressed this publicly.
In addition to the core textbooks, there is a wide selection of suppIemental
and optionai texts to support the oral skills curriculum which is an attempt at
learner training reIated to grading and seIection. However, workbooks are

85

used primarily for homework and/or written exercises in thesetting studied.
Since: the full implementationof the new Oral Curriculum, the OraLA
workbook which focuses on everyday conversation has been integrated into
classroom activities in the educational culture that was studied. It contains
activities such as the following:

Lesson.Jd
DESIRE

Ken: What do you want to do on Saturday?
Scott: I'd like to go to a basketball game.
Ken: Fine, Let' s do that.

SAY IT YOURSELF

Ken: What do you want to do on Saturday?
You:
Ken: Fine, Let' s do that.

Ken:
Scott: l' d like to go to a basketball game.
Ken:

Source: Expressways Oral Communication A. (1993) (See Appendix 9)

Thisillustrates }he.kind of pair-work .that is. ?ffered in the new. oral
communication texfbooks.which does not require the students to produce any
n w utterances, but simply repeat the dialogue from memory.. In addition,
. .

A textbopks
listening, matching and other activities are included in the Oral
which appear similar to .the Firmish workbooks but are smaller and contain
fewer exercises and a more limited variety .. 'The Oral B textbooks are similar to
the Oral A ones but all oftheir activities relate.to Iistening. Kairyudo, amajor
Japanese puplisher,doesnot offer Oral C textbooks which would concentrate
onspeech making and debate so samples of this type of textbook do not appear
in the appendb;
Linkagemeasures the manner in which the chapters of the book and the
book series progress. In the Firmish textbooks, basic vocabulary is built in the
first three years by the introduction of new words in every chapter vvith the
help of contextual tools in the exercises such as pictures. For example a
sentence like "this is a banana" is introduced next to a picture of a banana,
followed by "this is a green banana" next to another picture, etc. 'Theemphasis
in the slementary.textbooksis on vocabulary, not grammar. In fact, past tense
constructions were not introduced to the students in the setting studied until
they entel'ed junior high school.
Junior high school textbooks present vocabulary and grammar together.
In th textbook examined, the first lessort reviews previous material and the
second lesson introduces the simple past of the verb 'be': 1 was. This is
followed by a wide.variety of activities, texts and exercises to introduce more

time- cOnsuming preparation.recycling material. The indexes. Isitpossible to clearly rate when progress is made? Are there indexes. Nozawa (1995) gives the example of a recently observed English class focusing on communication which included a buying and selling game and a popular song. Unlike the Finnish elementary textbooks.are utilized in the . In [apanese textbooks. These materials had to be prepared by . point by point what is to be learned and when in an explicit manner. Chapters are often designed with five sentences per page so each student can read one sentence if they are sitting in the classroom with five people per row. Some pages contain «no vocabulary and. Linkage in [apan . Accessibility rates how the material is organized. Because of the length of the course of study it will not me included in this chapter.86 grammar andlexis. Grammar is usually integratedin the textrather than separated out. vocabulary lists and section headings make it possible for the students and teachers to monitor progress with ease. The Japanese textbooks. ·For an idea of exactly how items are linked in the Finnish textbooks refer to Appendix 7. There are usually not so many words per page and the sentence construction often appears stilted and unnatural giving the impression that little effort has been made to produce an authentic-sounding text. Japanese te)(tbooks have workbooks that come with them.· .makes the teaching of communication-focused activities less of a chore. These are listed in the appendices and outline. the students sat five per row which suggested that the textbooks were made for the classrooms and vice versa. both vocabulary and grammar are addressed from the first lesson with simple past being addressed at the end of the' first year or the beginning of the second.'. Many of the chapters in the Japanese textbooks have short reading passages followed by a list of words and the key grammar point. section headings. the [apanese textbooks tended to present vocabulary and granunar items as separate entities rather than incorporating them int()the text.with workbooks which . vocabulary lists? Can the learners monitor their own progress? Is the learner given clear advice on how the books should be utilized? The textbooks from the two countries were clearly organized.. In all of the junior high school English classrooms in . classroom.Vocabulary is given in longer lists containing around English 20 words a page along with theirFinnishequivalents. on the other hand. basically cover grammar and vocabulary together. so the teacher could teach them without a great deal of extra. Instead.1 never saw the workbooks utilized in classroom activities during the two years that 1 lived in and studied the educational culture.. can be measured by examining the course of study andtable of contents.concentrate ·on . This .the setting. For example. In most cases. communicative activities are designed by the teachers themselves which is common in [apan. The Finnish textbooks came .It is covered by classroom activities from the textbook and workbook. There are clear explanations in both [apanese and Finnish on how the books should be used.. instead. They contained a variety of activities te support the particular lesson. However. the text appears to have been written around the grammar point.

an examination of the textbooks suggests that the schools basicallyusetheoldstructure-based textbooks with a few color pictures. Iunderstand that theOral.classroom' activity. This is not to: say thatFinnish teachers did not prepare· supplementalmaterial: in the setting. making extraactivities to teach communication anioption than anecessity. becausethey did. The Finnish textbooks fared a bit better than their [apanese counterparts in regard to ·appropriacy which concernshow the students can irelate to the ' · material. Is the book easy to carry? Can it be re-used? Are spaces provided for the students to makenotes?Thesequestions< determinethe books'·physical . havethe time toprepare . Thepoint is.to offer a few short: activities oroneshort text. Appropriacy is concerned with whether the material will hold the attention of the learners ·and if the learners can relate to thetopics thebook discusses. Despite the new·communicative curriculum in [apan.them. Since that time. In Finland. Culture bias incorporates sodal environment and religious topics. [apanese students can purchase miniature copies of their textbooks which are pocketsize.to makedirectcomparisons. TheJapanese textbooks and'oral communication books. The physical characteristics of the books in the two countries rate high. students . mustprepare communicative activitiesontheirown which they seldomhave time for.themrather to choose from. This was indicated by student questionnaires. 87 So.On a positive note. compare the samples in theappendices in order toget an ideaofthe teaching materials inthe two educational cultures and how they differ indesign and variety.to supplement the textbook.. This leads to aperpetuation of the old where linkage is based on grammar. The readershould. teachers that are already very busy the teacher . the workbook inc1udesmanycommunicative activities.however. When askedin surveys what they liked in their· English c1ass. They can be used more than once andare easy to carry because they are not too large and cumbersome .: grammar points andreviewsso the learners can monitor their progress. tended . Teachers. the }apanese textbooks are accessible in the sense that they have built-in vocabulary lists. with theirother maynot activities. weaning preconceived notions.Finnish textbooks do not tend to concentrate on the negative aspects of other cultures but do introduce topics on the Council of Europe list of goals . poverty and other types of sodal problems. indicated their textbooks while 4 percent ofthe Japanese students chose that answer(see Appendix 1 and 2). who are alreadyoverworked. making the [apanese classroomsetting more similarto what was observed in the Finnish setting. there wasa greater varietyand selection in thetextbook and workbook for. Therelativelylow rating ofthe textbooks by the students in both countries suggests that there is room for improvement in the textbooks of each. 12percent of the Finnish.The textbooks and workbooks are so differentin the two settings thatisdifficult . humor and philosophy. characteristics.unemployment. therefore. radal stereotypes and what Sheldon (1988)determines as presenting 'sanitized versions' of the United States and Britain regarding radsm. communication workbooks have been integrated into .

Britain. Portugal.. it is possible to practice grammar through . also present human rights and environmental issues. the textbooks are teacher . Spain and Holland.1988). Nozawa 1992a. (1993) examines cultural aspects of theUnited-States. rain forests and'wildlife.to be on English as aninternationallanguage. Jn Finland.and one could ·argue thatthe textbooks are indeed 'sanitized versions' to some extent.fudia. friendly and teachers had few complaints about how to use them. [apanese teachers state that the new [apanese curriculum along with the textbooks provided for it have created a need for more teacher training to promote the effective adoption of communication in the classroom (Kiguchi 1995. Australia. Hong Kong. one couldalso argue that the elementary English classroomis hardly the proper forum to discuss such complex issues. states that the Japanese textbooks offer no information as to how lessons should be structured or what methodology would be best employed. inkeeping with the curriculum goals of teaching the target culture along with the language. Knight (1995:20). The Japanese textbook companies also provide guidance in the form of special teacher's books. Japanese textbooks tended to put more emphasis on Asia and [apan's neighbors as well as countries with historical connections with the country such as Portugal. 1992b). This is a common feature ofallapproved Iapanesejuniorhigh school English textbooks (Okita 1995). Singapore. New Zealand andAustralia as welLasFinland (Arnold. like fhe Finnish English textbooks.is probablyinfluenced by geographicandhistorical considerations. Brazil. Ireland. Finnish English.English textbooks do not go into great detail aboutpoverty and inequality in the societieswherethe languages are spoken . Nikkanen and Suurpää 1992.88 concerningc1oser Europeancooperation. Haavisto. . The rnajordifference in the way in which culture is portrayed in the two books . Even 50. The emphasis appears . Because of the workbook. China.2 and 3. As stated before.observed to prepare handouts and other supplemental material. Team- taught classes in Japan also require extra preparation. in addition to addressing problems like acidrain andprotecting whales. large numbers of Brazilian-Iapanese returned to [apan which probably explainsthe inc1usion of Brazilin the textbooks that were examined. where English is used. Canada. although some teachers were .as well as Japan. communicative c1asses require extra preparation in Japan which is related to the book's sufficiency or ability to stand on its own. The presentation of 50 many countries in the textbooks gives an indication of how the Japanese see the concept of 'international understanding' that was put forth in the curriculum goal. The Sunshine English Course 1.Canada.: The Finnish English · textbookstend to focus on Europe. The. In the 19805. Guidance refers to how the teacher is instructed on how to use the textbook. Kallela. even if only bytourists. They. Holland.the United States.Nepaland othercountries. Spain. protecting democracy and human rights and improving livingconditions. Britain. providing extra direction on how to utilize the textbooks in the classroom. However. Teacher's books accompany the textbooks.textbooks tended to concentrate on English-speaking countries. the textbooks can stand on their own and the teacher need not make extra material. Jn Finland.Borneo.

they do .grammar along . In [apan.1 Summary Overall.MerryChristrnas'in book. Oral materia!.. In the Japanese senior high school. 1995c). accomplishing their .. is feasible. The Finnish textbQQks are. 89 pair-work which provides stimulus.entrance exarninatiQn.for fiveto six. This . acquired the vocabulary. poems .Authentic .n. 'teacher-friendly' and . The workbooks and the textbooks in Finland provide many different. to teach A and 13 books provide some additional cOrnrnunicative cornm-u. . goals. [apan. grammar Jor the first three years . it. the use ofauthentic rnaterials is moreproblematicbecause learners onlybegin l arning the languagein7th grade.and artic1e excerpts are included inFinnish textbooks. . PQems and article excerpts are inc1uded.authentic.easy-to-teach textbooks should be available. He also suggests that texts . years are.should be authentic. in book twO and 'The Sukiyaki Song' inbook threeamong other ..one. ou.from the 7th grade. Takala (1987) rejects the premise . types of cQrnrnunicative activities for the teacher to use in the c1assroom. usually in the eleventh grade. The level of the Iapanese junior high school textbooks ismot very comparable to Finnish junior high school textbooks. supplemental materia!. vocabulary .provide .songs.grammar .and vocabulary together . to speak. In Japan.tsicie pr paration.from the beginnirlg. The Sunshine.. the cornmunicative curricu1um dictated by Monbusho. 1995b. "Ihis Landis Your Land'. textbooks . with very little. students who have studied English . the istudents prepare for fheir entrance exams . 4. songs.songs wifh simplelyd.what is on the university entrance xaIIl. The senior high school textbook may .with long word Iists which help. There is also a discrepancy between the tex:tbook and. In. one lnaywish to question . introduces authenticityintoth study.. They.However.nication.rnodification as far as. Some authentic songs. (Brown and Yamashita 1995a. Therefore.the textbooks' .educational value because. to be taught without modification. He suggests that educational merit should be the main criterion for textbook selection.without.. practice and revision. There is a move toward authentic materials. The junior high school textbooks usually cover what is on .of study (elementary school grades 3-6). 62% of the Finnish learners said that they liked pair-work exercises.be assessed by the way the textbooks effectively assist the teacherin teaching cQmmunication as well as assisting the teachersirl. Complex grammar points tend to be introduced when the learners have already. Jnformants in the setting studied and at professional conferences suggest that too much material must be covered in tQo little time with the textbooks and syllabus in Japan.the senior high schoQl. require little.cswere inc1udedin the textbooks in all-of the books .not s m to cover what they are supposed to cover .that . Value in Finland can .3. This is because a Finnish eighth-grade student has usually studied English for five to six years.generally require.ot cover. Finnish textbQoks mainly teach.Reader (Kairyudo 1993) inc1udes 'We Wish Youa.standardfextbooks introduce more complicated .

1.4. al.account. -Using only applied linguistic and EFL concepts. et. especially on the part of certain individua1 teachers. The data gathered revea1ed an apparent resistance to the adoption of new teaching methods and . system(Koike. The traditionof English teaching in [apan can be traced tothe 'Michigan Method' introduced in 1950's and pre-World War two influences discussed in Chapter Three (Shimaoka and Yashiro 1990: 8-22). They commented that the new books were difficult to teach and that .1 Individualism vs.: Irlany teachers in the setting appeared to fee1 that they were the most effective methods for teaching English.1 Textbooks In Collectivist Societies Collectivism Is re1ated to firm in-group and out-group boundaries and the emphasis on forma1 harmony. Brumby and Wada 1991.textbooks in the educationa1 cu1ture stu. 1991)'4-DMode1 of Cultural Difference'< and other cultura1 factorsare taken into. it is possib1e to begin to explainthisand-other specific phenomena in both countries. They appear to have taken firm rootand . Kagitcibasi.of the concepts which wentintop1anning the Finnish English language program in lower secondary· schoo1s as well as the prob1ems they have with their own . Choi-and Yoon 199 ). This 'tends to support Hofstede's supposition of respect 'to tradition in regard to textbooks.· corresponds with high-context 'cultural ' tendencies (Hall 1976. in addition. This. Triandis. It is re1ated to Asian culture and associated with Confucian influences which stress morality based on traditionai va1ues (Kim. Devito 1995). collectivist traits could be seen in the way in which the curricu1um is imp1emented throughout the textbooks. When the textbook data gathered in Finland and [apan is put through the 'filter' of Hofstede's(1986.4Culture AndTextbook Design One of the most striking findings in the previous section was that in [apan. virtuallyall. Collectivism 4. No teachers in the settingexpressed that they had a positive association with the new textbooks which they discussed on severa1 occasions. 1978.Adiscussion ofthe specific criteria which will be applied to the data can be found in Chapter Two.4. duty and collective welfare (Kim 1994: 32-33). In the Japanese educationa1 cu1turethat was studied. 4. the textbooksand the curricu1um seem to beat odds withone another in terms of the new curriculum's emphasisoncommunicative language teaching. The study suggests thatexp1anations lie in cultura1 ana1ysis as wellas applied 1inguistics. such matters seem difficult to exp1ain.died. Wada and Cominos 1994). Japaneselanguage professiona1stend to befamiliarwith.90 4.

Forexample.1991. interpreted as.r-Some. The textbookanalysisalso revealed a considerable amount of teacher- centered activitiesinthe Japanese setting. students were expected not to speak up in c1ass unless called upon.1986.: Previous foreign teaching assistantsfrom the setting relayed theirthoughtsthat the.This tendencyalso implies that there is a positiveassociation with the traditionai wayof teaching English inthecountry .ofthe teachers infhe setting wereresistant to teachertraining workshops whichwere offered to. A lack ofguidance. all of which results in the need of extensive explanations on the part ·of the teacher. teacher training. association with the traditionai textbooks and a confirmation of Hofstede (1980. enrolling·in additional .. While 1· was teaching inthe setting. is a good education. teacher-centered methods and textbooks that support this were preferred in the setting.: . (1995) also suggests indication of a culture that tends to be collectivist. not essential for getting This also suggests that the educational culture that was studied in [apan was operating in the deference politeness mode in whichthe powerful speak 'downward' to the less powerful and the less powerful speak 'upward' to the more powerful (Scollon and Scollon 1983. vocabularyitems and few pair-work exercises in the. 168-170. The neweditions contain morepair-work. More .textbooks were not ·compatible withteam teaching vand inadequate : supplemental materialand in-service training was provided. 1995).especially in the form ofthe lack of additional teacher training togo alongwith the new curriculum. This tended to confirm Hofstede's (1980.speakrup toffsomeone else. a positive . 91 they looked likecomic books. It maythen be feIt that designing more student-centered activities would lead to no activities at all in the c1assroom or that interaction. However. Devito . One of the reasons for the teacher-centered design of the Japanese textbooks might be that in collectivist cultures. It seemed as though the learners felt that it was not the students' place to engage in. This wiUbe discussed in more detail in Chapter Six. 1992).1991) classificationinsome cases in the setting. 1991) puts forth as an Thisconfirms one ofthe tendencies Hofstede (1986. that teacher-centered activity is a high-context cultural trait. It appearedthat many teachers in the [apanese setting taught with the newtextbooksusing theirold methods rather than assuming 'student roles' . This may alsosuggestdeferencepoliteness:teachers who are used to being spoken IfUp to"maynotwishto enter intoa situation where they are required to. especially learner-initiated interaction. it wasoften necessary to produceextra material in order to teach communicativelessonsinthe .. individual students tend to only speak up in c1ass when called upon personally by the teacher (Hofstede 1986)..school. . assistadaptation tothe newtextbooks and curriculum. 1986. The textbooks appear . Indeed. notall teachers are reluctant to enroll incontinuing education. in the educational culture studied. However. and . This could ibe. interviews suggested that not all teachers feel comfortable using such exercises. letalone initiate interaction. wasapparent inthesetting. therewere key sentences. old textbooks.

92

to bedesigned sothatthe more powerful can control the fIoor, dn other words
who speaks and when, during the lesson.
In the setting that was studied in [apan, communicativeexercises
appeared to introduce new and foreign ideas toward fIoor control and who has
theright to initiate exchanges in the dassroom, .which is traditionally reserved
forthe teacher. Thepotential introductionoLconfrontation in learning
situations .which is characteristic of individualist .cultures could be .threatening
tothe [apanese and mayexplainwhy oral skills suchasdebating, speech-
makinganddiscussionare not included 'in the. new textbook. For example,
during one .communicative .activity in which the textbook was not used, a .

student who could not understand the instructions to an. activity burst into
.
.

tears. 1 interpret this as aresult of disruptingtheformal harmonyoffhe
learning situation: the student couldnot interpret the situation which resulted
in aface-threatening act andtears.
This could be seen as confirming Hofstede in another cultural factor
contributingto .the design oftextbooks in [apan which.is related .to.formal
harmony in learning situations .. In collectivist societies, formalharmony is to be
maintained at all times (Hofstede 1980; 1986; 1991; 1992).
In collectivist .and ·high-context cultures neither ..the teacher .nor any
student shouldbe facedwith the threat of 'losingface'. 'Pace'is the public self-
imageor role one has in society.'LosingJace' happens when one does not act
within the role required by one'ssocial position(Kim 1994,37). This could
happen in an English conversation if a student asked the teacher a question that
he could not answerand may be another reason whycommunication seems to
evade the Japanese textbook. . This also suggests deference politeness (Scollon
and Scollon 1983; 1995).
The conceptof formal harmony in the educational culture that was
studied suggeststhat behavioral codeswereimplicitlyencoded and that there
are strict rules governing·interaction andthe language being used. The teacher
was expected to always speak first. The student was expected to answer. Non-
verbal signals were also used to give the student .the signal to speak. This
ensured the maintenance of formal harmony which .is also promoted by the
activities found in the textbook, for example:

Program5
A. story by MiyazawaKenji

Two young men from the city were hunting in the mountains. Two big
dogs and a guide were with them. Then their guide went out of sight,
and it became very dark. The dogs howled for some time, and died
from fear. "Oh, no!" said one of the meno "Let' s get out of here."
"Yes,let's/, said the other.

(Vocabulary)
hunt (ing), dog (s), guide, sight, dark, howl (ed), die. (d), fear, out of
sight, for some time, die from, get out of

Source: Sunshine English Course 2 (1993), Program 5 (see Appendix 9)

93

Program 5 in the textbook isdesignedfor a more teacher-centered approach for
example,read andrepeatdrills followed by choral readings. The.activitiesin
the workbook rarelyrequire fhe Ieamersto negotiate meaning. Overall.: the
educationalculture that wasstudiedin [apanc.reveals.c.high-context
communication and cultural traits (Ha111976; Hall and Hall 1987; Gudykunst
and Ting-Toomey1988;Samovarand Porter 1991).

4.4.1.2 Textbooks In Individualist Societies

The Finnish textbooksused inthe educationalculture that was studied, based
oncommunicative methods, suggest the positiveassociation in societywith
whatever is'new'. "Newcommunicative methods" .move away .from the
structural approach and put rnore emphasis onvpair-work: and .other
v ..

communicative activities.'. The booksare also colorfulandcontain morerecent
topicsandcurrentinformation.For example, 'You Too 9' containstopics
induding personalcomputers, smart cardand·officemachinesandsupplies
vocabulary using colorful, artisticpictures .. The guidance provided for teachers
inFinland is difficulttocompare to the setting in [apan becausenewtextbooks
were not being introduced in Finland at the moment of this study, leavingno
need for in-servicetraining concerningtextbooks .: However, teachersdidhave
meetings where they discussedthe new curriculum,
Inthe educationalculturestudied,students were encouraged in many
lessons to initiate intel'action. This wasalso .
supportedby the . design of the
.

textbookand is an indicationof solidarity politeness where communicationis
more .orlessequal(Scollon and Scollon 1983;168-170; 1995).>For example,
during pair-work activities, students were observed.to initiateinteraction with
their teachers. This appeared to be taken intoconsideration in the design ofthe
textbooks because the textbooks and workbookscontained manyactivities such
A sample
as pair-work designed forthis typeof classroom management style.
chapter is included in Appendix 7.
This could be interpreted as a confirmation of traits·· ascribed to
individualist cultures. According to Hofstede (1980; 1986; 1991; 1992)
individual students willspeak up inclass in response toa general invitationby
the teacher. This also suggests the tendency towards a low-context culture in
the Finnish educationaLenvironment studied (Hall 1976; Devito 1995).
Furthermore, the students are not afraid to speak up in large groups, which
leaves more options in activity design for the textbooks. In individualist
cultures, individual students are supposed to speak up in class in response to a
general invitation by the teacher. The featuresobserved in the Finnish
educational setting reflect individualism in this manner (Hall 1976; Devito
1995).
In the Finnish setting, students often disrupted the formal harmony of the
lesson by talking and walking around. Creative confrontation between. the
teacher and students and among the students themselves in the classroom
appeared to be no problem suggesting individualist and low-context features
1995). However,
within the educational culture (Hofstede 1986; 1991; Devito
formal harmony is also appreciated in Finland, which can be highlighted when

94

comparing Pinnish: and American communication styles (Carbaugh .1995).
During grammar teaching, studentsinthe <Finnish educational culture studied
wereexpected to .sit.andIisten.. Still, the overallbehavior.in thesetting in
Finland suggestedthat asin otherIndividualist cultures, face-consciousness
appearedto beweak.Thiscan beinterpreted to.support-the claimthatthe
Finnish cultural setting exhibited low context and solidarity.politeness features,
...

Certain incidences in the c1assroom situations that were observed revealed
that it was perfectly acceptabIe for both the teacher andthe students .to admit
that they could not perform a task or could not answer a question and needed
toask for. advice. Therefore, face-consciousness seemed tobe weakin this
setting and textbookdesigngives
.

no tlndication ofthis. being otherwise
anywhere else in the country. The concept ofputting the teacher or the student
ina face-threatening situation by promoting Iearner autonomy probably.does
notenter into the minds of the Finnish textbook writers.
The .. textbooks, .rwhich reinforce the communicative goals of the .. .

curriculum, indicatethat intheeducational culture, Pinlandalso exhibits.Ioa>
contextcultural characteristics. Inother words,little information 1S interpreted
from the. situationand verbal communication ds: necessary. to convey meaning
.

(Hall 1976: 79) ... These traitsmay not describeFinnish culture as.a whole but
appeared to be fairly standard in the educational culture studied,
Table 4.4 reflects theresultsof .theresearchconducted in the two
educationalsettings -in relationto the individualism versus the collectivism
dimensionoutlinedby Hofstede(1980; .1986; 1991; ·.1992). In .this tableand
subsequent tables throughout the present study, Hofstede's originaLtables
discussed and listedin Chapter Two have been adapted to reflect the
·

phenomena found in the specific educational cultures. Specific traits have been
modified to reflectdata, for example, in the caseof textbooks, 'positive
association with whatever isrooted in tradition' has been modified to 'positive
association with traditionaltextbooks'. Tables have been.written in order to
provide the reader with an overview of the results of how Hofstede' s
tendencies are supported or disconfirmed in the data.

TABLE 4.4 Tendencies Related To Textbooks And The Individualism
Versus The Collectivism Dimension

Individualist Sodeties Collectivist Societies

Finland Japan

In the Finnish educational culture, teachers Lack of teacher training to accompany new
had meetings to discuss the new curriculum
curriculum

PQsitive association .with 'new' style Positive association with traditionai
textbooks textbooks
(Continued)

95

(Conttnued)
Textbook activities supportindividual Textbook activities support iI1dividual
students sp@kil1g up in Glili>S in response students speaking tlP only when called
to a general irwitation by the teacher upon by the teacher

Textbook activities make possible Textbook activities promote formal
confrontation in learning situations harmony in learning situations

Textbook suggests that face-consciousness Textbook is designed so that neither the
isweak teacher noranystudent would faGe.the
possibility of losing face

TABLE 4.5 Similarities Related To Textbooks And The Individualism
Versus The Collectivism Dimension

Teachers in both countries' educational cultures often enroll in continuing
adult education il1c1uding in-service trainingand further education courses

Formal harmony is sometimes emphasized in both educational cultures

4.4.2 Power Distance

4.4.2.1 Textbooks Related 1'0 Strong Power Distance

According to Hofstede's theory, power distance is defined. as the lextent to
which the Iess powerful membersof institutions and organizations accept that
power is distributed unequally'(Hofstedeand Bond 1984: 419). Individuals
who live in a strong power . distance society acceptthat unequalpower
distribution is part of culture. Teachers in fhis typeofculture consider their
students to be different fromthemselves and students thinkthatteachers are
superior to them (Gudykunst and.Ting-Toomey 1988: 47). This cultural trait
corresponds roughly with concepts of.deference politeness(Scollon and Scollon
1983; 1995). Strong powerdistance appears to be related to high-context culture
in the sense that where clear power relations are present, non-verbal cues .may
be less problematic to interpret. However, Devito (1995:. 32) has .. dear
distinctions between leaders and members classified as a low-context cultural
trait. Therefore,the concept of contextrelated to power distance maybe
difficult to interpret. This section willpresentthe findings of the present study
in relation to the curriculum and textbooks andexamine .how thesefindings
support or disconfirm Hofstede' s findings on power distance.
In the Japanese setting that was studied, teachers tended to prefer touse
the textbooks in a teacher-centered fashion. The .textbooks in the setting
reflected this. When the 'old' curriculum and textbooks were being used, the
teachers tended to explain the 'key sentence' with its grammar pointand the
new vocabulary in every lesson.When the 'new' oral curriculum and textbooks

96

were adopted, 1 did not observe any noticeable change in teachingmethods.
Iiowever, oneof .the sch00ls hired a special teacher to teachthe cOffill1unicative
sections of the lessons, thus leaving the 'regular' teachers free toteach in the
traditionai manner. Grammar explanations are inc1uded in the Japanese
textbooks for both teachers .and students. However, the teacher explained them
in great detail and the students tended to listen without asking questions.
This could be seen as an indication of large power distance, confirming
Hofstede (1986)lwhichsuggests tendencies toward a stress: on personai
'wisdom' which is transferred in the relationship with a particular teacher who
is like a 'guru' .: Japanese textbooks appear to be designed for teacher-centered
c1assroom management This supports a teacJ:ting process where. teachers tend
...
to maintain their position as a 'guru' or.one who possesses all of the knowledge
of the subject and can impart this knowledge to their loyal students. If the
emphasis were switched tocommunication, it could jeopardize this role which
is ingrained in the Japanese.This relationship is interrelated to deference
politeness where respect is generally shown to those who have power (Scollon
and Scollon 1983; 1995).
The present study found that the teachers in the Japanese setting were
expected to show their knowledge to their students and, in doing so, not
relinquish control of the floor during the lesson. The textbook supported this
by its emphasis on grammar which the teachers can teach and thereby maintain
control of the floor during the lesson.
This supports the tendency in strong power distance societies that
'teachers merit the respect of their students' (Hofstede 1986; 1991). The teacher-
centered education which the textbook seems to promote stresses the 'premium
on order' which is supposed to be held in high esteem in these types of cultures.
Again, this suggests deference politeness.In this type of learning environment,
non-verbalsignals may be easierto interpret which would also suggest high-
context culture in the educational setting studied.
This study found.fhat the Japanese textbooks .used in the educational
culture tended to containlittle informationaside from the core sentences and
forms, possibly because textbook writers assume that the teacher isthe holder
of knowledgeand will 'hand down' the necessary extra information. In other
words, textbook writersshare acommon view of the teacher's rolein the
societyand· promote theexisting social order through textbook design.
Promoting learner autonomy may be viewed tobe wholly contrary to the
..

popular concept of teacher as authority.
The above seems to confirm other tendencies in strong power distance
societies where students expect teachers to initiate communication and outline
paths for them to follow. Studentsinthistype of society are expected to speak
up in class only wheninvited by the teacher and the teacher .should never be
contradicted or publicly criticized, and, the effectiveness of learning is related to
the excellence of the teacher (Hofstede 1986; 1991). AlI ofthese tendencies
manifested themselves in the Japanese setting that was studied and could be
seen in the textbook design.
These characteristics support the proposition that Japanese culturereflects
deference politeness where superiors talk downward to subordinates. Through

97

this examination, Japanemerges as a high-context culture in which nonverbal
information is encoded and associated with certain modes of behavior.tscollon
andScollon1983; 1995; Hall 1976). Because of theclear distinction as to.who is
allowed toinitiatecommunication inparticular settings, one may determine
fromnon-verbal signals who ds the boss or.when to speak. Such distinctions
may: notbe present, ornecessary,in· a Iow-context culture .. Through .their
design, textbookstend to reflectteacher-centeredmethods which reinforce
. . .

these cultural tendencies.

4.4.2.2 TextbooksAndWeak Power Distance

Hofstede (1986; 1991) puts forththat in weak orsmall power distance societies,
power is distributed more or less equally and should only be exerted when it is
legitimate.Associated with .the way in which weakpower distance manifests
itself in the textbook isthe promotion of learner autonomy reflecting solidarity
politeness in which equality inthe roles of the speaker and listener are valued
(Scollon and Scollon 1983; 1995)... Theconcept of Iow-context culture may be
difficult to relate to weak powerdistance. Still, inenvironmentswhere
communication ismoreor lessequal, it is morelikelythat allparticipants will
be given the opportunity to use verbal signals rather than read cues .from the
envirorunent.This may be interpreted asreflecting low-context culture.
The present study found that the activities in the Finnish textbookand
workbook in the educational culture studied tended to contain a wide variety of
differenttypes of activities which the teacher could useto foster Iearner
autonomy and encourage initiative.:' Learner training beginning in seventh
gradetaught students .to choose their ownactivities from theworkbookor
textbookand complete themas individual work or pair-workwith a partner.
Once learnertraining wascomplete, teachers were observed to write Iists of
activities on the chalkboard which the learnerscould choose from and complete
during the lessons while the teacher assumed a monitoring role and helped
students when asked.These types of activities put the initiative in the hands of
the student during the lessons.
These resultssupportthe concept that Finland is a weak power distance
society, where'teachers respectthe independence of their students' and engage
in 'student-centered education' where'premium is on initiative' (Hofstede 1986;
1991).
The present study found that students were encouragedto communicate
in the target language and gain competence by learningfrom each other and the
textbook with the assistance of the teacher. This differed somewhat from the
tendency observedin the Japanese setting of learning from the teacher and the
textbook.
The emphasison communication and learner-centered teaching reflected
by the Finnish textbooks and workbooks can be seen in the variety and number
of exercises per chapter. For example, the workbook sample in Appendix 7
contains activities such as Finnish-to-English translations, listening to a text that
is provided, listening for specific information within a passage, talking about
the passage, multiple-choice questions, and English-to-Finnish translations. In

These traits in the textbook.for example the syntax.teacher forinstruction(Hofstede1986i 1991). the . The presence of these characteristics could also be seen to confirm Hofstede' s theoriesregardingthis dimension.to initiate communication and to find theirown pathsand the studentsmay sometimes speak up spontaneouslyin c1ass (Hofstede 1986i1991). the Finnish curriculum (National Board of Education 1994b).students are allowed to contradict or criticize the teacher andthe effectiveness of Iearningis related to the amount of two-way communication in c1ass. True. this .. Weak power distance cultural tendencies in regard to.be theunderlying social order.topics and .teacher and with each other.such as pair-work. for example the textbook. studied in Finland generally suggest solidarity politeness traits (Scollonand Scollon 1983i 1995). Table 4.in principal. minorconflict might notseverelydisruptwhatappeared to . students speaking up freely in c1ass.ln the c1assrooms of the educational culture . ifthe students were encouraged to speak English and Initiate communication with the . But.orthefacts of thetargetlanguage.thetextbook didnot encouragethe studentstocontradict or criticize the teacher. Activities . based on these traits. Based on. Finnish textbooks can be said to reflect . This study found that the Finnish textbooks tended to. The teacher generally expectsstudents . tendendes associated with smallpower distance societies.to < initiate two-way .If oneacceptsthat the truth.studied. communication in thelesson. were presented.material required pupilsto negotiatemeaning.6 provides an overview of conc1usions based on the findings of the present study aswell as general observations related to textbooks. it could also be argued. fromanycompetentperson as opposed to thestronguncertainty avoidance tendency· ofrelyingon the . which required little teacher control. Finnish textbooks. . The stress on two-way communication presentedin the goals of the curriculum and textbooks suggest value in the concept thatverbal expression in needed to convey meaningas in a loto-coniexi society (Ha111976). free: to introduce . are the same no matter who or what delivers it. the students were.98 addition. These traits suggest that the textbooks and curriculum in the educational culture.dnformation. lend weight to Hofstede'sclaims. forexample in talk-with-your-partnerexercises. autonomy goals of . possibilitytocontradict andvcriticize the teacherduring lessons and the emphasison two-way communication in the teaching and learning process in Finland suggest that imposition is assumed to be lowand equality is held in high esteem.who is aUowed to initiate with teachers. one must also accept that the students can become their own teachers as put forthin the learner.couldbe c1assifiedas reflecting smalLpowerdistance tendenciesin which impersonal'truth'isobtainable. the interaction . It is an adaptation of Hofstede's (1986) originallist of differences related to the power distance dimension in Chapter Two. In these types ofcultures. lexis and morphology.put an emphasis on learner autonomy.

.In cultures with strong uncerta:inty avoidance.1 Textbooks Related To Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Dimension Uncerta:inty avoidance is another one of the cultural c1assifications that : emerged from Hofstede's (1980.1986. such as do drills and other highly structured grammar-related activities. This reflects the structural method described :in ChapterThree which is . studentsfeel comfortable in structured Iearning situations with predse objectives. premium on order Textbook helps students to initiate Textbook fosters students to expect teacher communication to initiate communication Textbook aids students to find their own Lack of information in the textbook: paths teacher is required to outline paths to follow Learner-centered c1assroom aided by the Teacher-centered c1assroom supported by textbook makes it possible for.4.ependence of Xextboo}(encollrages studentsto respect students and listen to their teacher Textbook supports student-centered Textbook supports teacher-centered education: premium on initiative education. 99 TABLE 4.6 Tendencies In Textbooks Related To The Power Distance Dimension Small Power Distance Societies Large Power Distance Societies Finland Japan Textbookputs stress on impersonal 'truth' Textbook putsstress on personaI 'wisdom' which can in principle be obtained from which istransferred In the relationship textbooks alone with particular teacher(guru) Textbookenc()urages ind.3. but does the textbook helps to ensure that the not encourage. the students to contradict teacher is not subject to contradietien or or criticize teacher public criticism Textbook advocates the concept that the Textbook advocates the concept that the effectiveness of learning is related to the effectiveness of learning is related to the amount of two-way communication in excellence of the teacher c1ass 4. 1991. This study found that Japanese textbooks appearedto bedesigned for activities which enable the teacher to ma:inta:in control of the c1assroom. detailed assignments and strict timetables.3 Uncertainty Avoidance 4.1992) research.4. The story in program 5 :inc1uded earlier in this chapter is condudve for this type of teaching.

since they did not know all the material in the new textbook.. Hofstede (1980. Onemight argue that beginners are not realistically at alevei to. although the new textbooks tended to present more of them thanthe previous editions. for example. cOll1ll11. speaks-down to them (Scollon .or not the book is adopted in their particu1ar school district through contact with their. since.superiors. The teacher-centered activities in the textbook related to . Japanese English teachers are insecure abouttheirEnglish ability{Garan.. The emphasis.t.1992. teachers are expected to have all the .could be associated with the teacher-centered classroom and the backwash effect of testing which will be discussed in the next chapter. have memorized the old textbook.situation. as well as in otherAsian countries.such teachers. The present study found that Japanese textbooks tended toemphasize grammaticalpointsand vocabulary. The amount of communicative problem-solving exercises was minimal in the textbooks that 1 examined. 1992) puts forth that in strong uncertainty avoidance cultures. whereas the Japanese textbooks are . This attitude can be one reason for.to support this c1aim in regard to Japanese textbooks. Perhaps Japanese textbook writers feel that this is problematic. This is known to the publishers who want to present manageable material to the teachers. However. Inthe [apanese cultural setting that was studied. Therefore. answer open-response questions in English .. 1991.vvhich. one can introduce simple communicative activities from the very first lesson. then w textbool<s and other recent reforms put some of the teachers in a problematic. since. means that teachers should knoweverything about the subject they are teaching. answers. in turn. and a new . students are rewarded for accuracy in problem solving. they have a say in whether. Naturally the level ofthe students should be taken into consideration.. 1986. . This tends to supportthe claim that in strong uncertainty avoidance societies.strong uncertainty avoidance can also be interpreted as indications of deference politeness in [apanese culture since in such an environment students are required to speak-up to the teacher who. Knight1995).on accuracy is vital.Japanese textbook construction being the way that itis. The Finnish junior high school textbooks are designed for students who have been studying. any reforms that aim at introducing communicative activities are very difficult to institute. An emphasis on grammar rather thancommunication could be interpreted . The Japanese teachers of English that 1 worked with prepared extra material in order to ask simple open-response questions during the special team-taught lessons 1 experienced while in the Japanese setting.Thisappeared to affect the adoption ofnew textbooks and methods: some of the Japa11ese English teachers who were not confident in their English ability appeared to. designed for beginners .100 common in [apan. English for 5-6 years. it must have aninfluencein textbook design. Generally speaking. textbook emphasizing.U1icationcreated strong resentment among . For a detailed description of how the textbooks are used in this manner in the classroom see Chapters Sevenand Eight. This could be argued to be a strong uncertainty avoidance cultural characteristic because it.

Hofstede (1986. or did not answera question. assignrnents in the textbooks . 1991) puts forth that in cultures whereuncertainty avoidance is weak. see ChapterSeven). innovative approaches to problem solving· according to Hofstede and· this tendency. (For detailed a description.textbook provided . but there was more variation and less structure in the Finnish classroom than was observed in Japan. in accordance with curriculum goals. The textbooks in the Finnish setting included problem-solving activities and negotiating meaning. it should be pointed out that Hofstede does not make any c1aimsthat his terminology.lesson objective. instead of Hofstede's original wording. Objectives. The situation arose on one occasion where the teacher could not. Structured learning situations couldbeindicative of a high-context.4. the Finnish textbooks. the texfbooks presented material that encouraged the students to initiate interaction. the characteristic should read 'broad range objectives and assignrnents with looser timetables'. This suggeststhat there may be some conflict in applying this tendency in its . but fhe.cultures. which was acceptable in Finland as shown in examples includedin Chapter Seven. She said. and c1assifications should. apply to all situations and data. present JorIn toFinnish EIlglish textbooks. it wouldbe more applicableto thisset of data. This meanstheyare allowed not to know everything about the subjectthey are teaching. why don't you ask Mike". withinthe lessons. 1995).2 Textbooks Related To Weak Uncertainty Avoidance · Dimension In the Finnish educational culture that was observed. there Was variation in the time that was taken between the activities that were completed and how the sections and activities from the workbook and textbooks were executed.culture where verbal and non-verbalinformation is governedby rules governinginteraction (Hall1976). as such. the workbookrequires the students to formulate sentences themselves instead ofrepeating memorized patterns.However. However. In weak· uncertaintyavoidance . ·students are rewarded for .encourage the students toput English into their own words. .IIlaterial which gave the teacher several activity options to attainthe. 4. If one were to 'modify the definition toinc1ude'less structured learning situations'. This study wishes to suggest that. Onecan therefore claimthat the Finnish educational culture exhibits the weak uncertainty avoidance society trait thatteachers are allowed to say"I don't know". "1 don't know. and tirnetables were apparent in Finnish EIlglish lessons.tenciedto be concrete and they normally corresponded to Hmetables made by the local school teachers and administrators. for example.3. . was found within the data. 101 and Scollon 1983. This study found that in the Finnish setting. studentsfeel more comfortable inrelativelyunstructured learning situations with vague objectives and broad assignrnents with no timetables. A lesson has a structure by nature. Rather than reproduce forms and structuresexactly as they are presented in thechapters.

It is (1986) . TABLE4. The textbook is designed to require the students to negotiate meaning to vocalize ideas which isconsidered a loui-coniexi culturaltrait (Hall 1976). 1986. To do otherwise would be looked . These traits were the only ones which the present study could relate to. 1991). that [apan exhibit dejerence politeness characteristics and· high-context cuItural traits (Scollon and Scollon .of the . on the other hand. Learner-centered activities in the textbook encourage and allow students to make themselves . again. These cultural characteristics suggest. strict timetables Textbook provides student-centered Texfbooks are generally designed for activities where teachers can be put in a teacher-centered activities where the position to have to say II 1 don't know" teacher has all the answers The textbookactivities foster innovative The textbook activities foster accuracy in approaches toproblem solving problem solving Table 4. 1991. textbooks. .original list of differences reIated to the an adaptation of Hofstede's uncertaintyavoidance dimension which can be found in Chapter Two.ak {Jncertainty Avoidarice Societies Strong Uncerlainty Avoidance Societies Finland Japan Textbook presents material for students Textbook presents material for students who feel comfortable in less structured who feel comfortable in structured learning situations: varying objectives and learning situations:precise objectives. 1991. Hall 1976). 1983. the masculinity and femininity. 4. dimension as suggestedby Hofstede (1980. The Finnish .uponby the teacheras a face-threatening act. encouraged the learners tomake themselves visible in c1ass byencouraging learner . In the learner-centered c1assroom. of conclusions based .7provides an overview.4. 1992) and textbook design inthe Finnish and [apanese.setting. assignments with loosertimetables detailed assignmel1ts.: present study and howuncertaintyavoidance can be related to textbooks. autonomy.7 Tendencies In Textbooks Related To The Uncertainty Avoidance Dlmension We. In the teacher-centered c1assroom of the [apanese setting.students seemed to have no choice but to behave modestly. students can compete for the floor without committing a face-threatening act. on the findings .4 Textbooks Related To The Masculinity Versus Femininity Dimension The [apanese textbooks were more condudve to teacher-centered teaching and required the student to be modest in c1ass and to sit and listen.102 Student-centered c1assroom activities inc1uded in thetextbook and assodated with weak uncertainty avoidancecould also suggest solidarity politeness with more or less equal communication (Scollonand Scollon 1983.

and femininity were least applicable to the textbooks with only one category which could be related.relation toculturalcharactedsticsthat influence their design.. textbooksin .The masculinity and femininity dimension appeared to be problematic and only one aspect of it could be applied to this set of data.8 Tendencies In Textbooks Related To The Masculinity Versus Femininity Dimension Feminine Societies Masculine Societies Finland Japan students try to make themselves students try to behave modestly visible Table 4. Finnish tend to exhibit features associated . According to the analysis. It should be noted that Hofstede's (1986) tendendes assodated with masculinity.ucturalmethods adopted after the Second WorldWar. which is traditionaI and based on str. The Finnish texfbooksemphasize communication by providing the teacher with pair-work and otherstudent-centered activities. 1991. Japanese textbooks in tum appear toreflect a culture with strong power distanceand strong uncertainty avoidance as well asdeferencepoliteness and high-context culture. emphasis on grammar. The Japanesetextbooks reflect .. 4. Some of the tendendes that Hofstede (1986) lists were not applicable to textbooks which helps justify the inclusionof other types of data in the following chapters. .5 Summary Finnish and Japanese textbooks which demonstrate the heart of the curriculum in both countries show few similarities and several differences..an ' . my data tended to confirm many of the cultural dimensions put forth by Hofstede.8 reflects the one trait that could be related to this set of data and Hofstede's (1986) differences related to the masculinity versus femininity dimension discussed in Chapter Two. 103 visible in the classroom. andsimilarities in Finnish and J panese. These could be indicative of solidarity politeness and low-context culture (Scollon and Scollon 1983. Overall.with textbooks individualist sodetieswith weakpower< distance "and weakuncertainty avoidance in additionto solidarity politeness and a low-context culture. Hall 1976). TABLE 4. The originallist contains ten itetns. This section has sought toexplain thedifferences.

<:0Ul1tries should. classroom teachers.teaching and leamingand itscentral role.the. Koike. Sajavaara 1993).!sting in studies on English .edu<:ation (Yli-Renko and Salo- Lee . The subject of Iapanese. There is nowanuchevidence to support the inclllsion of language tE..My literature search revealed nothing.aspectsof te$tipg in the two.1 Role Of Testing In Finland And Japan This sectionwillexamine foreign language testing in Finland.and [apan -. includingtest objectiyes. 1993) General. . how . .O\tViddowson 1990.includingthe.139) It isalso .is measured and how results are reported (North . . written .. Stern 1983: 439-40.seruorhfghscheo] and university entranceexaminatiops and the effect onofthese on fhe language teaching processisoften cited inthe literatureon thesllbject (Reischauer 1988.BrllInby and Wada 1991iCLAIR1992b. administrators and learners will be incorporated into this section in addition to primary and secondary source material on the subject. The study of testing entails a wide variety of topics . directlycomparingEnglish as a foreign language testing inrWand and Tapan which could be a justification for the inclusion of this chapter in the present study. Igarashi and Suzuki 1978) Testingi$ alsociiscu$sedin .incllldes what is measured.Yamazaki 1995. to ciisCllSS how they are viewed in Finland and Japan the opinions of professors. Foreign language te sting is important for the teacher and the learner because one of the main roles of the teacher is to assess what has been learned .. In order..the <:ontentofexaminatiol1swhich .lllum.cited as a neglectedarea (Robinson 1991: 73-78)..existence of quantifiable competency scales and the relation of testing to language policy (Spolsky 1993).alsobeexamined .it .1991. . sometimes .in curri(. role of testing within the two systems.. literature related to lliPnish foreign language.104 5 TESTING 5. development (Richards 1990: 15-17.Matsuyama.

Indeed. When examinations were not looming over.generally focused ence:rnnlunicatien- centered activitiesin theclassroom.the third-yearjunier high scheelstudents ashigh scheel entrance examinatien .drilling could occur. a change in classroom behavioraround the. fecus en cemmunicatien.the way they puttheir attitudes into.therefere. In the Finnish setting.time appreached.Finnish teach rs jn the junier high . In fact. time of locally planned and.observed a more te take the formof switching from a more leamer-centeredclassroom. ManyJapanese English teachers feelthat focusing on cemmunicative activities dees.this sectien will address the tepic ef fereign language entrance tests as ameans fer determining whe gees te the university because it is se eften cited as ene et.administered English .this is netuncommen. will be discussed.er belittled.school educatienal culture studiedstated that they liked the fact that theydid net have an. The effect ofthe matriculation examination whichis administered . . 1995c).was.. after university ad:rnissiep tests because of the influence exerted en the fermer by the latter. Therefer . In the Japanese setting. Seven and Eight.This attitude is generally accepted in both Finland and [apan. main goals ef English . 1995b.at the end of senior high schooland contains . Because efthe rele ef examinatiens in their determinatien ef which students preceed te the university.foreign language components 1S widely discussed in Finland (Yli-Renko and Salo-Lee 1991). Th .the students' heads. Hewever. classroom so that test .. Junier high scheel Englisheducation.possibleresults .c:annet be dewngraded . The reasen cited bythe Japanese teacherswas that the Japanese teacherneede<itime te prepare the learners fertheir examinatiens.throughout chapters Six.the two countries variedand Will be further discussed.in.. my observation in the settingrevealed that. Testingand cempetition are often portrayed as haUmarks ef Japanese educatien (Takanashi 1996). 105 and te ensure that the learners pass their tests (Harmer 1991:262).and Yamashita 1995a..external examinatien tOitrain the students Jor and ceuld. practice .tests te assess. which is the fecus ef this study.students would producethe. Teachers also openly stated such attitudesinbeth countries. Articles and mformal surveys.ebs rved that special team-taughtJessens fecusing en cemmunicatien were eften canceled fer. their impertance. language educatienin Japan (Brewn .Finnish teachers. teachers in both countries were observed te change their lessen planning as examination time approached inorder te concentrate en the tests.nethelpstudentspass entrance examinatiens andthat communicative lessens are peintless until the examinatien system is refermed (Ceminos 1990).to teacher-centered . thus making' sure their.best .progress. the. suggest that senior high schoolEnglish education tends te fecus on preparatien fer the matriculatien examinatien. l.

such as 'to talkto foreigners' and 'to read'. Finnish teachersin the setting expressed their dedication to teaching the students who wished 'to go to the college-boundupper secondary school the skillsnecessary 'to gain admission. Respondents were students who were 14 or 15 years old at thetime. The survey consistedof a number of questions related to how the leamers felt about English. The design of the questionnaires wasdiscussedin chapter Two. only32 stated that their reason was the matriculation exam. was a primary reason for studying -': 43 indicated that junior high schooltests were the reason they studied. theirexposure tothe language outside the classroom and their use of the language . The · Finnishteachers interviewed wereproudofsomeof theirstudents who excelled in their courses and mentioned them for special recognitionwhile they wereout of earshot so as notto causethem embarrassment. less academica1lyorientedupper secondary schools. This indicates the importance of the entrance tests in the minds of the leamers. because the survey results show that they were more concerned about an examination that was a year and a half in the future than their immediate tests in junior high school. However. only 32 saw the matriculation examination results as being so important that it . Of the 129 Finnish: students surveyeddn the study.v'They also acknowledged that some ofthe leamers did nothave and were not gaining the necessary knowledge ofEnglish andother subjects and would go on to other. 61 indicated that senior high school admission tests were important while 54 chose junior high school tests under the survey question. whichappeared to relieve them of the pressure to train students for tests. .2 Leamers And Tests Surveys that were. When asked'why theytookEnglish'. 78 indicated thatthey wanted 'to attend the upper secondary school which would lead to takingthe matriculationexaminatiori.rwhich suggests that although 78 indicatedthat'their goal was to attendthe uppersenior high school.106 5. the most popular answers for these students were related to real life functions. overall · the teachers conveyed themessage thattheywere preparing 'the students to communicate in English orotherforeign languages rather than taketests although the importance of examinations within the system was acknowledged. This indicated that for most Finnish leamers. conducted in the Finnish educationalculture studied in 1994 and Japanese junior high school settingin 1993questionedthe leamers about their attitudes towardtheir English tests andother issues. This chapter willexamine the survey questions related to testing. the goals of studying werebroader 'than studying only for the examinationat theend of the course or for fheexam which would help determinetheir entranceto the university. However. In [apan. Out of 100 Japanesejunior high school students surveyed. stay another year in juniorhigh school orgo to work. suggesting that moreimmediate testgoals were at the forefront of the Finnish studentsminds. the attitude was somewhat different. theirstudy habits.. 'why do you study English?' (Garant 1992b).their goals.. The teachers did not have topreparethe leamers for anextemal examination.

in both countries there is a good chance of building respectable career a with a vocational education or on-the-job training. Other educational settings in Japan.<ing'. compare<i w-ith Finnish . University admission was not seen in either educational culture as one of the most important steps in life according to the surveys made of the students.thestu<ients passed their ntr. Some of the 'teachers within the school system studied emphasized communicationmore than others but the entrance exams were generally seen as the most important factor that shapes language education.This is evidence that the Japanese educational culture was not marked solelyby fierce competition at least in the setting . but among societyin general (Cummings 1990: 206). Such attitudes appeared to be prevalent in the educational culture that was studied. This · attitude is common in Japan. in my analysis.language. Eyen though there was considerable . school were most of the other teachers tell them it is pointless because it isnot on the Japanese entrance examination. This suggests that even though the motivation to communicate was there. be viewed as a choice. . Further.associated with success in life in the mass media both m and out of Japan(Takanashi 1996). motivation to pass .theirinterestin <:ommunicating inEnglish w-as markedly less. it was somewllat lesstllan the. If admission to a university should not be looked upon as failure. yield different results. 107 For the Japanese students. learners in both settings indicated that they wished to pursue 'non-academic' careers.interest in J1Sing the.tests. These included occupations such as cook. private junior high school in Tokyo. instead. Tanigawa (1992) reports on a study whic:hsuggests that it is difficult for a few Japanese English teachers to teach communication in a. 'understanding'. hair dresser and construction a learner's goal is to pursue a non-academic field. studied. Japanese teachers expressed thatthe goal of English education was tosee that .ers. would. that the characterization of universityentrance exams and the pressure they exert on Japanese learners may be somewhat A number of the exaggerated when applied to the educational culture studied. Not onlywere the exams important.lch as the key to success in 'Iife. university entrance examinations appeared not to be seen so m1. pra<:tically. then not gaining worker. in my opinion. It should. not only among teachers.: le rn. they are often. such as a top ranked.mce tests andthat coIIlIllunicatiqn WaS very important if it could be accomplished without interfering withthe exantination process. 'Sp a1. Virtually all of the students there would probably hold entrance exams in higher esteem. suggesting that entrance examinations exerted a backwash effect on classroom English teaching. In the Finnish setting. 'traveHng' and 'talking to foreign people' received responses in the 42-49 per cent range. This suggests. college- track.

Each year.3 Testing AndUniversity Admission Gail1ingadnlittance into a university in Finland isc0Inpetitive. TABLE 5.108 5.1 Competition To Enter Certain Finnish University Departments University / Applicants Participants Admitted Department in Entrance T University of Helsinki Law 2685 1976 287 Political Science 2920 2068 311 Medicine 697 628 122 Theology 542 436 177 Humanities 6222 4511 871 Math/Science 4701 2605 2364 Education 1444 925 392 University of Jyväskylä Education 1904 975 219 Humanities 2602 1948 494 Social Science 2338 1680 349 1297 604 82513 Math/Science Forestry Science 1174 533 128 University of Tampere Medicine 721 585 183 Social Science 2704 2058 291 Humanities 3689 2932 417 Economics 2420 1817 510 Education 838 344 109 Helsinki School of Economics 2310 1748 431 Source: Patosalmi and Pakkanen 1996: 353-354 13 In cases where more study places are available than the number of participants in the entrance examination . .. Recently. In 1991.000 and 16.000 students take the matriculation examination and af these. the nUP1ber·of admissions have been on the increase . between 115. about 30.40.600 applicants took part in the entrance examination and 21..000 applicationswere filed.000 enter the university . the opportunity to enter the department is offered to prospective candidates based on matriculation exarnination scores. 78.000 students were accepted (Parviainen 1992: 64-65).

109 This data suggests that in mostcases.every. the hierarchyis rigid: for example.of gaining acceptance to atleast oneprogram. the Faculty ofLaw at theUniversity of Helsinki. abouta third are accepted into a university (Reischauer 1988: 190). to certain faculties.2 Competition To EnterJapanese Universities Applications for admission New students enrolled National 495497 105598 Publie 115311 15378 Private 4452054 420628 Total 5062862 541604 Source: Statistics Bureau 1993/94 The preceding table indicates that for national universities. the Japanese selection process tends to be more competitive than inFinland(See .increasetheir chance.dncluding 460 four-year colleges and 536 two-year colleges.ts who are admitted. Faeulfies of Medicin.university.toa Finnish university.2). fuacidition.in Japan is also..in 1991.applications withthe number of studel1.University ofHelsinki usually receives 8 ormoreapplication.eand other specialized courses. speaking.to a..institutions.is .16 outof18 of the officials of Monbusho ranked above section. In Japan.faculties rnay be.entrance testin order to . forexample. Admissior. Generally. Gaining admission. withthe former hnperial Universities at· the top .for .'Ihe best companies recruit only from the best schools.place available. Students who do not gain admittance mayspend a year working. Statistically. the English Translation Department ofthe. Eachyear. chief graduated frorn Tokyo .attempt entrance teststwo ormore times beforetheygain admittance. . Some students maytake morethatone .example. is notuncommon for studentsto . Inthe Japanese system..than other faculties when comparing fhe number of.s . This type of system does not exist in Finland where college graduates are generally on equal footing when competing for jobs.ely competitive.Of thE!se. anci private professional colleges (senmongakko)at the bottom. (Reischauer 1988:191-195 ). which are generally considered better and less expensive average odds for admission were about 1:5 . one study. TABLE5. SociaLScience in Tampere. for .therewere ·996 post-secondary .very competitive.even more competitive..ds. Table5. certaindepartments within . about 45% ofseniorhigh school graduatesattempt to gain admission (Shimohara 1991:206). traveling or taking a one-year orlonger course at one of. As of 1991.the many other institutions throughout the country.anore competitive. universities have a strict hierarchy. University (Thronson 1992: 52-54).extre:in. university adrnission .

In Finland. Differentdepartments havedifferentrequirements but theyusually assign points forthe matricu1ation examination. the competition for admission based on statistics is more intense in [apan than inPinland. 2. Results are posted on bulletin boards and students can examine their' grade and theirresults in comparison with all of the ·other students who took the test. unless the institution is one of the Swedish-speaking onesinthecountry. This isone reason forthe backwash effect which allowsthe c1assroom teacher at the lower level to focus on communicationrather than test training.7 millionhad graduated from high school that year..110 overall. and Osakai University. the test inc1udes a section for English which is the only foreign language which is universally taught in the country (Monbusho 1994b). from which the examination questions .universities a 1:10. In addition to subject tests given in Japanese for the various departments. The departments give prospective candidates areading -list. generally. In addition to the ranking system of post-secondary institutions.University.like their Finnish counterparts.in some cases. The English tests inc1ude vocabulary and grammar. Oneshould expecttofind more well known nationaluniversities. of which had probably taken the test beforeand not passed. Of the roughly5million Japanese university admission test takers in 1992.5 ratio and private . from the employment office (Marttila 1996j Opetusministeriö! Työministeriö 1993j 1994j 1995aj 1995b). senior high schools are also rariked according to the number of graduates they place inthe top universities (Brown and Yamashita 1995aj 1995bj 1995cj Reischauer 1988:191-195). The center tests are administered in January.apply tomore than one institution. Japanese universities. will come. Kyoto University . The national center exam does not inc1ude a listening component.. the majority. They have . university entrance requirements -vary . much more . The rest were students who had graduated in previous years. school 'in addition to the points that are assigned for their own test (Patosalmi and Pakkanen 1996).. design entrance tests at the localIevelexcept forthose which subscribe to the daigaku nyuushi sentaa (university entrance examination center) examination which is administered throughout the country similarly to the American SAT (Brown and Yamashita 1995aj 1995bj 1995c).admissions. competitive than the average . Eachuniversitydepartmentusually· administers its own ådmissionexamination'whichis given in Finnish. Most students taking it are also required to sit for another entrance examination at the university they wish to enter (Sasamoto 1995b). No foreign language component is usually inc1uded orr'thesetests. Although Japanese applicants.from institution to institution (Patosalmi 1996). like their Finnish counterparts. There are plans to inc1ude a listening component in 1999.5ratioof· applications per . They also inc1ude English on their entrance examinations and this was already a concern for 61% of the students polled as to why they study English. Lists arealso available. whichFinnish studentstakeat the end of upper secondary . Because the tests do inc1ude English. such as Tokyo . a backwash effect occurs and virtually the entire primary and secondary foreign language education system in the country trains their students to pass entrance examinations. Publie universities showed an approximate1:7.

R. junior .cluding a. selected from guide book .l1d Yamashita (199Sa. Brown and Yamashita (199Sai 1995b. some.dlita . others were. . and true-false items.other public. means. some .lexical or other perspective. of 20 institutions inc1uding the 10mostprestigiov. Listening questions inc1v.test papers which were usualIy English to-Japanese. that" 2.forand. This makesit difficult to . However. They state that any attempt to explain the types of questions on the examinations they analyzed would be an 'oversimplification' Brown a.shita 1995a.y.s publie a.nd private urtiversities. questions and . pther relevant items . "Or at ( ) she hides her pain prettywell" Fill in the blank with one of these words (some must change forms): "long. pass their exams.. AlI of. Some required choosing a phrase that best matched the one in question. Questions were written in English and in Japanese. hide.1Q .types ()f questi()ns(Brown and yama. types ofquestions (llld. 1995c).0lastic jOllrnals but writtel1 to help stud. and.throughout . this is the exception and not the rule.Tir. Brock (199S)inc1uded these examples of questions he found on Japanese universityentrance examinations. Brown and Yamashita 1995a.. h1 addition to thes.vailable atmost Japanese bookstores. and. Japanese entrance tests tend not to be standard and have a great variety of 19Q5b. 1995b. it. a widE!range ofothersare a.E! studygllides. 1995c) statethattheycould not find any specific examples of 'bad (199S) questions' in their research. 1.. . fill-in-the-blank.d. 1995b.the examinatioIlS includedin th. 1995c) state that even within the sub- category of multiple choice items a great variety of types of questions occurred. "In a pluralistic society where many different men form many - different groups for pursuing man's ends by many means _.ecently. Brown and Yamashita (199Sa.ent stud. colIeges have dropped English from their entrance tests in order to attract more students. inevitable. 1Q9Sc)analyzed the English sections Brown and Yamashita (199Sa.. dictation." Question: rearrange these word so that they correctly fill in the blank: "as.determine exactly what is being measuredand how. out. 1995b. the following examples by Brock illustrate that such questions do exist. However.ed Jill in the-blank. Their study looked at E!tnpirical. . 1995c).com:puter analysisof theJe. 111 been hailed in Japanese society as 'the root of alI evil' because of the stagnating effect manyfeeltheexams have on the English education system (Matsuyama 1978.and lQ99b). 1995c) also state that translations appeared on many of the.. while yet others posed straightforward questions. is.xis.Study were.. there were 'bad questions' in which the item wording was incorrect English from a grammatical.publishedby I<OukOu Eigo:KenkYl1u (1Q99a. The number of options ranged from 2 to 6. little.pan. Ja. 1995b. it is inevitable that not a11 ends will be compatible one with another: as ( ) Will prove inadequate for attaining the proposed ends. lose" . (Sasamoto 1995a). all.Jhese are not sch. Redfield (1992) states that in his study of the entrance tests of four universities. priyate urrlYE!rsities locatE!d.multiple-choice.rE!lated to the<exanrination in.

Tt is a kind of sick joke.50 minutes at privateuniversities. questions on the tests varied greatly from 8 at Keio University to 64 at Sophia University (Brown and Yamashita 1995a.not all of the questions on the Japaneseentranceexarninations are of thequalitythat Brock uses as exaUlples.ls should be asreliable.students..the. minutes for the national center examination. all of .$titutions and 80 . because of the effect the. tests are usuallymade by the .exist. Matters seem to be changing for the better.have on the.!nerally. Both the Redfield and the Brown and Yamashita studies point out that English entrance exarninations in general are very short. the more reliable it is gf.ati()ns . Of course. 1995b. 1995c) but was stated by Redfield (1992)... 1995b. .112 * The answers to entrance. Redfield (1992) points out that because ofhierarchyin the educational culture.submits their. In an interview. 1995c). This implies that the tests are not reliable. The results suggest that they are becoming more reliable.. averaging 93.2 is 'least'which according to the test keyis a form of 'lose'. (Brock 1995: 17) My feeling is that such questions should not be included on the entrance tests but the unf0rtunate truth is thatthey do.examfnatton question 1 is 'mevitable as itis that some means'and the answer to question." (Japanese ProfessorInformant 1) This may. questioJ. Each faculty meUlber .lives()f the. The informant also stated: "By and large the entrance examinations are improving. and yalid as possible Entrance.112. explain somejof the more exotic questions on some of the examinations." (Japanese Professor Informant 1) This suggests that thereis a trend to improve the tests that are so crudal for the students' lives. own questions. questions submitted by senior professors are not subject to review. They state that the number of . English . 1 am familiar with a study which will come out next year and is not yet available for citation which examined Japanese entrance examinations. a Japanese universityEnglish professor stated: "1have heard that some professors put very difficult or absurd questions on entrance tests of low-ranked institutions because they know that the students who apply to such school have limited English abilities. . .50 minutes at public irl. examin. Brown (1996) suggests that the longer a test is.For example. the foreign language component of the Finnish matriculation exam takes 1 +6 hours (Takala 1997). However.departInent of the particularUl1iversity. and puzzle-like questions are becoming a thing of the past. a fact not directly stated by Brown and Yamashita (1995a.

than the C.ttract students. the exception to entrance examinations that are given in one of the country's native languages takes place in departments where foreign languages are taught. put the .. skills needed to pass theexaminationsat great personai expense (Brown Frost 1991).quality ofpuzzles. These tests also ..entrance examination is .enter examination according to the Flesch-Kincaid readalJility.. there is a wide variety of special cram schoolscalled juku oryobiko in Japan where students leam the 1995.system. 1995c) state that no statistics on fairness or inter-testreliability on Japanese college entrance ..The subject is not inc1uded in order to (\.are.1978. passages in rthe .look. In other words. The most prestigiollS universities include English components without exception.ithas on the systemasa whole ..schools that train . which they wish to gain entrance. subjected to at theuniversities to . They analyzed . 1995b.. . Both Redfield (1992) and Brown and Yamashita (1995a. Redfield suggests that the English component of the entrance examination shouldbebanned because ofthe detrimental.5a. 1995c).'second test' in English. readability index which.. thus affecting admissions. the tests using the Plesch-Kincaid . Tsugiyos1:ri·1978. . 1995b. 113 Another.scales . something that willneverchange.mor .dollarsa year (Tanaka 1990).1995c)state that the tests contained textsthat wereabove thelevels w1:rich couldpossibly beattained through the public school.pass them is to. AF. take such tests.effect.. qu Stiol1S . Those seeking admission to the English department must pass test a in English. The "English industry" in Japan is warth severalbillion . The Center test is put togetherbya board andappears to be more reliable than the second test which the students .and greatgaps were .·1995b..attend private cram. at is as a'necessaryevil' or. a test paper. Brown and Yamashita (199.suggested that the . prospective Russian majors must pass a test in Russian and German department applicants are tested for German language skills.subject (Matsuyama .factor affecting the [apanese.· In fact. Mostarticles on the .for native speakers .are appropriate . .criticizetheexaminationsystem but. . theonly wayto. These indexes suggestthat texts inthe entrance examinations studied are too difficult." Gapanese Professor Informant 1) In Finland.difficuH.would get a lowergrade froma hardgrader than froman easy grader. language level abouttwogrades higher (Brown and Yamashita 1995: 89). exams are used in Japan thuscalling into question the system as a whole. Not al1 universitiesrequire a . TheFog index confirmed the results Jromthe Flesch-Kincaid scales but consistently. Redfield (1992). a Japanes English prafessorinformant stated: "lJsually institutions that donot inc1ude English on their entrance test are low ranked .irregular grading . Brown and Yamashita 1995a. at least.saysthat because many of the questions take on the ..apparent between easy graders and hard graders.who are between 11 to 21 years<olci. and both publie and private examinations were.the learners on how to. Redfield (1992)stated that temporary staff were asked tograde tests at · two af the schoolsinhis study. Pllblic institutions' test level wasone fullgrade higher thanthat af private institutions.

althoughvirtuallyall of the students whopasstheircourses can communicate in the languages that they choose. virtually . A writing component is also inc1uded where the test taker has the choice to write an essay on one of 3 4 - .kurs) before taking actual <classes for universityeredit. In certain cases. specialnon-creditcertificatesare . technical subjects=humanities ·or social scienceare admitted . Students whohave attained a sufficientlevel through studies abroad or the school system can test out of these required courses .none of the students areata highenough level atthe time ofadmission. ·While studying.forexampleinthe Russian Translation Department of the University of Tampere. they are easily analyzed as to what is measured and how it is measured. Instead. to graduatefrom the University.issued so students will continue toreceivetheir financial aid for the'first year' of.· for: example . This Issimilar . Some programsmay require . language departments.·They may or maynot inc1udean interview inthe foreign language.all ofthe new studentstakeone year of preparatory courses (podgotovitelnij. The tests inc1ude reading passages followed by multiple-choice questions. .those whostudy ·law.Al1 marking of more subjective parts ofthe. It teststheresultof thestudent's foreign language education as well as other subjects inc1udedin the students'education. So.take the course.to [apan where foreign language majors must take . open-ended questionsorsummary.They also test grammar and vocabulary with multiple-choice questions.114 vary. the English Translation Department would have adifferentexarn.fromthe ·EnglishPhilology Department. The matriculation test that contributes toward the deeision regarding university admission occurs at theendof upper senior high school (lukio). Every student in the cOuntry takes the same test on a given year.and receive credit without having to actually. essays is done by a carefully selected and continuously trained group of external assessors (Takala 1997). AlI of this contributes to the test's validity and reliability. In such cases. Studentswho arenötin foreign language programs. no foreign language testoccursinorder to gain admission for departments other than foreign . test such as. stringent.tests can take the form ofan interview withtwo native speaker faculty members or individual teachers may waverequirements basedona written test(Arffman and Marach1995). For English.rusually oneof the country's official languagesand oneother foreign language.more than two foreign languages. Because the foreign language component of the tests are the same for the entire country. ··For example. without taking a foreign language test.a more detailed test in the target language. The test is designedevery year by a national testing board (Takala 1993) and used by university departments as part of criteria for admission.from year to year or from department to department within thesame foreign language. Students who fail may attempt the test again on the following testing occasion.· Theserequirements are not very .". they must pass a basic requirement. The rnain point is that 'to enter Finnish tertiaryeducation.course work which is actuallytheir second year inthe university (Orpana 1988: 59). graduationrequirements aredictated which ensure foreign language proficiency.

This can provide the students and teachers with study guidelines and he1p thern prepare. chernistry and religious knowledge . 5chools do not know what test type will be applied at any one time. physics.Multipletest types. These would their matriculation exarn to be tested on four out of five include mother tongue. psychology. Chemistry. there is no translation cornponent.sought to prornote meaningfulpractice at schoo1s (Takala 1997).. Geography. 115 topics.. geography..students can examine their gradeand their results in cornparison with the other students whotake the test. Biology. Results are published openly in order toestablish accountability. Philosophy. The duration for the foreign language cornponent is + . The matrlculation examination consists of: Mother Tongue Swedish/Finnish (second officiallanguage) Second Language Choice of either: Math or General Knowledge ('Reaali') Answer 10 questions from the following subjects: History. It is worth rnentioning that since1990 there existsa variety of approved test types for all testing domains. the test contains listening cornprehension section assessed a bymultiple-choice and open-ended questions.includes history. Religion and Psychology OptionaI Tests The results of the Finnish matriculation exarnination are analyzed statistically and there is constant work towards irnproving the test itself (Takala 1993).hours which adds to 1 6 the test's reliability. 1earners and whoever wants to exarnine thern.that in Finland asin Japan.Physics. philosophy. . Thetests would be given at two levels.procedure was adopted . The proposal was not adopted but suggests . Previous tests are availab1e for inspection for teachers. mathernatics. And finally.» This .the other nationalIanguage. Oral proficiency was recomrnended as the focus of the new systern and oral tests would be administered at the schools in the beginning but would be supported by centrally prepared tests. Unlike in the J apanese entrance exarninations. It suggested that students be given a choice on subjects . educators see test reforrn as an option for irnproving their country's education systern. a foreign language and general knowledge which . advanced and basic. An interesting proposal was introduced by a national work party which was set up to make recornrnendations regarding the rnatricu1ation exarnination (Cornmittee Report 1993: 25).. This systern would rnake it possible to rnatriculate without taking a foreign language test exarnination (Takala 1993).. After the test .to avoid one-sided 'teaching-to-a-test' practicein schools..

vocationalhighschoo1s (ammattioppilaitos) which teach carpentry. 5. 50. because of the backwash effect it has on foreign 1anguage education as a who1e. is an essentia1 factor .. they gave one general test to everyone at the same 1evel. At the junior high schoo11eve1. It should be noted that in Japan.external tests are given. no mandatory . Smaller tests are given at regu1ar interva1s throughout theeducation process. Actua1 testing is planned at the local level by the facu1ty of the individua1 institution. meta1 work. Other non-collegeboundoptions include technica1 high schoo1s/colleges (teknillinen oppilaitos) which teachengineering to thelevel roughly equiva1ent to the American Associate of Arts orBachelor of Arts. instead. Suchstudentsaccount forFinnish attendance statisticswhich exceed 100% (Kurian 1985).. About 4. One Finnish teacher informant stated: "Our local tests are usually designed by one of the teachers here in the school. have other altematives. or lukio. questions even at this 1eve1 could be tricky and puzzle-like in order to prepare the learners for the upcoming entrance tests (Duke 1986). foreign 1anguage tests given during the school term tended to come direct1y from the textbooks studied in class and were observed to test the students.Their importance is thattheydetermine the grades which in turn determine whether or not students are allowed to enter the college-bound upper high school. one test is given to all of the students.116 Students who do not gain adrnission to upper secondaryschool.. individua1 teachers did not give theirown tests to their own students. commercial schoo1s / colleges (kauppaoppilaitos ) which teach economic and business subjects up to the American Associate of Arts or Bachelor of Arts 1evel. over the materia1s that are covered in their lessons. Basic guidelines are provided by the Ministry ofEducation regarding course content. Foreign 1anguage education in these institutions varies. hairdressing and other practica1 trades. In Finland and Japan.4 Summary An understanding of a nation's system of testing. then agreed to by all of the other teachers. baking. In addition. some of these offer stanclard foreign tests such as the Oxford Business English Test (Riihimäen Kauppaoppilaitos 1992)." (Finnish Teacher Informant 1) In the schools observed. Again students are assessed on their foreign 1anguage abilities at the end of their courses. which contributes to their validity. These tests are designed and administered locally and are the basis for progres assessment.000 studentsevery year choose 'to spend another year in junior high schoo1s brushing up their: skills unti1 they decide what todo (Parviainen 1992) . or lukio.

TABLE 5.3 TendenciesIn Language Testing For College Bound Students In Finland And [apan Finland Japan Uniform Matriculaticm Test at the Center test is administered at the end of senior high school (lukio) end of senior high school. vocabulary questions based on fully some like puzzles. In addition.system. authentic or siightly adapted source Puzzle questions are decreasing texts (Continued) . This sectionhas sought to sh0'Wthat testingtakes . testing system is generallyreliable. but not for everybody No external testing in the Senior high school entrance test is comprehensive school (grades 1-9) administered at the end of junior highschool University entrance tests in Li Most university entrance tests . the absence of external examinations at the junior high schoollevel in Finland suggests that one cannot c1aim that the testing$yster. The Japanese entrance examination system at the university and senior high schoollevel appears to produce a negative backwasheffect throughout the language education . departments counting 10-50% of the grade Standard matriculation exam Standard center test University-specific English tests vary greatly One test one difficulty level - Center test one difficulty level - Other tests vary greatly in - difficulty Test inc1udes no translation Many tests inc1ude translation component components Listening component Most tests do not contain listening components Straight-forward grammar and Great variety in grammar questions.have except for foreign language an English language component. This study found number a of majordifferences in English language testing within the two systems.n has a negative backwash on the system.on adifferent role in Japan fhan in Finland. ···It has also suggested that the Finrrlsh. 117 when discussing foreign language teaching and learning.and valid.

attitudes of those designing the tests and the systems. It is hoped thatthis chapter' s sketch ofthe subject can be useful in contributing tothe reader's understanding of English teachingand learning in the two countries' settings.118 (Continued) Reading followed by multiple-choice Reading passages at many levels questions with. .3-4 choices.There are many ways in which to analyzethese differences. and validity validity Most university-specific tests created locally with no research on validity or reliability Positive backwash effect Negative backwash effect in many cases which promotes test taking at the expense of practical skills The great differences in the testing systems indicate that there is a pronounced difference inthe . the effects of testing on the educational settings will be discussed either directly or indirectly. open-ended questions questions Essay writing component Most tests do not inc1ude essay component National Board creates matriculation Centertest is created by a Board: testi Board studies reliability and Board studies reliability. Throughout the present study. summary with various means of assessment or.

It should also be noted that in [apanese culture. who completed similar questionnaires in the spring of 1994 ina smallFinnish town.'honne '. . explain why thisis so.or the polite .perspectivesof Finnishand. The teachers provided clarifications and translations. a student may haveanswered what he or she perceived to be the expected answer instead of what was really feIt.of difficult sections.the most effective .1 Leamer Attitudes This section will examine the way EnglishIanguage.is a distinction betweenwhat . perhaps .highschool students were surveyed.This may be reflected in the answering of questionnaires (CLAIR 1991:34).' 'tatemae'.of .It should be noted that not all. The English Ianguage questionnaires were distributed during c1assandthe students wereasked.the students responded to all of the questions. approximately the .. For example. In [apan. It is important to examine how students perceive language education in order to arrive at a deeper understanding of an educationsystem.is .some were . 100 third-year junior high school students were polled in the 129 town that was studied as to their attitudes toward English and inFinland. to complete them. The data in this section consists of questionnaires that were completed in the fallof 1992. .except to say that perhaps some students did not understand the questions.sameage as their Japanesecounterparts.said.too bored toanswerthemor perhaps somethought it funny not to completethe form.educationis perceived by the students of a juniorhigh schoolin a small town in [apan.The . attitudes of Finnish Iearners. second-yearjunior. there .linguistic formulas used to promote harmony within the group andthe real meaning. 119 6 LEARNER AND TEACHER ATTITUDES 6.Japanese English teachers will be incorporated in the second section of this chapter.Jt isdifficult to. It will alsoexamine the. the questionnaires were determined to be . This may have led to some bias in the resuIts. Even so.

.': questionsrelatedto the educational institutions were slightly . 1 taught. This indicates that academic achievement was the most important aspect of language education to these students. 1 visited the school many times before the surveys were conducted so the students were familiar with the project and who was conducting it. assistant language teachers and students. played sports with and knew the Japanesestudents for over a year. 6. the Finnish junior high school students were asked about their matriculation examinations while the Japanese were asked about their senior high school entrance examinations.. 1992b. In [apan. This should contribute to the students' willingness to provide honest answers and my ability to interpret them. Only 21 (16%) of theFinnishlearnersrated their matriculation examinations as a reason for studying English.1 Why Do You StudyEnglish? For this question. questions related to team-teaching were omitted from the Finnish questionnaire because foreign assistant language teachers do not teach in the country's schools. results indicate the percentage of students that chose each answer.This was the highest response followed by Ito pass their junior high school tests' (54%). This is echoed in the literature on the subject (Tanigawa 1991. It is my feeling that this kind of research produces more valid results than 'one-shot' research (Sloss 1995) in which a stranger visits a school where he is not familiar with the learners. in response to 'Why do you study English?'. In Finland. students wererequested to choose as many·answersas they liked from a list of alternatives. differentbecause the systems are notthe same. 61% of the students responded that the main reason they studied English was to pass their senior high school entrance examinations.several choices were provided and students were instructed to mark as many answers as they liked. Wada 1991)and should come as no surprise to anyone familiar withEnglish language teaching in [apan. Before administering the survey. Cominos 1992a.In addition. and extensivereading.one 14 1 originally designed in the hopes of improving the questionnaires my own teaching and understanding my students. Also.1. Inmanyofthequestions. Many elements contributed to the formulation of the questions. 61% indicated senior high school entrance examinations and 54% indicated junior high school tests. For example. this seems to provide an argument against the current testing system of Japan. On the surface. a c1assroom observation diary which had been kept for over two terms. observes it for a day or two and then draws conc1usions and presents results. Since the survey was given in [apan first". including interviews with [apanese and Finnish teachers.120 way to gather responses because of number of participants in the survey the and because anonymity may have reduced the need to be polite. In such cases. And. teachers or the system. In the question 'why do you study English?'. certain modifications were necessary in order to administer it to the Finnish learners.

. administered 1990). being cruclal in a Japanese citizen's development to.· Of all theFinns surveyed. These were written in by the students themselves on the questionnaire form.38%16 of the Japanese students were planning 'to pursue their education tothe collegeor university level. They are. high school entrance examination.the .too far in fhe future for.. a degreethat those outside Japan may find difficult to comprehend (Reischauer 1988.soon after .speak 49% 84% To understand 48% 85% 42% 66% T() travel to foreign countries To talk to foreigners 46% 66% To listen to English music 26% 51% To watchEnglish movies 26% 56% To read books. In retrospect. Itwas therefore probably.S. The [apanese students were not asked in the survey if university 1 entrance examinations were a concern to them because was concerned at the timewith senior high school entrance examinations.Practicallyall (98%) of the Japanese studentsin the town studied. This may betterexplain the rather low showingof. therefore.go tosenior high schooland faced ()::'akuba theirentrance examinations .ndicatedthattheywishedto attend theupper highschool (lukio) where the matriculation examination would he given some three years in the future . 121 must dndeed consider the profound effect fhe ...s. magazines 19% 40% Other: 1 likeEnglish 1% Use computer 1 student 1 student Penpals Talk to English father 1 student 1 student Because 1 have to The high school entrance test in [apan determines to a greatextent which university one will attend and subsequentlyone's positionin life. portrayed by the mass media and perceived by manyin the country a. only60%i..survey W<'l. 16 38% reflects the 25% who plan to apply to university and the 13% who hope to attend 2-year coJleges. Cummings 1980)..the Finnish examination in the survey compared with the Japaneseview of thesenior. asking about the importance of university entrance AJl answers were given on the questionnaire then checked off by the learners except for those 15 which are Iisted atter other.the Finnish learners to consider it at the time ofthis survey .1 Reasons For Studying English (%t Japan Finland Why do YOll study English? High school entrance tests 61% Matriculationexamination 16% junior high school tests 54% 33% To. TABLE 6..entrance examination has on English education in the minds of the Japanese learners.

This indicates thattheIapanese learners had very little exposure to English. having native speaker assistantlanguage teachers for internationalization at the locallevel. Also. This could be argued to have a greateffect on. It also. In contrast. . In contrast.lack of contact with foreign people has more to do with geography than attitudes because the majority ofthe Japanese students (79%) indi9ated that they wanted to go abroad to visit an English-speaking country. This suggests that communicating in the target language is the priority for the Finnish learners..see English more as an academic subject than a tool to communicate. In contrast. in addition to what could be a sincere desire to get toknow foreign people and thus become 'more international'. for. states that 'internationalization in the context of the JET Program really refers to humanization which can be broken down into internal internationalization and external internationalization' . Although one could suggest that the examination system in Iapan is the cause for the low level of communicative skills comparedwith the Finnish students. as far more important than the Finnish learners do.why the . all of whom had probably been foreign assistant language teachers in their school. the Finnish students' top responses were 'to understand' (85%) and 'to speak' (84%).high in the Finnish survey as it did in the [apanese survey where 'to talk to foreigners' was ehosen by 46% and 'to travel outside of Japan'was ehosen by (42%).insight . 'to understand' (48%)and 'to talk to foreign people'(46%) which indicated a desire to communicate with foreigners. a differenceof 21percentage points further indicates that the Japanese .the Finnish learner it WaS a reality. travel abroad and contact with foreign people was an abstract concept.Iapanese leamers . This would entail a substantial expense for them. 33%of the Finnish students indicated thattheir juniorhigh schooltests were one reason whythey studied English which is muchcloser tothe 54 %in [apan.: However. studying English. The ability tospeak English is highly regarded in [apanese popular culture and having foreign friends and acquaintances is seen by many to boost one's social standing.'to travel' (66%) and 'to talk to foreigners' (66'%)rated . Only one of the [apanese students had been abroad. The [apanese learners'next most popularresponses were Ito speak' (49%). taking. . perceptions oftheir English education. 92% of the Finnish respondents had traveled abroad whereas only one of the [apanese respondentshad been to a foreign country. as opposed to doing well on . This indicates that for the [apanese students in the survey.. is reflected in the attitudes of the junior high school students surveyed.122 examination would have vprovided: additional . to Guam.. The .of . lecturer at Tsukuba University and former Monbusho Assistant Language Teacher Advisor.leamers' . For example. but the majority of the Japanese learners polled had spoken to only two or three foreigners.such as test. Robert Juppe. speakers or foreigners at aH . over half of the Finnish respondents had spoken with severaLforeign people. suggested the value .Iearners · see aeademic reasons for . This. it is only one factor and a realistic evaluation of the situation should also cite other reasons. examinations. into the .

advantage ef this by effering mere subtitled English language breadeasts. about 400/0 of the Finni$l\ learners indieated that they read Epglishperiedicals This is .40%and 56%.ge nu\terials in thepublie libraries and leeal peoksteres. qubbed.. This llluSt have a pesitive effeet en their langua. learners in the study sug ests the p()sitive effect en the . 21% indieated that they watched between 1 and 5 heurs weekly.1992).indieated that they watched 20 between 10 and 20 heurs a . also .attihldes and language skills . . This is a Japanese teenager spends .heurs a mb:timaleonsidering .urs. In contrast.. Yicie() . 40% indicated that they watched betwe n 6 . m()vies in Japan are.and 15% indicated that they-watchedever ho. the way in whlch pepular English lallguage televisien shews were diseussed ameng the. Finland.: This again rnust be seen . they Werenet eOlllmenameng the tural Japanese. the exeeptien·ef music. students get te the target language (Sajavaara 1993).and 10heurs a week. using the language outside of c1ass while they were. with rareexeeptiens. 52% .60 .indieated that.ge ski1ls beeause ef the .week . and ether English langua.school. 123 (Kaneko 1997: 3).ef the learners. fereign language... edueatien.that theaverage menth in frent ef the .ines'muchhlgherthan their Japanese eeunterparts afbetween. virtually all ferms ef rnass media.ines'at 6-19%. dramas and ether pregrams en televisien.televisien (Fex . Fereign televisien shews and . effers a variety ef En lish language mevies. 56% .rural [apan may have a heavy influenee en the answer. In Japan.ilistening tomusic'and 'reading booksand maga:z. studentsindicated thaf they listened te fereign music in English fer an average ef 4 heurs per week whlch was . maga:z. The Finnish students teek full advantage ef this. with. Therespense te the question.. contribute te . Japan were numereus and 76% ef the learners indieated that they watched En lish mevies. extra expesure thatthe.Which aUew fereignpregrams te be viewed in their eriginallanguage. Hewever. aside from one shelf-full in the local publie library. evidenee that more of the Finnish learners seeEnglish as something realand usable than their [apanese counterpartsbeeause they indieatedthattheywere already. menth . is pet a questien this studywill.ef the Japanese. Whether er net watching that much teleyisionis unhealthy. en the etherhand. The Iimited access te thesetypes of items in. ef English pregramming a w-eek.ines.address. Bilingtlal televisiens are available ... there were praetically ne English language books.te books. Even theugh this study did lletfeeus enthe effeets ef televisienpregrams en. ··The Finnish learners rated'watching movies'. However. 18% .which may. newspapers or other periodicals available.question. The Japanese eeuld ei'lsily take.as.theresults of this . watching a substantial nUlllber ef English pregrams. magazines orcomics. The Japanese learners had not studied the language as longas. probably because of greater aeeess . they did se ()nly2-4 heurs. Only 13% of the [apanese students indicated that they read English books. Thejet Program is diseussed in more detail in ChapterThree. rental steres nearthe tewn thatw-as studiedin. their Finnisheeunterparts . 'listening te music' and 'reading books and maga:z. are in Japanese.stillinjunior high.· Thls appears te be sueeeeding in the setting that was studied. In the tewnthat was studied. "Whyde you study English?" was followed inthe [apanese survey byrwatchlngmoviesv.

outside the . However.of a song. the results ofthe surveyindicatedthat the Finnish . goals.uses. there wassubstantially more radio programming in English Which pr()bably contributed to generating interest in English music and.This indicates thatthe Finnish 'learners have ·substantially moreexposure 'to English . assistant. subsequently. . the local community was .lyrics . programming: was.the other hand inclicated that practical use of English was . listening skills.in thearea. In Finland.79% of the Finnish students indicated that they had spoken with a foreigner which was only slightly less than in Japan where 82% stated that they had spoken English with a foreigner.might receive greater emphasis than practical goals. again. discsstores.f()reigners had been in the schools.IistenedstoEnglish musicoutsideof c1ass. primary goal for learning the language. inc1uding 19% that listened over 20 hours a week. c1assroom in the formof music than their [apanese counterparts. In Finland.in. This section of the suryeysuggested that the Japanese students' primary goal for learning the target language was test taking. Of fhese. college-bound Finnish students were po11ed before their matriculation examinations..1.usic has on understanding the . The llinns.0ther assistant language teachers suggesting that for many of the learners the only direct contact with.whosing in quasi-Bnglish are also popular. Radio. it has been noted that if the. academic . takirlg into account the low level of the students and the often muddling effect . other hand. oneteacher suggested that: "Although theOapanese) students mayUsten toEnglish music. Three.2l{oW Many Foreigners Have You Talked To? Theresponses to this question indicate the real impact of having foreign . had no foreign assistantsin their schools. were also seen as imP9rtant.primarily: in Japanese inthe countryside. language teachers in the communityand the lack of exposure to foreign peop e which is common in rural Japan. However. 78%of the. while some practical and recreational.available in the Japanese countryside from compact .ll1.assistant language teachers had taught in the town with occasional visits from .students had more exposure 10 English language music: outsideof the . Japanese respondentshad talked to four or less foreigners in their lives. on the. yet they had a great deal more contact with foreign people than their Japanese counterparts. The Finnish students on . beneficial in order to expose the students to a foreigner. This is especially interesting because a11 of . they are more interested in the melodies than the words" (Iapanese ProfessorInformant 1) This is understandable. 6.their.Japanese bands .. 34% indicated thatthey listened 5 hours or less while the rest listened substantially more.classroom .. 89% indicated that they. indicates that the presence of the assistant language teachers . This. . Foreignmusicwas .124 substantial in comparison to theirotherout-of-classroom exposure to English.

or other fOrJllS of tertiary education or pursuing vocational education. is usually not stressed in Finland.foreigners .One couldalso cite these statistics as evidence supporting the argumentthat the reason Japanese learners choose more .how.. Perhapsmany thought the questions meant foreigners otherthan the assistant. The [apanese teacher indicated that allof the students wished to attend . This indicates that the learners were planning to apply to more than one institution and to declde after gaining admission which one to attend. that stillleaves 7 students whoresponded thatthey had not spoken with a foreigner and 6 other students whodid not respondto this question atall. The Finnish learners indicated practical reasons for studying English.learning disabilities who didnot . Interestingly enough. . foreigners with 77% indicating that they·had spoken to40r less. 1990). Finnish students marked that they were planning to attend university.1.teacher: foreign. 125 theJapanese learners had been forcedto dosoat one time oranother in their English c1asses. These include trying to enter the university. This leads tothe obvious question:whythe disparity? · There were studentswith .language . as early as junior high school. less than 5%of the . language .teacher. The Finnish leamers' answers to the question produced interesting results. advance. It ·becomesobvious that contact .muchcontact the Finnish studentshad withforeigners comparedwith the [apanesestudents.: It is certain that the students would considerthe: assistant . Japanese call their armed forces. None of the Japanese Ieamers indicatedthatthey had spoken .to more than 5. The upper secondary school is a time fgr learning about one's abilities and about one's preferences concerning a great many options. theoretical and academic reasons for studying English is because they have very littlepractical use for the language. This stands in sharp contrast . perhaps becausethey havecome across more situations where the target language is useful. Delaying one' s career choice is acceptable in Finland and taking a break after the matriculation examination in order to declde which path to follow is a fairly common practice (Takala 1997). 88% indicated that they intended to go to high school. 46%of the Finnish learners hadspokenwith 1-5 . This shows. 161 responses were recorded from 129 students for their plans immediately following junior high school.. which is what the . 6. My theory is that the Finnish learners had not made A career choice.theyhadbeen instructed to considertheassistant language teacher a foreigner.One could citethe reasons previouslylisted onresponding to questionnaires. 6% indicated they would go to work and 2% chose the selfdefense . suggesting thattheyhad not thought that far in.inspires interest in . especlally concrete long-term plans regarding their education.with . learning a foreign language. This accounted for99% of the respondents. However..foreigners and 19% indicatedthat they had spoken to more than 5.3 How Far Do You Wish To Pursue Your Education? Of the learners that responded.force. although. high school and town statistics indicated that 97% would attend(Yakuba 3% indicated they wished to go to an agricultural high school.fill dn the questionnaires.

1990). the . There is a special word for this in Japanese. there isa wide-spread belief that the examination system and other factors lead to 'well over half' of the studentshating Englishas a subjectin school." (Iapanese Teacher Informant 2) In the town surveyed.4 Do You Like English? In [apan. Three. Questions regarding intentions . .One student wrote she wanted to attendhorse economy high school.·· This is because of ·the. Another contributing factor could be that at the time of the study.7% of Japanese high school students advancedinto . getting a <good education isdrilled into most children from an early age (Reischauer 1977.a view which appeared to not be as prevalent amongtheir Japanese counterparts.systemrin regard to employment. one . In 1991 of 37. the number of students with an 'Eigo Kirai' attitude was substantially less thanperceived by 'experts'.47% indicated that they wanted toattend technical high school (ammattikoulu). the percentage a of who indicated they wished to pursue higher education the students surveyed corresponded almost exactly with the national average of students who actually do.rigidity . the number of students who hate English (36%) roughly corresponds to the number .the examination [apanese teacher suggested that perhaps a 'sour grapes' complex develops when . studentsdid notanswer.of fhe Japanese .terestingly enough. do so. 10% indicated that they wanted to attend economichigh school (kauppaoppilaitos) and 6% indicated thatthey planned to go to work.1. However.This suggests that students in Finland considervocational education a viable option for aprosperous future.students who want to speak Englishrealize that in order to. m. 59%of the Finnishstudents indicated that theywished to attend lukio. 6. they must study. Interestingly enough. Furthermore. . English was practically a mandatory subject in the town. definite plans whichinc1uded universityeducation (25%).education .126 to the Japanese learners who appeared from the questionnaireto have made dear..liked English. The examinationsystem (Tanigawa 1992: is often blamed for the dislike 45-46). 36% the third-year students indicated that they hated English which remarkable because 100% of the first is year students indicated that they .two-or four-year universities (Ueda 1993: 224).to continue education beyond high school were relevant forthe Japanese because English would be rieeded inorder to pass the university entrance examination (Tanigawa 1992). although system may be a factor. As one teacher reported: "The anxiety over theentrance examination leads to the majority of students hating English. 13% responded that they wanted to go toa two-year college and 25% responded thatthey wanted to attend four-yearuniversity orbeyond. 'Eigo Kirai'. the upper high school for college-bound students.. of students who do not wish or will not be able to pursue their education past high school (31%).

The survey also suggested that the situationin [apan is not as bad as many perceive it to be. 1995c) suggest Thronson (1992) and Brown and Yamashita that in theJapanesecase. the percentage of students who take such c1asses is small. Interviews suggest that some students take cram courses shortly beforetaking their matriculation examinations and still others take cram courses in order to pass university entrance tests for particularly competitive programs. there is a perception that over half of the students hate English and this is often cited as a reason to overhaul the system. About the same number of [apanese students indicated that they studied the subject at home 1-4 hours a week.42%of the [apanese learners indicated that they liked English and 17% stated that. OftheFinnish learners. it is not as threatening asit is.the disparity between what is expected on university entrance examinations and whatis taught inthe public and private primary and secondary schools. 6. However. 1995b.the students than the teacher-centeredclasses observed in Iapan. It is in theirculture.weak perforrnanceinschool can Iead to low self-esteem.78% indicated that they liked English and7% stated that they did not likeEnglish.r-centereddassrooms that were observed inFinland were betterliked by . Although the percentage is quite high when compared·toFinnish learners. this indicates that the public system is deficient and therefore the private supplementary system exists.is not likely to create interest in studying. This small study shows that only about a third of the students suffer from the 'Eigo-kirai' or Hate-English syndrome. This.Without a doubt. 127 boring nature of the structural methods that appeared in the regular Japanese English Iessons . together with what has been said previously. schoo1s for primary and secondary school students exist because of . However. According to Thronson (1992). compared with the [apanese. .5 Do You Take Private English Lessons? 70% of the [apanese 1earners indicated that they took private English lessons at 'cram schoo1s'.they neither liked nor hated English.1. An average [apanese student may be taking a variety of academic subjects and. suggests that the students had very little contact with the language outside of school with the exception of their grammar-based cram school lessons. Somepracticing teachers go 80 faras to suggest that the dislike for boring Englishc1asses may evencause wider social prob1ems such as teenage alcoholism andsmoking (Kiguchi 1995).generally c1aimed to be. As previously stated. 15% were undedded. (199Sa. it must be kept in mind thatthe [apanese as a people tend to take 1essons.In contrast. privatesupplemental.Ieamers' attitudes towardthe subject of English itself suggests that the learne. in addition. was minimal to say the least. ikebana or Japaneseflower arranging or cooking. Only 6 out of 129 Finnish students took private English lessons outside of c1ass which. Thedifferencebetween the . c1asses such as tea ceremony.

On the other hand. Thus. Iwould argue thatthe . 'English Industry' isbroughtaboutboth by: Japanesecultural faetorsand bydisparitiesbetween . This means that thereisa tremendous market for educational services. The virtual non-existence of private English schools catering to elementaryand secondaryschool students in Finlandcan be attributed to thesefactors. . In addition. ayear on this industry . This can be explained by the Japanese form of politeness which requires one to notemphasize his or her own strong points (Kobayashi 1995). 11% rated themselves as bad indicating that they did not see themselves as effective .128 English. 6. in addition to many other subjects. (Tanaka 1990:131). 41% rated their ability asOK These three categories add up to almost 50% of the respondents.6 How Good is Your English? Students in both countries were· asked to rate their English ability. but. rate themselves in relation to the amount of time they had been studying the language. . TABLE 6. The students were explained that they should not rate themselves compared to a native speaker of the language. more than 7% of these learners were rated bytheir teachers as being better than OK in their English ability.is expectedon examinations.otherpublic or semi-public institutions. . Finns do not usually take lessons as a hobby and those that docan find very Iow-cost Iessons offeredat schools and .for thelarge numbersof private language schools catering to students in [apan.. instead. Therefore. the Finnish education system generally provides instruction which enables hard-working students to enter universities without extensive additional training. rated themselves as being good or very good. This also accounts. The [apanese spend about five billion US dollars.what .. However. the large number of schools. .2 Self-Assessment af English Proficiency(%) [apan Finland Verygood 4% 16% Good 3% 21% OK 41% 40% NotGood 15% 11% Bad 11% 4% VeryBad 7% 9%(all boys) zen zen wakaranai 6% 1 understand nothing (not inc1uded on Finnish survey) Noresponse 13% 5% 7% of the Japanese students.1. .inc1uding all of the university-bound students. is for many a 'hobby' long afterthethreat of examinations orschool failure is over. 15% of the Japanese learners rated themselves as not good.what is taught in the schools and ..

is asharp contrast totheJapatlesestudents. Finnish adults rate themselves as poor communicators (Sajavaara 1993).·40% rate their own languagerability as being OK. itappears that the Japanese students spend more time . This indicates that overall. studying than the Finnish students. the Finnish learners polled had a positive view of-their English language sldlls. and this is probably 50. 129 communicators in English. 11 % of the Finnish learners rate their English skills as not good and a mere 5% rated their skills as bad or very bad. This .· ·Inaddition. results are generally considered more important than the effort that goes into achieving them. In Finland.should contribute to their having better skills than their Finnish counterparts. TABLE 6. For the Japanese. The Finns.7 How Many Hours A Week Do You Study English At Home? The answers to this question show a cultural difference between Japan in Finland 0Il the surface. based on this survey. Therefore. In other words. Takala (1997) further states that the quality of the work on English is a major factor .1. 7% rated themselves as being very bad and 6%rated themselvesas 'Iknow nothing'. thereis a cultural factor that affects how one considers the results of this question..39%ofthe students who say they hate English. when one factors in the amount of time the Finnish learners spend . putting effort into what one does is held in high esteem: trying very hard is almost as important as the results of a project. This24% added to the 13% who did not respondto thisquestion constitutesapproximatelythe .Iistening to English music.The results also provide an interestingcontrast to studies which suggestthat .. on the other hand. However. However. 37% of those polled rated themselves as good or very good in their target languageability. watching English television programs and videos and other exposure they have .3 Self-Estimate Of Hours Spent StudyingEnglish At Home (%) [apan Finland How many hours a week do you study English at home? 1hr/wk 10% 44% 2-4hrs/wk 56% 44% 7% 2% more than 8 hrs Ellis (1983)states that the amount of time spent studying seems to be an importantfactor in second language acquisition. one could argue that the amount of time the Japanese study . 6.. beingOKorbetter. 77% of the Finnish students ratedtheir .skills as . have a positive view of theirability to use English. it may well be that the language education reform in the increased language skills and rendered students more confident. 1970's has However. These two categories only add up to 16% of learners which is a small percentage. In addition.

and the lack of exposure to English through traveling could be seen as a factor reducing learning motivationamong the Japanese students. indicates that the Japanese learners have limited contact with foreign people. yet they expect to have such contact later in their Iives. . This is probably due to the relatively low cost and ease of travel from Finland to neighboring countries and the high cost of travel abroad from Japan.9 Surumary Tms section has sought to look at the attitudes of the students in a town in rural [apan and a town in Einland.1. Virtually all of the Finns had beenabroad while only one of the [apanese had.8Will You Use English In Your LHe? Tms variable shows that the students of both countries perceive that they will useEnglish intheir lives. the timing of the questionnaires probably influenced the results. Had Finnish students been polled . students already have more . Be as itmay.it becomes dear that Finns spend rnore .v: Tms is especially interesting because the survey . The results of the survey indicate that the Japanese learners surveyed tend to view English as a subject to study in order to pass schoolexaminations and see cornmunication as secondary while the Finnish learners seem to see the language as something to learn in order to use in cornmunication.as their senior high school final examinations were approaching. the immediate need for English for the· Finns appears to serve somewhat as a motivating faetor.time working with the language compared to the Japanese. Ithasdiscussed and contrasted these attitudes and sought to explain them. 6.4 LikelihoodOf Using English Later In Life (%) [apan Finland Will you use English in your life? Yes often 9% 22% Yes sometime 39% 37% Maybe 32% 29% No 8% 3% 1 don't know 6% 9% No response 6% Tms survey has shown thatthe Einnis]. 6.1. The Japanese learners had spoken to very few foreign people while the Finnish students had spoken to substantially more. .130 to the L2 in comparison with their Japanese counterparts.their lives. Tms must have a contributing effect to their higherlevel of proficiency.contact with foreign people and this section confirms that they expect to maintain such contact throughout. Table 6. However. tests would almost certainly have been an important reason for studying English.

assorneikind ofmotivationfor many ofthe learners from both countries. This was due to the broadcasting policy in Finland where subtitled . 17% neither liked or hated English and36% hated the.85% How many foreigners have you talked to? less 77% more than 5 30% 1 to5 46% Have you traveled abroad? Yes 1% Yes 92% Do you Iike English? Yes 42% Yes78% Yes and no 17% No 7% Nq (I hate it) 36% Don't know 16% Do you take private lessons? Yes70% No 95% How rnany hours a week do you study English at home? 1 hr/wk 10% lhr/wk44% 2-4 hrs/wk 56% 2-4 hrs/wk 44% morethan morethan 8hrs 7% 8hrs/wk2% Do you watch English videos or TV programs? Yes 76% Yes 96% usually 2-4 hours 6-10 hrs/wk 40% amonth 51% 10 20 hrs/wk 18% 20+ hrs/wk 15% Do you listen to English music? Yes52% Yes89% usually less than usually more than 4 hours a week 5 hours a week Will you use English inyour life? Yes 48% Yes 60% The Finnsoverwhelminglyliked to study English while 42% of the japanese liked English. serves.5 SummaryOfLearnerAttitudes Japan Finland Why do you study English? SHS Tests 61% SHS Test 16% (Percentagesof the totallearners JHS Tests54% JHS Tests33% surveyed. which reflects the notion that study is more highly valued in [apan than in Finland. the numberof Japanese who hatedthe targetJanguage was substantially lower than generally thought. The Finns watched substantially more television and listened to more music in English than their Japanese counterparts which increases their exposure to English. subject. AIthough a higher percentage of the [apanese students than of the Finns disliked English.they may travel some day and need English probably Still. TABLE 6. 131 thethought that .Students could rnark to Speak 49% to Speak 84% as many answers as they like) to understand 48%tounderstand. The Japanese learners studied a bit more than the Finnish learners.

" (Finnish Teacher Informant 1) The Finnish teachers appeared to have assimilated 'new' teaching methods emphasizing communication to the extent that 1 did not encounter a foreign .environment . AlI in alI. The way in which teachers view the learners is an essential component of understanding the cultural factors which determine the student attitudes in the two countries studied. many of the methods used in the classroom now. their contact with foreign people.2.The varying attitudes expressed by the students can be used as a barometer of the successes and failures within the two countries' language education systerns.. The folIowing section will discuss teachers' attitudes in relation to Hofstede's (1986) 4-D Model.exposure to the target language . individualist cultures reflect a positive association in society with whatever is 'new' according to Hofstede (1986.1. The most significant differences arethe ways in Which the students view testing. the Finnish students were exposed to the English . As one informant stated: "When 1 studied English in school the teachers used grammar-translation methods almost exc1usively. The way in which the students themselves rate their English language ability suggests that those surveyed do not necessarily see themselves as failing as communicators in eithercountry. As some of the teachers indicated.and their . . 1991).outside of the school . the students of both countries seem to be 'outward-looking' in their desires to travel abroad and interact with foreign people.language considerably more than the Japanese students were.attimdes · toward the usefulness -of 'English in ·their lives after -their education. Some of the teachers had experience with grammar-translation or structural methods when they began studying English.2 Teacher Attitudes 6. are relatively new within the system. Furthermore.on television and foreign music on the radio are verycommon.1 Teacher Attitudes Related To Individualism As explained in Chapters One and Two. 6. This section hashighlighted some of the intercultural differences in the attitudes of the leamers in Finnish and Japanese junior high schools. such as the extensive use of pair-work.132 foreign movies .. their.The benefits of broadcasting subtitled programs on television in order to promote increased foreign language proficiency are seen when comparing the amount of exposure students from the two countries have to English. The Finnish teachers thatparticipated in this study exhibited this cultural trait in their teaching methods.. Students from both countries thought that they would use English in their later life. their experience traveling abroad.

which: probably affected the xteachers'<attitudes: toward differentteaching . . Yli-Renko and Salo-Lee (1991) surveyed 236seniorsecondary school third-ye r students in central and southern Finland... counterparts and . pronunciation and writing skills . formal beginnings and endings of classes. we waited in the dassroom for the teacher to enter.these fonnal·sections until perhaps the early 1970's.based lessons were taughtin anintegratedmanner in additiontolessons. b cause of a pending external examination at the endof study. we all stood. backwasheffects are perhaps more pronounced . 133 language teacher ." (Finnish Teacher Informant 1) According to the .longer than their Japanese. They were. Anothednformant stated that in SOme 10catioIlS in Finland. The tests werepioduced locallybythe teachersthemselves.es appeared to have setting studied. This is . emphasis on structure and forms in the target language. The students stated that they were content with their. the . In the c1asr:. are still the. and the backwash effect of the matriculation examination. With testscoming up. grammar .30 years ago.not satisfied with their oral proficiency. An informant stated: "When 1 was in school. . The Finnish English teachersexpressedthat this wasthe most could be interpreted reflecting a positive attitude effective way to teach. greeted the teacher. they did . Lessons tended to become moreteacher-centered and stressed vocabulary and grammar acquisition throughdrillingand translation exercises. be review lessons. much the same as on the Japanese video tape.grammar points. some.having tests next week so the lessons that you will be 1 want . similar to the complaints about the English teaching process in [apan. Some of the Finnish teachers. When the teacher arrived. rule. grammar. c1asses had had formal beginnings and endings. Itshould be notedthat the Finnish juniorhigh school students Iobserved had studied English three years .. They cited as their reasons large class size..who saw.not have . However. 50. everything possible to help the students attain positiveresults" (Finnish Teacher Informant 2) InFinnish senior high schools.teachers interviewed. senior.concentratingon speaking and listening skills. Some stated that when they had been students.then sat.This as toward 'new' methods. methods. translation methods and test trainingtechniques when-Lwisitedtheschools-as tests approached. to: face in the: near future . this type of beginning and end of .. held in high esteem.. most classes had . commented on the way that c1asses began and ended in [apan. nqne the less.ldid observe moreemphasis ongrammar .when they were .exclusive grammar-translation methods as being effective except whentests were approaching or . As. high school: entrance tests . after viewing the video tapes that were shot in [apan for this study.to do observing today wilI.results indicated that they were.a Finnish teacher stated: "The students will be .trainingthe students on new .

.teacher questions without committing a face- threatening act. The factthat the lessonsbegan in this manner reflects theculturaltrait of individualist societiesthatconfrontationilllearning situations can be salutary as opposed toanemphasis on groupharmony (Hofstede 1986). This is another point that fits into Hofstede's (1986) classification of individualist societies: one is never too old to learn. Students could . However. the students settled down .. Teacherswereobserved to meet their students in the hall.Students wereobserved to arrive late and not go through the apologies and excuses that the Japanese students produced. and began studying. For the Finnish English teachers. This. . would beconsidered confrontational and can be seen. Others sa"\V travelabroad as a way to practice and enhance their language skills. An example: vv11en l. and wereapprehensive about being videotaped. As the teachers began -talking. So. Clockswere notpresentin the Finnish . indication thatFinland is changing. this took many forms. yideotaped a less0l1.134 disappearedby1994. Hofstede (1986) states that in individualist cultures.classrooms which. It could also be seen in the teachers' attitude tmyard the late students who did not appear to commjt any social gaffeby not being on time.free talkil1.. teacher thatthey could not speak English well..as reflecting the individualist culture ofFinland. careful not to commit face-threatening aets which could damage le. The Finnishteacherswho participated inthe study wereinvolvedin various forms of in-service and further education. 1 told them to pretend that they can speak while doing pair-work and you (the researcher) wouldn't know the difference and itwouldn't show on the tape.: clarify instructions by asktng' the .d learner-cel1. face-consciousness is weak while in collectivist cultures face-consciousness is strong.of the classes who expressed concern tothe . although face-consciousness was markedly weaker in Finland. Some of the teachers were enrolled in graduate studies. They were nervous about you videotaping todaybecause they can't speak English so well. .g al1. .glish teacher told them to pretend they could speak while doing pair-work to protect .along withthe afore-mentioned characteristics suggeststhat theteachers'attitudestowardpromptness was riot as strictas in Japan.their 'face'. Some were involved in friendship societies With English-speaking countries. . there were two students in one . nobody wanted to be made a fool of in either country and steps were taken in the English classes of both countries to ensure this. It is also an . Thisalso suggests the teachers had accepted neto ideasof smallerpower· distance between themselves . and the students.arner confidellce . After the lesson the teacher remarked: "Those two girls in the traditionaI costumes. they are gypsies. . Tl1is couldbe seen in the way in which the Fir1nish teacberswoulciopen thefloorduring the lessonsand allow.tered activities..openthe locked door to the Classroom andenter together with them to begin the class .inJapan." (Finnish Teacher Informant 2) The Finnish El1.. the teachers were.

. to the perception that the educational culture in Finland has many traits that areassociated with those of an individualist culture.could be seen to correspond to . "The student that was in the front row. The .interYiewed articulated that if their teaching methods moved toward more cOInInunication in . AlI in all.. 1986.. the certificate that they received.traits can be f01. the students'performance 011 the criti.teacher mentioned fluent without mentioning test p rforInance or future possibilities.the classificationsHofstede relates to individualist societies. theynormalIy talked in terms of ability and competence. One could further argue that the Japa11ese Englis1:1. 1991) . 6. the collectivist . tJ:'adition (Hpfstede 1980.on vocabulary and syntax over newer methods which stress communication andthe real-life use of the language forms. This suggests an attitude that competence and ability are held in high.the classroom..2 Teacher Attitudes Related To Collectivism The [apanese setting tended to yield traits which could be interpreted as . They were proud to have completed their univer1:1ityMaster's c:iegrees. 135 In individualist societies. To begin with. feature of positive cOnnotations .U}d in the setting that . The iFinnish teachers did not talkin terms of which schools theyhoped their ." (Finnish Teacher lnformant 2) Or. They expressedexplicitly and hnplicitly conseryative opinions about the upbringing of theiJ:' pupils .theyfinished junior high school.: trGiinh-}g that they received was more .so.her dad is American and shecan speakfluent English.cal entranC testsmight suffer. teachers' comments.with whatever is rooted in..could be infe:t:red from th Japanese.1.important. there is another reason why grammar drilling is a primary method in the Japanese classroom: the entrance test which .in society.esteem and that ." (Finnish Teacher Informant 2) The . what the certificate. colIectivism within the educational culture. education is a way of improving one's economic worthandself-respect based on abilityand competenc -iInportanc: (Hofstede 1986)..in their minds than. Finnish teachers did not display graduation certificatesand the . a topic embraced byfhe teachers. teachers exhibit a general feature of collectivist societies when they prefer traditionai Japanese grammar-translationand structural meth0ds which concentrate . in this sense. Instead. the afore-mentioned traits contribute. represented was important.2.. However.in Japan.The Finnish informants remarked: "That student is good in EngIish and also good in music. Perhaps there is a correlation between the two subjects intermsofbeing gifted. YirtualIy alI of the teachers.Iearners would study inafter .

the. This. bow and greet the teacher in a formal.thedassroom. It also reflected the collective cultural trait that formal harmony should be maintained at all times (Hofstede 1986). leads Japanese English teachers to feelas if they 'have the weight of the world' or at least the curricu1um on their shoulders. As one Japanese informant said: "Club activities take time from my lesson planning and c1assroom duties and 1 often work during weekends and vacation. hours lasted 120 minutes and were carefully measured in the Imperial court by a water c1ock. There is only so much c1ass time. Odagiri and Morrell1985: 399-405). students were required to be in c1ass on time. Whel1. in many cases.the students.. In Iapanese sch0ols. As one [apanese teacher informant put it: "On the one hand the grammar forms and vocabulary thatare on the entrance test must be covered and on the other hand the new curriculum emphasizes communication. Since they are members of a colIective society. the JapaneseEnglish teacher enters . with a formal greeting based on tradition.y of the teachers unwilling to embrace the newer methods and communicative . This establishes the role of the teacher and the role of the student from the time the c1ass begins. the strict attitude toward time and formal beginnings and endings are conveyed to." (Iapanese English Professor Informant 1) This illustrates how the curriculum puts pressure on the teachers to pursue two not necessarily compatible goals at the same time.in.This suggests fhat .students. traditional greeting which the teachers expectand encourage among . virtually all teachers supervise extra-curricular activities. During the Edo Period (1603-1867). This may be a reason the clocks were located in the front of the dassroom in every Japanese school that 1 visited in the country.tradition weighs heavy and renders man. requirements.136 playssuchan important part in the important and the students' lives is very should supportthe . the waiting students. stand.there.. on veryrare occasions did 1 observe students who were late for c1ass and when this occurred. The traditional emphasis on time is important throughout Japanese history.goal of passing 'fhe ' curriculum andc1assroomteaching examination (Yalden 1987iRedfield 1992). same manner. Respect for time is an attitude which the teachers instill in the students both directly and indirectly.t1le. It is unavoidable" (lapanese Teacher Informant 2) .be conflicting goals betweenthe newcommunicative curriculum and the entrance tests at the moment inthe [apanese schools andone should not ascribe tradition alone as the reason JapaneseEnglish teachers teachthe waythey do. It is a paradox. Thus. Class E!nds. Originally adopted from China. the importance of . Because of the teachers' attitude toward promptness. During the two years that Itaught in [apan.may. non-standard time was measured by common people from sunrise till sunset (Miner. they always had a good reason.

Oneteacherresponded. however.the study. .cpntract. vacation. It has already been stated that taking lessons is a characteristic of Japanese culture. 'again is rooted in tradition and demonstrates that maiptaining forIl1aIharmony by not insisting on lot vacation plays role in theamount of . He stated: "1 think using videos is interesting for the students" (Iapanese Teacher Informant 1) This illustrates that Japanese teachersdidnot reIy entirelyon tradition but were willing to adopt new methodsand technologies withinthe educationalculture that was studied.traditionthe teachers observe Is.they are dueeachyear . this attitude is aIso rootedin Finnish tradition which suggests that in. many· were pursuing additionaI certification through distance learning.teachersexpected to havevacations and be compensated for overtime and extra work. It seemed. In addition to pursuing outside education. "Why don't you take more than a fewdays off a year". some teachers refused to go to in-service training meetings wherecommunication techniques through team-teachingwere taught. the young should learn and adults cannot accept student roIes. . some aspectsthey are also traditionaI. This was done because teachers are required to have multipIecertificationin elementary andsecondary educationinorder . Wada (1992) states that teachers cannot be required to attend in-service training and must want to participate.The fact that some teachers indeed will not acceptthe role of students isanindication that Japan is a collectivist society in Hofstede's (1980. "1 can't take so much time off because 1 must be at school to supervise .: .not take somuch time off . putsforththe . that both the Japanese and the Finnish teachers .overtime is acceptedbecause . 1986. the In Finnish educationaI cuIture. One teacher used popuIar movies on video in class to motivate the students.it.eir traditions but they were alsointerested in new innovations. explanation that thereason they do .concept of.uncompensated..were involved in various forms of in-service and further education. that they rarely take the. Naturally. 50.club activities. 137 The. However. 20 day .is because 'nobodyelse does'. in collectivist societies. a a ofunpaid work that teachers doin [apan. in my . CLAIll (1992). [apanese teacherswere occupied with a multitude of work-related responsibilities. 1986. this category of Hofstede's is.to be eligibIe to be promoted to higher administrative positions such as principal. the. The Japanese teachers wanted to maintain th. Of the Japanese teachers that participatedin . is tradition. Another ." (Iapanese TeacherInformant 3) This attitude. 1991) c1assification. In response to the question. Others did various forms of c1assroom research that were presentedat local research meetings or happyokai (Kitazume1992).1991). According to Hofstede (1980.by.

. On one occasion.the syst Il1.t times.individuals . they should .ed . having collectivist attitudes. Hofstede(1986) states that feature of collectivist societies is that neither a the teacher nor any student should ever be made to lose face . teachers . Japanese . tended to usua1ly exhibit individualist. by theteacher.have a tendency ta. Again.. This could be seen a. a student did not understand the instructions for a communication game and caused his team to break down because of his failure to understand and.or collectivist attitudes. Ofcourse. such a . the textbooks or the testing system. c1assrooms were managed sothat the students'· and teacher's face would be protected. students. in th Japanese teacher'sway of commenting or complaining about aspects of . The. a high degree of control . ·50/ they could be seen as. Instead. This could be seen in the Japanese teachers'attitudetoward c1assroommanagement. this tendency could suggests that the Japanese educational culture tended to reflect .in the classrooms . . -This suggests that establishing mutuallyexclusive categories and c1assifying human behaviors should not be approached froma black and white perspective where all factors must fit into neat pre-determined categories. Of course. problematie in regard to assessing teacher attitudes for the present study. In a collectivist . other teachers.vcycles ordimensionswhich appear to formpatterns withinthe data. this sometimes led to disaster.are put forth as tendenciesrather that cut-and-dry categories and should not be expected tofit all phenomenain all settings. failure to know how toask. of the educational . approached by identifying general tendencies. but insomecultures. gen r l1ymaintain. This caused the student to lose face and start crying. This meant that it wouldbe difficult forthem to ask the teacher aquestion which the teachercould not answer. for c1armcations in the new situation.m this regard.1986. fhe classifications . traits py often relinquishing or not :rnaintaining tight control of the floor during their Iessons. I suppose. Thisjs a relevant point for this study because whether the teacher allows students to speak up in c1ass or not could indicate tendencies toward individualist .whereas Finns. bosses. made the teachers feel as if they had lost face because they had not explained the new activity properly. for example.138 mind. already stated. in larger groups theytended to be more reserved in their statements.culture smdied. collectivist societytraits.' In small groups they would sometimes make comments or criticize various aspects of the system or factors within the specific educational culture. This caused both of the teachers to feel bad because they had caused the learner to lose face. which would be a face-threatening act.English lessons were· structured in such a manner that thestudentscould not ask the teacher questions without first being called upon. 1991) suggests is that individual students usually only speak up in c1ass when called upon personally... However. When the traditionai c1assroom management style was changed for team-taught lessons. individuals may tend to Ioudly criticize the 'system' in larger groups.society. most individuals would be careful in making negative comments about colleagues or bossesin large groups. . as . which. The point is that in lessons with regular structured c1assroom management techniques. Another collectivist feature which Hofstede (1980. onlY speak up in small groups (Hofstede 1986).

such ascheating or corruption. whereas in individualist societies. This aspect of society in Japan is virtually unquestioned and it-is perpetuated by the mass media and many aspects of the society.is characteristic of a collectivistsociety (Hofstede 1986). but in apan. Generally speaking. It can be said." (Japanese Teacher Informant 2) Japanese teachers put great emphasison which schoo1s students get into and used it as a way of ranldng the students in society. in the schools that were studied. In [apan.stated: "Midori is a very good swdent. the Japanese teachers had : negative attitudes toward corruption and anything illegal. teachers are expected to be strictly impartial.schoolentrance testand pride in getting students into the 'best high school'.: butthey· clearly valued the acquisition of certificates. teachers were expected to refuse .so well. Gifts from students may be perceived as bribes..ioccur and all ofthe participants' faces will be protected. Hofstede (1986) states that teachers in collectivist societies are expected to give preferentialtreatment to some students based on ethnicaffiliation Dr on recommendation by an influential person. This is common in [apan and the students who attend the best schools are more or 1ess assured of getting the best jobs (Reischauer 1978. Teachers in both Finland and Japan were expected to be iIl1partial. Shegot into Takasaki Girl's High School. van Wolferen 1989).anintegral part of social interaction. acquiring certificates. to the educational culture studied. Therefore. 139 situation is less Ifkelyto. gift giving .rit is safeto saythatthis aspect af collectivist societies applies to the educational culture in japan. this sometimes presents a dilemma.talk of poor students in terms of concern over which high school they would attend. In Finlandrthis did not seem to be a .Thiscould beseen in the [apanese teachers' attitudes toward theimportanceof. is more importantthan acquiring competence (Hofstede 1986). Theywould most often . 50. As one teacher stated: "He has not been studying. therefore. As oneteacher .education tends to be a way of-gaining prestige in one's social environment and of joiningahigher status group. J is problem. althoughnot fully. that this tendency applied to some extent. where.the senlorhigh. eventhrough illegalmeans. therearecertificates for everything from sporting events and speech contests to scholarships given out at school ceremonies in [apan. diploma certificates are important and often disp1ayed on walls in collectivist cultures and have little or no symbolic value in individualist cultures(Hofstede 1986). According to Hofstede. In Japan." (Japanese TeacherInformant 4) It could also be seen in the concern they demonstrated for students who were not doing . ·'This . 1 don't know what high school he'll get into. In collectivist societies.

personai 'wisdom' which is handed down in the relationship with a particular teacherwho acts as a 'guru' (Hofstede 1980. there is .2. hobby clubs (baseball.suggests .1 Teacher Attitudes Related To The Weak Power Distance Dimension Power distance in societies pertains to the degree in which the less powerful in a societyaccept inequality as being normal within their social situations.the principle that any person can achievecompetenceby themselves through more or lessindependent study.individualist. the stress is on.140 giftsfrom· parents and ithey expressed this attitude· explicitly as well . the absence of ethnic groups makes it difficult for me to assign meaning to this trait based on Hofstede' s c1assifications. Groups were divided according to classes (first year first group. As a conclusion. no ethnic groups in the setting studied. 1986.their emphasis on .last category associated with collectivist and . is a stress on impersonal 'truth' which can.as ' demonstrating it in their practices. small or weak power distance.obtained from any competentperson. 6. Still. forexample ethnic affiliation asthey should incollectivist societies or .teruris. The teachers' attitudes inthe educational culture that was examined in Finland showed evidence of weak powerdistance tendencies.etc. the task at hand. .features accordingto . Burakumin or other ethnic miporities or sub-groups present. In societies . they don't usually work by themselves very welL We train them to work in pairs or by themselves." (Finnish Teacher Informant 4) .1986. while in large power distance societies. it seems safe to say that theattitudes ofteachers in Iapan exhibitedmany.brass band. second year second group. The Finnish teachers'.sub- groupings which vary from onesituation to the next based on oneuniversalist criteria. for example. inequality inpower .in principle. The .whether they break into .cohesive subgroups based on particularcriteria. all of the studeIlts being Japanese There were no Korean. As one informant stated: "When the students begin here (at junior high school). -. attitudes toward cultivating learner autonomy. collectivisttendencies in theeducatlonal culture thatwas ehosen as the setting for this study.Hofstede (1980. we can tell them to pick activities from the book with their partner and they do it. In smallpower distance societies. be. By the third year. Chinese. This c1assification was difficult to apply to the attitudes ofthe teachersin this study becauseboth settingsthat were studied had basically homogelleous c1assrooms.).use. there vvere.whether large classes split socially into smaller. . lunch group (six students whose desks were located close to each other) and other sub-groupings. etc.less acceptance of .there.2. with. 1991). The Japanese teachers did encourage the students to form groups but ethnic affiliation had little to do with the criteria for selection beca.than in societies with large power distance tendencies. 1990) is .).

1986. conversely. The promotion of learner autonomy in Finnish English c1asses is associated with weak ·power . a clear indicationof weak powerdistance int:h. She is so much better than you. 141 Thistype of attitude in the teachers suggests that they feelthat students can act as their own'teachers' which canbeinterpretedas. reflected the weakpowerdistancecharacteristicthat the . which was seen as a negative factor.education and place apremium oninitiative (Hofstede 1980. put forth in the opinions of the Finnish teachers. In the cafeteria during lunch. 1991) words.. In the language laboratory. or quiet.This incident also suggests that in some circumstances the students are allowed. 1991). Students . encouraging their students to work independently. Theprecedingexample canalso beputforthas an illustrationof thefact that in the Finnish setting studied. 1986. The leamer-centered.rtheir own . 1986. In Hofstede's (1980. teachers respect the independence of learners while in a .strongpower distance society a teacher. Somatimes the teacher. teachers are treated as equals outside of c1ass.. Students were observed in some lessons toselect which exercises to do from the workbooks-or from handoutsthat were prepared and placed on a table in the back.would comment thata c1ass that wasusuallyquiethadbeen talkative because of my presence or.distance societies which emphasize ." (Finnish Professor Informant 1) This illustrates the before-mentioned assumption that no culture fits completely into the categories put forth.student-centered . they had becomequiet becauseof an outside observer. Such behavior was always met by a strict reprimand from the teacher suggesting a different perception of such actions on the part of the teacher.oflearners (Hofstede 1980. teachers encouraged independence bylettingthe students select their own activities. or atleast feel free to criticize teachers - the kind· of behavior that wouldnotbe tolerated .weak power distance feature that younger· teachers aremore .ieducational culture. of the c1assroom.were observed to speak up spontaneouslyin c1ass and introduce topicssuch asjokes or comments without being recognized bythe teacher. teachers 'encourageandexpect students to find. c1assroom and the attitudes of the teachers also .by cultures with tendencies toward large power distance such as Japan. which was seenas good.this by . The Finnish teachers encouraged and expected fheir students toinitiate communication. 1991). a junior high school boy said to young teacher trainee acting as substitute: a a "Pity the other one (older teacher) isn't here. Finnish junior high school students were . In weak power distance societies.meritsthe<respect. Finnish teachers demonstrated their attitudestoward . Finnish 1 was English teachers would make comments while going: to classes that observing about whether the class was talkative.as aweak power distance. The . 1 did observe examples in]apan of students speaking out and talking while the teacher was talking.paths'.Iiked than older teachers was not c1early exhibited by the Finns or. effectivenesscof learning is related to the amount of two-way communication in class. In a different school system.e society.

thus meriting the respect oftheir students. You are a verygood teacher. Leamer autonomy was not generallypromoted in English class and students expected teachers to outline paths for them to follow.fhatteacher attitudes reflectedmany strong power distance characteristics. To assign the term 'equal'to the interaction .But 1 .: Students. stood and bowed very low tothe · teacher and thanked him for teaching them English and bought the teacher drinks and told him repeatedly how great he was. Teacher-centered c1assroomscanbe citedas reflecting the .sitting with some Japanese friends oneevening.is problematie because there seemsto be . the effectiveness of leaming appeared to be assoclated with the excellence of the teacher which ds. this particular teacher was older.responsibility for their students outside school hours. In Japan.2 Teacher Attitudes Related To The Strong Power Distance Dimension Incontrast to the Finnish teachers." (Japanese Teacher Informant 4) This suggested that the effectiveness of leaming was associated with the teacher rather than the hard work of the student.could usually speak up in dassonly when invited by the teacher. parents are expected to side with the student was not c1early exhibited in the Finnish schoolsstudied nor was itdiscussed by the teachers.They directed the activities of their students almost without exception. However. spoke excellent English and was a really good teacher.Japanese students expectedtheir teachers to initiate communication and teachers did not generally encourage their students to speak upin class.2. the [apanese teachers tended to foster leamer dependence in their classroommanagement techniques. . former students nowin their30's.somedistance between students and teachers. the students did have arelaxed interaction style with theirteachers. In [äpan. theeducational culturein Finland. . When one of my students who 1 hadcoachedwon a speech contest. "Ihis suggests. Of course. An example of this happened inarestaurant where 1 was . ·One of my colleagues. an English teacher who had taught myfriendsl0-15 years earlier. This suggests strong power distance within the educationalculture. collectivist tendency toward the attitudethat orderis important.suggesting thatthey had less.2. 6. which leads one tothe conclusionthat this category appHes to. a Japanese teacher colleague said to me: "She won the contest. The weakpower distance characteristicthat·in teacher / student conflicts .142 observedto 'joke with fheir teachers. The teachers' involvement inthe personal1ivesof the students in Finland was markedly less thanin Japan.a strongpower distance characteristic (Hofstede 1980j 1986j 1991). enteredthe establishment. whether caused by differences in age or experience. respect for teachers was observed also to be shown outside c1ass. My friends.

generally reflected more strong power distance tendencies.entraIlce.. it was apparent that parents did not always side with the teachers or see themcompletely as expertswho are always right. Therefore. In [apan. of the. indicating that they took myanswer as joke or that theywished to a expresstheir own dislike for the teacher.power distance 'tendencies in regard. 50. or even in. .teachers are 1991) . For e)(arnple. students tend to feel comfortable in unstructured learning situations with vague objectives and appreciate broad assigmnents with no timetables. a the c1assroom. However. Japanese. . 1991). Japanese teachers.gsituations. However.hiph esteem. parents refused to adlllit that th. Hovvever. observed that older teachers were generallymore respected than younger ones so this classification seems to apply there. in weak uncertainty avoidance societies. In strong power distance societies.this incidence. in teacher/student conflicts.. where they relinquished control of the floor to the learners who did . thiskind of criticism was mild compared with the Finnish student's direct outburst at histeacher. their· learners. one.1986. relates . the Finnish teachers tended to exhibit and state attitudes that suggested that they held many weak power distance values in.examinations.2.asked me if lliked one of the. this could be seen in the responsibility for discipline the teachers assumed for their students. also. 1 'did and the. not. the Finnish teachers conveyed that they did have particular goals for their lessons and. Students and teachers both.1 Teacher Attitudes Related To Weak Uncertainty A voidance According to Hofstede (1980.some of the studentsused indirect criticism toward certain teachers.. 1986. Another case of parents.to the strong power distance .In Japan.c1assesbecause.students replied. teacher outside of. appeared to feel comfortable in less structured 1earnm.problem and refused to put the .child in a special c1ass despite teacher recommendations. 143 havenever seenFinns show so much respect to. parents did Ilot necessarily subscribe to th yiews of the teachers or.. eventhough Japan tended to exhibit many strong . conflicts. of the negative effect it might have on their success in . 1 more respectedthan younger teachers . .by c()ntrast. various activities with limited direct supervision from the teacher.. onexpert teachers.eir child had a. 1 said that.50. to disciplinary . Tms.(Hofstede 1980.3. teachers stated that parents did not want cOllununicationtatlght in English .supposed to criticize their teachers 'in [apan. at least. However. In conc1usion. "really?" and the groupstarted ' laughing.tradition in Japan. teachers. . students . parentsdid have sOllle irlflllence. while 1 was helping a group of students c1ean as is the . Hofstede's c1assification tended to correspond to only certain aspects of the Finnish educational culture that was studied. parents are expected to side with the teacherand teachers are seen asexperts.. much more than in Japan. The Finnish teachers who were interviewed were much more comfortable in lessons.siding with the 'expert' teachers was seen whensomeof thestudents n eded special education becauseof learniIlgdisabilities.. In . Students are generally not ..older .that . In several cases. 6.trait .

Qtherwise. teacher.r . InteUectual disagreement was 1 expressed while was interviewing theteachers about various (ispects of the Finnish Joreign language education system. terms to . Strong UncertaintyAvoidance In strong uncertainty avoidance societies. theanswer. Japanese teachers st:rict timetables.askedfhe.ance cultures.end . astudent.weak uncertainty avoidance societies.to . In ..uses plain language and .re..when . Teac:hers in the two countries .tl1.the teache:rs'orientationtoward problem solving .The objectiyes of the lessons.attitude. This suggests that they were expected to control their emotions.3 .. politely.major ex:ternal.a .teachE!rs are .work and problem solving activities reflects.acadernic topics for which they used academic language.in strong uncertainty ayoidanse societies a good teacher . they used rezy1ar..ask a question whichthe teachercouldnot answer.uses acadernic language.ance. The absence.sknowledge that she did not know . unless disctlssing. suppress emotions and so a:re students. teac:hers kept to demonstrated this attitude among them.a. InFinlanq. This cultural factor has amajorinfluence on teaching and leaming laIlguages across Ctl1tures. in some. cases.led to the situationwherea student could . interactingwith their students .have . the assignments and the timetables which the Japanese.expected to . the emphasis on cpmmunication in English lessons with pair .e vague points in each other's opinions regarding the education system.. . beginning of Study ·until the .2. The teachers in the Finnish setting structured their lessons ina more openformatwhich could. JIl both Fi11land and Japan. structured learning situationswith precise objectives. detailedassignments and This c1assmcation can be applied to Japan. must .. team-tatlght . the teacher replied: "1 don't know... Why don't you ask Mike?" (Finnish Teacher Informant 5) Clearly..ary schoot or lukio. Students are rewardedfor innovative.Ilce .approaches to problem solving in weak tl11certainty avoidance .teach llew gramrnatisal. It was not uncommon for the teachers to c1arify.societies.societies while studeIlts .of senior seconq. whic:h is an indication of weak tlncE!rtainty avoiq.junior highschool English .rather than . of ... Once while 1 was observinga ·lesson. In weakuncertaintyavoiq. students feel comfortable in .accwacy. spoken 1anguage ....seemed to JaU into the plain Janguage category. points. rewarded for accuracy in problem solving instrongtl11certainty avoidCl. 6. the tE!acher was not embarrassed to Cl..a question and.tests from the .good Jeac:he.. . In Finland/ 1 did not see an emotional outburst on the part of the teachers or the students.. . . teac:hE!rs tended.. influence this . 2 Teacher Attitudes. In fact. Related To. in thesetting kept their lessons very structured.. .144 allowed tosay "Idon't know'vdn weakuncertainty Teachersare avoidance societies.use Xlative language technical.

In [apan.marked the . . teachers listen to parents' . year students could stick to their timetables and not get behind. which indicates strong uncertainty avoidance.ideas. 145 classes focusing on communication were canceledso that the third . Therefore.. stronguncertainty avoidance societies have teachers. teachers interpret intellectual disagreement as personai disloyalty.more than. culturestudied tended to ·emphasize accuracymuch . . In [apan. The ceremony was quite emotional and the teachers and students showed this openly. This suggests that [apan could be classified as strong uncertainty avoidance society in this regard. The teachers'attitudes had a tendency to reflect this. Grammar took precedenceover communication becauseof the seniorhigh schooland universityentranceexaminations where accuracy is by nature the most important factor (Shimaoka and Yashiro 1990: . Generally.In [apanese classrooms.<theJapaneseEnglisheducational. It wasacceptable and perhaps even expected. 1 found this category problematie.10-12).. although both strong and weak uncertainty avoidance traits were found in both educational cultures studied.problem solving . In strong uncertaintyavoidancesocieties. This factor is influential in foreign language education because if the society expects teachers to 'knowall theanswers'. some of my Japanese colleagues and students were at the point of tears. In conclusion. a Teachers interpret intellectual disagreement as stimulating exercise in · weakuncertainty avoidance societies while in strong uncertainty avoidance societies.was shed because it . 'much more sothan their Finnish counterparts. '[apanese teachers leaned more . teachers are allowed to behave emotionally and so are students.asis the casein [apan. opinion thatthey werethe experts in education. When Ileft [apan after teaching for two years. In contrast.tteachers: to some extentheld the .:. whereas their . Anotherincidence wherethis wasapparent was atthe juniorhigh school graduation ceremony where rnany a tear . the Finnish teachers tended to exhibit more weak uncertainty avoidance characteristics. transition from the carefree life: of the junior high school into the stressfu1life of the high school or life.that consider themselves experts who cannot learn anything from layparents and parents agree' (Hofstede 1986: 314). students did not challenge the ideas of the teacher. Students leamed grammar points from the beginningoftheir course of study. Unlike in Finland.Some cried. but did not fit completelyinto it. However. relinquishing control ofthe floor and opening oneself up for questions which one might not beable toanswer must seem daunting for the Japanese English teacher. lessons were structured to stick close to the textbook so that teachers would not be put in a situation where they did notknow ananswer.toward the strong uncertainty· avoidance trait. They were allowed to show their emotions in public. This could be interpreted as basically the trueend of childhood in Japanese culture.parent participation regarding pertinent issues such as the entrance examination and the curriculum showed that parents' views werelistened to and accommodated asneeded. Finnish teachers did not consider themselves above'lay parents'. In weak uncertaintyavoidancecultures. Parent-Teacher Associations werealso active in all of the Japanese schoolsthat were studied .

1991) model is more problematie with this aspeet than with the other three previously diseussed. refleet more stronguneertaintyavoidanee charaeteristies. Depending on the attitudes of the teachers.: In [apan. the average was what governed the c1ass.was studied.tended to. .1 Teacher Attitudes Related To The Femininity Dimension Finland and Japan both exhibited femininitydn their eulture throughthe attitudes af the teachers interviewed. there were somestudents in the dass that had a good grasp of the subjeet. In one of the schools where 1 taught in [apan.whileothers knew absolutely nothing.students as the norrndn-masculine. where failure in sehoolamounts to failureinIife.4. When they went against them it was.a form of rebellion. Teachers use average students asthe norm . the situation was more or less thesame. Conerete c1assifieation based on tendencies put forthin Hofstede's(1980. the c1asses were generally structuredsothat .This foreed adaptation was normaland the studentsknew the rules. 6. 1986. In societies witha feminine culture. Classes were not streamlined aeeording to ability. 1986. .. 1991).societies . social adaptation was held in high esteem and wasbasica11y enforeed through dress eodes whichdietated what the students wore.146 Japanese eounterparts .Problems also arose when some of the students wore'Frankenstein socks' which were banned in favor of plain white soeks.students were in a classtogether regardless of their ability.2. The Finnish teachers did not express a great deal of eoneern about the students who study for an extra year in junior high school in order to improve their grades or wait until they decide what to do as their next step in life. This is a. students praetiee mutual solidarity and in mascu1ine eultures students eompete with each other in c1ass (Hofstede 1980. By the third year. On thispoint. Still others may have had a .such a negative manifestation. aetivities were designedfor the 'normal' student and not the best or worst student in the c1ass. Finlandand [apan in the two specifie edueational eultures. Althoughthere was some experimentation with . InFinland.in feminine societies and use thebest . In feminine societies.the potential to learn more of the language and were being held baek by slowerlearning students. The [apanese students were extremely eohesive and the attitudes of the teachers . streamlining one of the sehoolsin the edueational eulture that . bit problematic when examiningteacher attitudesin . In [apanese junior high schools. how they eut ·their hair and what kinds of soeks and T-shirtthe students wore. the systemrewards students' social adaptation whilein maseu1inecultures the system rewards students' aeademie performanee. Finland showed more feminine eultural charaeteristies while [apan. not theexeeptional student. these eodes were enforeed morein some schools than in others.In English c1assesin the edueational eu1ture that was studied in [apan. students who did not wear a plain white T-shirt undertheir school uniforms had to run Iaps around the athletie field of the school as punishment. had a tendeney to refleet more maseuline eultural charaeteristies. This indieated that failure in school was not looked upon bythe teachers as .

fernininecultures rejectcorporal punishment. 'Fhis-identified them withtheir group in andout of school. Thisties into the femininecharacteristic of students .desplte the ban. Teachers . . the students. Forexample. uniforms.of their class or kumi ontheir · . Thisalso promoted . . according to Hofstede's · classifications.often . InbothFinland andIapan.similarfashion. wearing hats inside the classroom is a form of social adaptation on the part of the students: they were conforming to their own dress codes.seemed to have more feminine -cultural .4.to classroom discourseexamples of Finnish teachers exhibiting this feature.they behaved modestly in class. even to wear hats inside the classroom.2 Teacher Attitudes Related To The Masculinity Dimension In feminine societies. this.mutual-solidarity . especially failure on . A student's failure. However.. among. However.ontheir nametag 'which was eitherpinnedor sewnontotheir uniform. 6. studentsinthe . Recent trends have linked bullying inthe schools to suicide in Japan (Tapan Times 1996). The Finnish teachers didnot seem to enforceanykind of social adaptation on the students that they taught. On this . Inboth Finland and [apan.Becauseofthe [apanese teachers' attitudes which thsy-stronglyconveyed tothe students. [apanese teachers were also keen to praise good students. teachers pointed out good students to me in and out ofthe classroom.gave the students group tasks such as deaning the school or: organizing parts of school events.: The Finnish 1 have heard that corporal punishment is teachers severely rejected it. .Finnishstudentsare divided intogroupsin . sometimes usedindapan.trying tobehave modestlyandthemasculine characteristicof students trying to make themselves visible in class. in school is a relatively minor .. failure in school. both Japan and Finland would be classified as masculine societies.2. Therefore. since.entrance examinations is believed by many Japanese teachers to be a faetorin the high suicide rate of the country. which suggested the teachers were tolerant of diversity inthe students. the suicide rate ishigh but it is not .accident in feminine societies whileinmasculine societies a student's failurein school isa severe blow to his ar her self-image and may in extreme cases lead to suicide (Hofstede 1986). in regard to this category. Students were allowed to dress the way they wanted. 147 encouraged . This suggeststhat Finland exhibits more feminine characteristics in thisregard. In Garant (199Sb). theJ apanese setting . Ofcourse. In Finland. teacher attitudes in Finland in regard to this point suggested that the country was more masculine than Japan. teachers avoid openly praising students while sdn .. teachers praise good students(Hofstede 1986).: Therefore. tendencies. corporal punishment was illegal. aspect.I point . . However. although they do not wear any visible markings. masculine societies.second year dassthirdgroup would wear a'2-3'.I found that the attitudes of the teachers reflected a higher esteem for academic performance than social adaptation. Students wore the number .

16.. Traditionally-theword-applied to samurai warriors who did riot havea lord.l Out of every 100. 15-24 year-olds 891 Males Females.v'Iherefore.1 out of every 100. Grade competition was the opposite . the suicide rate per 100.5 for Germany and 20.000 inhabitantsfor the US was 12. Thus the . In addition. Incidentally. This ties into the feminine characteristic of students trying to behave modestly andthe masculine characteristic of students trying to make themselves visible in c1ass.cto. students would compete openly for the floor during the English lessons by calling · attention to themselves by talking loud. Interestingly.tendencies andthe Japanese culture reflected more masculine traits.148 prevalent in the 15 24age bracket (Passin 1965: 112/ Ueno 1993/7. InPinland. Suicide rates ofunder 25 year olds are only about 11 % of the total cases in 1991.the. So. Finland and J apan have been known for their high suicide rates. In contrast. 65-74 year-olds 1279 Males 1284 Females. the Finnish teachers encouraged their students to be more visible in c1ass. feminine.000 inhabitants (19875 people: 12477 men and 7398 men ) cO!llID. 27. In 1991.000 inhabitants (1387 people: 1080 men and 307 women) committed suicide in Finland making it the 7thleading cause of death (Statistics Finland 1996)..term one-time failure or. 8.is regarded as something to be ashamed ofItis a common enough occurrence to have words coined to describe it. Over 75 year-olds 1354 Males 1687 Females (Statistics Bureau 1993/94: 663).students whohave failed their university entranceexamination touniversity. 45-54 year-olds 2789 Males 1163 Females. The Chinese Culture Connection (1987) founda great deal of overlap in regardto the masculinity and femininity dimensionsin fueir study.0 for the UK in 1992 and 17.ittedsuicide in Japan making it the6th leacling cause of death. Finland wouldbe c1assified as a moremasculine culture while [apan would be c1assified as a more feminine culture.It is riotuncommon forJapanese leamers attempting to gain entrance into the more prestigiousuniversities. This was in part becauseof the student-centered methods the teachers employed. No such terms regarding exam failure exist in Finnishwhich suggestsfuat failing academically is not: sucha severe blow to the student's self-image.failure or niroand so on have been incorporated into the language according.ion these twopoints.Finnish educationalculturereflecteda morefeminine . In 1994. the two countries wouldyield oppositeresults.sthe vteachers interviewed. no student or teacher in either setting cornmitted suicide so this study will not address the subject. . . students behaved modestly in c1ass. suicide broken down according to age in Japan follows: 5-14 year-olds 22 Males 14 Females. 25-34 year-olds 1419 Males 637 Females.the wordronin isrused ito describe . 55-64 year-olds 2500 Males 1277 Females. Because the Japanese teachers generally would not tolerate disturbances.4 in 1991. In [apan. If considering this aspect. . i9hirottwo time .Perhaps a certain degree ofoverlap should be expected regarding this dimensionwhen applying it tO East Asian cultures.Vnlike the other dimensionsput forth in Chapter Two/ fue data yields no evidence fuat either fue Finnish or Japanese educationalcultures studied can be c1assified as strictly masculine or. 17 Fortunately. 25-44 year-olds 2146 Males 876 Females. standing upand fidgeting .2 for France in 1991 (Keizaikoho 1996: 106). [apanese students competed for thebest grades.. these traits could suggestthat.to failseveral times. The present study appears tO have found similar results. The existence of this terminology suggeststhat although failure . They will be mentioned here for the reader's information.

6 Pifferenees In Finnish And [apanese Learner And Teaeher Attitudes Related To The Individtlalism Versus Collecttvism Dimension Suggesting Pifferenees IndividualistSocieties Collectivist Societies Finland }apan Teaehers fully integrate 'new' Teaehers basicallyuse traditional teaehing methods teaching methods Teaehers and students enter the Teaehers and students begin and lessons together and begin and end lessons with traditional formal lessons in an informal manner that is openings and closings not traditional Teaehers participatein various Some teaehers refuse in-service forms of adult edueation training Learner-centered methods open the Teacher-centered teaehing methods door to eonfrontation in learning stress formal harmony in learning situations situations Pace-consciousness is weak. The following tables focus on examples from this chapter which illustrate items from adapted from Hofstede's list in the context of Finnish and Japanese learner and teacher attitudes. TABLE 6. leamer. should ever be made to lose faee.3 Summary This chapter has discussed teacher and learnerattitudes In the specific Japanese and Finnish educational cultures that were studied with a special emphasis on perceptions ofEnglishas a foreign language teaching and learning. threatening aets more likely teaeher-eenteredmethods promote this Diploma eertifieates are not given at Diploma eertificates are important eeremonies as often as in Japan and given at eeremonies . Neither the teaeher nor any student eentered methods made face. 149 6.

9 Tendencies In Finnish And Japanese LearnerAnd Teacher Attitudes Related To The Power Distance Dimension Suggesting Similarities Students sometimes criticized teachers.150 TABLE 6.their stuClents"face' Teachers enroll in various forms of education in both settings Finnish teachers use some traditionaI methods.7 Tendencies In Finnish And Japanese Learner And Teacher Attitudes Related To The Individualism Versus Collectivism DimensionSuggesting Similarities Teachers are expected to be strictly impartial in both settings Finnish and japanese teachersexpress ed concern over. teachers were rarely contradicted or public1y criticized Respect for teachers is related to the personaI characteristics of the individual teacher . TABLE 6. [apanese teachers use some new methods The following is a surnrnary of learner and teacher attitudes as they apply to the power distance dimension.8 Tendencies In Learner And Teacher Attitudes Related To The Power Distance Dimension Suggesting Differences Small Power Distance Societies Large Power Distance Societies Finland Japan Most teachers think students should Mostly teacher-centered learn to learn by themselves methodology Promotion of learner-autonomy Promotion of learner-dependence Students usually work Teacher usually directs student independently activity Teachers expect students to initiate Students expect teachers to initiate communication communication Students sometimes choose their Teachers tell the students what own activities activities to complete Student can initiate interaction Students speak up in c1ass only when invited by the teacher Two-way communication is seen as Effectiveness of learning is related effective to the excellence of the teacher TABLE 6.

TABLE 6. The followingare specific exarnples of tendencies that were present in the educational culture related to this aspect. TABLE 6.10 Tendencies In Learner And Teacher Attitudes Related To The Uncertainty Avoidance Dimension Weak Uncertainty Avoidance Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Sodeties Sodeties Finland Japan Lessons are less structured Lessons are very structured Teachers sometimes say. the uncertainty avoidance factor withincultures were applied to the attitudes of the learners and teachers. "1 don't Teachers areexpected to have all the know" answers Teachers usually emphasize Teachers usually emphasize commuriication grammar Teachers and students show little Students and teachers are sometimes emotion veryemotion(il Some intellectual disagreements are No intellectual disagreements are witnessed witnessed The final classification that wasapplied to thedata related to rnasculinityand fernininity within societies. In the Japanese andFinnish educational cultures that were studied. The following are sorne exarnplesthat surfaced in the data. 151 In addition. Emphasis on social adaptation little emphasis on social adaptation (Femininity) (Masculinity) .11 Tendencies In Learner And Teacher Attitudes Related To The Masculinity Versus Femininity Dimension Suggesting Differences Finland Iapan Corporal punishment was severely Corporal punishment is sometimes rejected (Femininity) used (Masculinity) A student's failure in school is a A student' s failure in school was relatively minor accident more likely to be viewed as a severe (Femininity) blow to both the teachers' and students' self image (Masculinity) Students made themselves visible Students try to behave modestly during the lessons (Masculinity) during lessons (Femininity) Students behaved as individuals. a considerable arnount of overlap related to rnasculinity and fernininity was observed.

ULcertainty avoidancecan be applie to the data in a more predictable manner. However. when reflecting group values. Cultural tendencies related to collectivism and individuality. 1 did discover general characteristics related to Hofstede's (1986) classifications of culturaltendencies put for in the 4-D cultural model could be applied te.152 TABLE 6. Suggesting Similarities Teachers use average students as the norm (Femininity). many of the features foundin the data. My interpretation of thedata suggests that in the junior high school enyironment. power distance and 1. . Japan has a number of feminine cultural tendencies which is similar to Finland. This is similar to other findings related to China (The Chinese Culture Connection 1987). Finnish teachers generally showed attitudes reflecting an individualist societywith weak pqwer distance and uncertainty avoidance.sion. When interviewing Finnish and Japanese teachers and learners. grades and ranking are important (Masculinity) Students practice mutual solidarity (Pemininity) and compete with ach other in c1ass (Masculinity) It should be stressed that these categories. the masculine and feminine c1assifications of culture are the most problematic when c1assifying teacher attitudes in [apan and Finland. are only applicable to a point.12 Tendendes In Learner And Teacher Attitudes Related To The Masculinity Versus Femininity Dim n. The Japa:n se teachers generallyexlUbited attitudes which reflect a collectivist society with strong power distance and uncertainty avoidance. Someoverlap was present also inthe data which generallycorresponds to Hofstede's (1980j1986j 1991) c1aillls.

: important insights concerning the study of culture and language teaching. Neitl1er th Japanesenor the Finnish curriculum specify what methods teachers should use .classrooms during regular and team-taught English 1 lessons in [apan andEnglish lessons in Finland.schools studied should provide .1 . Regular [apanese English Lessons This will examine regular JapaneseEnglish lessonsthat were section videotaped at Kanra Number Three Junior High School. It..·English ·language classrooms: in the . then Finnish grammar- oriented lessons and finallylwill discuss Finnish communicative lessons.ds . 7...I>resent a picture of what actually takes place and what the teachers and.. the actual content willbe discussed from the partidpant observer's perspective. First. It is essential for the study of classroom teaching methods in the two settings to be aware of what type and how many activities are used per lesson. The purpose of this ch pter is to . This will be followed by an analysis of the lessons in which the views of the Japanese English Teacher and the assistant English teacher will be incorporated. 153 7 CLASSROOM METHODS.. Overall. studied..le.therefore interesting to compare the classroom 1 believe that this form of methods chosenby the teachers in the two settings.amers do during English lessons in the two countries ... activities and timing in the. examination English teaching and learning in will provide useful insights into the two countries. Timing was included to demonstrate how the lessons.flow. . will examine regular [apanese lessons and [apanese team-taught lessons. ACTIVITIES AND TIMING This chapter will examine differences and similarities between methods. and how long each section takes . First.first-handknowledgeofwhat takes place in the .

154 Three regular English lessons in Japan were videotaped in the spring of 1993. "How are you?". bowed and said in unison: "Good morning. The Japanese English teacher was told that the tapes were to be used to compare team-taught lessons and regular lessons.students responded with. The door opened and the teacherentered and said: "Who is on duty?". -translation Questions and Answers on textbook material Homework assignment Section4 Review of interrogatives -when. no observed or model regular lessons were available for evaluation by this study as was the case with team-taught lessons. the teacher such as ''How do you feel today?" to which the . whose. thank you. "I'm fine. "1 feel sleepy". and the c1ass sato This was followed by questions from. No special instructions were given for the taping or the lesson plans. which. Regular Lesson 1 The lesson plans for the regular lessons were determined by watching the video and noting what activities took place. "Fine.. why Section 1 11:40-11:43 Greetingswere basically the same in all of : the regular lessons that were observed. Andyou?" The teacher responded.who. thank you. The first lesson plan was: ReguIar Lesson 1: PIan Grade8 Section 1 Greeting Section2 Review of material from previous lesson Section3 Textbooks -read-repeat -newwords read-repeat . for example. "1 feel happy". how. How are you today?" The students bowed and responded:"Fine." Then. This appeared to give the students a choice in the way they answered and was not the same as some ofthe other Japanese English teachers' greetings. the on-duty student said: "Please sit down". Unfortunately.. The camera was aimed at the teacher and not at the students because there was only one camera available for the lesson. Class..The students stood up." The teacher bowed and responded with: "Good morning. thank you . The on-duty student said: "Pleasestand up". Kitazume. what. Afterwards.where. both the Japanese teacher and the assistant language teacher participated in the evaluation of the tapes. And you?"The greeting . Mr. The students were seated.

there is" or "No.substantially more than in any of the team-taught lessons that were observed. this I information is not inc1uded in the textbook. This was followed by listen-and-repeat drills and then the question. of read-and-repeat drills. Thenfhe students were asked to translate "There are not any apples" into [apanese.names of 10caI places and things.English -'. . date and weather. For exampIe. [apanese was used to give explanations and instruetions and for the translation exercises. the teacher was adding suppIemental material. Another interesting observation was made during the 'question and answer' seetion which was used to reinforce the language and key grammatieal points of the lesson. Students responded with either "Yes.. What is striking is the amount of Japanese that was used during this part of the lesson: it was . Seetion3 11:50-12:20 The textbook seetion of the lesson. The Japanese English teacher then wrote'Is there a TV?' on the blackboard. eonsisted. "Are there any apples?" to which the students responded "yes" or "no". The Japanese -:gngIish teacher elicited responses from the students with questions eontaining the. and askedthe question. 155 seetion closed with the Japanese English teacher eliciting responses in English from the students as to the day. he asked: "Are there two schools in Akihata?" "How many junior high schools are there?" "How many junior high schools are there in Kanra town?" This provided a IoeaI context for the Ianguage that was being studied which was intended to make the lesson more communicative'. .There wasa television inthe front of theroom nearthe blaekboard. 50. there isn't". explanation of the key grammatieal point. This was then followed by the Japanese English teacher giving sentenees inEnglish and having the students translate them into Japanese. new v()cabulary and translations from English into [apanese . In addition. Theactivity movedrather slowly as the [apanese English teacher only asked four questions. Seetion 2 11:44-11:49 The review section eonsisted of the [apanese English teachersaying a sentence in Japaneseand calling onstudents totranslateitinto.

question words.156 Section4 12:20-12:25 The last five minutes of the lesson contained a review of Wh. Example sentences were. Regular Lesson 2 The outline for the second videotaped lesson plan follows: Regular Lesson 2: PIan Grade8 Section 1 Greeting Section Review -translate from Japanese into English -questions and answers in English Section3 Textbook -model reading -newwords -read-repeat -translate -key sentence -read-repeat Section 1 8:40-8:43 The greeting consisted of the same 'rituals' that were observed in the other lessons. The . This met with limited success because the students appeared to be sleepy. This."Good-bye. The teacher would ask the students a question in Japanese and have them translate it into English. again. Then the teacher .students satinperfect order.Then theybowed and saidinunison. the Japanese English teacher began to review the previous lesson by instructing the students to close their books and notebooks and giving them directions in Iapanese to translate sentences. "There are three desks in this room" and "Is there a desk in this room?" The teacher then tried to elicit English sentences from the students using Japanese. He then called on students to translate sentences from Japanese into English."The on-duty student said: "Please sit down". Theteacher bowed and responded:"Godd-bye.the. the teacher said:"Who is onduty?"The on- duty student said: "Pleasestand up". "There is a desk".Mr.and the classsat. "There is a desk in this room". When thelesson was over. Section2 8:43-9:05 Following the greeting.and theclass stood up.· Kitazume.teacher left the classroom while . was done primarily in Japanese. class.

1990:34-39). Regular Lesson 3 The pIan for the third videotaped lesson follows: Regular lesson 3: PIan Grade8 Section 1 Greeting Section2 Review -translate from Japanese to English -read and translate previous lesson Section3 Textbook -model reading -newwords -read-repeat-translate -read-repeat -questionsand answers on the text -Japanese translationof the text . 157 began to review "How many?" He gave an explanation in [apanese and then began to ask questions about the room using the construction. read -repeat drills were introduced. During the new vocabulary section the JapaneseEnglish teacher went intocritical pair drills for "word-world". for example: "How many desks are in the room?" The question was repeated five times because the students would notrespondto 'it.. In addition.followed by English-into-Iapanese translation drills. The c1ass ended with read-repeat drills .information. the pronunciation ofwhich is difficult for the Japanesespeaker of English (Shimaoka and Yashiro. he provided cultural information by explaining the differences between the way Americans and Australians pronounce the letter 'a'. the c1ass performedthe ritual closing described in the previous lesson.. ThentheJapanese English · teacher began to elicit answers using English from the students who eventually answered with some coaching. Section3 9:05-9:25 The textbook was then covered inthe traditionai manner. Whenthe lesson was over. Takala(1997)suggeststhat fhis approach is . After that. heavily influenced bytheMichigan'method which was .popular in the 1940s and 1950s in many Western countries. This material was not in the book which meant that the Japanese English teacher was providing supplemental material'vand ccultural .

The Japanese Englishteachercoveredthe textbook material fr()m team-taught lesson 3 in the formof read-repeat-translate drills. 1 have attempted to concentrate on broad featuresthat appeared in the lessons which any observer would take noticeof when examining the methods.done in the form of [apanese-into-English translations .158 Section 1 10:40-10:43 The Iessen. 'Good examples' in this sense could mean 'iaiemae or examples which are meant to be shown to outside observers. the videos contain average. which it seems to be. containedthe same ritual greeting as in the previouslydescnbed lessons. This. like any study based on observation.the teacher wishing to indicate a minimum of imposition should the tapes not be what had in mind for the 1 research project. He probably meant that the lessons were not fulI of happy. Rees. the class did the same ritual closing as always. in other words.Of these. mostly in Japanese. smiling students speaking English inacheerfulmanner. This is the paradoxical nature of the field of classroom observation (Fanslow 1977. videotaped and can be viewed by others who wishto replicate this study. This was followed by more read-repeat exercises and questions and answers on the text. The lessons that are included in this section were also . Section3 11:02-11:25 New material was covered in the usual manner through a model reading and explanation of new vocabulary. There were five sentences in the textbook. When the lesson was over. This was done in the form of written translations on the blackboard. The [apanese teacher commented that the videotapes might contain 'bad examples'. Section2 10:44-11:01 The greeting was followed by a review of the material covered in the previous lessonandbefore.1 Discussion The observations made in this study. Even so. everyday English lessons which is what this paper sought to study. . Allwright 1988. 7. This would be an example of 'deference politeness'.. 1992).rwasv.Then. This could also refer to the fact that they did not contain model lessons which may have been perceived as 'good examples'. four were translated by the Japanese English teacherandone was translated by a student.1. are clouded by the view of the observer. If that is the case. read-repeat-translate exercises were introduced. activities and timing.

Presentation of New Materials and Pattern Practice D. Reading the text a Listening to tape-recorded . the Japanese English teacher who planned and executed these lessons repliedthat he felt the textbook needed to be covered in order for the . Oral Introduction of the Story E. Basically. ChorusReading b. Assignment of Homework Source: CLAIR 1991: 5-6 One of the most striking points about all of the regular lessons that were observed was the similarity of the. Individual Reading C. Explanation in Iapanese H.1 Summary Of [apanese RegularEnglish Lessons Lesson 1 Lesson2 Lesson3 Section 1 Greeting same same same Section 2 Review same same same Section3 Textbook same* same* same* Section4 Review of Wh. In fact. b. This meti1.. Reading 1. Chorus reading after the tape c. Individual reading G.discussed in the . TraditionaI ]apanese Teaching Procedure (Example) A. 159 TABLE 7.. Test Questions F. Pattern Practice 2. Chorus reading after the teacher d.od is basically the traditionai audio-lingual method of the 1980s. the . Greeting and Roll Call B. Reading new words (using flash cards) 2. by Monbush() and .text . regular Japanese lessons. following section.all of the lesson plans and activities correspondedto the traditionai Japanese teaching procedtlre issued. activities that were offered.that were observed were almost identicaL When asked about this.words N/A N/A *small variations in the order in which items were presented. Review 1. Reading a.

on severaloccasions since . This could be because of the flu season or their mood. This is the general feeling among the Japanese English teachers and is addressed in Cominos (1990).d. In the other schools in the setting. Another reason for the 'bored-looking students' could be the redundancy of the activities on a dp.(1991). This feeling is.g th<. Overall. in the series he wrote for a major Japanese newspaper on English teaching.'flu season' it was not uncommon for most. However. thispardcular school there was only one English teacher. emphasis 011 translatingwithin the lesson. it appeared to be the genuine feeling (hanne) of not only the teacher who participated in the study but virtually all of the Japanese English teachers in the town. Tanigawa (1992). the lessons moved slowly. The Japanese English teacher also comrnented that he thought he talked too much during the lesson.y-to-day basis and ar. which could indeed become quite boring. This indicated a perception that the c1assroom was too teacher-centered .! time 1 -was conductingresearch in Japan. When asked what he thought about the lessons. cut short . simply moving around the c1assroom does not make the lesson more leamer-centered. Ellis (1992). However. puril1. the Japanese English teacher commented: "The students looked bored. days -were.school was canceled or. In fact. [apanese English teachers indicated that they used the same methods as the teacher who was observed on the video tapes. in my rnind. the instructions given during the lesson were quite long and often in [apanese. and Wacia. teachers who cannot speak English themselves.ifficuIt for the foreign professionals andsome assistant language teachers working within the system to accept. of the class to be sick on the same day. Wada (1991) citedReischauer's (1988) criticism that the main sturnbling block for change is the 50. The same basic lesson plan was repeated day after day.160 students to pass their entranceexaminations al1d to·keep up withthe syllabus that theschool system used. This was not the case in the school studied because the teacher was able to communicate in the language that was to be taught.more than fifty percent of the students were at home because of the flu. Another cornrnent made by the Japanese English teacher WaS that he thought he should have moved around more in the regular classroom. In. The result of the discussions with the teacher and others in the town indicated that they preferred the method describedin their normallessons because they feIt that it -w-as effective f?r helping the students pass their senior high school and university entrance examinations. states that one form of c1assroom research is to tape several lessons and to measure the amount of the first language and second language .000 Japanese Englisll.:' By moving around the [apanese English teacher felt that he could keep the students more interested and keep the c1ass going." (lapanese Teacher lnformant 1) During' .

suffice to say thilt. forward within the educiltional system.lessonsAonot . method for covering the textbook.ents on the non-team-taught lessons. and (6) the teacher talked tn0st of thetime during the c1ass.rding to the JapillleseEnglish teacher <>. several common characteristics of the regular Japanese English lesson elearly emerged.acknowledged . (3) this was because the }apanese EngHsh teacher felt grarnrnar and translation was an effective.Was substantially more JapilIlese.Ilumber. classes.ill these.by the Japanese teacher informant were incomplete at best. timing the use of Japanese and English on the tapes in this study proved to be quite difficult. acco. are intended to .teach .slation exercises prese111 which relates to..turn-takingbetween the teacher iln4 stude!). The regular lessons. The Japallese English teacher.from Jilpan se..intended to .colltain games or. grammatical points that are inthe textbook so the . His artiele suggested that this wilsan "eilsy form" of elassroom research.. the only direct cOnunent made. In fact.s and move..!). 161 used in the elassroom.this. There were six hours of tapes with pauses.m." Gapanese Teacher Informant 1) After viewing the videotapes and interviewing the Japanese teacher informant. Letjt.lessons.te)(tbook while the team-taughtlesSOllS.the . The points raised in this section of the study are worth investigating in relation to the team-taught lessons which will be addressed in the following section. (4) the amount of }apanese used in the c1assroom far exceeded the arnount of "Englishj (5) the }apanese Englishteacher di!i npt move around during the c1ass. discussed in Chapter Four. E. if boring..e intended more to teachinternational topic:s alld comm1. cover the . lrl the regular elassroom. but this did notappear to effect theplans ofthe regular.: taught lessons The reason for. 'I'his was because ofthe.xtbook tellded to 'beboring'. (2) the main activities in the lessons were grammar and translation exercises.are.ts and other factors. is that the . Thesewere: (1) the lessons were very similar on a day-to-day basis. w1:lich Will be covered in the next s ction/ar.galne-like activitiesas did the team- . students can pass their examinatio!).regular Iessons. The com.the 4 sign ofthe textbooks.. ofgrallllnaraIldtra!).tha!). . that covering onlYthe te. However.ll1icatiqn . These.by the teacher was: "1 tried to make aIot of activities but there Wli!re too tnanyexplanations. Japanese appeared to be the dominant language with English being used to answer questions or translate .glish used .. informan].opserving the yideos made)t clear that there .

This study deals with what may be deemed an ideal situation or at least one in which there is good cooperation between the Japanese English teacher and the native-speaker assistant language teacher.lessons with a native-speaker assistant language te cher.tributing to 50%. lesson planning .. and subsequently where the Japanese teachers of English would bring the assistant language teacher to c1ass an. II Gapanese Informant 1) . The juniorhigh school. the assistant language teacher criticized the Japanese English teachers directly because of their teaching methods and English ability. The fear of being judged can develop into an acute problem in working relationships between the two and.of the execution of the lesson (Wada 1990.book and one lesson to teach about cultural information using slide shows or other activities. Because of the Japanese English teacher's positive attitude.detail in the preceding section.: team-taught English. The informant stated: . It should . 1 preferred to use one lesson to teach the . In the neighboring town. Fortunately..The Japanese English teacher informantused in this study was selected inpart because he consistently used thi philosophy when planning team-taught Iessons.. let her stand there without participating in the lesson..2 Japanese Team-Taught Lessons Having discussed threeregular Japanese English lessons in . the students and the JapaneseEnglish teacherwere the sameas those discussed in the previous section.c0tne as no surprise that. such problems did not arise during the course of my research. Garant 1992b. Bay 1992). the focus of this chapter will now shift to an examination of . can Iead 'to a breakdown (Garant 1992a. This led to a breakdown incommunication. or they taught by themselves which was not legal because they did not have teaching licenses for [apan. assistant language teachers found that their team-taught lessons had been canceled and they sat alone a11 day. Shimaoka and Yashiro 1990. In yet other situations where breakdowns occurred. Teachers throughout the world tend to dislike beingobserved while they are teaching.d.162 7. team-taught lessons in the school studied consistentlyincorporated varied approaches.should bedone byboththe assistant language teacher andthe JapaneseEnglish teacher on an equa11y-shared basis with both c0n.many Japanese teachers of English are not very. G rant 1992b). Theoretically. of the content and 50%. This was intended to provide continuity. pleased when they find they must work with. a native speaker assistantlanguage teacher. Because each of the dasses in my school are able to have team-taught lessons " twice in one week.

beautiful pictures. After the dialogue was practiced a few times through drilling. The reason for including theIl1. and secondly. (referring to a redpicture) OK. Students in. Closing *note: Correcting a sentence such as 'Please give me' might be considered a face threatening act in [apan. the school in question appeared to be able to produce and understand more English than in the other schools where 1 taught. ModeI Lesson: PIan Grade7 Section 1 Greeting Section2 'Bingo' using vocabulary from the textbook. they represent what the ideal team-taught lesson should be in the mind of the Japanese Englishteacherbecausethey were presented to colleagues and administrators for evaluation. The lesson plans were almost identical.I did not mention it to the teacher or anyone else at the time. This broadened the perspective. feedback on the lessons was provided by [apanese language teaching professionals who observed them. Therefore. Section3 Dialogue Practlce (Pairwqrk) A: Hi. Then it will examine three other videotaped classes. B: Oh.me:. this study will examine a team-taught modellesson and the comments made about it. In order to try and understand what was taking place within the school. one dollar. photocopied dollar bills were distributed in the c1ass and students simulated buying and selling. this was an effective useoftheassistant language teacher and team-teaching. B: Really!? Money Ga. in this study is twofold. look at these pictures. the students were asked to respond to five short questions about the lesson. 163 Based on my research findings. The Japanese teacher caught the mistake himself and mentioned it after the lesson to me. These were: . Please give me. * B: A: Thank you. Which is yours? A: The red one is mine. Model Lesson For School Inspectors The two modellessons were given in the fall trimesters of 1991 and 1992. Firstly. Following the lesson. one of which was especially prepared for outside observers. The videotapedlesson will be analyzed in the following section.

principal and two experts from the schoolinspector's office. Classes should be fun so they continue to like the subject.164 StudentResponse To Team-Taught Lesson Scale: 1 = least. reading and writing wereimportant butin . Response 6 2 6 5. 1987: introduction) This is the 'formula' commonly taught in English c1ass. the vice-principal. list 1. the learners did not.1ing should be mpl1asized. Thank you.: dasses with the assistant language teacher. The informant stated that greetings should not be: A: How are you? B: I'm fine.thank you. Do you think the lesson went very well? Yes . Good for pronunciation. And you? A: I'm fine.hate English yet: instead. too. The teacher suggested that greetings in c1ass should be more natural and varied. Didyou talk to Mike? (How many times?) 1 2 3 5 . Did you and your friend understand each other in English? 148 1 2 3 4 5 Response 4. The Japanese English teacher explained in a review and evaluation meeting that the lesson was meant to emphasize conversation. . speaking. 5 = best Was the lesson fun? 1 2 3 4 5 Response 1 4 15 2. Because the c1ass was a first- year c1ass. (Kairyudo. he explained. No Response 16 4 Comments by students: My conversations went well with the assistant language teacher without reading the dialogue from the board. He commented that listening. speaking ana. Do you understand how to use the language? 1 2 4 5 Response 2 7 11 3. they liked it. The lesson was viewed by several teachers.

'interesting'and 'good'. wore asportcoat on theday of the lesson. The students were. butdespite a little nervousness.takenplace. it was supportive of the curriculum as well as fun for the students. boy-girl. because it would be morereal tothe a students. Theyalso liked the photocopied dollars because the bills exposed the students to one aspect of foreign culture. boy-girl and vice versa. In fact. a few aspects of the lesson deserve comments. In addition. Still. 165 The . who was normallydressed in a track suit. the Japanese English teacher. boy-boy. the boys might only talk to the boys and the girls only talk to thegirls. They further suggested thatthe nexttime theactivity was tried. They commentedthat perhaps the bingo went ontoolong. The learners wereobserved to enjoy playing'Bingo'and because it was usedto reinforce vocabulary. AlI in all it was a very unnatural affair. They pointedout that buying and selling pictures was not something that the studentsnormally do and suggestedthat it might be better to set the location in department 01' grocery store. weather and howthey felt. Compared with other lessons that were experienced in the setting . for example.the pairworkwiththedialogue should havebeen given more time so that moreinteractionbetweenth. In this situation also. this tendency was seen to vary between classes in the educational culture studied. He stated that.·nervous.the lesson went as it normally did. · Furthermore.Thecomments werenot criticaLand consisted of statementslike 'wonderful'. Many aspects of the lesson and its evaluation were worthy ofpraise. there should bea rule that wouldmake students talk to both boys and girls. without such practice the students would not have been able to proceed with the dialogue. They praised the money game becausethey saidthat buying and selling was riear the students' Iifeand they could relate to it onan individual basis. This demonstrated the Japanese tendencynotto criticize each other publicly. the lesson was presented in the library instead of the regular classroom. even the boys and girls in this particular group would talk to each other voluntarily From my perspective.eassistantlanguage teacherandthe students could have . boy-boy. it was not as 'natural' as reguIar lessons becausethe teachers and the students were . Followingthis opening statement the vice-principalasked if .there were any questions.Then each of the teachers commentedonthe lesson. the pre- communicative practice stageduring which the students are made to repeat a dialogue using·mechanical drills is not without value.Iapanese English teacher commented that the 'Bingo' section ofthe lesson went about five minutes too long. In a different setting. One of theother teachers asked whatquestions were asked during the greeting.Because the Iessen was under scrutinybyoutsideobservers. It lasted about lSminutes. af ter all. Smith (1992: 19) suggests that in team-taught c1asses. twelve-year-olds. thatthe lesson appeared fun for the studentsandthatthegames were good. The Japanese English teacherresponded thatthe students were askedthe day. 'fun'. 'goodteam-work'. This was followed by the evaIuations of the teaching experts. Otherwise.date. the teachers dressed more nicely than they normallydidand the atmospherein the dass changed as aresult.

students enjoyedthemselves so theyresponded enthusiasticallytothe lesson. Because oftime constraints. of lesson . which will discuss the comments and evaluations made after teaching. The second half of this section will be concerned with two lessons that were not specially prepared for outside observers andone lesson that was prepared for outside observers but not for evaluation by. .. It should be stressed that modellessons are not what one usually encounters in the classroom. The tapes will be analyzed on two levels.166 studied. Kitazume (1992) and others evaluateand describemodellessons or lessons especiallyprepared forviewing by outsiders. team-teaching and the English classroom in [apan .is the. .assistant language teacherthrough team-teaching. dressing up. this type.· thelessons will be examined as a whole bymeas participantresearcher. the in-lesson phase.First. Analysis Of Videotaped Team. Listeningand speaking skills were concentrated on during the .vday-to-day lessons. This caused. only one thatis presented at · training sessions. writing the dialogueson prepared posters instead.to the informant for his comments. and movingthe lessoninto the librarywere morethan wasusually done for team-taught lessons . No special planning or preparation went into them. the inspectors .zepresented an effectiveuse of· the . The biggestcriticism that presents . Thethird one was a55-minute »model Iesson similar. picture . Therefore.said this type of: lesson waswhat teachers In [apan should strive for when planning team-taughtactivities. it was not possible to get the Japanese teacherinformant'sfeedback on the entire two and a half hours of tape. The discussion of the Japanese team-taught lessons . This study will attempt topresent arealistic picture of day-to-day lessons in the setting studied.. Smith (1992).TaughtLessons Two ofthe 55-minute classes that were videotaped were selected to represent normal.. This is significant because it may show a distorted view of .Iesson as recommended-'(wada: 1992) and the . addressingplanning.itself is that the preparations that were made for the lesson induding printing the money.. The Japanese teacher's opinions presented here will be based largely on after-lessoncomments.. and the after-lesson phase. Native speaker assistants. The use of dollars in the classroom tended to add excitement to the lesson. general commentsmadeat teacher meetings and written comments about the edited video..school inspectors.will be divided into the pre-lesson phase. anedited version focusing on the instruction-giving sections of the lessons waspresented . of whom only about 11% have TEFL training (CLAIR 1992:58). Basically. of on the blackboard.which will talk about what happened in the classroom. tothe lesson previously discussed.the lesson to improve but presented a different picture than that which is found in everydaylessons. usually perceive themselves either as being in verygood or verybad situations as a result. This.

167 The Iesson plans that were used in this study were typical of those used in the classes that Itaught.at three schools witheight different [apanese. "Please stand up". The random question-and-answer session was deemed.lesson Team-Taught Lesson A: PIan Grade8 Section 1 Greeting Section2 Random Questions and Answers Section3 'Bingo' -using vocabulary from the textbook Section4 Tongue Twisters -She sells sea shells by the sea shore.teacher suggested that tongue twisters beintroduced becausethey. In-Lesson Section 1 11:42-11:45 Greetings were basically the same in all of the team-taught lessons. I'm sure the shells that she sells are sea shore shells. The [apanese teacher said. If she sells sea shells by the sea shore. The door opened and the teachers entered.and they were incorporated into the lesson. beneficial because every student wouldbecalledon toanswer question during the class. that something shouldbedone outsideofthe material inthebook thathadsome kindof foreign cultural emphasis.love 201). IfPeter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers How many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick? Pre-Lesson The planning of the lessonwas group effort on the part of . the onomatopoeicwordsand word games(CLAIR1991: assistant language .suggested.the Japanese a English teacher andthe foreign assistant .The following is the pIan for. The students were seated. "Who is on duty?"The on-duty student said.vln=planning tthe lesson. including the students. . Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.. Therefore.of A English over two years. [apanese people. The [apanese English teacherconcurred .not played it for some time.are.language teacher.teachers. Bingo wasdedded a onbecause the students liked to play the game and had. the Japanese Englishteacher.somewhat similar and theywere thoughtto be of interest to the.Iearners.

the assistant language teacher was observed to initiateresponsesfrom thelearners. the on-duty student said. AL T = assistant language teacher JTE = Japanese teacher of English The greeting continued until all of the students had answered a question or raised their hands. Then. The Japanese teacherandassistant language teacher bowedandresponded. During this part of the lesson. Mr. the assistant language teacher read vocabulary while the students filled in the words on their bingo cards. they can listen for it and avoid overlap which may be perceived by the [apanese teacher of English as a [ace-ihreaiening.. These were then c1arified in Japanese by the Japanese English teacher. Kitazume and Mr. The Japanese English teacherchecked their work as they did it.bowed andsaid in unison. ALT: How do you feel today? Studentl: 1 feel sleepy. response. It is also significant because ifassistant language teachers in [apan in general are aware of this.the Japanese teacher of English. 1978: 60i Scollon and Scollon 1995). -In c1assroom settings. ''Please sit down". act (Brown and Levinson. provide feedback. fhe [apanese English teacher would .fhe patternof initiation.are you?".the discourse structure usually follows. "Good morning. feedback(Coulthard 1977:1-49i Sinc1airand Brazil1982: 36 . date and weather. thank you".This is a significant finding because it indicatesthat therealpower of assessment in the team-teaching classroom was in the hands. and the c1ass sato The greeting also included asking the students questions. Insomecases both teachers wouldprovide . the assistant language teacherprovided feedback by himself. Section2 11:45-11:55 Following this.of. fhank you.. Who feels sleepy? Students: {sleepy students raise hands} ALT: How do you feel today? Student2: 1 feel happy.How. JTE: You feel sleepy. · Andyou?/IThe students responded. more often thannot. The game acted as a vocabulary review and a listening drill for the students. "Fine. Section3 11:55-12:12 Next.feedback together and in a few cases. Garant. The students would respond. the students were instrueted to listen for the words that . Here an interesting phenomenon was observed.55). "Fine.v. Then. andthen.168 The students stoodup. It ended with the assistant language teacher asking the day. instructions were given by the assistant language teacher in English as to the question-and-answer activity.

He also said the tongue twisters were difficult. "Please sit down". stud nts reallyenjoyed the tongue twisters . that they began totry andteach the. Section4 12:12-12:25 Following 'Bingo' there was a transition phase during which Japanese was used to explain the nextactivity. a dear picture emerges of the Japanese teacher's attitude toward the team-taught lesson."Please stand up"..assistantlanguage teacher [apanese tongue twisters . they were told to stand upo The Japanese English teacher wrote their natnes on the board as they stood and said "bingo". When The students 'got Bingo'. dass.the lesson the. Team-Taught Lesson B The next lesson that will be examined was videotaped in November 1991. "Good-bye. This sort of enthusiasm was what was sought after in team-taught lessons.. it was good for the students to see that aspect of English. 169 they had written and mark them whenthe assistant language teacher said them. The lesson pIan was as follows: Team-TaughtLesson B: PIan Grade7 Section 1 Greeting Section2 Review of old material (questions and answers) -What is this? Kenji's notebook. During this time the tongue twisters were written on the blackboard. Mr." The on-duty student said. "Good-bye.. - The students enjoyedthisactivity and it familiarized them with this aspect of the English language. and the dass stood upo Then they bowed and said in unison. Section3 New material from the textbook . in fact. the. Garant. The lesson was presented as a part of the yearly Kanra Town Teachers' Research Project. . the Japanese English teacher commented. the Japanese teacher said. The students enj()yed the activity which did have its merits as a warm-up activity. Also. This was followed by practice and production: the losers of a scissors paper rock game had to saythe tongue twisters in front of the dass. and the dass sato The teacherleft the dassroom while the students sat in perfect order. When thelessonwas over. After-Lesson After . Kitazume and Mr. $0 much so. Because the lesson was presented to the research committee and a written report was produced. "Who is on duty?" The on-duty student said. Japan se English teacher commented that ." The [apanese teacher and assistant language teacher bowed and responded with.

assistant language ._. Howmuch? B: 1 dollar A: Good.170 Pialogue A: Look at the picture No. In-Lesson Section 1 9:40-9:45 The greeting was about the same as in the other lessons that were observed.that? B: It's (Cola" apple or tape) A: Whose a_. is that? B: It's my brother's. What's. . The dialogue was constructed by the a. Do you want it? A: Yes. Following this it was dedded that material from the book vvouk1 be covered Thisplan was formulated by the.language teacher and Japanese Englishteacher to beused in a buying-aIld-selling game. (hands the dollar) B: Thankyou. Buying and selling game Section4 Textbook -rnodel reading -new words -read-repeat Pattern practice using "Whose isthis? ___ Pre-Lesson Before the lesson the Japanese English teacher and assistant language teacher agreed to have a review session of the material from the previous lesson because it was useful and needed practicing. English teacher who made the props and posters teacher and by the Japanese for the lessonin a joint effort. J The students werea bit hesitant in responding at first which could have been caused by the presence of observers in the dassroom..I do. The explanation for the activity was given in English by the assistant language teacher and then in apanese bythe Japanese English teacher.ssistant . Section2 9:45-10:00 Following this was an activity that reviewed the materialcovered in the previous lesson. 1 .

Does everybody speak to the assistant language teacher during theclass? Yes No Noopinion Before the lesson 9 3 12 After the lesson 13 o 11 . students. and the results follow. insteadof writing in chalk as was normally the custom. new vocabulary and reading and repeating the text.posterson the blackboard 'with the dialogue. The assistant language teacher read through the chapterin the textbook. Students' Response To Team-Taught Lesson 1.winner - assuming the part in the dialogue that received money. Interestingly enough. This was quiteeffective and cut down the amount of Japanese used. the lesson went well and the students appeared to enjoy themselves. Normally. Then the new vocabulary was covered using flash cards. One of the main reasons for the presence of native-speaker assistant language teachers is to inspire interest in English (Kitazume 1992: 55. This was followed byv'modeling' the dialogue and practicing itwith the. 171 Section3 10:00-10:18 The new material was presentedby pladng .. Then. < the student with the most money was declared the winner. Section4 10:19-10:25 The last activity in the lesson consisted of covering the textbook material through a model reading.with the . These tapes suggest that team-teaching accomplishes this goal and makes the lessons more . The assistant language teacher would hold up the card and say the word. This was followed by read-repeat drills. After-Lesson Overall.enjoyable. the [apanese English teacher would translateit into Japanese.What was unique about this c1ass was that it was conducted almostentirely in English. They were surveyed before and after the lesson as to what their impressions were of the lesson. At the end of the game. Brumby and Wada 1990). Are the lessons with the assistant language teacher fun? Yes No No opinion Before the lesson 10 0 14 After the lessön 19 0 5 2. The students would repeat it. flash cards were prepared for covering the vocabulary. Because this was an observed c1ass. these words were written on the blackboard. 'instructions were: given . Copies of dollars were distributed inthe class and the students were shown thatthey shouldplay 'sdssors -paper rock' .through modelingdnstead of by < giving explidt directions .

LessonC Finally.is aC0p' out. they will speak English. assistantlanguage teacher . This was followed . Not all of the students were able to talk to the assistant Ianguage teacher during thec1ass . which indicates that the activity was more or less equally planned. In English. this is done using letter. The students indicated that the lesson was fun and this was one of the primary goals of the lesson. The use of 'shyness' instead of 'Iaziness' when describing the students could be an example of deference politeness. Other Japanese English teachers suggest that the reason students do not talk totheassistant Ianguage teacher is'shyness' Murray (199S)dismisses thisas acop-out and. Perhaps time andclass sizemade itdifficu1t for the . not forcingstudents to speak . In a sense. The plan for it was as follows: Team-Taught Lesson C: PIan Grade7 Section 1 Greeting Section 2 Random questions and answers Section3 Pronunciation 'Shiriiori' * -critical pairs Section4 Textbook -model reading -newwords -key sentence -read-repeat Questions and answers based on the textbook *'Shiritori' is a traditionai [apanese game where word chains are formed using the last syllable of the previous word to form the first syllable of the next word.A lack of confidence in English is probablya big factor. This would give each student the opportunity to speak to the native speaker English teacher. because ifthe studentsknow that . more-egg-go-out-take-etc.the situation.tospeak with each student. c1assifies the reason as laziness.The idea for 'shiriiori' came from the Japanese teacher of English and the idea for the critical pairs came from the assistant Ianguage teacher. which preserves the student's personal space and does not 'impose on' them by the use of negative terminology.172 The results of the lesson as indicated by the students' responses werequite positive. instead.. ·1 think 'shyness' is inaccurate to describe .This wasa majorconcern of the [apanese English teacher. for example.: . there is no aIternative. a third videotaped lesson will be examined. Pre-Lesson The assistant language teacher and Japanese English teacher decided to do an activity in which the native speaker would ask each student one question.

The question-and-answer part ofthe activity went slowly. it doesexpedite the instruction process and makes sure allthe students understand what they are supposed todo in the activity.japanese English teacher: suggestedthatit be coveredin . the last syllable of a word is used to form the first syllable 'of The next word. it is played using the last letter of the previous word to form the first letter of The following word (for example. which could have been an attempt to helpthe students and to avoid committing a face threatening act. production of verbal English and listening comprehension. This sort of instruction pattern hadbeen mentioned at workshops as being counter- productive.the traditionaI manner: rnodel reading.or culture-specific schemata was activated because the students already knew how to play the game in Japanese.: In English.were not translated by the Japanese Englishteacher.key grammarpoint sentence. In The game.in English followedby an explanation in'[apanese by the Japanese teacher of English. 'Pronundation Shiritori'. read-repeat: and questions andanswers basedonthe textbook. which accounted for the absences and could account for The lethargic behavior on the part of the students. isapopular team-teaching activity (CLAIR 1991: 160)· which emphasizes pronundation.. In-Lesson Section 1 9:40-9:42 The greeting inthis lesson opened with a pause because noneof the learners volunteered to speak. Some of the students were coached by the Japanese teacher of English to come up with The correct English response during this activity.The assistant language teacher called on the next student. However. Section2 9:42-9:50 The second activity was explained by the assistant language teacher .This class wasvideotaped during flu season. 173 bycovering thetextbook in order to . Section3 9:50-10:02 The next activity. This creates a word chain.). It wasprobably also done because ofthetime it would take to design supplemental materials to cover the grammar point in The book . butthequestions . words. new.keep up with the syllabus. .This wasdone because it was seen as effective. Content. The. It incorporates English into a popular Japanese game. apple-exit-Tom-rnilk-kite-etc. This gave the learners a framework within which to fit The . There was a volunteer toanswer "Howis the weather?" The lack of volunteers indicated that the class was tired or not really ready for anEnglish class on the dayin question. The Japanese English teacher calledon a student as a result.

Section 5 10:10-10:25 The last activity consisted of covering the new material from the book. This activity was inc1uded to utilizethe nativespeakerm c1ass and to point out subtle pronunciation differences which the .had a reference point inthemindsof the learnersand weremoreeasyfor them . etc. reading the textbook and the students repeating after himo The text was: 'Look at that man. He is Iooking at the top. This was followedby the assistant language teacher . love-rub.vast majority of [apanese speakers ofEnglish . 50. He is c1imbing Mt. Then the [apanese English teacher began calling on students to produce words for the game. faster".llluch less produce.activities. (Kairyudo 1987: 71) . He is smiling. theexplanations for. The top is all rock and snow.". This consisted of a model reading done by the assistant language teacher. This made leaming all of the students' names in every school next to impossible.saya word in English . Likein the 'other. theyrealized that they already knew it. 1 am playing the piano now. Section4 10:02-10:10 The assistant language teacher corrected the students' pronunciation and directed pronunciation drills. aface-threatening' situation was avoided. His name is Tenzing. lice-rice. The reason for this was that the assistant language teacher taught in three schools and had approximately six hundred students.pronounce.vlt was also a demonstration of deference politeness in the sense that the assistant language teacher was not 'imposed on' to know the names.teacher urged the students todncrease their speedinanswering by saying "faster. the activity.cannot hear.and Eisterhold 1988).to add it to the wordchain. The activity movedslowly so the Japanese .. By avoiding the situation inwhich Iwould have to call on students by name. Thiswas followed by working on critical pairs for phonetic items that aredifficult forthe Japanese to .174 Englishinstructions:asthey listened to the instructions for the newactivity. He climbs many mountains every year. Afterthe students were calledon.to understand (Carrell . followed by the presentation of new words with pronunciation by the assistant language teacher and then the key grammatical point from the textbook which was explained in Japanese. He is from Nepal. they wereto .' Key Point 1 play the piano every day. Everest noW. English instructions given by the assistant language teacher were followed in [apanese by the Japanese Englishteacher. Learners were supposed to signal with hand gestures as they heard .differences in words like "see-she.

in English.2. by many advoeates ofcommunieative languageteaching (Yalden 1987). After .extraetthemeaningfrom the .the studentsto. This wasto get . Textbook Critical Pairs Twisters Section5 Textbook . the lesson did include otheractivities in which . 7. Sample questions were "Who Is smiling?".the.Thisapproach isaeeepted .1 Summary Having described the videotaped team-taught lessons and the one model lesson that was not recorded.the material fromthe book with the assistant language teacherso the class would not get behind in thesyllabus.the teachers agreedthatthe lesson went wellalthoughthe students seemedsleepy.The last aetivity wasdone. The model readingand read-repeat segments of the lessonare what is referred to as the 'human tape reeorder effeet'. a focus on struetures was deemedneeessary. theIapaneseteacher.2 Summary Of Japanese Team-Taught Lessons LessonA Lesson B LessonC Model Lesson (model) (nottaped) Section 1 Greeting Greeting Greeting Greeting Section 2 Random Random Random 13ingo QandA QandA QandA Section3 Bingo MoneyGame Shiritori MoneyGame Section4 Tongue.to produee the answers .text based on oral initiations.. Lesson Overall. which means using the assistant language teacher to do the same job that a tape reeorder wouldusually. itispossible to summarize the eontents of each and .explained.Sinee this Iessonwas in a first-year class. TABLE7. to cover. 175 Then theassistant language teacher asked questions based on the text that had been eoveredand the leamers had .do inaregular Japanese English lesson (Yokose 1989: 7). "Where is hefrom?'\"What does he do every year?" etc. assistant language teacher took an aetive role. compare them with eaeh other. This was not neeessarily a bad point sinee .

every lesson with thepossible exception of A.model'lesson that wasnot taped. covered the textbook using non-structuraI methods that were designed. in which tongue twisters were done. In each Iesson.thereis the varietyof activitiesthat are . The good point that the Japanese teacher cited was that the students could "understand the assistant language teacher's native English". 'Bingo'was played dn lessons A andthe . This should not be surprising because many Japanese English teachers feeI that because of what they perceive as their deficient English abilities..and exercised ·listening . The review question-and-answer sections were also quite random. JapaneseEnglishTeacher's Comments The comments made by the Japanese Englishteacher andtheobservations made by the assistant language teacher will be incorporated into this section. The [apanese English teacher commented that the 'Shiritori' section (lesson C. The greeting sections in each of the lessons were. section 3) would have been better if "the students had been more active".imany of which emphasize communicationinstead of grammar and transIation. by the Japanese English teacher and assistantEnglish teacher. The question-and-answer activities in Iessons A." This reflects that the emphasis in this section was noton form but was moving toward meaning.176 The previous activity chart from the reguIar Japanese English Iessons differs from the team-teaching activity chart in severaI respects . Madeley and Carter 1993:3-5). Another variation ofthis game was played in the form of a 'chalk race' in which the students would run to the blackboard and write the words in order. active and fun exercises were preferred because they "make the lessons more fun". In team-taught lessons. as noted previously. This was a good point within the lessons. It reinforced the vocabulary thatwasin the textbook . He stated that the goal was for the students to "practice communication with the native speaker teacher". it is impossible for them to teach communicative . Dialogue . to be enjcyable. random questions were asked that varied greatIy so the students were forced to listen carefully in order to answerthe question correctly. They answered the real feelings thatthey had.activitiesconcentrated on speakingand listening. The comments made by the [apanese teacher tended to be fairly specific and should be addressed as such. The way the game was played in the class that was videotaped was that the students sat and pronounced the words which were then written on the board. practice in the money gamereinforced the textbook. The classes studied appeared to have the same goal. basicallythe same. B and C were done.Hereone can see a variety of activities. These .The teacher commented that the greeting was good because "we asked them fortheir feeIings.in the same basic format. This was both the stated goal of the JET Program and the stated goal of the [apanese teacher in the study. »Therefore.skills. The Japanese teacher felt that there was not enough activity in this type of exercise and perhaps the other format was better.present intheteam-taught classroom compared with the regular dassroom. First.forthe students. One of the goals of Monbusho's new guidelines is to promote spontaneous communication (Goold.

Comments From The Assistant Language Teacher Because of thelimited comments from the JapaneseEnglish teacher. the native speaker is useful inthis capacity. used alone . (3) to sive the . 177 lessons. and (4) to help the students with the textbook. Speaking and listeningare cited by Wada (Cominos 1992a:5) as skills that should be emphasizedin team-taught lessons. His team-taught lessons usually incorporated dialogues orother materials to teach the grammar points in the textbooks. The text alwaysoccurred dn the same pattern. English teaching method described in the previous chapter. For example.expressed-a willingness ·to improvise and . the Japanese English teacher stated that it was very goodJor the students to have contact with the assistant language teacher for several reasons. all of the lessons used the traditionai Japanese. Overall. The [apanese. The text is important but borlng when it is. teacher's·commentsconcerrring the textbook sections were: "It . This was the case withinfhe school studied. The biggest constraint on doing this for every lesson was time. The JapaneseEnglish teacher also stated that it was "good practice. superviseextra-curricular activities. In two out of four of the team-taught lessons that . This has changed to the .course. She stated that when she taught. These were (1) to help the students with listening and speaking.the team-taughtdasses. This was best! (Iapanese Bnglish Teacher Informant 1) This statement reflected interestingaspects of the Japanese Englishteacher's attitude toward activifies related to team-teaching andthe incorporation ofthe book into . The most striking element of the lessons that were taped was the disparity between team-taught lessons and regular lessons as to content and activities.in communicative c1asses. who conducted the study. This was also good practice forlistening".these.be flexible enough todevelop materials for . The IIteam-taught Iessons were good. and produce original materials for English c1ass. pursue hisdistance learning. students a chance to hear native English.of-fhe assistant language teacher was. this section will analyze the lesson from the perspective of the assistant language teacher .. we could demonstrate dia10gues to each other o the students could understand them. There simply was not enoughtime for him to teach his c1asses. With thedifficulties Japanese Englishteachers often facein speaking. (2) to help the students understand foreign places. The first native speaker assistant language teacher arrived in the town five years before this study was begun. 'He .was difficuIt to use the text because 1 worried that Mike would become just a . We should takene"" things out of the text and use them in other activities.for the students tolistento . the textbook was covered.fheassistant language teacher's pronunciation. reader.studied. . people and customs. The students heardnative English.: andthe teacher in question felt thatthe bestuse .were .

First.English teaching method in the regularlessonsisprobablydue to acombination oLinsecurityabout their English speaking abilityonthe part oftheIapanese teachers of English and the feeling that the textbook needs . When the students see their Japanese teachers and native-speal<er teachers cornmunicating. such as club activities and administrative work.178 point where. no team-taught lessons followed .This may have also limited the time available to planlessons. 7. SOI team.werequite boring. they may. Therefore.. form of modeling the target language in front of the students.point surfaced . From the lessons that were taped. This is what . In comparing the structures of tlte Finnish and Japanese language lessons. The presence of a foreign assistant language teacher is no longer enough toinspire interestin the language . the most notable difference was the greater variety in classroom activities observed in the former.. by the admission of the Japanese teachers.teaching was effective in providing this positive role. Edge (1988) suggests that an effective use fora native speaker is inthe . itwouldbe of interest toexperiment with the regular English lessons by varying them in format andcontent on a day-to-day basis. Thepersistenceof the traditionalIapanese..vvant to imitate them. In acountry school.model. Assistant language teachers must improvetheir teaching methods when working together with Japanese teachersof English. the foreign assistantlanguage teacher will generate interest by . When the students were surveyed.: The Japanese teachers observed werealso extremelybusy with duties other than teaching.another.to be covered inorder to keepup withthe . a wide majority expressed a preference for team-taught lessons overtheir regularlessons. The regular lessons tended to focus on traditionai Japanese English teaching methods and... perhaps.. It should be noted that the following lessons are roughly the same as other lessons 1 observed but did not videotape in Finland.Perhaps the activities that were presented in the lessons had as much to do with creating interestas the presence of the assistant English teacher. This will be followed by an analysis of th lessons in which the views of the Finnish English teachers and the researcher will be incorporated.. 1 have chosen to divide the lessons that were videotaped into two categories: .their very presence. Wada (Cominos 1992a: 5) has stated that team-teaching is no longer a novelty. syllabus . the lessons will be discussed from the researcher's perspective.the traditionai Japanese Englishlesson format all ofthe time. occurred in the team-taught lessons that were observed and it appeared to be effective.3 Finnish Grammar-Oriented Lessons This section will discuss Finnish grammar-oriented English lessons that were videotaped at Nokia's Emäkoski Junior High School. This could.key. in the school studied and in allofthe other schools in the town. produce theresultssought afterby Monbusho of more communication in the classroom.

where the lessons that 1 observed and videotaped were full of activity.the same basic format which was used to describe .to the videotaped ' lessons. mainly.. the former emphasizing vocabulary and new grammar forms. InFinland. different. however. because the lessons are . a greater varietyoLlessons areincluded. Because I was able. because the Finnish lessons were structured differently. It shouldbementioned. according to the teachers. when my observations are transcribed.. to hold and control thecamera.· variety a of angles and camera shots were possible. four . I also observed 20 additional lessons that were not videotaped.the Iessons in Japan. methods and timing. The description seems different. So. However. They did. Finnish Grammar-Orierrted Lesson 1: PIan Grade7 Section 1 Greeting Section2 Workbookpuzzles Section3 Lesson 5 from the book -tape -read-repeat -questions and answers -translate new vocabulary Section4 Workbook. one. 179 The Finnish grammar lesson and the Finnish communicative lesson.that the 'studentsenjoyed such lessons and they followed a learner autonomy modelin which thestudents were allowed to choose from variety a of activities.different teachers allowed me to videotape their lessons.answer questions . and they aresimilar m content and-structure . When comparing lesson segmentation. Time constraints did not allow the Finnish teachers to view the tapes in detail. influencingactivity selection.lessons generally had more sections than their Japanese counterparts. makegeneral commentsabout the lessons. The Japanese lessons tended to move much slower with fewer phenomena to note than in Finland. No special instructions were given to the teachers before the lessons were taped and. Language laboratory lessons that wereobserved willnot beincludedinthis study. This led to what appears to be a different way of description than was seen in the [apanese section.howeyer. and the latter emphasizing communicative use of the target language. . . lhave used. finds that the Finnish . 1994 Three Finnish grammar-oriented Iessons were taped in the spring of by the researcher. their appearance. is also different. I informed the teachers who participated that I would use the lessons in my research to compare them with the [apanese lessons they hadalready seen on videotape. no special lesson plans were prepared.

. After this. The teacher walks around the c1assroom and helps the students. The tapes were entirely in EngIish.2 and 3 and study question 4. The teacher asks the students for answers to the questions. One boy getsup and walks overto talk toanother student. The students answer in Finnish. The tapeplays read-and-repeat dril1s with the new vocabulary . Then. please sit down. The students do individual work quietly with not much chatter.to see what happens in Finnish c1assrooms.' · The teacher gives instructions for the students to listen the first time. Section2 :02-:10 The teacher instructs the students to start doing puzzles in their workbooks. please. The teacher tells the students to turn to page 47 in EngIish. Someone in[apan may watch this . Section3 :10-26 The teacher says that the c1ass is going to do lesson 5 in the book. The tape tells the students to answer questions 1. The teacher then points to words on the board as the students translate them into Finnish. the tape 'is played." The teacher plays the tape first and tells the students to follow along. The other character speaks with a British accent. the students are told in English by the teacher to look at the questions andanswer questions 1. Jaana. · "HeIlo everyone. The students raise their hands to be recognized before answering. "1 want to go home and go to sleep. The section was conducted in Finnish.Some of the students look atthe camera. The second time the tape is played. One ofthestudents says in EngIish.180 Section 1 :00-:02 The door is unlockedby the teacher who enters with the students. Astudent getsup to throw something away. the tape is played in sections and the students answer the questions in their workbooks. the Finnish character on the tape speaks with a Finnishaccent. The teacher greetsthe students with. This section of the lessonfollows the traditionai 1-R-F pattern (Sinc1air and Brazil1982). The students initiate question-and-answer sequences with the teacherin English and Finnish. Section4 :26-:36 The teacher writes vocabulary on the board and the students write down the words and the teacher monitors their work." Then the teacher explained tothe students in Finnishthat 1 was there toobservethe lessonsin order to write a research report comparing TEFL cultureinIapanand Finland. There is lots of chatter as the students walkabout. 2 and 3.

. While the teacher is explaining to one student. ladies and gentlemen. "Yesterday we looked at the textand you answered these questions". . The students do their pairwork:in English. another taps the teacher on the shoulder to get her attention and asks a question. which means 'hello' :in Finnish. The students pack upo The door opens and they leave at random. The teacher explainsthe activities in Finnish. Some of the students ask fortranslations of the text. The students answer questions about the text. 181 Section 5 :36 :42 .:in English. Section3 :17-:32 The teacher tells the students to underline grammatical forms :in the text. The teacher wanders around the class." The students give various responses. The teacher gives directions :in F:innish and distributes photocopies which contain supplemental materials. Section2 :12-:17 The teacher says. The teacher dismisses the class in Finnish and says. and monitors the students.. The students write :in their workbooks and the teacher monitors and helps. students enter. Students 'talk when the teacher is talk:ing. Finnish Crammar-Oriented Lesson 2: PIan Grade9 Section 1 Greeting Section2 Go over homework Section3 Lesson from the book -students underline grammar forms Section4 Handouts.studentsdo individual work Section 1 :00-:12 Hal1way. to the camera. "See you later". The desks are left in disorder. with the teacher in an irregular manner and make noise. The teacher gives out papers and tells the students :in English to take out their books. A student says "terve". The teacher says"Goodafternoon.

Then the teacher corrects the sentences. The teacher tells the students. which is individual work. The teacher tells the students to write the sentences they have produced on the blackboard. . lopen the floor for questions but there are none." Theteacher tells the students whyJ am taping and then asks me to explain why 1 am there. The students ask the teacher questions while she walks around the room and monitors the students. The students listen.182 The publie announcement system plays a message that lasts two minutes. The bell rings and the students leave. Section4 :32-:46 The teacher hands out papers and telIs the students to write answers on the paper. The teacher writes the exercise numbers from the textbook on the board and the students form pairs. Section 2 :04-:10 The teacher tells the students. The students are given homework. The room is very quiet while the students are working. students start packing their books before the belI rings. "We havea guest. Finnish Grammar-Oriented Lesson 3: PIan Grade7 Section 1 Greeting Section2 Pairwork from textbook Section3 Lesson from the textbook -tape -students fill in answers to questions Section4 Overhead projector drill -student translate sentences from Finnishinto English Section 1 :00-04 Students enter the c1assroom with the teacher. One of the students asks the teacher a question and the teacher tells the student to "ask Mike. Lgive thecamera. The." The student asks me about a vocabularyitem and 1 answer.to a student and then explain to them why 1 am there. VirtualIy alI of the students look at the camera at the same time after the announcement. At other times it is noisy with the chatter of the students.to do exercise 11 on page 31.

The teacher checks the students' workandmakes comments. The teacher uses the overhead projector and follows the more traditionai I-R-F sequences assodated with teacher talk (Sinc1air and Brazil 1983). . Students raisetheir hands and are recognized before they answer.the sentence in English. students to HU in the blanks. The lesson is more teacher- centered and. Section4 :15-:23 The teacher goes to the overhead projector and says a sentence in Finnish and asks the students. see you tomorrow". The teacher puts on another overhead slide. the board. The teacherchecks the students' work. The teacher assigns homework· in: Finnish and writes the assignment· on .slide and does more grammar and . 183 Section3 :10-:15 The teacher gives the students instructions to follow in the book and listen to the tape. The students are quiet while fuey complete tlleexercise. The teacher gives grammatical explanations in Finnish.. there is less chatter fhan in the more communicative lessons.The teacherhasthe students translate from Finnish into English. "Bye-bye.Students followin the book whilethe tape is being played. The teacher saysthat they are tired because theyjust ate lunch.the students to write out their answers to the questions on it. to say.: The bell rings and 'fhe teacher says. The teacher goes over 'cannot and can't'. . The students pack upand leave the c1assroom in random order. The teacher wanders around the room and monitors the students. Section5 :23-:44 The teacher changes the overhead projector slide and tells. . Then she plays the tape. The teacher puts on a new slide.The students write while the teacher talks about the slide. The teacher has the studentstranslate from Finnish into English.and makes comments. translation drills. The teacherputson a new·slide. The teacher puts on another . The teacherteUs the.

teacher-centered than their [apanese counterparts. "Good afternoon.3Summary Of Finnish Grammar-Oriented English Lessons Lesson 1 Lesson2 Lesson3 Section 1 "HeIlo everyone. However. themselves. .fhat 1 observed." Greeting Please sit down.Iess .have been classified as 'Finnish grammar-oriented lessons' becausethe Finnishteacher informants .Iessons . Teacher corrects Section3 Tape Underline grammar OHP forms in the text Grammar translation drills Section4 Vocabulary drills. group and individual work were all incorporated into the lessons. The monitoring role assumed by the Finnish teacher during several of the activities does not appear in the [apanese regular lessons. Translation was also included. Myresults. as opposed to the traditionalIapanese three-section lesson. Stillftheywere . there were five sectionsand in the other two there were four sections.lessons .3.1 Summary Overall. Section2 Puzzles from Students answer Workbook workbook questions about the Students write previous day' s text sentences on blackboard. Pairwork. The constant introduction of new activities contributes to the students maintaining interest in the lesson. the amount of translation observed in the Finnish setting was considerably less than in the Iapanese setting.184 7.who taught theselessons said." ladies and gentIemen The students took turns asking me questions in English. show that they were more teacher-centered than the other Finnish . The contrast between the Finnish grammar-oriented lesson and the [apanese regular lesson is great. The activities for covering the book were not the same in every lesson. that the lessons were oriented toward grammar . "We have a guest. tapes. In the first lessonin this section.TheFinnish lessons had a greater variety of activitiesthanthe regular Japanese lessons 1 observed. Handouts - students New OHP slide.. suggesting that it is not without merit in the eyes of the Finnish teachers. the Finnish grammar-oriented lessons can be summarized as follows: TABLE 7. Translate English into write answers students write Finnish individually answers SectionS Workbook These .

I speak and tell the students why I am making videotapes. lopen the floor 'for questions and the . This illustrates the emphasis on formal harmony in Japanas discussed in the previous chapters. 7. Students sit down. In Finland. Finns. which exhibits 'solidarity politeness'. showed more willingness to accept information from non-personal sources. bow and greet their teacher in unison. The formalized greeting in every Iesson.as opposed to their [apanese counterparts who stand. an English question during section 3 suggesting thatthe teacher perceived that she was allowed to say "1 don't know".4 Finnish Communication-OrientedLessons The following types of lessons were the most commonin the schools studied. the teacher talks to the students more or less as 'equals'. In lesson 2. 185 The introduction and closing sections of the lesson are very differentfrom those observed in [apan. face-to-face contact. Lots of commotion. Finnish Communlcation-Oriented Lesson 1: PIan 7th Grade Section 1 Greeting -question and answers in English Section2 Vocabulary from workbook Section3 Pairwork from book Section4 More pairwork from book Section 1 :01-:12 Students and teacher enter the room together.in a random manner. The students understand my English. Another interesting aspect is the use of the public address system inthe Finnish school. messages were usually relayed via teachers suggesting the emphasis in [apan on personal.iri the Japanese section showed'deferencepoliteness': the teachers spoke'downward' toward the students and the studentsspoke 'upward' to the teachers. the teacher told one of the students to ask me. according to the participating teachers and my own observations. InJapan. the teacher and the studentsenter the c1assroom at the same time. In Finland. using thepublic address system. The students speak up. the native speaker researcher.

to . Section2 :12-:17 The teacher gives the students instructions to do vocabulary exercises from the workbook.186 students. Students: film this section and take tums using the. The teacher says good moming. around during the lesson. Three students are wearing their hats in the classroom. Section4 :24-32 The teacher gives the students. Lots of talking. One student asks what 1 am doing there and the teacher and 1 explain about my videotaping. pairwork exercises. When they" finish their work they seem to go and talk to other students. . Finnish Communicatlon-Oriented Lesson 2: PIan 10th Grade Section 1 Greeting Section2 Poster activity Section3 Workbook activity Section4 More assignments in the workbook Section 1 :00-:02 Teacher and students enter. Others leave slowly. The teacher writes the numbers of more exercises to choose from the workbook on the blackboard so the students can do different pairworkactivities. students are quite loud while doing their pairwork exercises. Some walk . Students get up and move around.do different.camera. They leave the desks in disarray. Some leave immediately.. they ask without raising their hands. Students sit down.:·They also ask questions such as what is my wife's name.askabout my new baby . They work until the bell rings. The . Bell rings. where Llive and whetherLhave any pets.instructions. . Generally. Students ask the teacher questions. The teacher assigns homework. Section3 :17-:24: The teacher gives instructions in English for the students to do pairwork. The students ..leave.

Students are quiet and stay busy. The teacher walks around the c1ass and monitors the activities of the students. One student plays the piano for the video while the others watch and cheer him on.to finish their posters using . 1 introduce myself in English and 1 ask tell what 1 am doing and why 1 am taping. Students are quiet because they are working. The students file out of the lesson. The teacher says. The teacher gives instructions in English to the students .talk to each other. "Would you like to say a few words?" to me." Section3 :12-:30 The teacher tells the students that after the posters are finished they should do their workbooks. 187 Section2 :02-:12 The teacher hands out posters made in the last c1ass to be finished. They begin packing upo The c1ass is dismissed. mostly inEnglish. Publie address system announcement. Section4 :30-:35 The teacher gives the students more assignments in Finnish. There is constant chatter. A student asks me what 1 am doing and 1 tellhim.materialfrom: page 154 inthe textbook. Students initiate interaction with the teacher and me. One poster. if the . Finnish Communication-Oriented Lesson 3 Grade9 Section 1 Greeting Section2 Homework review Section3 OHP grammar drills Section4 Pairwork Section5 Tape Section 6 Workbook Section 1 :00-:02 The students file in with the teacher after she opens the door. Theposters inc1ude a picture cutfrom a magazine and a self-introduction ofthe person in the picturein English. the teacher points out. says "1 drink beer. saying "Whose is this one?" in English. Two girls arrive late.The teacher writes workbook exercises on the chalkboard for the students to choose from. The students.

The students talk while doing pairwork. "You'realways late. The teacher asks. "Why are you late? Where have you been?": The student answers. There is a knock on thedoor . Section 2 :02-:08 The studentsget out theirhomework.The teacher puts a slide on the overhead projector. Then music starts on the P A system. :36 The bell rings and the students continue working until after the bell. "I have a question. Section5 :30-:35 The teacher hands out supplemental material for pairwork. Do you have your homework?". using the overhead projector. The teacher gives a homework assignment. section 3. Section3 :08-:14 The teacher puts on a new slide and instructs the students to dopairwork. The teacher says. It is opened and a student enters. "Home. The student file out of the c1assroom. The teacher goes over grammar.. The students are quiet while writing. Section4 :14-:30 The teacher introduces the tape and plays the tape repeatedly as in the activity described in Finnish grammar-oriented lesson 1. One student asks me why 1 don't Iike techno music. mostly in Finnish. Section 6 :35-:41 The teacher writes assignments in the workbook on the board and explains the activity in Finnish. The teacher tells them to do the assignment in three minutes." The teacherreplies." The students sit in pairs. The students talk in pairs. .The teacher explains in Finnish.188 students have any questions but they are silent.

nunication-Oriented Lessons Lesson 1 (lF) Lesson 2 (10) Lesson 3 (9A) 1 explain why 1 am "Hello everyone. Often.of form.Lrin this section demonstrated the difference intheEnglish proficiencyof the Finnish seventh graders that were .that were perfectly-understandable.there were atleast .BLE 7. Lesson . This shows that they were more interested in communicating than in . constructing perfect sentences. supported both bythe textbookand the supplemental materiaIsin the c1assroom. they were able to formulate. Summary Of FinnishC:0llll. They did not appear to put an emphasis. Section1 tellwhylam taping taping would you Iike to saya few words?" lexplain whyI am taping Section 2 Vocabulary from Posters Homework book Section3 Pairwork Workbook OHPgrammar drills Section4 More pairwork More workbook Pairwork SectionB Tape Section 6 Workbook Interviews with the teachers as well as myown observations suggest that the videotaped lessons are representative of lessons inthe schools that participated in the study.. 189 7. My results supportthe commonbelief in Japanthat grammar . The Finnish learners were able to listen.4. This study suggests that the teaching methods usedin Finlandare more conducive to producing Iearners who can communicate inEnglish than the methodsused in Japan. Compared with [apan.studied and the Japanese seventh graders who participatedin the study. is emphasized during the English instruction processto the degree that . Generally.1 Analysis The Finnish communicative lessonsare summarized in the followingchart: TA. understand and respond to my normal speed American English.and ask questions in the target language..This also .4.. there was a greater variety inthe methods employed and tasks used. individuals spend so much time thinkingabout how to say an English sentence correctly that they end up saying nothing . they askedquestions using grammatically incorrect sentences . .In addition. Thiscontributedto more interest and participationon the part of the students.four activities per lesson and sometimes more..

sat straight and lessons began and ended with formal ritual openings and closings. While in Japan. accident. The pairworkused in this and other similar Iessons promoted the useof .senior high school. remedial c1ass was not offered in the Japanese setting studied. . one group of 7th graders wereable tolisten and follow. Forexample.I witnessed the behavior of a junior high school student who did not gain admittance to . inall of the Finnish c1assrooms there were some boys who wore their hats during the lesson. In the previous chapter on learner attitudes. Students exercised their individualism by slouching in their chairs. thechoice for students finishing junior high school is go to high school or to go to work. In addition. Their poor school performance which got them there seemed to be a relatively minor . in 1991.and that different c1asses had different personalities. virtualIy all of them choose high school. This was not observed in Japan where students . He became disruptivein c1ass and it was obvious that the individual' s self-image had been dealt a severe blow. 94.This helps confirm results in other sectionsof the study as to the Finnish students' exposure to ..190 demonstrated the benefits of beginning foreign language learning early (Stern 1967). strong as in [apan. In Finland. In two of the classes.important for this study not. Some other featuresinthe Finnish lessonsthat were observed to be different from the [apanese Iessons were that the teacher had no problem with the students getting up and walking aroundduring the lesson. oriented Iessen 2 is .Wearing a hat inthe dassroom in [apan would be totalIy unacceptable behavior.6 percent of all Japanese junior high school students advanced to the upper secondary school.only for-its content but also for the fact that a remedial c1ass exists in Finland for students who want to spend another year in comprehensive school. the learners themselves indicated that they enjoyed pairwork activities. whileother groups theredid not askquestions whenthey were elicited. As stated elsewhere in this study. where students who do not do well in junior high school are generalIy viewed as failures. This is verydifferent from [apan. the students who are in the remedial c1ass did not appear to be concerned about their being in junior high school for another year. effective in promoting communication in the reallife as well as in the classroom setting. Students entered the c1assroom at random and left the c1assroom either at their ownpace indicating that the emphasis on formal harmony was not as . A . This underscores theimportance of the entrance examinations to enter high school. The Finnish communication . references were made to characters in popular English language television programs. they are only allowed to return as guests. . In [apan. . In today's affluent society.English outside of the classroom. language for communication.what 1 was saying and ask questions in English. They seem to be. After students graduate from junior high school in [apan..

many of tll.moving into.1994: 74-75) .. The. as suggested by tlle curriculum (Hirvi . This was usually foUowed by a phase of 'disorder' in which the students fidgeted.e.previously Iearned materials. This pehavi(l! was riot stoppedpy the teachers indic:ating that they were supporting leamer autonomy.textbook design in the two countries. they were used for recycling. te sting and.ther Finnish grammar lessons and emphasized prac:ticalcoIllIllunication skills than new grammar points.tl1e content and the variety of activities offered. The degree of noise in the classroom indicated that at least in the English classroom environment. the 'CoIllIllunication Cyc1e' Overall. 191 In all of the Finnish lessons that were observed. This was followed bya 'get loud again' phase after the students finished the task. Therefore. Noise-Cycle Pattern One pattern that emerged in the tapes that were observed was a pattern of 'instructions-disorder-calm down-do work-get loud again'. The learner-centered approach used by the teachers lead to commotion in the classroom including jittering. The.. This correspondswith Kita (1994). the'silent Finn'is not verysilent atall (Lehtonenand Sajavaara 1985). curriculum. students were allowed to initiate interaction with their teachers as opposed to [apan where lessons appeared to be much more teacher-centered. walking around and talking when not recognized by the teacher . made noise and walked around.whfle the Japanese lessons tended to concentrate on the 'Practice Cyc1e' without . During the 'instruction phase' the teacher told the students what their task was to be.. Finnish Iessons tllat were videotaped tended to balance between the two models . classroomsIllay . This was usually followed by a 'calm down' phase in which the students began to do the assigned task. The Finnish communicative lessons were more Iearner-centered than the rCl. 'instructions-disorder-cahn down-do work- getloud again' patternthatemergecl i11. As discussed in other sections of the present study. . and his 'Practice Cycle' and 'Communication Cycle' model. this is caused by cultural tendencies as wellas differences in the.be universal in learner-centeredinstruction environments and warrants further investigation. the analyses of thesegmentation of Finnish and [apanese English lessons shows that there are great differences m.

4 and 5. Takala (1997). communication patterns reflect this.· Sinclair and. ' researchers . Hofstede (1986). environment is. Their . forth that .of . A .Hofstede's 4-DModel of Cultural Difference (1986) in additionto an analysis of classroom discourse based on Sinclair an Coulthard's(1975) model.hy society to carry out specific functions . Tms chapter will examine the roles of teacher and Iearners within the settings as well as ground claims put forth in other chapters of the present study by citing concrete examples from transcribed communication in the educational cultures that were studied in Finland and Japan. These include developing certain ."\Vili present a discussion of how features within the classroom discourse relate tothe. Instead. established .192 8 ANALYSIS OF CLASSROOMDISCOURSE Tms chapter.and teachers are entrusted and expected by parents and society to perform certain duties which they cannot neglect.these features are mostrelevant when considering the...the . the occurrence of the initiation-response-follow-up (I-R-F) pattern in classroom discourse because. institutional structure of the educational .regard to power and authority within the educational cultural settingsstudied.. This chapter will focus onlyon . filter.al1d other put .complete sample aIlalysis of the transcribed discourse can beseen in Appendix 3. roles of teachers and students in .. social skills as well as learning certain bodies of:' knowledge. One important aspect to keep in mind is that the only adult in the typical educational setting is the teacher who cannot be considered a peer of the pupils. .Brazil (1982) . The aim of this chapter is to show how this manifests itself within the two educational cultures studied. Students are also expected to fulfill particular functions within the educational culture. . the teacher assumes the role of an authority figure within the classroom.

the foreign assistant language teacher.. informing R 1 ALT: Cool? eliciting informing R <positive non-verbal signal (nod) from 56> Everybody feels acknowledging F [cool]. ALT. The ALTbegins the follow-up. hence the I-R-I-R pattern.of English and the assistant language teacher were carefully managed inorder to protect the face of the two instructors. they must share the power associated with theirrole. JTE: [Me too] [Cool] Uh! [Metoo]. 193 8. an interesting feature appears in the form of cooperative sentence buildiIlg between the Japanese English teacher 1 F moves of and the assistant language teacher. informing R 1 ALT: You feel good? eliciting SS: Cool.1··Classro()m Discollrse: Discussion The saInples of classroom discourse used inthls studygenerallyvalidate the 1- R-:pinteraction pattern proposed by Sinclair and Coulthard (1975) and further investigatedby Sindair and Brazil (1982). Organizational This aspect of the transcribed discourse suggests that when two teachers are in the classroom. Floor control and turn-taking issues between the Japanese teacher. Class: [laughter] ALT: [Heh. modifications in the communication system are necessary. 10. due to the changes in their roles. In the Japanese team-taughtlesson. Yea. who makes a . is joined by the Japanese teacherofEnglish. This is evident in the and team-taught exchanges 7. heh]. For example: 7 Team-Taught Lesson Exchange ALT: 1 How do you feel? eliciting <to different student> SS: 1 feel coord. Furthermore. probably because he is a native speaker and the students are practicing their listening skills.since the use offollow-ups isan indication of power.thesewould only be uttered by the teacher. In exchange 7. and 15. me too.since the dassroom is essentially teacher-centered. initiates the exchange. even in this limited sample. then a clarification by the ALT. It also serves to underline the roles . 8. Rather than assuming the role of the sole teacher in the classroom. JTE. OK. According tothem. most exchanges would consist of ' initiations by the teacher and responses by the stu4eIlts. This pattern is dear in the regular Japanese lesson saInple aswell as the Finnish lesson sample. This is followed by the students' response.of the participants.

teacher' s questionas they are expected to do.After all. <points to overheadprojector> 58: What kind of questions? eliciting 1 This study has classified the discourse from the.te1y lies with the JTE .' For exarnple: Finnish Lesson Pseudo-Bxchange 4 T: and now 1 want you to informing explain these words.a. (from TV show) informing R Ss: Chatter (unintelligible) <one student leaves the room.lesson ultim.al authority within the setting Studied .nguag teacher's r()le is . two students initially sit by themselves but then go into groups. This illustrates. .an.194 comment and then finishes the follow-up . Technically.. Students . and at least four appear in the transcribed discourse. Further. Ss: [Chatter] acknowledging R <students form pairs or groups of three.e setting.thatJ:lis. several students get up to blow their noses» <Teacher approaches one group> T: You're supposed to keep 1 your book informing closed and explain. girls with girls.inthe . . the final follow-up by the Japanese English teacher suggests. you're late eliciting 1 55: (unintelligible response) acknowledging R T: Will you take your coat off? eliciting 1 Ss: [Chatter (unintelligible)] ???? R 1 56: If you are Ridge Forrester? eliciting 57: I'm Ridge. Teacher walks around the c1ass to monitor the students. girl first.ttaining thegoals ofthe . :rn Finrrish pseudo-exchange 4 there are several examples of incomplete exchanges thatcieviate from theI-R-F nonn.rolein the setting.Sinclair and Coulthard's (1975) system . two students enter.several incomplete exchanges are contained in this section. time the teacher relinquishes the floor till the time she regains it as one exchange.and guest in..th.n. consideringtheir. then reenters with book bag.sw r the . Students' moves which are not part of teacher- student interaction and are not meant to be heard by the whole class were also . coopera.theassistant la..The responsibility for a.. boy pushes girl as she comes through the door. <Teacher closes the book> The terms are there.that of an 'assistant'.> <door opens.tiveoverlap in speaking between the two teachers who share the role of the authority figure in the classroom. boy second.r()le isthat of a fi. leaves door open> T: All right. boys with boys. <puts word list on overhead projector> Work with your pair and find some English explanations.

The differences ininteractive styles between the Japanese and the Finnish classrooms reveal that the more learner-centered the classroom.this study willdte specific examples within the transcribed discourse to highlightphenomena which correspond .2 Discourse And Culture In this section. 1993).controls the discourse Thepersonincontrol ofthe . in the two countries' English classrooms. since the I-R-F pattern does emerge in classroom interaction in both countries..the discourse even during learner-centered activities which are designed to achieve thegoals of the lesson. the . The transcript suggests that the teacher remains in control of . Their role in the educational culture is heavily influenced by the expectations of ..4-D Model of Cultural Difference' (1980. this study hopes to ayoid stereotyping @d provide empirical evidence and specific examples of cultural differences and. either directly or indirectly. Thetraditionai I-R-F pattern can also be interpreted as . discourse has the right to produceorganizational moves. 195 transcribed to illustrate that they did occur in the classroom that was observed. settings . exhibited these characteristics throughout the text. the classroom is a special environment where . However.1turalsimilarity. thus indicating their role as authorities . . . school administrators and society in general. initiate and close exchanges by asking questions and evaluating what has been said in the follow-up or F element.. The . introduce new topics. I Identifyingthe speaker withthe mostpower in the classroom is. By matching concrete features inthe discourse with. it could be considered an educational cu. the teacher asserts her authority by asking one student to take off his coat and by telling others to close their books in the example. 19$6. the more the communication system deviates from the I-R-F norm. environment. .. For example.the various actors who are involved.the previously mentioned criteria. The teacher is always responsible for the flow of discourse within the setting.. Aspects and fe. The following section willexamine how the cultural characteristics discussed throughout this study and outlined in Chapter Two apply to the discourse.teachers.unintelligible for. This suggests that teachers are bound to fulfill their responsibilities .as dictated by parents. in the twocountries'. is However. associatedwith who. often . More utterancesare presenton the video tapethat blended together into chatter' and were . as was evident in the Finnish discourse sample. 8.indicative of a more teacher-centeredJearning . This can be seen as a form of social control within a linguistic framework. in fhe teaching and learning process (Takala 1997).transcription. 1990. even where the guidance tends to be more indirect as in pseudo-exchange 4 in the Finnish discourse sample. similarities that exist.t() Hofstede's '. teacher responsible for flow of thediscourse .. .:ttures within the transcribed discourse will be matched with characteristics found in the model.

8.1.fu addition. · power . These features will also be examinedin the following discussion. eliciting 1 <students bow. They also demonstrate that they should not speak out. the teacher. Further. distance. how to bow and when to stand and sit.196 The c1assroom discourse examined tends toexhibit· features which : correspond to traits assodated with collectivism and: individualism. good morning everybody. 1986. the respect shown for the teacher tends to confirm deference politeness characteristics in which the more powerful speaker. the teachers and students begin with a formal openings and standard greetings. In the setting.2. It also establishes the roles of the partidpants from the very beginning of the lesson. the student (Scollon and Scollon 1995). acknowledging R Sl: Please sit down. teacher bows> acknowledging R All: Good morning. all of the students knowthe proper response to the teacher. These traits suggest .v'andemasculinity. traitsassodated with contextin culture (Hall 1976. Kitazume. 1 JTE: informing Hey. walk around the room or exhibit other forms of behavior which would not be acceptable in the situation. Samovar and Porter 1991)and solidarity and deference politeness (1995) can be found within the discourse. 1992). 1991. as opposed to each student doing their own thing. The use of ritual greetings as opposed to more irlformal ones creates distance between the patties which can also be related to deference politeness. speaks 'downward' to the less powerful. JTE: Hey. who is on duty? Sl: Please stand upo acknowledging R/I eliciting <students stand up> acknowledging R Sl: Please bow. eliciting 1 <students sit down> acknowledging R JTE: OK acknowledging F This could be interpreted as respect for traditionai values such as highly structured beginnings and endings which supports a tendency assodated with collectivism according to Hofstede (1980. uncertainty avoidance. Por example: Regular Japanese Lesson Exchange 1 <teacher enters» (Unintelligible) masu. AlI of the students are doing the same thing. informing 1 Mr.1 Collectivist Characteristics In Classroom Discourse In boththe team-taught and theregular [apanese EnglishIessons.uand femininity within cultures.

17 and 18. Students speak when called upon personally by the teacher in collectivist societies according to the criteria . However.situation rather thanrelyingon verbal cues.8.4. 7. reading non-verbal. This also supports . As mentionedpreviously. many teachers may opt for an emphasis on forms.10. Be that as it may. features of. the traditionai. the discourse analyzed in this section suggests that the Japanese junior high school English c1assrooms studied exhibited many of the callectivist features set forth by Hofstededn the'4-D .this study. The . 1991).lexis and grammar.skills.Model of Cultural Difference' (1980.put forth . 11.6.one mustkeep inmind the levelofthe learners: when teachingelementary level language -Iearners in large groups. 9 and 10.in . 7b.2. 1986.9. In collectivist societies. 4.11. 197 high contexti. The nature of educational contactrequires that the teacher maintain control of the discourse.6. [It's cloudy]. 8.6.cultural. These norms inc1ude meansof .14. informing R 511: JTE: OK. This trait appeared in other data used in this study and is evident throughout the team-taught lesson discourse and the regular Japanese lesson discourse. formal harmony in learning situations should be maintained at all times (Hofstede 1986. For example: Team-Taught Lesson Exchange 12 How's the weather today? 1 ALT: eliciting How's the weather? <points to student> It's cloudy.10. Samovarand Porter 1991). informationand interpreting messages from the ..12. There are no examples in the texts of students calling out to the teacher or behaving in other ways which might disrupt the harmony of the lesson.the collectivist characteristic that neither the teacher nor any student should ever be made to lose face . 8. not the coded verbal signal of the teacher (Hall 1976. Teacher control af the floor was also found in Finland corresponding with the teacher' s role inthe c1assroom.2. The context of the situation tells the students how to behave. emphasisonpassingexaminations isan important collectivist feature.9. 12 and regularJapanese lesson exchanges 1. In the Japanese c1assroom discoursesample. Sti1I..3.5. there were no examples of students speaking up spontaneously which is also a collectivist characteristic. This feature was also found in Finnish lesson exchanges 2. This isalsoevident throughout the discourse. 1991). formal manner in which this is done irl the Japanese setting could be seen to confirm some collectivist tendencies.7.teacher or teachers tend to train pupils irl the c1ass to behave according to the norms and expectations af the educational culture which is influenced by society at large. acknowledging F ALT: [It's cloudy].Thiswas foundin team-taught lesson exchanges. The emphasis on lexis and grammatical forms which appears in all of the team-taught and regularjapanese lesson discourse suggests that language is taught more 'to emphasize accuracyin testtaking than communication .

acknowledging R/I informing Ss: [Chatter] Olli on pois acknowledging R (Olli isn't here) T: AlI right. Because the situation is no ·longer .. andthat there is a trend toward less formality. general . Traditions are.wide reliance on verbal communication.This is. the teacher and students begin the lesson in an informal manner withthe students. . however.. 8.introduce new topics when responding tothe teacher.atendency to have a positive association with what is 'new'. supporting Hofstede's theories concerning individualist cultures (1980. their classes began in much the samemanner as they had seen on the videotapes oftheJapaneseeducational setting. students are required to.of the . (Takala 1997). acknowledging F In addition.198 control which are highly valued by society andappear to emphasize more traditionalapproaches inthe [apanese educationalcultural setting.2 Individualist Characteristics In Classroom Discourse In the Finnish English lesson.which informants stated were similar to those in [apan were no longer present in this setting. of course. It could also be argued that the features in this sample of. a few students (less than 5%) reported that some ofthe older teachers in their schools required this type of formal beginning in their lessons. a matter of degrees in interpretation.Students 18 Some of the teacher informants in the setting stated that when they were in school.. hello everybody.a .more of. to a . responding . 1 informally interviewed about 100 Finnish university students from 1993-1997 and found that many experienced this type of formallesson beginning during the first two or three years of elementary school.2. The traditionai formal openings for lessons in Pinland't. discourse suggest that Finland has a low-context cu1ture because.individually. greeting.verbalize more in order to negotiate meaning andcomplete the tasks assigned to them by the.teacher. There is. suggestingthat trends change faster in Finland. classroom . 1986. 1991. constant chatter is present andthestudents .set routine. 1992). 1 see. By junior high school. Finnish Lesson Exchange 1 T: So.1.notcompletely rejectedin the Finnish educational culture. informing 1 Sl: Hello acknowledging R S2: Hello Ss: Hello (not in unison) T: Are you all here? eliciting 1 Sl: No informing R T: No? acknowledging R/I eliciting S3: (uninteiligible) informing R pois nyt (not here) T: (unintelligible) pois nyt.

s . (from TV show) informing R Ss: Chatter (unintelligible) -cone student leaves the room.> «door opens. In exchange 1. This feature. Anotherexample of this trait appears in pseudo- exchange4. two students enter. boy pushes girl as she come through the door. 1991) theoriesregarding . Ss: [Chatter] acknowledging R <students form pairs or groups of three. Solidarity is exhibited in the fact that the students respond to the teacher in a more or less equal manner rather than adapting conventions to relegate most of the power during the interaction to the teacher (ScolIon and ScolloIl199S).. Thl. In Finnish lesson exchange 1 and pseudo-exchange 4. also occurs in pseudo-exchange 4 where there are many .. Exchange 1 also tends to confirm another of Hofstede's (1980. the teach r's general initiation. examples of students calling out answers and in exchange 7a where S6 yells out the answer. 1986.which suggests. Yet it is not interpreted as a face-threatening act by the teacher suggesting that face consciousness is weak.individualist soci tiesirl..tends to support another theory put forth by Hofstede .answers out in the open. boys with boys. Confrontation in learning situations can be seen as salutary in Finnish lesson exchange 1 and pseudo-exchange 4. several students get up to blow their noses> <Teacher approaches one group> T: You're supposed to. that Iearners speakup in response to ageneral invitation . girls with girls. sometimes without beingrecognized by the teacher . boy second. which is another trait of individualist societies. Teacher walks around the class to monitor the students. girl first.that studentssp akllp in . Thls wasevid ntin. 199 and teachers tended to vocalize theirthoughts ratherthan relyon contextual cues such as non-verbal signals or established patterns of interaction. s0nle ofthe students tended to vocalize their . leaves door open> 1 T: AlI right. chatter and the students calling out.large groups. in individualist cultures. then reenters with book bag. you're late eliciting acknowledging R SS: (unintelligibleresponse) T: Will you take your coat off? eliciting 1 Ss: [Chatter (unintelIigible)] R 1 S6: If youare Ridge Porrester? eliciting S7: I'm Ridge.different responses ta.keep . Finnish Lesson Pseudo-Exchange T: and now 1 want you to informing 1 explain these words <puts word list on overhead projector> Work with your pair and find some English explanations. two students initialIy sit by themselves but then go to groups.exchange 1 of th Finnish Iessen where students call out. the.responses randomly could beinterpreted as confrontation in the learning situation.

10 Students speak up in Iarge groups: No exampIes of students speaking up Finnish lesson exchange 1. 8. These features within the c1assroom interaction could be seen as additional confirmation .10.14. 7a Confrontation in Iearning situations FormaI harmony in Iearning situations can be seen as saIutary: shouId be maintained at all times: Finnish lesson exchange 1.6. 3.17. in Iapanese setting pseudo-exchange 4.12.4. Team-taught exchanges 2.4.1 Tendencies In Teacher-Student And Student-Student Interaction Related To Individualism And Collectivism In 'Iranscribed CIassroom Discourse Individualist Societies Collectivist Societies Teachers and students begin lessons in Teacher and students begin lessons an informal manner that is not with traditional formaI openings: traditionaI: Team-taught exchange 1 Finnish lesson exchange 1 ReguIar Japanese Iesson exchange 1 Individuals speak up in response to a Students speakwhen called upon general invitation: personally by the teacher: Finnish lesson exchange 1. acceptability of confrontation that Hofstede reports as being present in individualist cultures. <points to overhead projector> 1 S8: What kind of questions? eliciting Students arrive late for the lesson. The c1assroom discourse when matched to Hofstede's '4-DModel of CulturalDifference' (1980.9.9. 10.6. 4. whereas the [apanese one tends to fall in the collectivist category..200 your books closed Informlng 1 and explain. 8. Zb. Team-taught exchanges (alI) pseudo-exchange 4 ReguIar [apanese Iesson exchånges (all) Face-consciousness is weak: Neither the teacher nor any student Finnish Iesson exchange 1. 1986.11. ·1991) suggests that the Finnlshenvironment exhibits many traits associated with individualist societies.of. the above-mentioned weak face-consciousness arid the .12 7a (students yell answers) ReguIar [apanese Iesson exchanges 1. 7. 2.11..18 Finnish lesson exchanges 2. <Teacher closes the book> The terms are there.7. 5. TABLE 8. should ever be made to Iose face: pseudo-exchange 4 Team-taught exchanges (all) ReguIar Japanese exchanges (all) .6. wear fheir coats until' theteacher tells them to take thern off. pseudo-exchange 4 (many examples).13. 9.8. get up to blowtheir noses and c0!lstantly chatter in the sample.

1 Large Power Distance (1980.studied here contains examples of this trait in all of the team-taught and regular [apanese lesson discourse. 2. To further illustrate this.erwise present inth. Here the Finnish teacher interrupts the chatter with 'shh' indicating the she still had control of the floor and expected to initiate commurucati()n. . which applies toboththe[apanese andFinnish settil1gs.regardless of individualist or collectivist: tel1dendes. in some team-taught lessons the teachers relinquished the floor. 1991) found that societies.5. 8.classroom behavior .. This implies that cultural characteristics rarely apply universallyand are more a matter of degrees or tendendes than mutually exclusive categodes and that stereotyping should be avoided. reflecting.2..large power distance cultures. Kaisa: Something you do to a aCknowleqging R dead body.ould be noted that overlapping occurs in the specificcategory related to the 'students speaking when called upon personallyby the teacher' category. 7b. . Kaisa. Students expect teachers to initiate communication in . 201 It sh.universal role of the teacher as the 'controller' of the flow of discourse. aCkn0wledging F T: 'Ies. countries' educational cultures. Other examplesin the text suggest that this trait was not always in force in the Finnish classroom.oth. held in high esteem. discourse in certain situations. This suggests that there are some similar tendendes in the countries studied. students speak only when invited by the .each ofth. suggesting that the teacher 'outlines paths for students to follow' which is a strong power distance trait (Hofstede 1986) Evidence suggests that the Finnish teacher also valued teacher-initiated . 9. Something you do with a dead body.teacher. teacher-centered education and premium onorder was. and interaction are markedly differentinthe tvv0 countries. very nicely explained..2.3. For example: 6 Finnish Lesson Exchange 1 T: What about bury? eliciting <chatter> shh . the teacher was outlining the path that the students should follow which was consistent with her role as teacher. a The classroom discourse .6.soIllesimi. Instead.larities doexist. .1986..e situation. Hofstede In strong power distance . and 10 also show a great degree of teachercontrolwhich WaS similar to [apan. <hands raised> How about bury? . There are no examples of student-initiated exchanges in any of the team-taught or regular [äpanese lesson discourse. Thisreflectsthe ... However. . 8. although . . Finnish lesson exchanges 1. During this activity.

perhaps you could explain it by saying where you put it. according to Hofstede's (1986) model. 8. and 8 and in pseudo- exchange 4.. This relates to the learner-centered nature of c1assroom discourse in Finland.2. the discourse suggeststhat the Japanese c1assroom tends to exhibitcharacteristicsassociated with strongpower distance. Where do you put a mask? S6: On the face. the 'teacher relinquishes the floor giving the learnerscomplete control ofthe c1assroom... There is no follow-up because the students have been given control of the floor.Go! informing JTE: OK. · In Finnish pseudo-exchange 4. Herewe go.. first person.. This type of activity occurred in the [apanese setting only in the team-taught lessons suggesting that they may differ somewhat from the regular Japanese English lessons. informing R T: Oh yes. OK? Organizational JTE: Explains in Japanese. (Keep score) ALT: OK .2 Small Power Distance Learner-centered education is held in high esteem in small power distance sodeties.. thediscourse inthe team-taught and Japanese reguIar lessons indicates that this value is indeed heldin high esteem in lapan. S11: Jan Ken Pan acknowledging R In thisexample. Some of these characteristics were also present in the Finnish discourse. Well. uh.202 Hofstede (1986) points out that another collectivist feature is that the effectiveness ofJearning is relatedto the excellence of the teacher. Organizational How about mask? eliciting 1 What's a mask? . The teacher expects the students to initiate communication in Finnish lesson exchange 1 and pseudo-exchange 4... For example: Finnish Lesson Exchange 7a T: All right. and acknowledging F . First person. 7a. the ALT and JTE initiate the exchange by relinquishing the floor to the students. Inconc1usion. Students speak up spontaneously in Finnish lesson exchanges 1. This also occurs in the Japanese setting in team-taught exchange 19: Iapanese Team-Taught Exchange 19 ALT: Keep your own scores.2. It could also be used to suggest that the teacher expects students tofindtheir own paths.. Ifteacher- centered classrcoms: are an indication of this. Other small power distance features are present as well.

. mforming R Kirsi: On your face. She then elicits a response. and the students occurs frequently in the sample lessons.. the teacher respondsto the c1ass and provides more vocabulary so the students can provide the sought-after response. That's right.J()l1ow-up. did so in a manner that was not present in the JapaIlese disc(}ursesample. Perhapsthe teacher meanttoask thesame question as she did inexchange Za. The teacher initiates another exchange to provide more information. She . you had an idea. . in exchange 7b' asks whatappears. student. what is your neck? eliciting Can you explain it? Maybe you need the word 'below' however. Then.the. exchanges as 7a and 7b because they are so closely interrelated. This suggests that the 'effectiveness of learning Is related to theamount of two-way communication in class' Was held as a value for the Finnish teacher (Hofstede 1986). aeknowledging F T: On your face. 203 71:1 Finnish Lesson Exchange 1 when do you use a mask. The class chatters. would not make sense. to be 'when d() you. recognizes a different Studen. first . The teacherac1<J:lQwledges the answer with apositive. below informing R Mika: the head And of course. Here. it 1 have ehosen to c1assify the two Otherwise. The students who called out the answer. Perhaps a better example of this trait can be foundin exchange 10: Finnish Lesson Exchangel0 What's 1 T: a neck or where? eliciting Ss: Underyour skin{chatter} informing R/I 1 T: Mika. which indicates that perhaps they are not clear on what the teacher is after. This pattern of interaction between the teacher . eliciting Kirsi. In exchange 7a. use a lllask'. A stuqent responds and the teacherpr?vides a positive follow-up. which suggests thattwo-way commimication is the norm in this environment. Nl of these factors give an indication that the>discourse in the Finnish classroom generally reflects small power distance characteristics. .t wAg provides the same response . the teacher elicits response and is answered by a student who a is not recognized. on your faee. above your acknowledging F T: shoulders.a .. The teacher gives an acknowledging follow-up.

7. Team-taught exchanges (all) pseudo-exchange 4 Regular Japanese lesson exchanges (alI) Finnish exchanges 2. 7a.204 TABLE 8.2 Tendencies Related To Power Distance Characteristics Small Power Distance Large Power Distance Learner-centered ed ucation: Teacher-centered education(premium Finnish pseudo-exchange 4 onorder): (Teacher relinquishes the floor) Team-taught exchanges (ali) lapunese Team-taught lessan exchange 19 Regular Japanese lesson exchanges (Teacher relinquishes thefloor) (alI) Teacherexpects students to initiate Students expect the teacher to initiate communication: communication: Finnish lesson exchange 1. 6. This is perhaps most c1early visible in the teacher' s. 7a. 10 Students may speak spontaneouslyin Students speak only when invited DY class: the teacher: Finnish lesson exchanges 1. In the Finnish setting. 8. approach to c1assroom management: at times there is a greater emphasis on order and floor control. 8 Team-taught exchanges (alI) and pseudo-exchange 4 RegularJapaneselesson exchanges But: Finnish lesson exchange 6 (all) (shh = teacher controls the floor) Effectiveness of learning is Effectiveness of learning is related to the amount of two. related to the excelIence of way communication in c1ass: theteacher Finnish lesson exchanges 1.8. This reflects the nature of the educational environment in the leaner-centered c1assroom. 10 = teacher-centered c1assroom: and pseudo-exchange 4 Team-taught exchanges (alI) Regular Japanese Iessen exchanges (alI) The reader should note that the Finnish c1assroom discourse exhibits both strong and weak power distance traits to a large extent. Team-taught exchanges (all) pseudo-exchange 4 Regular Japanese lesson exchanges (all) Teacherexpects students to find their Teacher outlines paths for students to ownpaths: folIow: Finnish lesson exchange 1. 3. for example. 5. and at other times there is more of an emphasis on student-initiated discourse. the discourse suggests that both the traditionaI and the new areheld in high esteem. regaining control of the floor with "shh" in exchange 6. . 9. which indicates that c1assroom discourse in Finland may be undergoing a change.

remains inpsYch0logical control. However. dutiesjnherent in the teacher' s role. ALT: Itwas [Thursday]. Organizational ALT: OK. For example: Team-Taught Exchange 10 JTE: OK. the teacher acknowledges the proper response in the follow-upand then repeats it in order to reinforce it in the students' minds. although relinquishing control of the floor. For example: . the teacher A must take charge and get the lessonbackon-track. detailed assignments and strict timetables (Hofstede 1986). 205 The teacher needs to remain in control of the situation andeven during the more learner-centered activities one could safely assume that the teacher. one should always keep in mind that power distance can never completely vanish within educational culture because of the reasons previously mentioned (Takala 1997)..1 Strong Uncertainty Avoidance In cultures with strong uncertainty avoidance. JTE: [Thursday] This exchange has a precise objective: the teacher is looking for an answer to a specific question. These tendencies were often present in team- taught exchanges 1-13. students feel comfortable in structured learning situations with precise objectives. It was Thursday. When the student responds.3.. the use of. "shh". If the activities are not serving the goals of the lesson. 8. more appropriate interpretation of the interaction might be . The assignment is clear as is the timetable: answer the question now! Other examples arealso found in regular [apanese Iesson exchanges 1-20.to suggest that there is a move toward less power distance within the Finnish classroom. thus. Organizational What day was yesterday? 1 eliciting What day was yesterday? What day was yesterday? <Pick students> informing R 59: Itwas Thursday. Otherwise.2. and there is only one correct response . {barelyaudible} JTE: acknowledging F OK. the teacher would not be dischargingthe.

Finnish exchanges 2. 7. Another indication of strong uncertainty avoidance is the emphasis on accuracy. For example: Finnish Lesson Exchange 2 T: Well.5. the exchange has a precise objective. The follow-up acknowledges and reinforces the proper response.clear. teacher points» 54: A informing R mummy. this is not to say that academic language is not used in other settings. Here again. it seems that junior high school teachers are not prone to use academic language in either country. such as universities. The assignment and the timetable are. informing R JTE: OK. the teachers were there to teach English. QK. T: Yes. The initiation commands a specific answer. whatday? Sakiko: Monday. it would defeat the goals of the system. a mummy. uh. acknowledgingF {while writing on the board] It's Monday. In the educational cultures that were studied.6. What do you call a dead body from Egypt? <a girl raises hand. If the began speaking in unintelligible jargon the student did not understand. students are rewarded for accuracy in problem solving.3. 1 will ask and you can ask each other. However. This might be related to Hofstede' s (1986) theory that in strong uncertainty avoidance societies. Examples can be found in.in my opinion this particu1ar example has more to do with the nature of education and teacher and studentroles than uncertainty avoidance. 9 and 10. 8. There is only one specific answer to the question being asked. the Finnish teacher elicits a response with a precise objective with aspecific idea of when the answer should be given. eliciting 1 since you haven't got your books again. in strong uncertainty avoidance societies. The teacher in this exchange is conducting a vocabulary exercise. This seemed to be the focus in all of the team-taught and regular . However. today. The Finnish lesson discourse also indicated some emphasis on these traits. a good teacher uses academic language. Based on these limited samples. It's Monday. No examples of this sortof language were found in either the Japanese or Finnish c1assroom discourse.206 Regular Iapanese Lesson Exchange 10 JTE: Wl1at day of the week eliciting 1 is it today? What day? Hey. Sakiko. acknowledging F In this example. According to Hofstede.

Hisanori: There is a informing R JTE: There is a . Here again. students feel comfortable in unstructured learning situations with vague objectives.2. nani ga aru n da eliciting 1 Thereis a informing R Hisanori: desk in this room. Finnish pseudo-exchange 4 is an example of this. 8. asthe following discussion shows. 207 Japanese lessonexchanges as exhibited by the large amount of listen-and-repeat drills and by exchanges such as the following: Japanese English Lesson Exchange 17 JTE: kono heya ni eliciting kono heya ni wa hitotsu tsukue ga arimasu hai (hoka no kotoba) 0 hitotsu arimaeu tsukete naihai. not to produce a conversation. (slowly) JTE: mm in this room da yo na acknowledging R/I OK mo ichido. JTE: OK acknowledging F This example suggests an emphasis on accuracyas the teacher is concentrating on covering specific grammar structures withthe students. The goal was. For example: ..2 Weak. the goals of the lesson may override cultural c1assifications. Perhaps this exchange cannot realistically be applied to fiqfstede's (1986) modelrelated to tlncertainty (lyoidance. however.there are also marked differences between the wo settings in this respect. eliciting Hisanori: There is a desk in acknowledging R thisroom.and [apan suggest that the .3.Theemphasis on grammar could be seen as an indication of strong uncertainty avoidance inthis educational culture.certainty avoidance. Hisanori.. However. Finnish and Japanese settings overlap somewhat in regard t01.ll1. Theexamples in thip section from potllFinland . This particular exchange was partof an activity to review the material covered in the previous lesson. UncertaintyAvoidance In weak uncertainty avoidance cultures.broad assignmentsand no timetables.

several students get up to blow their noses> <Teacher approaches one group> T: You're supposedto keep informing 1 your book closed and explain. given a time limit. This was dear in all of the team-taught and regular Japanese exchanges as well as all of the Finnish lesson exchanges. girls with girls. you're late eliciting 1 SS: (unintelligibleresponse)? R T: Will you take your coat off? 1 Ss: [Chatter (unintelligible)] R 56: If you are Ridge Forrester? eliciting 1 57: I'm Ridge. relinquished. two students initially sit by themselves but then go to groups. For example: .one could argue that the learning situation becomes 'unstructured' inHofstede's (1986) sense. girl first. 3. boys with boys. Students are rewarded for problem solving in a weak uncertainty avoidance society. In weak uncertaintyavoidance societies. Teacher walks around the class to monitor the students. <Teacher closes the book» The terms are there. 7. two students enter. boy pushes girl as she comes through the door . This trait was present in Finnish lesson exchanges 2. There were no examples of the teachers using difficult words or grammatical terms to explain new language.a good teacher also uses plain language. 6. 5. When the floor is exercise.8. boy second. then re-enters with book bag. <points to overhead projector> 58: What kind of questions? eliciting R/I <incomplete> In this students are not. Ss: [Chatter] acknowledging R «students form pairs or groups of three. (from TV show) informing R Ss: [Chatter (unintelligible)] <one student leaves the room. 4 T: and now 1 want you to informing 1 explain these words <puts word list on overhead projector> Work with your pair and find some English explanations.Ieaves door open> T: All right.» -cdoor opens.9 and 10.208 Finnish Lessen Pseudo-Exchange.

elicitatioruusing vocabulary and structure which require a certain degree of problem solving ability in order to decode the message and give a proper response. strict no timetables: timetables: Finnish pseudo-exchange 4 Team-taught exchanges (all) ReguIar [apanese Iesson exchanges (all) Finnish exchanges 2. precise vague objectives. In condusion. 8. 209 Finnish Lesson Exchange 3 what do you call eliciting 1 T: a yellow metal? Veryexpensive? -cseveralhands raised. If the goal was to alleviateuncertainty. broad assignments. informing R T: That's right. 9 and 10 A A good teacher uses academic good teacher uses plain language: Team-taught exchanges (all) language: Finnish lesson exchanges (all) noexamples in the te)(t Regular ]apanese lesson exchanges (all) Students are rewarded for problem Students are rewarded foraccuracy: solving: Team-taught exchanges (alI) Finnish lesson exchanges 2 - 10 ReguIar [apanese Iesson exchanges (all) .3. 5. The students are not sure what is coming next and must listen carefully in order to respond. 7. although the settings shared some similar trC1its.is different from a read-and-repeat drill or pattemed elicitation which commands a pattemed response. Clearly this is not the case here. teacher recognizes a girl> Jenni Jenni: Gold. feel cPIllfortable in unstructured learning situations: structured learning situati0l1s:. acknowledgtng F In this exchange. the initiation consists ofan. detailedassignments. whereas the Finnish setting exhibited more traits associatedwith a weak uncertainty avoidance culture. 6. This typeof elicitation . TABLE 8. the teacher might opt for pattem drills as part of dassroom discourse. it seems dear that the Japanese dassroomdiscourse exhibited rnorestronguncertainty traits.3 Tendencies Related To Uncertainty Avoidance Weak Uncertainty Avoidance Strong UncertaintyAvoidance Students feel comfortable in Students. objectives.

section will match the criteria set forth in previous sections with features foundin the discourse. work-reIated vaIue. Kaisa: Something you do to a acknowledging R deadbody.. T: Yes. up of an exchange suggesting that teacher praise is sparse in the two countries studied. This is the onlyexampIe of a teacher compIementing a student in the follow . <hands raise> How about bury? ... How about mask? eliciting 1 What's a mask? . on such a small sampIing. acknowledging F Something you do with a deadbody.. exhibiting what Hofstede (1986) c1assifies as a masculine society characteristic. the.. Men are expected to assume certain occupations and women others.. in this type of society competition is a highly esteemed..4. Still. Kaisa.1 Masculine Society Masculine societies tend to make a pronounced distinction in acceptabIe roIes for men and women. uh. students try to make .out answers without being invited. perhaps you could explain it by saying where you put it. Where do you put a mask? 56: On the face.pseudo-exchange 4 of the Finnish Iesson.2. For exampIe: Finnish Lesson Exchange .6 T: What about bury? eliciting 1 (chatter) shh . 8 and. 6. and acknowledging F ... bas d. Well. In the follow-up.themselves . informing R T: Oh yes. In exchanges 1.....visible either by chattering or calling . satnpIes used in this study are very small and the reader should notj\lIllp to concIusioru. very nicely explained. Hofstede (1986) found that one trait of a masculine society is that teachers openly praise good students.210 8.. In addition. as in the following examples: Finnish Lesson Exchange 7a T: All right. This. the Finnish teacher compIements the student on her response. 7a.

according to .. Based on the analysis of discourse alone. For example: . 8. Modesty is also a feminine society characteristic.4. Hofstede. Men may choose to pursue what many would consider as traditionally female roles such as homemakerot prirnary caregivertochildren andvvOlnen may choose non-traditional occupations suchas busines . c:ompetition in feminine societies is not as keenand members may opt for'qualityof Iife' rather than 'king of the hill' lifestyles. In exchange 8 of the Finnish lesson. acknowledging In exchange 7a of the Finnish lesson S6 responds to the teacher'sinitiation with 'on the face' without raising his hand and being recognized .2. 211 Finnish Lesson Exchange 8 T: Ah. how about skeletons? eliciting What's askeleton? {Pause} Jenni? {Pause} Anyidea? Ss: Chatter informing R S7: Inside the body. a:rnasculine characteristic. The [apanese setting.careers.såmplecThis suggeststhatthe countries share this particular feminine characteristic. exhibited some masculine characteristics in the otherdata gathered for this study.make themselves visible in class which.students are not openly praised in the a classroom. on the other hand.The Japanese discourse reflects modesty in the wayin whichthe students do not compete for thefloor during the lesson and wait to be caUed on rather than 'make themselves visible'. out a respoIlse· Without being recognized.2 Feminine Society Femininity in society reflects values in which men and women'sroles may overlap. T: What? eliciting R/I S8: Inside the body.. informing R T: That's right. There are no examples of praise in the Japanese discourse samples and only one example in the Finnish discourse. In feminine society individual . but no examples could be found in the discourse. the Finnish setting reflected traits associated with masculine societies... the students chatter and S7 calls. These are both examples of students tryil1g to . is.

Instead. But. 1 can't". 1 can". It ispossib1ethat someof the . informing 1 JTE: Difficult. He says. . In this example. the first question. they wait to be called on. So. none of the students respond .212 Team-Taught Exchange 11 ALT: What day is tomorrow? eliciting What day is tomorrow? <picks student> S10: It's Saturday. acknowledging R ALT: OK. It's Saturday. When asked if they understood. "Can youcook dinner?". This could also suggest modesty in the setting. The examp1es found in the discourse suggest that in the junior high school setting. acknowledging F JTE: OK. exhibiting what cou1d be interpreted as modesty. Instead. ..the JTE's exp1anation in Japanese. OK? So. together in chorus. if he says. . if he says. informing R ALT: OK. the students do not call out the answer as in the Finnish discourse. Understand? Class: [slight laughter] acknowledging R ALT: Difficult. she. After . Then.his team gets to ask the next question.(points) gets to ask the next question. Class: <explain to each other in Iapanese» ALT: [Do you understand?] informing 1 Class: Yes. Class:[chatterinJapanese] acknowledging R JTE: (explanation in Japanese) informing 1 . she says. acknowledging F The ALT initiates exchange 18 by exp1aining the next activity to the students in English.this team (points) gets to stay-ask the next question. they laugh which could indicate nervousness in J apan. all of the students indicate that they understand. "No. students understoodbut were silent in order to be modest. "Yes. Modesty can also be exhibited in the following way: Team-Taught Lesson Exchange 18 ALT: So. this person asks(points). "Yes. 1 can". So then. informing Then. Finland exhibited more masculine society traits whereas [apan portrayed traits associated with feminine societies. individuallyas they perhaps would in the Finnish setting.

There is. 213 TABLE 8. Takala (1997) claims that education can not be organized in just anyway because then it would not be considered education.. therefore.4 Tendencies Related To Masculine And Peminine Societies Feminine $Qciety Masculine Society No praise· in .Japanese discourse Teachers openly praise good studel1ts: samples: One example· in Finnish Finnish lesson exchange 6 discourse sample Students behavemodestly: Students tryto. Overall. Educational discourse through the basic I-R-F pattern tends to reflect this. 315) Perhaps .. . 1991) of short samples of classroom discourse from junior high school English lessons in [apan and Finland. Za. 6. 1986. even when considering cultural variation. The transcribed classroom discourse further suggests that authority may be more negotiable in some cultures than in others. themselves Team-taught exchanges (alI) visible: Regular [apanese lesson exchanges Finnish lesson exchanges 1. values and expectations of the society. Or.thecriteria established cannot be applied to this type of data. the topic of masculinity' .and femininity appears to be problematic. Still. 8 (alI) andpseudo-exchange 4 The present study found Hofstede's (1986)characteristics associated with this aspects of the'4-D Model of Cultural Difference' difficult to relate to classroom . However. discourse. discourse would yield better results. how teaching and learning is carried out depends on the norms. room for variation within certain limits and the short samples analyzed here show some ways in which this variation takes place. make . Teacher and student roles may appear more similar than other roles because education everywhere basically performs the same function..a largerstudy incorporating :more .3 Summary This chapter has presented an analysis based on Sinclair and Coulthard (1975). the educational context more or less specifies the role of the participants in the setting.. The analysis of the discourse suggests that the videotaped lessons in the two countries generally followed the I-R-F pattern except during more learner-centered exchanges from the Finnish educational setting during which the I-R-F pattern broke down.. Only two of the ten traits put forthfould be realistically applied to the data (Hofstede1986:. Particular features related to the roles of student and teacher within classroom discourse appear to vary between the Japanese and Finnish educational cultures. . 8. Sinclair and Brazil (1982) and then Hofstede (1980. perhaps.

smCill amount of classroom discourse in order togivear.: and strong . 'T. in the [apanese classrooIllf while examples of solidarity politeness anct1ow-conte)(t culttue werepresent irltheFinnish discourse.at play. on the other hand. tends toreveal feCitures associated with individualist cultures with small power distance .vvhat takes placein the two settings studied. avoidance. indisation of . Although it was only touched . Cilarger sample is needed in order to Illake more concrete general conclusions about the classroom discourse of the educational cultural settings studied or the two countries as a whole.214 The variations within the transcribed discourse suggestthat many of Hofstede's (1980.and weak uncertainty avoidance. Masculinity and femininity in the discourse appeared to be problematie since the two countries showed overlapping features.his chapterhas examirled a. . .lar e power distance . a with. A wider study. It tends to exhibit features assodated with collectivist cuttures with. the classroom discourse also suggests that deference politeness and high-context cultural characteristics were more . 1991.: and since only two out of ten of the characteristics put forth couldbeapplied tothe discourse. The Finnish setting.on briefly. 1986.. 1992) work-related values can be identified within the Japanese setting studied.unc rt(:\inty .

apter will summarize basic findirlgs oI'l.1 -. anthropology (Befu 1989.the overall findings of the stuqy. ch. the present studyhas . 215 9 CONCLUSIONS Those involved in the English language teachingand learning process are faced with a myriad· of 'decisions related to language. ethnography of comrnunication (Hymes 1972.. Hall and . teaching methods..testing.to th. planning .in section 9. Scollon learning (Stern 1983) and culture (Hofstede 1980.. lessoI1 . section 9.studied in Japanand Finland.1eve1.is reflected in . and Two .studiesandwill be discussed first.e .us d in this.the presentstudy in three sections. 9. Kondo 1990). In addition. Then.of applied lirlguisticsin section 9.. The method of researd'l. In . described in Chapters Qne. Widdowson 1990. Erickson 1986) and cross- .fieldof intercultural . 1986. 1995).the.and textbooks.2.aspects of English teaching and learning in the specific educational cultures . study is meant tocontribute.thischapter. The study has sought Jo present.sought to explainhow culture .1 Research MethodFor Studying Educational Culture As pointed out in Chapter One. using an interdisdplinary approach drawing mainly from applied linguistic (Stern 1983.2. this study has sought to produce a method forexplaining educational phenomena in the two countries. a sununary ofthe cu1tura1 similaritiesand differences found willbe brieflyclis<::ussed in section 9. This study has sought to deal with these aspects of English education using methods focusing 0Il language teaclting and 1976. this. dassroom interaction and teacher and student attitudes. thefirstexamination comparing English languageteaching and learningin JapaIl andFh1laIld. Firlally. 1978).2..1.! will discuss themain findings of . . Next.$ will offer a conclusion related to .activities and timing. 1991.$collon 1983.

the 5th Dimension of Cultural Difference (Chinese Culture Connection 1987) and Hall (1959. 1986. Levels Of Investigation 1. 1991) related to individualism and collectivismj: power distance. The reason for this inter-disciplinary approach is that 1found that no one discipline was adequate to explain the educational cultures studied.in detail in Chapters One and Two ··inaddition. .but these commonly combine aspects of (1) and (2). 1991) original lists . uncertainty avoidance. the curriculum and syllabus level of selection for language teaching purposes 4. The first reason for limiting cultural analysis to the categories on the lists was to attempt to stick to the point rather than disappear into a cloud ofvagueness.lQchardslllld Rogers (1986) and Shimaoka and Yashiro (1990» 3. 1986. . and masculinity and femininity. The second reason was to ease replication. Stern (1983). the learnerand teacher attitudes level 6.216 cultural communication theory.By relating features of a specific educational culture to concrete icultural categories as 1 have done. Brown and Levinson 1978) were briefly discussed throughout the work.which appear . the historical development level (for example. These characteristics were matched to specific features in the educational cultures studiedin order to outline cultural similarities and differences for two major reasons. The lists of characteristics as well s the methodof analysis is explained . 1966. Kondo 1990).'s(1980. context in culture (Hall 1976) and politeness (Scollon and Scollon 1983.: the level af teaching methodology. Scollon and Scollon 1983. 1986. 1991). shouldit be attempted. The present study also strives to extend the previous research by Hofstede (1980. the theoretical of defining categories (for example. My hope was that identifying specific listed phenomena in the educational cultures might lead to a greater understariding of English teaching in the two countries and how cultural factors influence it. . 1986. future researchers may better confirm or invalidate my results in the two countries or in other settings based on their own perceptions of their own data. 1995» 2. two countries depending on the settings chosen. Erickson 1986) and anthropology (Befu 1989. for eXilmple. Hofstede's '4-D level Model of Cultural Difference' (1980. the maierials development level 5. In addition. Future research mayfind similar ordifferent results in the..the descriptive leoel of gathering language data on the sociolinguistics and pragmaties of a particular language (a few discourse studies exist. 1986). 1996. throughout the present work.. 1976.to variations of Hofstede. The data was then examined in relation to cross-cultural categories put forth by Hofstede (1980. Data gathered in the two settings was first analyzed using applied linguistics methods at the following levels: . Much of this information wasgathered and analyzed using methods provided by theethnography of communication (Geertz 1973. Sinc1air and Coulthard (1975) 7 .

that hasbeen used :inthe 'present study maybe useful in identifying specific similarities and differences with:in various sett:ing located even with:in the same country. Finland has pursued a strong egalitarian education policy :inpractice. as 'shownin international studies and the small numbers of private schools throughout the country. My visits to other educational cultures.in Japanand Finland by compar:ing two specific settiI1gs. Sti1I. :in the author's m:ind. to provide an out1:ine for expIain:ing some. 9.1gua e teaching and Ieårning process. cities and megalopolises :in different regions in [apan. However. That would fall within the responsibilities of the Ianguage professionals :in the respective countries. their own settingas well as to gain insights :into what takes place in the English c1assrooms studied in F:inlandand [apan. Instead. small differences between schools may be an interesting l:ine of future investigation.specialized night high schools:in villages. 1. key concepts ofthe foreign laJ. To a lesser extent. It is my hopethat language professionals can use this book and the system with which it was done to better understand theeduca. 217 The goal of this study was not to offer suggestions for policy or teaching reform :in the educational cultures of the two countries. not just in rhetoric.similarities and differences inEnglish teaching and learn:ing in the educational cultures studied. The method .2 Results Of The Study This section will summarize f:ind:ings related to the two ma:in research questions. The same could be said of F:inland. interrelated in explaining' English Ianguage teaching and learn:ing :in the two educational cultures studied. that contribute to explain:ing the. especially outside of major metropolitan areas. and at least one Western country. information when compar:ing educational cultures :in countries within the same region. Finland. the same could be said of Japan. The information presented inthis study suggests that there are such cuItural similarities and differences between at least one Asian country. The two Iines. What factors contribute to the perceived differences in English proficiency in the two countries? .rprivate and public juniorand senior high schoolsas well as . The methodological appr?ach presented :in this study may prove useful when comparingother Asian and Western educational cultures in relation to Ianguage teaching. this study has sought. Japan.for example. towns.tionalculture in. lead me to believe that there maybe differences with:in the educational culture of [apan depending on the setting . My experience teaching and study:ing with peoplefrom various parts of the world suggests that this method may also yield fruitful .. of :inquiry are.

such a move appears urmecessary because teachers are expected to be fluent in the language that they teach . The currlculum and syUabus level of analysis for English laIlguage teaching and learning and the materials development level and textbooks were addressed in Chapter Four.e multi.addressed in Chapter Three. this difference? In order]» explain this.Will be . features ofEnglish teaching and learning in the two countries .. be. . 9. in the perceived differences inEnglish proficiency.sllb- a cultures .. hoped to improve communication in the classroom.ereare. which should. What factors in the Englisheducation system in the . both countries haver latively fewforeigIl residents and basicaIly homogeIleous. .. autonomy in.TOEFL .will be followed by a . and Japan which is a m01. . in part.th. no radical changes had taken place in the setting which is in keeping with Finland as a whole (Huhta 1996).one ofitsmain features. that is... as well as. addressed first. Were .10-lingual country with large population.that Finnish learners are more proficient in English than their [apanese counterparts. society and background informationon the two countries and English language education reform in Japan. specific .discussion of findings on the.dress them.The :Finnish setting studiedwas not foundtobe undergoing such radical .in Japan and. most of the Bchools in the twRcountries divide their scbedule into 6 years for primary or elementary school followed by 3 years for junior high school and 3 years for senior high school..Finlandwill be.deoelopmeni level.language planning. standard. but. contribute to.culturallevel of the study. specifically the recruitment of foreignEnglish teaching .racial make-llp of society is .and minorities. There are too many historical.differencesbetween the two cOll11. It was suggested that this is a radical move . testas well as professionalwritingssuggest a general perception . English e.)(aminations such as the..their educational institutions from abroad.two countries..1 WhatFactors Contribute To The Perceived Differences III English ProficiencyIn The.2. reform during the time of the present stlldy. For example. Chapter Three also discussed the introduction of thousands of foreign teaching assistants into Japan's public school system.settings studied. summarized in this section.differences between Finland.assistaIlts. .. Language planning in the eountry has until recently been based. with countries like the United States where th. .TwoCountries? As put forth in Chapter One.regional differen<:es. .whkh is a bi-lingualcountry with a small population.all in aIl.218 2.even begin to ad. To what extent are there cultural similarities and differences between Japan and Finland in regard to the educational cultures of specificj'Unior high school settings? The factors involved. populations especially whencompared .tries to. Even so. There is an emphasis in the official goals of the .Japan and Finland have borrowed many of the concepts that influenced the formation.. Naturally . This .in the .of .expected. on widespread needs analysis. It was found that there are many. The historical. Results show that although Finland had reeently granted complete loeal. In Finland.

plarmed.the language.becentrally. Teacher informants stated that they often feel that there are too many grammar points to cover in too little timewhich leads to the tendency to . . oral communication . their tendency ·to . . Much of the [apanese language policywas found to.an emphasis on grammar was foundin the. Language policyinJapanwasJound tobe plannedbya series ofcommittees whobasefheir decisions on research in the.. . The [apanese studentsthat were surveyedin the setting studied indicated that they saw senior high school entrance examinations asthe number one reason for studying English. at the beginning of university to decide who enters.new .Needsanalysis studies seemed not to have beencarried out in [apan to the extent . the results showed that they indicated communication as their goal. Chapter Five examined testing. provide .tendency towards.English proficiency is taken for granted. The present study foundthat Finnish learners surveyedin the educational culture studied tended not to see their English tests as a major reason for studying. ..v'Ihis suggested that thestated communicative goalsare not necessarily reinforced bythe official textbooksto theextent that theyare in Finland .Instead. to lead to the promotion of test training. It was foundthat Japanese . again. . communicative activities and interesting international topics. The. The textbooks. . Thisappeared to relieve both students and .textbooks .teach structures and forms rather than communication. Results also showed that in the setting studied.: The stated Japanese curriculum goals stresscreating an interest in language and culture.in the classroom. the strategy of training learners to pass entrance examinations could be seen as successful because 97 per cent of the learners passed them and entered senior high school.teachers inthe setting studied of the pressure to train for impending external examinations. . theexternally prepared matriculation examination administeredat the end of highsschooldid notexert an undue amount ofnegativeinfluenceonEnglish education inthe Finnish junior high school setting studied .: A description of the testwas included inthe chapter.textbooks. This suggests that entrance examinations in [apan had a negative backwash effect on the system.. field. 219 curriculum on 'open-mindedness towarddifferent cultures'.were . at least in the setting studied.. in}apanappeared to support these goals toapoint. learnerautonomy and communicative competence..especiallythe.This suggested that .buta. cultivating international understandingand communication as inFinland but didnot explicitly includethe promotion of Iearner autonomy.. Results indicated that the tests are extremely important in the minds of both the students and teachers and appear..that they have been conducted in Finland . books. This isbecauseevery student-is expected tohave been taught English in school therefore leavingno.: different types of . Local authorities in Iapan could chooseone of three Oral curriculums to follow.found-to generally supportthese goals through . . It was foundthat university entrance examinations in Finlanddo not include English unless the student is seeking admission to an English department.reason to use it as a factor in entrance examinations determiningadmission. entrance exammations containing English are administered at the beginning of high school and. rather than ·communication. .

.. with constant exposure to spoken English. liked studyingEnglish. . Most indicated that they studied at home forone to .only 36 per cent indicated that they 'hated English' which may. It was foundthat most. 89 percent oftheFinnish learners indicated that they-listened: to more than 5 hoursof Englishmusic each·week. Surprisingly. Dubbing is rare in Finland . The Japanese tended to study at home for about the same amountof time each week as their Finnish counterparts. A major finding of the present study was that Finnish learners. as well as anyone in Finland. seem a bit high for those not familiar with Iapan.seen asa justification for expenditures on the JET Program and assistant language teachers.: 'Mostof the Japaneselearners indicatedthat the only foreigners they had talked with were the assistant English teachers intheir schools. Most of the Japanese learners took privateEnglish Iessons. it was a lowerfigure than 1 had expected and lower than that normally portrayed in the Japanese mass media andin popular discussions on the phenomenon. Thiscouldbe seen as onereason why the Finnish learners see communication as more important than their Japanesecounterparts . Results showedthat 40 percent of the respondents indicated they watched 6-10 hours a week. . Asstatedinthe summary ontesting.220 ChapterFive addressedthelearner and teacher attitudes level . 92 per cent ofthe Finnish learners had traveled abroad. however. instead stressing communication. This section sought to explain theattitudesofthe studentsinthe educationaLcultures studied. 63 per cent of Japanese learners indicatedthatthey wished .The .18 percent stated they watched 10-20 hours and 15 percent rnarked that they watchedover 20 hoursa week.learners.Few took private lessons .. The Japanese learners also indicated that communication wasimportant butnotas important asthe entrance examination. It could also be. Results also showed that they havehad more experience in situations whereEnglish canbe used practically . university or vocational or technical school.This is possible in Finland because the Finnishnational broadcasting company offers avariety ofEnglish language programs eachweek in addition tocable channelswhichoffer more programming.to pursue college.four hours aweek.The lack of experience abroadand .of exposure to Englishthe leamershave in their daily lives through the mass media mustcontribute to their higherproficiency in general. tended to watch a great amount ofEnglish language programming on television.the senior high school entrance examination appeared to bethe primary reason why many of. Only one student intheJapanese settinghad been abroad.amount . the Japanese learners studiedEnglish. However. The 37 per cent of students who did not wish to pursue formalpost-secondary education seemed to correspond with the numberof learners who hateEnglish. which is common in the country.fu addition.: This provides the .the lack of contact with foreignpeople· could be seen as a major contributing factor to the factthat they did notconsider communication as importantas their Finnish counterparts. Most of the Finnish studentshad talked with several foreigners.. Results showed thatBinnlshleamers tended to put little emphasison their tests.

for practicing English teachers and others interested intheEnglish teaching and learning process. oriented lessons. translating: vocabulary.the twotypes of lessons because of the goals they tried to achieve. Some of the teachers in the setting studied explained that there was adifference . the Finnish teachers sometimes assumed a monitoring role whilethe students workedthrough their grammar exercises. The 'communication-orientedlessons'that Finnish were videotaped . timing andactivities used inparticular lessons. or recycled previously learned. contained 4 to 6 activities which weremore or ·less student-centeredand focused on the use of English for communication.get. The leveloj .: Japanese Iearners also listened: to English ·musicbutto a... pairwork. The 'instructions-disorder-calmdown... Again." The Finnish teachers themselves stated .or 5 .long each activity tookwhich could be useful.An overwhelming majority ofboth Finnishand Japanese junior high school students in the settings indicated thatthey will use Englishin their lives suggesting that both havea motivation to leamthe language. Results showedthat the study of grammar took various forms including the use of tapes.Communication-oriented activities in thevideotaped lessons includedpostermaking. .fhanstheir Finnish .there was a propensity toward teaching more grammar .the Finnisheducational culture studied.· The timingofthelessonswas included in the descriptions inthe chapter so that. 221 The Japaneselearners also watched English language television orvideos a11 butusuallyonly 2to 4hours a month.vice versa. Results suggested that these types of . fill-in-the-blank drills and other activities. Results suggested that anoise-cycle pattern emerged during thistype of lesson which could be important in explaining the commotionthat takesplace inthe learner-centered classroom.an ideaof how.loosely dassified into twocategories.Results suggest that the Finnish Englishlessons that were videotaped couldbe .theEnglish signal.the reader can . underlining thegrammarforms in the text.. In addition. The lessons tended to show a great deal ofvariety when compared with the lessons observed in the Japanese setting.that I have assigned . Finnish 'grammar-oriented lessons' contained 4.to . . withthe textbook or workbook.ieaching methodology was addressed dn ChapterSevenby describing themethods.the teachers stated that this was the goal of this type of lesson.. The results of this study suggest that 'order' in the learner-centered classroom . grammar points. communicative workbook activities and others.lessons tended to constantly introduce new activities which contributed to keeping the students interested in the lessons.which was a more student-centered technique.do work-get loud again' pattern appeared constantly in both the videotaped lessons and the other communication-oriented lessons that were observed. in .· much lesser extent . counterparts.sections or activities which were more or less teacher-centered and focusedon new. thatthiswas the goalofthese lessons. andthe term'loosely'should thereforebeemphasized inthe classification system .This is probablybecause virtually English language programming inJapanis dubbed or rnust be received through ahi-fi televisiondn orderto pick up .from English into Finnish and .inistered tests were pending. As loca11y planned and adrn.

this pattern began tobreakdown in the Finnish dassroom.classroom discourse in both countries. When activities became more learner-centered. A greater emphasis on communication as a whole.ieach student in two of the schools had two team-taught lessons per month.culturestudiedhad 3 or4 teacher-centered activities based on language structure ·and vocabulary acquisition.schools each student had four -team-taught lessons.greatly improve the communicativecompetence of the [apanese learners.These were seenas 'speciaHessons' with more of a 'funvalue'than pedagogic purpose. The textbook wasalso often includedinthistypeof lesson. The ' Japanese Englishteachersin the setting indicatedthatthis . general.review of the: . They indicated thatit mayhave ledto boredom on the part ofthe students but was necessary forthe . Results suggest that classroom interaction in both countries tended to .case. Although the Japanese teachers. The descriptiveleveloftranscribingandanalyzing sequences of c1assroom interaction basedon discourse analysis theory was discussed in Chapter Eight. JapaneseEnglish teachers stated that team-taughtlessons were special lessons for the students topractice theircommunicationskills. appeared to be a greatemphasis on communication inEnglish. c1assroom . in my opinion. Japaneseregular lessons intheeducational.last . many-of which concentratedoncommunicative activities. based where applicable on the Finnish model. The [apanese.less the same inevery lesson and consistedoLa greeting. would.examinations. Results showed that theeducational culture studied in Finland appeared to be effective in executing thegoals ofthe syllabus and promoting communication in English among the students. warrants further investigation into. In the Finnish educational setting. - often present in dassroom settings (Sinclair and Coulthard 1975j Sindair and Brazil1982). and learnabout foreign cultures and people.. Lesson segmentationanddassroom interaction in Finland and [apan reflect the way in which language planning. in.was the standard way of teachingtheirregular Englishlessons .the activities..one . and in one of the .The textbooks and testing systemseemedto reinforce these general goals. textbooks. per month. there.222 tended not to be present or. as such. In the [apanese educational setting that was studied.lesson. Their opinions reflected that they saw these as different fromregular English lessons which should coverthegrammar points needed for theentrance examinations. mass media and society in general had a tendency to criticize the entrance examination system. students. new material from the textbook and. could not be present because of the nature of..students to master the grammar thatwould be necessary to pass entrance. testing andparticipant attitudes affect the English language teaching andlearning process. Thesetended to varyand included such tasks asquestion-and-answersessions andgames. team-taught lessons consisted of 3 t05 activities. areview of previously ·learned materia!.Segmentation .irr.Inthe educational setting studied.but even SOI it shows clear tendencies of interaction and. . The small amount of dassroom interactionthat was transcribed for this study may not be sufficient tomake general conclusions.perhaps.was: more or . correspond generally to the Initiation Response Follow-up (I-R-F)pattern .

other factors includingcurriculum· design.. 1995) were . This · studytends to confirm several of the categories that appear on the lists of traits associatedwithHofstede's (1980.. .. activities and timing in addition to c1assroom interaction were shown to be influenced bymany of: the . Jn addition. Resultssuggested great differences in the team-taught and regular: English lessons observedinJ apan. The English education systemin Japan . the learners. of appliedlinguistics appears to be inadequate.to explain many aspectsofthephenomena that take place· withinthose systems.described in Chapter One. teacher training affectsthe way teachers teach but it was too broad a .: In the author's opinion..·· The model set forth characteristics . .. an examination of cultural similarities and differences which influence the systemsin the two countries is. 1986.to: explain how these reforms willeffect the classroom and Jmglish teaching as a..in promoting communicativecompetence among .. why does English teaching and Iearning take place in sucha different manner in the two settings? . in my . The former tended to concentrate on communication and the latter tended to emphasize grammar. concerning individualism and collectivism.is currently undergoingreform andfurther study is. This question was addressed by proposing a .appearedto be somewhatproblematic . This suggeststhat there appears to be some sort oia gap .based on specificeducational cultures. and masculinity and femininity in culture.whole. necessary . the teaching andlearning process. uncertainty avoidance. · .·1991) '4-D·Modelof CulturalDifference' when they were applied to the data. Having said allthis. power distance. may begin toexplain the apparentdifferences inFinnish and Japanese Englishproficiency.study. method which attempts to explain how culturaLfactors figure into. between the new goals of promoting communication in the c1assroom and the reality of the educationalcu1turestudied. Summary The overall results of my analysis of English as a foreign language teachlng and learning in the . opinion.. Many [apanese English teachers appeartofeel that anemphasis on grammar isthemostpracticalwayto teach the language for a variety of reasons as discussed throughoutthe present study.perhaps.topic to be adequately addressedbythis study. generally ·effective. Of course.2 To What Extent Are There Cultural Similarities And DifferencesBetween Japan AndFinland In Regard To The Educational Culture Of SpecificJunior High School Settings? The results of this study suggestmany differencesas wellas similarities in English 'language education in the two educationalcultures studied.Promoting communication in the Japanese setting.twocountries suggests thatthe Finnish settingwas. textbooks andlearner attitudes discussed inthis . The question still arises. context in culture (Hall 1976) and politeness (Scollon and Scollon 1983. an analysis of English language teachinginthetwo countriesbased purely on the Ievel. Thesefindings. 223 methods. the only way .2. 9.onthe other hand.

to support a learning environment where the students should only speak when ca11ed upon by the teacher. which reflect language p1anning andcurriculum goa1sin Finland revea1ed that there seemed to be a positive association with 'new' sty1e textbooks and workbooks. . less recent development.characteristics .Iose face . closings.. their 1essons with formal openings and . In addition.awards and certificatesin [apan were heldin high esteem and givenout at special ceremonies .shift in the Finnish educational cu1tura1 setting studied towards what Hofstede (1980.infheirclassrooms. The observed lack of additional teacher training to accompany the new curriculum could be viewed as a deliberate choice.from more structura1 techniques when they were students to morecommunicative lessons now. and teachers strive to cultivate this. ... 1986. 1991. Manyof the JapaneseEnglish teachers in the setting seemed . examinationof classroom teaching methods andinteraction revea1ed situations in the setting when students spoke up inresponse to a general invitation bythe teacherand examples ofstudents speaking up in 1arge groups .. In Pinland.that the traditionai structural approach seemed to: be heldIn high esteem.textbooks. This · was a1so cited as a more. or . Diplomas.. resultssuggested.for learning. The amount of communicative activities inthem encouraged students to talk and initiate conversations.. again suggesting that a premium was put on formal harmony in the learning situation which is indicative of strong face-consciousness . Individualist And Collectivist Cultural Traits Characteristics related toindividualistand -collectivist cultures that tended to confirm'Hofstede's c1assifications appearedthroughoutfue data. Confrontations in the classroomdiscourse ..would promote forma1 harmony in the learning situation so that neither theteacher nor. in many cases.alsoappeared to be sa1utaryor at leastacceptable in some situations.An analysis of textbooks.to upho1d'traditional' values and a11 beganand ended .This .. In fuesetting studied in Japan.except in relationtothe results produced bythisstudy in Japan and Finland. Indeed. the resu1ts of this study indicated that activitiesin themappeared. the examination of videotaped c1assroom discourse yielded no examples of Japanese students speakingup without being recognized.on the otherhand. There appears to have been a .tlife-Iong learningappeared tobe held in higher esteem bymore individuals. Finnish teachers stated that methods hadshifted. 1992).the student shouldever be made to. displayed on walls .to the datagafuered in the two specificsettingsstudied.224 discussed by fuepresentstudy in relation . puts forth asindividualist cu1tura1 traits.vAsto. An . Allof fuese . some of the Japanese English teachers that 1 encountered while in the country appeared reluctant to participate in in- service training sessions. 'Ihis couldalso be associated with a 'new' viewof leaming which stresses learners taking an active responsibility ..and sometimes .. Lessons began andended inan informa1 manner with teachers and studentsentering the classroomatthesame time. designed not toforce experienced teachers to accept student roles.These mode1s arediscussed in Chapters One and Two andwillnotbeexplained ingreatdetailhere.

Formal harmony wasalsoheldin high esteem duringmore teacher centered activities in Finlandand thetranscrlbed· c1assroom . reinforcing the learner autonomy goals present in the curriculum. 1991) as individualist cultural characterlstics.: like . Textbooks which have been put forth as the 'visible heart of the curriculum' seem to stress that English can be learned by anycompetent person and encourage the independence of students through the variety of activities andexplanations presented. Teachers often expected students to initiate interaction and in some cases allowed them to choose their own activities during the lesson. Activities tended to encourage students to 'find their own paths'. Inaddition. Textbooks and workbooks tended toprovide activities that enabledthe students to speak up in class. Teachersinthe settings inboth countries were. 1986. whichcould be seenas similarities.counterparts.These similarities are c1assified byHofstede (1980.their Finnish . Hofstede's (1986) c1assification that largedasses split into smaller groups based on ethnic affiliation in collectivist sodeties and on the task at handin individualist cultures did not surface in the data. sometimes used'new' communicative methods. 1983.their students and madeevery effort to ensure that no one would be humiliated' during fhe lesson.English .. Finnish . 225 which seemed to be prevalent in Tapan are put forth by Hofstede(198Q. their}apanese ·counterparts. as far as myobservations could tell.like . This encoutaged students to work .teachers: in Japan. making it possible for a contradiction of the teacher to occur and placing an emphasis on two-way commurucation in the dassroom. Weak power distancetraits tended tobe prevalent in the data gathered from Finland. Finnish teachers werealso concerned about the 'face' or public self-image of.studiedexhibited some. Results showed thatmanyof the: teachers in both countries whereenrolled in various forms of adult andcontinulng education which suggests that teachers inboth countriespartidpate in life-long education. Power Distance Manyof the traits that emerged in the data from the spedfic junior high school educational cultures studiedtended to confirm the weak and strong power distance characterlstics set forth by Hofstede (1980. Finnish students spoke onlywhencalledupon bythe teacher. Therewas alsooverlapandcommon characterlstics between the two educationalsettingsexamined. collectivist traitsprobably because of traitswhichcan beassodated witheducational settingsxinc'general.espedally in the lessons c1assified as Finnish grammar-oriented lessons. 1991) as collectivist cultural characteristics. strictly impartial in dealing with students.discourse reveals thatin many situations. Teachers in Finland expressed that they encouraged learner autonomy and thought that students could learn by themselves. both educationalcultures .probably because ofthe absence of ethnic groups within thesettings in the two countrles studied.teachers. sometimes used 'traditional' structural methodsduring their lessons. Results suggested that they tended to support student-centered education and a premium ·on initiative by enabling the learners· to initiateconversations. 1986i 1991).

This fostereda more . even textbooks produced abroad which cou1d 1ead to quite variedobjectives. Usually this was done when the teacher inquestion was not present. for. Teachers tended to direct .was not necessarily tied to age. students did sometimes critidze or contradict their teachers. Theactivities.226 independently. Uncertainty A voidance Uncertainty avoidance re1ates to the way in which individua1s within a cu1ture fee1 in uncertain situations. studentactivityand tell. The Japaneseeducationa1cu1ture studiedtended to reflect strong power distance characteristics.1986. schoo1s could chooseany textbook they liked.. students were sometimes allowed to choose their own activities which they carried out with a partner.teacher-centered-Ieaming process and puta premium on order.of the English language totheirstudentsby handing it down .:. The Finnish textbooks and workbooks that were used in the educationa1 cu1ture studied presented materia1 that could be taught with varying objectives and looser timetables. Respect for teachers . which wereprevalent in the Finnish educational cultura1setting studied. Individua1s in weak uncertainty avoidance cu1tures tend to fee1 more comfortab1e in uncertain situationsthan members of strong uncertainty avoidance cultures. but age and experience mayhave influence in both settings. The amount of two-way communication during lessons was seen as beneficial. 1991). including the observation that teachers were rare1y public1y criticized in either Japan or Finland which is a strong power distance trait. Simi1aritiesdid existbetweenthe two educationa1 settings studied. in both educationa1 cultures. Respect in both countries tended to be tied to the individualteacher. Teachersin the Japanese .This is a strong power distancetrait. 1983. Officially. In fact. thus creating a learning situation wherethe teacher could not easily be publidy contradicted. 1991) classifies as indicative of strong power distance within society.spoke up in dass when invited by the teacher.follow. suggestweak powerdistanceaccording to Hofstede (1980.thestudents what to do. However. This is a weak power distance characteristic. teachersareexpected to speak and students to Jisten. Still. · The textbooks tended tobe structured for the teacherto initiate communicationand outline the paths thatthe . The textbooks appear to be designed to betaughtrather than to initiate two-way communication between the teacher andthe students.setting seemed to prefer a teacher-centered methodo1ogy which promoted learner dependence.promoted teachers transferringtheir know1edge . The student-centered activities made it possib1e forthe students to ask .were conducive for the students toonlyspeak upin class when called uponby the teacher. examp1e. the schools in the setting studied chose to use the same domestically produced textbooks they had been using before..studentsshould ..Studentsand teachersin the Iapanese setting tended to re1ate1earning to the excellence of theteacher andin teacher/student conflicts. Textbooks. In other words. These characteristics suggest thatJapan hasmanydeatures which Hofstede(1980. Students only . All of these traits.parents were observedtoside with the teacher.

These traits seem to confirm Hofstede's ·(1980. 1986. These featuresare put forthby Hofstede (1980. 1991. The emphasis in their lessons wasusually on communication. that students were rewarded for accuracy. Studentsand teachers in Finland seemed to feel comfortable in less structured learning situations. Analysis of teaching methods and classroom interaction in the setting suggested that Japanese students and teachers felt morecomfortable in structured learning situations and.and workbooks in the Japanese settingtended to present material that wasdesignedtobe -taught withpreciseobjectives.books are generallydesigned for teacher- centered classrooms where the teacher. .·. According to Hofstede (1980.This type of behavior was not observed in the Finnish setting. 'has all-the answers'· and tend to foster accuracy in problem solving. Students had a tendency to compete for attention during the lessons and behaved as individuals. 1993)..approaches . 227 questions which the teachermight not be able to answer.: ·These . Teachers tended toshow.also sometimes required innovative .Thechapters on lesson segmentation anddassroominteraction . revealing little . Theysometimes said . Thesetraits suggestthat the Finnish setting reflected weak uncertaintyavoidance cultural characteristics. while in feminine cultures male and female roles may overlap and men may regard quality of life as a viable option overmaterial success.'1 don't know' .to problem solving . 1986. through the promotion of learner autonomy and communicative activities.. MasculinityAnd Femininity Masculinity and femininity deal with competition insociety. detailed assignments and strict timetables.1991)as strong uncertainty avoidancecultural traits.sections. The textbooks .tended toreinforce what hadbeen revealed in the other . 1991) theoriesonweakuncertainty avoidance.in the lessons observed. JapaneseEnglish lessons inthe setting studied appearedtobe quite structured when compared -to their Finnish counterparts. Intellectual disagreements tended not to surface in the Japanese setting. Students and teachers were sometimes observed to become very .u'Ihe activities in the textbooksand. exhibited features which encouraged learners to make themselves visible in the c1assrooms.workbooks . Teachers seemed to be expected to knowall the answers and emphasized grammarin many of their lessons. The textbooks that were used were first approved by the Ministry of Education (Monbusho) who set forth fairly strict guidelines for the textbooks . Teachers in the Finnish setting expressed views that suggested that lessons should be free-flowing and nol alwaysexplicitly structuredbythe teacher..little or noemotion in the settingand someminor intellectual disagreements between teachers were witnessed while 1 conducted myresearch. masculinecultures tend to bemore competitiveand have clear definitions as to what is expected of men. These correspond with theories-: about strong uncertainty avoidance societies. forexampleduring a graduation ceremony. teachers tended to use plain languageand students were rewardedfor problem solving. The Finnish textbooks. 1986. emotional.

Michael Bond.determined 'brilliance' to be an intangible concept too difficu1t to analyze. Studentsin [apan..thusexhibiting what has been suggested as feminine : characteristics. Japanese textbooks used in the settingtend to encourage modesty in . Students in Finland practiced mutual solidarity and teachers severely rejected corporal punishment. Students in the Japanese and Finnish settings had littlechoice in their course of study so the 19 Informants stated that in rare cases.is . students were expected to operate as members ofthe school and various . One example of praise . They go on to argue that the dimension can be combined to form a new dimension related to task-related and human heartedness-relatedvalues (Gudykunst and Ting. These traits are characterizedin Chapter Two as masculine societyfeatures. therefore. inthe present·study because I. Classroominteraction and teaching methods reveal only one example of praise in the Finnish discourse The lack of . praise is also classified as a feminine trait. . Good grades were rewardedwithgood recommendations andpraise.The transcribed dassroom discourse provides concrete examplesofcthe students attempting to-makeithemselves visible during the lesson. Studentsand teachers alike tended to view failure as a relatively minorincident in the Finnishsetting and even set up speciallessons for students who chose to studyan additional year in junior high school.sub-groups within the educationalculture. . like their Finnishcounterparts. usually by older teachers. In addition. Corporal punishment was sometimesused'". practiced mutual solidarity. streamlining their classes according to level.. Failure was often seen in the Japanese setting as a severe blow tothe student's self image. students who disrupted lessons were sometime slapped on the back of the head. omitted. . These traits are elassifiedas features af a masculine society. Gradesand rank in the Japanese c1ass were seen as important by most teachers and students . organized a study at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and found a great deal of overlap regarding this dimension among their respondents (The Chinese Culture Connection1987). in other words not speaking up oftheir own accord and not competing for the floor. [apanese ·students also showed· a tendency in most situations to behave modestly. The Japanese educationaLcu1turealso exhibiteda number of feminine characteristics. Social adaptation was rewarded as.Teachers used the average student as the norm in all of . This c1assification was. Hofstede's (1986) characteristics related to the mascu1inity and femininity dimension which addressed . 'brilliance' as opposed to 'friendliness'in teachers was not addressed.the norm by not.Toomey 1988: 50). .the schools where 1 taught by not streamlining the c1asses according to ability. students byencouraging more teacher-centered methods. The overlap between masculine and feminine cultural characteristics : should not 'be surprising. Classroominteraction and teaching.generally speaking. methods tended to exhibit feminine features by not revealing praise and presenting learners as behaving modestly.presentin the Finnish c1assroom interaction sample.228 emphasison social adaptation. teachers used average students as .

According to Widen(198S: lS8). Results suggested thatthe educational cultureof the Finnish junior high school studied exhibited .many.power.of female teachers who are brilliantare .cultural traits 'while the Japanesesetting produced data which suggests that the educationalculture tends to be collectivist with strong power There werealso instances of · distance and strong uncertainty avoidance. 1992)dimensions suggest forexample that a groupof maleteachers whoare friendly totheir students areexhibiting 'ferninine' tendencies while a group . 1991) '4-DModel of Cultural Difference'. 1986. avoidance .Instead.Iow-context cultural characteristics. many of thetraits put forth in Hofstede's (1980. the results .is. Results suggested that Finnish learners tended to rnake themselves visible during the lessons by speaking out and using other strategies which 1 have classified as being indicative of low-context in the educational culture studied because the situationallows and encourages .Even so. exhibiting . Sumrnary Overall. to a lesser extent the other dimensions.'rnasculine' . overlap which could be looked upon as similarities in regard to the fernininity and masculinity dimension and..that suggest more individualist. profounddifferences between the Finnishand Japanese communication styles were found in the setting studied. Hofstede's (1980.ralike: -tended -to verbalize virtuallyall inforrnation using the explicit code of language because ofthe 'openness' of theactivities and the consequent need to negotiate meaning. Hall (1976) suggests that what he terrned 'context' differentiates one culture from another. 1986. 229 categories related to males choosing or not choosing traditionally feminine subjects were not addressed by the present study either. The Finnish junior high school educationalculture setting studiedyielded results.process' '. andFinnish communication resemble those in [apanese society'. better when describing human work-related valuesthan terms which may be associated with preconceived notions on gender roles.· weak . Littleritualized.shed light on aspects of Englishteachingand learning in the Finnish and Japanese settings that seern to evade an applied linguistic approach which does not factor incultural aspects. These . . · Students and teachers .tendencies.terms ·are problernatic. in my mind. Theresults of the present study donot confirmthis assurnption in the educational culture that was studied.Finnish .to confirm. the present study tends . formal behavior appeared in the setting studied which may suggest that the physical context of the situation yielded communicative information for the participants. settings 'do not verbalize thewhole communicators in non-educational strategies 'strongly communication .: distance and weakuncertainty . Context In Culture As stated in Chapter One.1991. which underlines the presupposition stated in Chapter One that all cultures have all features and the studyand classification ofculture is not ablack-and-white issue. . The terrninology presented inthe Chinese Culture Connection (1987) .

inChapterEighcfor instance. On the other hand.to. the students. Everyonein the setting appeared . 1995). Examples . Politeness Features of solidarity and deference politeness were alsoexamined in relation to the data in thepresent study (Scollon and Scollon 1983.230 the learners to verbally code.have c1early defined. In the worldof work.rely on the contextof the situation. This wasreinforced by the design of. Hall (1976) suggeststhat Asian cultures such as China.the textbooks which tended to foster more teacher-centered approaches and bythe methods that were found to be used in the c1assroom.their-messages . In the Finnish family. This was encouraged by the activities that were presented in the textbooks and the methods used by the teachers in the c1assroom. Most subordinates refer to their managers by their firstname unless there is a marked age gap.TheFinnish setting exhibited solidarity politeness strategies by the more or less equal manner in which communication took place between teachers and students. The transcribed discourse suggested that the participants in the Japanese setting had 'internalized' rules of interaction - much more so than their Finnish counterparts - whichthey rarely ifever broke while 1 was: conducting my . Scandinavia and Switzerland tend to reflect lower context features.' opening' ofthe lessons: the teacher enters the room and signals the 'on-duty' student to tell the others to stand. The formality of the lesson ritual (openings and c1osings) also reinforced the deference politeness mode by .to the results of the study.ofthis can be found. managersare moredemocratic oftenreferring totheir subordinates as the 'team'and themselves as 'team leaders'.usually 'talked down' - to inferiors.interact fairly equally and children are quite independent. Transcribed discourse revealed that the teachers always controlled the floor during the lesson and students only spoke when they were called upon personally.parentsand children . The politeness strategies in the Finnish educational culture reflect recent changes in the society.ratherthat. The Finnish educational culture tended to reflect these broader societal changes.rolesand routines. The silenceand order during the JapaneseEnglish lessonsalso suggest high-context educational culture in the setting studied. whereI have related what goes on during the formal . Theyare discussed in Chapter One and will be discussed here only in relation . often on more or less equal terms.The formal beginningsand endingscouldbe interpreted as contextual features which participants can interpret from the'physical context'. a The results are largely expected.theeducationalculture ofthe Japanesejuniorhigh school setting studied tended to reflecta number of high-context cultural characteristics. · research. Korea and [apan tend to exhibithigh-context cultural features while Western cultures 'such as Germany.The transcribed classroomdiscourse also revealed many examples of relative equality in interaction bythe way in which students were allowed to ask questions and speak tothe teacher. The Japanese setting tended toreflect more· deference politeness communicationstrategies where superiors the teachers.

and distance. Hundreds' of millions of people. then corresponding phenomena were matched with Hofstede' stendendes. it is my feeling that many aspects of the Finnish English as a foreign language education system could be incorporated into the Japanese educationalculture.learning process and culture will: contribute tothe broadening of perspectives and continuing professional developmentnecessary to cope with. · dimensions can be utilized in many ways and are.3 Implications Crystal (1997) reports . observable features in the physical work of the two educational settings were described.the IIlodel do appear to explain many aspects ()f the educationalcultures.1983. 1995) suggest thatAsian cultures tend to reflect deference politenessstrategies while Western societiestend to reflect solidarity politenesscharacteristics. spedfic juni0r. this project. 1991) and. . The cultural features of individualism. Instead. However. The .and masculinity and ' collectivism. 1995) that were inc1uded in . My feeling is that cultural features are observable and can be c1assified. If . power (Hall.IIlost important contribution of this study is the pilot testingof the research model foranalyzingtheEnglish as a foreign language teaching and learning process in two. countries. 9. an approach insisting on a strict. This free interpretation suggested that many of Hofstede's observations are valid and could be found in the settings studied. they are better approached as tendendes rather than mutually exc1usive categories. uncertainty ·avoidance. to a lesser extent.invalid. the challenges that will arise over the following decades. this project had attempted to 'prove' or 'disprove' them. high school settings studied which a mere applied linguistic approach would have failed to address. 1995). strategies femininityas well as context in culture (Scollon and Scollon.that English has become the languageof the worldby repeatedly finding itself Iin the right place at theright time'. and might be feasible for other studies thatattempt to examine teaching and learning from an intercultural perspective. The method has proven feasible in this study.. Understanding the relationship betweenthe English teaching and .1976) and politeness. Then this work could have proceeded to argue that the categories are . Having completed.in the. perhaps as highas a billion. subject to interpretation. 231 creating distance between the partidpants anddearly indicating theroles of teachers and learners. my impression' is ·that Hofstede' s . most notably the lowering of the age in which pupils begin studying the language and the adoption of Finnish style text and workbooks . The method hopes to extend the cross-cultural work of Hofstede (1980.. Scollon andScollon (1983. 1986. In addition. af Hall (1976) and Scollon and Scollon (1983. literal interpretation could have been adopted.learn El1glish asa foreign language around the world. This appeared to holdtruein the data that was gathered insettings addressed bythis study.

How ver. Myfeeling is thatalthough.if 'hobby Iessons'.232 accompanied by in-service teacher training. an English language c1assroom which promoted . In an educationa.rnore individualism... it may be .such training was viewed as .. .to the prevailing.in addition to further investigations into teac11er training. broad p rsp ctiv s. One must.practicing c1assroomteacher. For thepracticingteacher.l culturesanclaffect the desi and implementatioll ofeducational policy.to relate to the entir.needecl to understand the educational processes aro-undthe world.. education and intercultllTa1 communication which contribute to providing the skills needed for interaction and cooperation in the emerging global community. uncertainty avoidance.be applied tothe adoption of Finnisll.a change . it would not necessarily disrupt . 'famous' f()r.ipower . educational culture in other c1assrooms..e languag . True. Further.th Japanese are. training dictated by the centralgovernment. which contribute to the.western . Teachers and learners could adopt the attitude that the English c1assroom is a unique learning environment were 'English' communication patterns could be promoted.power . learner training could be used to train pupils to behave in a more autonomousmanner.more readily accepted. .technology while rnaintajning their 0WIlllational identity. not lose sight ofthe.teaching process. Following In-service teacher training.tiona. distance. cultural factors such as the tendency for older persons (teachers) not to assume student roles may inhibit the further in-service teacher training needed to inltlatesuch.it is often more usefUl to analyze several factors. t aching and .in mYtnind. .. education. 't chn0logy' of .effective. More cletailedculttrral analysis studies within the framework ofEnglish teaching and learning ar . These may lead to new. context and politeness may influence educa. breakthroughs in the field of English as a forei languag . weaker uncertainty avoidance may run contrary .a greater und rstanding of the whole as provided by studies such as this should . that researchers must be wary ofmaking claimsabout English language teaching invarious countries without taking into account cultural factors -which may influence teaching and l arrring within those countries.l cultural setting. Further. English as a foreign .distance and .the harmony of the school as a whole.be easier . r search in applied ling-uistics should.language . learning process on the surface to gain a picture ofEnglish education as whole. be aware that cultural factors such as individualism and collectivism. and. lower . suchas golf or flowerarranging. Another major implicationof this study is. 'TlUs could . rather than vocational . masculinity and femininity.. adopting useful.

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1990. 7 Triandis.In AFinLA Yearbook 1987. pp. JET [ournal. 1992. and [uote. and Applications. Pakolaistoimisto. 19. dialogand imagery in conversational discourse. 1995. P. Tokyo: Kenkyushal1979. 1994.University of Jyväskylä Takala. Personality. The Key to English Pronunciation. M. A Case of Making the Strange Familiar: Acculturation Devices and aHistory ofELT in Japan.1986. Conversational Style: AnalyzingTalk Among Friends. 1995. Choi. H. H. Sosiaali. Collectivism vs. 79-95 Tsugiyoshi. Ltd.Hensen. Tokyo: Eichosha Publishing Co. Triandis. AFinLA Yearbook 1987. Language and Learning Materials. P. 1989-1990. Kagitcibasi. Toward a psychological theory of economic growth. In Hirvonen.: 1990. California. ·1984. Teacher Training: English Teacher Training in Postwar Japan. Unpublished speech at 11th World Congress AILA. Individualism and Collectivism: ·Theory. How to Build on Speaking Skill Through Team Teaching with Textbooks and Games. 52-54 Toda. Opinto-opas 1988-1989. S-C and Yoon. Bagleyand G. Tokyo: Gakken Tannen. and values: Cross-cultural perspectives of chlldhood and adolescence. 1992. D . Y.250 NationalForeign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects. Cross- Cultural Research and Methodology Series. Igarashi.. Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to the Study of Collectivism and Individualism.: pp. D. H.. S. Verma (Eds. TakenobwK. eds. Volume 18. Finland Takala. 1996. Tampereen Yliopisto. pp. G.Tokyo Tampereen Yliopisto. M. Y and Suzuki. K. 1997. H. manuscript Tanigawa. L. c. T.. C. 41-51 Triandis. u. Jyväskylä. 1987. Summer.. 1994. New Jersey: Abley Tannen. N. Intemational [ournal of Psychology.vp. The Daily Yomiuri. pp. February 13. Individualism: A reconceptualization of a basic concept in cross-cultural psychology. humanistinen tiedekunta. Inkerinsuomalaiset. C.1886.). "Eigaku no Ayumi" Eigo Kyoiku Mondai no . [apan As It Is. Individualism & Collectivism. K. Ministry of Education Six-Month Study Programme in the UK: Universityof Essex: Unpublished . Oxford: Westview Press Triandis. K. 1996 Tanaka. The Teaching of English in Iapan. London: MacMillan Triandis. In Kim. Winter. Helsinki: Painatuskeskus Oy Takanashi. 1992. Talking Voices: Repetition. 1978. Letterto the author. Sage Publications. 8th. Mänttä: Mäntän kirjapaino Tanabe. Y. Finland: Institute for Educational Research.InC.Thousand Oaks. In Koike.C.. 1992. C. .C. ed. C. Jyväskylä on Aug. 1984. Matsuyama. Panel Urges Englishfor Primary Schoolers. Joensuu.ja Terveys- ministeriö.44-46 Tanaka.. M. 1988. 1979. Method.S. De-Motivated Students and Exam Wars: Predicted Problems and Possible Solutions.March 29/1997 Takalo. JETJournal.H.cognition. Cambridge: CUP Thronson.· Textbooks andTeaching. December. [apanese Education:The Integrity of the Exam.

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Osaka: Buraku Kaiho Kenkyusho Yoshio. ·Cross-c111turalcommunication between Finland and America.G. 1989. Kyoto: Shugakusha.1995. The Daily Yomiuri.The Daily Yomiuri.. 19. 'Good ear' for languageinstilled atan early age. 1990. Yokose. M. No. 7 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Yamaguchi. Kyoto: Shugakusha pp.1985. VoI. . In Wada. 1987. [apanese Schools: Reflectionsand Insights . H. M.Kanra town at a glance: statistics. I.' J. eds. 6. Principles of Course Design forLanguage Teaching. S.252 Widdowson.. 1985.. Tokyo: Papermac Yakuba. andCominos.and Cominos. R. Oxford: Oxford University Press Widdowson. 1990. 18- 20thApril. 18-21. 3-9 Yamazaki. Wolferen. P. Aspects of Language Teaching.pp. . H. eds. 1995. 1989.T.The Invisible Visible Minority: [apan's Burakumin. Analyzing Cultural TopicsFound in English Textbooks for Junior High School Students. 10-14 Yoshino. A. eds. Tampere. January 5. van. K. 1995. . City Hall Yalden. p . [apanese Schools: Reflections and Insights. A. January 1. Y. The Enigma of Japanese Power.G.1977. pp.Kanra. 1995.and Murakoshi.1995. 1978. Paper read at the American Studies Conference. O. Patience requiredfor English teaching. What are students there for? In Wada. K. Oxford: Oxford University Press Widen. p. The Foreign Teacher in the LanguageClassroom. Teaching Language as Communication. Japan: Kanra .: 20 Yamane.InThe Language Teacher. A. ·1995 .

etc . After junior high school. The highest number of responses for anyone question was 103 andoccurred inquestion8 becausesome students checked both answers.. 1. Do you like English? Yes 42 No 37 Yes andNo 17 7.) 4 3 agricultural high school self defence force (Army) 2 6. Junko Moridaira's Kanra Number third year one Junior High Schoolclasses . Have you ever been to a foreign country? No 93 5.. 253 Appendix 1 Students Survey Results 100 students were surveyed in Ms. high school entrance tests 61 junior high school tests 54 to speak it 49 to understand it 48 42 to talk to foreign people 46 to travel outside ofJapan 26 to watch movies in English 23 to listen to music in English 19 Other-T like English" 1 to read books. Do you hate English? Yes 36 No 42 Yes andNo 17 . what school do you want to attend? high school 88 (Japanese teacher indicated they all wished to attend high school) 4 year university 25 technical or vocational school 21 2 year college 13 6 work advanced education (MA or Ph. Why do you study English? Choose as many answers as you like from the following list.d. 2. How many foreigners have you talked to? 3 31 2 26 4 20 5 14 1 1 Did you speak with the foreigner? Yes 82 No 7 3. Yes (Cuam) 1 4. magazines.

How good your English? is OK 41 not good 15 bad 11 verybad 7 (1 understand nothing) 6 4 good 3 zen zen wakaranai very good 17. how many hours in a month? 51 2-4 hours 5-8 hours 14 more than 8 hours 5 11. Do you want to visit an English speaking country? Yes 79 No 21 13. makes English more fun 48 helps with entrance tests 37 makes English more interesting 36 makes students want to speak English 30 other-'to understand' 1 .254 8. Do you listen to foreign music in English? Yes (usually less than 4 hours a week) 52 No 21 14. Do you go to 'juku'(private cram school) for English? Yes 70 No 33 How many hours? 1-4 hours 60 more than 4 hours 7 9. Do you read English books. In Englishclass.13 J the apanese teacher 8 tests 6 the textbook 4 other-riothing' 1 12. what do you like? the AET 63 games 60 classes with the AET 44 speaking 29 listening 19 writing reading 16 classes with the Japanese teacher .hours 7 10. Do you ever watch English movies? Yes 76 No 13 If yes. What does team-teaching do? Choose as many answers as you like. magazines or comics? Yes (usually less than 2 hours a month) 13 No 80 15. Will you use English in your life? Yes sometime 39 Maybe 32 Yes often 9 No 8 1 don't know 6 16. How many hours do you study English at home ina week? 1 hour 10 2-4 hours 56 more than 8.

speaking 37 it is possible to speak English 36 listening 31 about foreign people 26 reading 23 23 about foreign places writing 23 11 grammar the JTE can speak English with the AET 12 No response 14 19. domestic servant. 255 18. graphic designer. dothes 1 designer. baseball player.writer . doctor. What does team-teaching make you learn? Choose as many answers asyou like.What do you want to be when you grow up? cook 10 office worker 10 don't know 14 7 engineer 7 teacher 6 computer programer 4 2 nurse 6 kindergarten teacher TV star 2 2 mechanic 2 hair dresser painter hotel manager. dietician. florist. civil servant.

Do you like English? 100 No 9 1 20 Yes don'tknow 7.. Do take private English lessons? Yes 6 No 83 8. 51 Other Penpals 3 Talk to English Father 1 Because 1 have to 1 Use computers 1 2. Why do you study English? Choose as many answers as you like from the following list. How many hours of English TV shows do you watch in week? a o 5 1-5 28 6-10 51 11-15 10 16-20 13 20+ 19 6 1 don't know 1 no answer . magazines. Have you ever been to a foreign country? Yes 119 No 9 5. After junior high school. How many foreigners have you talked to? 0 15 1-5 58 6-10 12 11-15 1 16-20 6 20+ 10 many 9 some 5 no answer 11 3. etc . 1. matriculation examination 21 junior high school tests 43 to speak it 108 to understand it 110 to travel 85 to talk to foreign people 85 to listen to music in English 66 to watch movies in English 72 to read books.256 Appendix2 Students Survey Results - Finland 129 eigth grade students were surveyed in Emäkoski [unior High School c1asses. Did you speak English with the foreigner? Yes 95 No 25 na2 4. what school do you want to attend? Lukio 76 ammattikoulu 60 kauppaoppilaitos 13 work 8 university 6 NA 3 Other: horse economy opisto 1 6.

how many hours a week? 1 27 2 16 3 3 5 1 8 1 2 sometimes 15. In English class. Canada. UK 13. 257 9. 12 hours 18 More than 13 hours 26 NA 1 11.. How good is your English? very good 21 good 27 OK 51 notgood 14 3 bad 4 very bad . How many hours do you study English at home in a week? 2 1 hour 57 2-4 hours 57 4-8 hours 8 More than 8 hours 61 No 3 10.. how many hours in a month? 2-4 hours 38 5-8 hours 36 9 . Do you want to visit an English speaking country? Yes 104 No 10 NA 4 If yes. magazines or comics? Yes If yes. 41 textbook 16 reading pair work 81 12 2 other: video group work 12. Do you listen to foreign music in English? Yes 115 No 2 NA 1 If yes. Do you ever watch movies that are in English? Yes If yes. how many hours week? a 11-15 13 16-20 5 20+ 25 7 1-5 44 6-10 23 often 9 don'tknow 53 No 65 14. what do you like? games 57 speaking 62 listening 56 writing 32 46 tests 14 language lab . Do you read English books. where: mostly US. Will you use English in your life? 29 48 Maybe 37 No 4 Yes often Yes sometimes 1 don't know 12 16.

eliciting 1 <class bows> acknowledging R Class: Good morning acknowledging R/I Mr. eliciting 1 <class sits> acknowledging R JTE: OK. OK. ALT: Good morning everybody. informing {in chorus} JTE: acknowledging R Hey.S11 Individualstudents Class All or almost all students () Translation of Japanese or Finnish [] Overlap <> Non-verbal response or other factorsin the class {} Comment Text move exchange Exchange 1 JTE: 1 Hey.258 Appendix3 Team-taught lesson (japan) Place: Kanra Number 3 Junior High School. Key JTE [apanese English Teacher ALT Assistant Language Teacher (Native Speaker) SI. acknowledging F . Gunma Prefecture Level: Second Year (eighth grade): Students were between the ages of 14 and 15. good morning everybody. SI: Please sit down. Kitazume and Mikel. Let's begin. informing Sl: Please stand upo acknowledging R/I eliciting <class stands up> acknowledging R SI: Please bow.

. ALT: Cool? acknowledging F Exchange 5 1 AL T: Who's cool? eliciting informing R <People who are cool raise their hands> JTE: acknowledging F Almost everybody. Exchange 4 1 ALT: How do YOll feel? eliciting <indicates student who didn't raise his hand> 53: informing R I'm cool. Organizational 1 how do YOll feeltoday? eliciting How do YOll feel? How do YOll feel? <points to student> informing R 52: I'm sleepy. 259 Exchange 2 ALT: OK. Exchange 6 1 ALT: How do YOll feel? eliciting <to student who didn't raise his hand> informing R 54: I'm sleepy. Sleepy. acknowledging F ALT: Exchange 3 1 ALT: Who's sleepy? eliciting informing R <Sleepy people raise their hands> acknowledging F ALT: Almost everybody. acknowledging F ALT: Sleepy.

Class: [laughter] ALT: [Heh. informing R ALT: You feel good? eliciting 1 56: Cool. Organizational What is the date today? eliciting 1 What is today's date . acknowledging F JTE: [It's] Friday. 58: It's November twentieth. heh]. cough] JTE: [It's November . Organizational Exchange 8 ALT: What day is it today? eliciting 1 What day is it today? <picks student> 57: It's Friday. acknowledging F JTE: [Me too] [Cool] Vh! [Me too]. twent informing R Icough.. What is today's date? <picks a student> 58: It's November . uhm? 1 eliciting Repeat it.. OK.. <click x 20 from chalk on the board> OK. cough.. informing R .. informing R ALT: It's [Friday]. Yea. Organizational Exchange 9 ALT: OK.. twent. informing R ALT: Cool? eliciting 1 <positive non-verbal signal from 56 - a nod> informing R Everybody'feels [cool]. me too.260 Exchange 7 ALT: How do you feel? eliciting 1 <points to different student> 5S: 1 feel coord.

Organizational ALT: OK. acknowledging OK. JTE: [Thursdayl Exchange 11 AL T: What day is tomorrow? eliciting 1 What day is tomorrow? <picks student> 510: It's 5aturday. Organizational What day was yesterday? eliciting 1 What day was yesterday? What day was yesterday? <Pick students> 59: informing R It was Thursday. Ibarely audible] JTE: acknowledging F OK. [click x 16 from chalk on the board] OK. informing R ALT: acknowledging F OK.lt was Thursday. ALT: OK. 261 JTE: Twentieth. It's 5aturday. Exchange 12 1 ALT: How's the weather today? eliciting How's the weather? <picks student> 511: It's cloudy. F [click x 27 from chalk on the board] Exchange 10 JTE: OK. [It's cloudyl. acknowledging ALT: [It's cloudy]. informing R JTE: F OK. Organizational . JTE: OK. ALT: It was [Thursday].

Canyou? [clicks from chalk on board] OK. acknowledging R JTE: OK. JTE: No ALT: OK. Organizational It's Friday. Let's begin a game. informing 1 Class: It's November 20th. informing Class: It's cloudy. acknowledging F Exchange 14 {one second pausefrom previous "OK"} JTE: OK. Organizational OK. you have to think of questions. acknowledging F . Could you explain? eliciting 1 ALT: OK. everybody together. 1 can't.I can. 50. Can you nani nani? Class: <Laughter> acknowledging R <clicks from chalk on the board> ALT: Yes. acknowledging R Today we're going to play informing 1 "Can you Game". ALT: No.262 Exchange 13 ALT: 50. 1 can. JTE: Yes. informing 1 Class: It's Friday. acknowledging R ALT: It's November 20th. acknowledging R ALT: 1 It's c1oudy.

no point. F JTE: OK acknowledging Exchange 17 ALT: Team one <points>. "Yes. OK 1 50. Can you? The first person says-hum-asks <points> this person <:points>on the other team. Organizational team two <points>. 1 can". he says. "Can you fly?" Fly R Class: [slight laughterJ acknowledging 1 ALT: [like a bird]. Then. Ok? If he says. OK? 50. team two -cpoints>. But if she says. R JTE: [Turn your desklto face each other. then there is no point. "Can you cook dinner?". ALT: Turn yourdesks. 263 Exchange 15 eliciting 1 ALT: 50. then one point. "Can you cook dinner?" He says. "Yes. Team one <points>. YOll have to think informing of questions. 1 can''. OK? acknowledging R ALT: This is team one <points>. teams." Then this team . acknowledging {Students turntheir desks] F OK acknowledging Exchange 16 eliciting 1 JTE: 50. If he says no 1 can't. if she says. OK? JTE: Turn your desks. team two <points>. first turn your desks to face each other. informing "No 1 can't.

acknowledging F ALT: OK. acknowledging F Exchange 19 ALT: Keep your own scores. You know? Impossible- ALT: OK? Class: [chatter] acknowledging R ALT: Do you understand? eliciting 1 Class: Yes. "No.264 <points> gets one point. 1 can". OK? Organizational JTE: Explains in Japanese. impossible questions. He says. 1 can't''. OK? JTE: Impossiblequestions. this team (points) gets to say-ask the next question.difficultquestions. Then. if he says. {in chorus} informing R JTE: Difficult. his team' gets to ask the next question. she says. First person. Exchange 18 ALT: says. "Can you cook dinner?". if he informing Then. acknowledging R ALT: OK. she (points) gets to ask the next question. "Yes. 1 50. this person asks (points). But. OK? 50. "Yes. JTE: Impossible. Here we go. first person. the first question. 511: Jan Ken Pon acknowledging R . 50 then. 50. (Keep score) ALT: OK. informing 1 JTE: Difficult. 1 can". Go! informing 1 JTE: OK. Class: [chatter in [apanesel acknowledging R JTE: (explanationin [apanese) informing 1 Class: <explain to each other in Japanese> ALT: [Do you understand?l informing 1 Class: Yes. Understand? Class: slight laughter acknowledging R ALT: Difficult. ALT: Yea.

eliciting acknowledging R <students bow. informing Hey. Kitazume. take care. Exchange 3 1 JTE: Who has cold? eliciting Who has cold? informing R <teacher raises hand. Koji. me too. soredewa hajimemasu. Students werebetween the ages of 14 and 15. who is on duty? SI: Please stand upo acknowledging R/I eliciting acknowledging R <students stand up> 1 SI: Please bow. goodmorning everybody. Mr. informing acknowledging R JTE: Hey. Gunma Prefecture Level: Second Year (eighth grade). Exchange 2 1 JTE: How are you today. 265 Appendix4 Regular English lesson (Iapan) Place: Kanra NumberS'[unior High School. students with a cold raise hands also> JTE: acknowledging F Me too. eliciting informing R Koji: Ihave cold. OK. . teacher bows> 1 All: Good morning. eliciting 1 SI: Please sit down. acknowledging F JTE: You have a cold? OK. Exchange 1 -cteacher enters> 1 JTE: Hai. acknowledging R <students sit down> acknowledging F JTE: OK.

Masukatsu.266 Exchange 4 JTE: Hey. Ko. acknowledging F Exchange 6 JTE: 1 Hey. informing R JTE: You're sleepy. Mariko. acknowledging F . how do you feel? Mariko: Ihave cold. acknowledging F Exchange 8 JTE: Hey Makiko. informing R JTE: Cold. eliciting 1 how do you feel? Makiko: 1 have cold. how do you feel? eliciting Kenji: 1 feel sleepy. OK. OK. 1 see. eliciting howareyou? Masukatsu: 1 feel sleepy. Kenji. acknowledging F Exchange 7 JTE: eliciting 1 Hey. informing R JTE: Y ou have cold. acknowledging F Exchange 5 JTE: Who's sleepy? 1 eliciting Who's sleepy? <two students raise their hands> informing R JTE: Two people. informing R JTE: Sleepy? OK.

informing R Yuko: JTE: acknowledging F OK. March 22nd. {while writing on the board} Today. how's the weather? It's sunny. 267 Exchange 9 1 JTE: Chieko. OK. acknowledging F {while writing on the board} It's Monday. . Katsunomi: It's March 22nd. informing R JTE: acknowledging F OK. it's March 22nd. Exchange 12 JTE: OK. Organizational 1 How's the weather? eliciting Yuko. It's sunny. Exchange 11 JTE: What's the date? eliciting 1 What is the date? Hey. Sakiko. It's Monday. hai. lt's sunny. Katsunomi. today. {while writing}. JTE: OK. how are you today? eliciting 1 feel OK. Who is OK? 1 eliciting Who'sOK? R <Students who feel OK raise hands> informing F JTE: Fine. what day? Sakiko: informing R Monday. acknowledging Exchange 10 1 JTE: What day of the week eliciting is it today? What day? Hey. informing R Chieko: JTE: acknowledging F You feel OK. 1 see.

268

Exchange 13

JTE: K, hey, everybodynow together. Organizational
It's Monday today. informing 1
R
All: It's Monday today. acknowledging
JTE: It's March 22nd. informing 1
R
All: It's March 22nd. acknowledging
JTE: It's sunny. informing 1

All: It's acknowledging R
sunny.
JTE: Hey,OK. acknowledging F

Exchange 14

JTE: 1
ai, ja kona aida no fukushu suru informing
Close your books.
Close your books.
Close your books,
<students close their books> acknowledging R
and close your notebooks. inforrning 1
<students close their notebooks> acknowledging R
close books. ah nani ga nani nani ga aru nanioka nani
ga iru ga ta iu kata kimatta ii kata osowatte kima shita ga
yo ne gimonbun, hiteibun ta nani nani ga aru daioka
nani nani ga iru ta iu ii kata kotae kata ne wakarimashita
hai ja mo iehido, na hai ta hitotsu tsukue ga arimasu,
hitotsu no tsukue ga arimasu. Hai, Kenji Tamura,
hitotsu no tsukue ga arimasu.
Kenji: Wasure ehatta.

Exchange 15

JTE: Wasure ehatta. (?) eliciting 1

Kenji: There is a ... desk informing R
JTE: OK, tsukue ga arimasu acknowledging F
hai hitotsu dakara na
'there is' 0 tsukau.

269

Exchange 16

JTE: 1
Hai, there is a desk. eliciting
<teacher signals for the students to repeat>
There is a desk. acknowledging R
All:
JTE: acknowledging F
OK, hai.

Exchange 17

1
JTE: kono heya ni eliciting
kono heya ni wa hitotsu
tsukue ga arimasu hai omake no
kotoba 0 tsuketawake dayona,
Hisanori.
There is informing R
Hisanori: a

JTE: 1
There is a .. nani ga aru n da eliciting
informing R
Hisanori: There is a
desk in this room.
{slowlyl
JTE: mm in this room da yo na acknowledging R/I
OK mo ichido. eliciting
There is a desk in acknowledging R
Hisanori:
this room.
JTE: OK acknowledging F

Exchange 18

JTE: hai bero 0 kande na, shikkarina informing 1

teacher points [to mouth and
indicates how to pronounce the
dentai fricative 'th']
the, the, nan da yo, kande na, shikkari
na the the
there is a desk in this room, hai.
There is a desk in this room. acknowledging R
All:
JTE: eliciting 1
Hitotsu dakara 'a' 0

kanarazu tsukena.
Hait There is a desk in this room.
Hai.
There is desk in this room. informing R
All: a

JTE: acknowledging F
[yaa,

270

Exchange 19

JTE: tsukuega miitu arimasu, eliciting
Kana heya niwa.
There are three desks
in this room. Hai.
All: There are three desks in acknowledging R
this room.
JTE: Ja tsukuega miiisu arimasu eliciting 1
kana heya ni wa na tsukue
ga mittsu arimasu ya kana
heya ni, hai, Ayana.
Ayano: There are three desks in(orrn.ing R
in this room.
JTE: OK. acknowledging F

271

Appendix 5

Finnish English Lesson

Place: Emäkoski Junior High School, Nokia
Level: Eighth grade; students were between the ages of 14 and 15.

Finnish Lesson Exchange 1

1
T: 50, hello everybody. informing
51: acknowledging R
Hello.
52: Hello.
Ss: Hello {not in unison)
1
T: Are you all here? eliciting
informing R
51: No
T: No? acknowledging R/I
eliciting
53: (unintelligible) informing R

pois nyt.
T: (unintelligible) pois nyt. 1 see. acknowledging
1
Ss: [Chatter] 'Olli on pois' informing
acknowledging F
T: All right.

2
Finnish Lesson Exchange

eliciting 1
T: Well, uh,
since you haven't
got your book again, 1 will ask
and you can ask each other,
What do you call a
dead body from Egypt?
-ca girl raises hand, teacher points>
informing R
54: Amummy.
T: acknowledging F
Yes, a mummy,
And, uh, Qrganizational

272

Finnish Lesson Exchange 3

what do you call 1
T: a
yellow eliciting
metal?
Very expensive?
-cseveral hands raised, teacher
recognizes a girl>
Jenni
Jenni: Gold. informing R
T: That's right, acknowledging F

Finnish Lesson Pseudo-Exohange 4

*Note: This is not really an exchange. Several things are goingon at the same
will be discussed in later sections.
time, It
T: and now 1 want you to informing 1
explain these words
<puts word list on overhead projector>
W ork with yourpairand find
some English explanations.
Ss: [Chatter] acknowledging R
<students form pairs or groups of three, boys with boys, girls
with girls, two students initiallysit by themselves but then
go to groups. Teacher walks around the c1ass to monitor the students.>
<door opens, two students enter, girl first, boy second, boy
pushes girl as she come through the door, leaves door open>
T: All right, you're late eliciting 1
SS:
T:
(unintelligible
Will
response)?
you take your coat off?
R
1
Ss: [Chatter (unintelligible)]
R
Ridge Forrester? 1
S6: If you are eliciting
R
S7: I'm Ridge. (from TV show) informing
Chatter (unintelligible)
.

Ss:
<one student leaves the room, then reenters with book bag,
several students get up to blow their noses>
<Teacher approaches onegroup>
T: You're suppose to keep your informing 1
bookclosed and explain.
<Teacher closes the book>
The terms are there.
<points to Overhead Projector>
S8: What kind of questions? eliciting R/I
<incomplete>

273

5
Finnish Lesson Exchange

T: All right, you are more Organizational
or less ready.
1
We can start eliciting
explaining the words. Would
you like toexplain the word
"rich"? What is "rich"? Raise
yourhand.
<students raise hands>
OK, Jaana (girl),
infonning R
Jaana: You have lots ofmoney.
acknowledging F
T: Yes, you have lots of
money. You're rich.

6
Finnish Lesson Exchange
1
T: What about bury? eliciting
R
Ss: (chatter) acknowledging
T: shh .... informing F

<hands raised>
How about bury? ... Kaisa.
acknowledging R
Kaisa: Something you do to a
dead body.
F
T: Yes, very nicely explained. acknowledging
Something you do with a
dead body.

Finnish Lesson Exchange 7a

T: All right, Organizational
eliciting 1
How about mask?
What's mask? ......... Well,
a

uh, perhaps you could explain
it by saying where you put it.
Where do you put a mask?
R
56: On the face. informing
Oh yes,and ... acknowledging F
T:

informing R T: On your face. . informing R T: That's right. smaller parts. That's right. Ilona: Bones. your skeleton is acknowledging F all the bones of your body and. 1 . Kirsi: On your face. how about skeletons? eliciting What's askeleton? [Pause] Jenni? {Pause] Anyidea? Ss: Chatter informing R S7: Inside the body. informing R T: Bones. when T: eliciting Kirsi.. acknowledging F Finnish Lesson Exchange 8 1 T: Ah. uh. T: What? eliciting R/I S8: Inside the body.274 Finnish Lesson Exchange 7b 'do you use a mask. acknowledging F Finnish Lesson Exchange 9 T: A skeleton usually has eliciting 1 many parts. on your face. yes. you had an idea.. What are they called? <students' hands go up> Ilona.

. 275 Finnish Lesson Exchange 10 eliciting 1 T: What's neck or where? a informing R Ss: Under your skin {chatterl eliciting 1 T: Mika. What is your neck? Can you explain it? Maybe you need the word 'below' however. below informing R Mika: thehead acknowledging F T: And of course. above your shoulders.

276 Appendix6 Source: OK English (1992). published by WSOY Contents .

277 Appendix 6 Source: OK English (1992). publishedby WSOY: Contents .

278 Appendix6 1 Source: OK English (1992). published by WSOY: Elementary Contents .

279 Appendix 6 At Yoriko's House Wendy to her home. After dinner Wendy goes to the hathroom ...a...l1JS:'01'<tlI[.lcv . ....nn toandfro ....They have rice andvegetables and lots of green .... The girls put on speeial Indoor shoes.tm large wooden house._'" · ·· . . Later Xoriko s familY tldWendysit down ()tlthe ." å n.. published by WSOY Studybook .lQoksat... let s go.. She lives in a O. She lives therewith her parents and little brother.. tea.ber watch. u.d l'ound .. · beadband..o ..<lekU'< It's tell v ... Source: OK English (1992).. 1 hava to go hoIl1 . . . floor d have alov Jy4itlner.. Sbe ... "Oh......

74 .. kU"·ilSäilala[J9-au en11l.us: · nuorten rall.. . kuvitelmia .ltuurlkysymys · konwnauUiäänteitå 13A Can 1 *PO! 77 l.nnkii)1tö -raha · eh....ll. ajanilmauksia ja suunnitelmia · .dohl$ten teko -lukusBWlt · fl. . OS10!lteD teko · kerta.) 13 13 Sbopping(L) ... 'lt' 72 12 C l(ing. kertaus: .pulleliJJleJln-a s lolmlnen · kertausl * · taPttamisesla sopiminen - ajanilmau'ksi.. - paikanilmauksia vastallnottnminen ' . published by Weilin--Cöös: Contents . 280 Appendix 7 IJNJT3 When tO!lWrrOw COInes :U Heather here***' 10 '1. '.n · tavaratalosanastoa · tlll vaisutlden · fllluurl keksintöjä. k)'syviil'pronomiueja Source: You Too 8 (1989). 12 AHcllol OO! 7J vieslln . Ring · (Son. - jållcikys)'myksiii · k01lsonaouiåånteitä ]2 B That'lI IIfe.

1_8_A . : :.!ist4 __ .. lukuj estys ja todistus .i\ · _ __ k()ulunsäinni.. Jn sdloDI*' lf16 U) Source: You Too 8 (1989).. mitä koulussa 'Illpahtull .ån1eiUi OK?·OO! 111 !1tyCib jnenja antee1<sipy>'tltö 1IJ$ . ot-aeoctiivi - 19 .'S . ---. ehto ja. 281 Appendix7 UNIT 18 4 rhe 'a)'$ . tlIlt\'lllimttt. kerta\1$: ! 4djcfctiiveja -..--""'----""' r---------------""'-+-- PICfVRE4 t ..kuvilslUla ir.* k 98 ..::.ia. '15 . .. 19 __·Jtu1cs *.. published by Weilin+Göös: Contents ..=u::. N . mi 1il'lhtita så4nnOis1ä dit\onglai...åUkQlma -------------- Itoulusa.------------. kouluaineet ScIlool ae. jt.\ Scheol rlIleli. **..nastoa .' __ 102 . Sf)U US . us'OI r_ _ _ _r _ Wlru\ . .

----------------'--'-- ' MW_ .yptin n1ui.njohto-opinalkeita · Britannian · kertaus "arhaisbislOriaa blkusanara" 1eitl · ml.------.JllditiGalalija "IStuva if-buw · kohtelias pyyntö · ((Ij vi.yksinpu.lrYYk!iiå · ncu \'ottcluaja pdåtöksell tekaa maa .gill 136 wnnelmia PICHJRE 5 * The history of lIntam · 1..j bisl(}riaa kOn)uuk-tioita · Ja.. . ---- 145'---------- bnttilåi$iå kuuluisia tiedemiehiä · sana. 282 Appendix 7 UNIT 5 [)j$l:O r Brilain _________ _____ -----. FeeliaQl!l -...na. published byWeilin+Göös Contents .---- lS *H A 1001.' .----... .. Lontoon nähtå .'alled Watt t.. 28 A nat'! liri! 144 .npuu Britannian bislorlaa 27 TrclIl\1ures (II *th Britisb kiiIlilonavia " Mmum (L) 140 lIl ontlht.""'--.'iS historia...helu 29 Gmt Britom ** .----+---. at Loodoo 118 .g.·yyksili . vtrbi karttaan + ptepositkJ * U6 t nnclmakulia -' kertaus: adjektiiveja lot A .useid n liitllntd · rebltiivipt(Jl14)miuit: . sanojen pai IIQtlummeu la essa merldtyJcsen mukaan . tutustuminen · \ rUtus: LontOOn . atill!llal$tdil kertaus: prll'lositiollQ · chllolt ilWlseminell...-** kertaui · · 18 A 14Z F.lc:n ibnai$eminen * 25 A Any SuggesdOM? · chduwstellltktmlnell' 001 J32 ja niihin n::agoiminen 15 B Undrwouod t'lUy · tutunliminen Lontoon {L} 134 maanalaiseen · suUrbUplin..lj$tiin nojen tekemi$tä Extra: The Strnnve Story of · jalKokcrl()muS Doc!Qr Jckyll al1d Mr HrQe" Episode S * lS{J i H Source: You Too 8 (1989). ' \\'nUr whi&:h '11\ who$4) .. .. k4. . . 1.

. 283 Appendix7 .. 170 ' '.. J 71 .l: : :_7:_.Iliain y ]i ääl'llårni$a.. ku. elin Extra:' The Stranji{c Story of jatkokertomuli Doct« J. all. l!very: yksikl:ö . .kyll aacl Mr Hyde Episode ei" 114 ---- 12 Source: You Too 8 (1989).linll c:nnaloi"a.... published by Weilin+Göös Contents .au HI sanoin ja ' . så.:li mooikko 32 A 11: Tablc manne" DO! 159 : : :"="_ j."u: it muudolJisena .oesns : A year ja Finla . eael!...>_:a_$tf) __ a SU{U II<I thel' is .ljoiluksm ..' B ::----:l-:""'.. vuodeMikojcn . l\okl!mubi Suom"'''1- eri vuodenaikl. kef1nU9: iodtfiaii'tiproI'lOmllh:ja . T '(t "'1"let . km u : lldj k tiiveja * tal . J A l'4 elinlP'''' .::Jl- 3.. isia hmnthnill . bclth.: . pili\lltkUjatY 'li $ubjelclins 30 A The }<'our .nkt·nne .r.

..41ther$ 42 8tfOte il'S Ula Iate * 193 · WWFja luonno1}suojtlu . - ardkkelil. .the · Arrikan harvinaista · kertaus: WondClS o( tbe lit'Ol'ld ** 186 . 1. M 'h'mön asat· eI a Inl\ nya·" IHO pmnteist(!.. 284 Appendix 7 tiN!T 7 Afdan . published by Weilin+Göös Contents ... The C.. EplsOlie 7 196 13 Source: You Too 8 (1989). PICTt. - yksikkö ja mQnikko 394\ Tllafs life ..''tenmre 37 .. otArti 184 .. luontoa konjunkuoita · lainsanastoa 40A OJlPhalUlt CPoelIl) ..... Mtiam (SI)O&) * shadow lltall · afrlkblainen tiJlään J78 38 CaJ] me Jue et..>""'" '""W 40 NgCltonyuro.'t Story (Jr · jatkokeIlOmUl> DucWl' Jek y 1l and Mr Hyde-...lk$elJinen eläinruno od laaguage ** "" .w" .. . . luoMontieteeJli.lRE 7: · kuvasanakilja auk mH · maantieteemstA. 181 · k$iD'puhelu · rclatii'dpronominit: tiat .lItinent kansalieteeUislli ja . kenil!laisen ntioruklt\'sl:fI . uRa()f ... cOUidtbe aWe (0 Ape:s · viestintää .. 41 191 · eIainlen wilavaa.... · ..." . . am.90 · mieliku..vit1.. Extm: The StnllIl.tbtr.) *** 179' ..1ä !iaRut6a \ . kestoperfekti hlillSlaUcJu ..

.. .. . 23:'\ . .. tu soomi-(ln mti . ..... 12 KappaJckulnaincll 263 F. ... . . ....... ..... kuukaudet...... . .... KanliallisuusSIlrlat.... " .. e ..... . 23Q .. 291 ..... . ..iircitä 234 ..\iat . .. ..u kYliymY$$IUloj" tukisana Olle 1.... . .. ... Viikonpåivåt. 2JJ .1 ' Paikan preposhioita ...22b Ajanmii.. " ..: :...... .. 2111 . . ..... kena... . . 285 Appendix7 UNTT 8 1\(1 problem 43 :\blt to man --.. \ 'iymYl. . . ... .. ()()'bwun . \l'uooent.. . ... . .. . published by Weilin+Göös Contents .. . Altkkosellinen sanasto englsmi-suomi..siSSd ------- * 46 AAn)' _rice? 00: 46 B PK1'tfRE Thai·" life $ ....päsåånnölli... .. . ... . Aakkoset Aakkosellinensana.. ... . ..- rksinpuln:lu ___-- Girls Qnly? B f!l IIId!?· 47 Dom Jn the USA - the Ol'Y ofjeaus *u 2l. 329 .... .. .. .... < .siåverl>ejä sanlllito .nuori!O 1 ... .... .. 14 Source: You Too 8 (1989). ....... ... Lukusanat 221 Minikielioppi 237 .. 209 \ ..

...lft 5 Card A traveller' .. ... . .. . . . .... ...... ' . .... .. . t. UIIU3 VJJlt' AlJd then tbere '9. The lCaSI! ()rthe iovisibll...Tb\'. .wbeginniQS. .yi$lble SPl' lS .... ... ....... ..... ..... . 1:5 .. . . .. " ... ..:... ...ul foolball II Alle.. 28 + . . ... ...Dolpbins 5 Tbepyramid 0i'Egypt " 3D .. . ... ... . . . . .. 27 ' ... t g " .... came br... " . ..9 ' Sclloo! jokes Murti problerns . '" . .. ..... ... _ " I I t ... . 08 ..... ... . . . .... + .. ... . ... . ... ........ ............ ..... .. : ... . ..... ..edca.)ri....Ua. ..... .. . . ..... .... . ." H .. Amerlc.... . .... _ .. ...&. . . .s. 40 . . . .. . ..... .... 286 Appendix7 TEXIBANK ..... ... _ " 'fi1bjL 9 FMtprinlS in t!te snow lS .. .. .. .. " " + .. ... ... .. .' .. .....Lucky seven 7 Vbi ll1&Finll1lld 33 .. h . .....: ui ih in'\oisible $1)>' 32 . ... .... ... .. . . : . published by Weilin+Göös Contents . '... 41 .. 3 llIiUion years old 4i l'OU s.. .. .. . : . . 38 39 . ....... tale 1 Ållothct [uok at London 26 .. ... ..t py 43 . . " 'Do5 and UotI'tS me 3 Fircl ...... ... .... ..ll '.. Ullit 4 pcr$onalityte$t ...-eI'C tw. :.. J Catd ··V..... .. .. 17 .. ......! Tb hi$ton" r bumanilY . .spy ... . . Karate JO Fill!and fu.. ... ..... .......ile '. ..: . '. 47 . .. The ('l!$e ofthe invisiblc spy 11 The case oftbe irwisible.Xou ToCl . .. . . .. .. . .. ". .. .. .. .. .. . l. . 1l) Love is 46 .ondon .... .. ...... ... .. ..... ..lP of te .... . .. .. . ...... ........ " . "........ ...... .. .... 23 Stin$ all. . . ":: 13 12 Lo. ... .. .... . _ .story ()l'l.. ... ... .. ...... ...... .... # . ... .. ears ..'Å nice ClI.. " Food tor Ulought 21 . ....... . .... + . .. .. ... . .blcsp)' jO .... .. . . . . ... Hnw 00 Santa Claus 24 Th1 nwisi... .... " . 44 . ... ... . . ......... .Vili . . Schoo] 11l1\}m8 22 High rashion 48 . ... _.... fJaSe UniI 8 : '. 45 1.. 14 ................... .. .... ...em lncredibkJ!)Ul1l1WS e my croood.-perslitious?. ... Tbe Sl. . . ..........u:1:: 3-1 '.. ...... .. ..<:0 ... ........ . 'Wbata ooincidence : 16 Lucy.. .. ... ..... ·invwble spy 0 The Cas. . 'The $e ofthe n.... ... ..... .d 49 ofth... ... _ " t . ....Unitl Unil6: ·. . . The of me invisiblc ._ . ... .' . . . 'I!mpty deskc.. . .. . .. ..... ...... Sherlock.... to J\m.. .... Holmer... . .:ience Museum 29 : Ita.. .... ... ....... .... and rhe case orthe How'1he Vikln8fi... .... :Unicef..Ueaven Ilmd earth..... . nlQuntait1 gI.. ....the fllture 36 . .. : .... . . ..:......... . .." . .... . .... ..... ... .......r 4- . ... ot-....farrlQus people ....... iCQllecuns 2 T!te bl... ... .. 34 ... . .... .spy 37 .. . . ...... .... 15 Source: You Too 8 (1989) Textbook. .. .

b l VMM sconrtO I PlJllj SkQtploni SAGITT Al'\1\)$1.s don the Signs öfthe Zodiac.(pakt.1 MIES (_tEl at Oinae "AU US rf:):r 'l HärkA G. \" O\J! si tl:UI> )'IlU wha1 kind of cha]" f:tcr yol. history.l JQ lIimie$ Horoscopes are\)a.EMINI t in.rI :nl Keurls AQUAAIUS {"'. which baVC#l Jons.. 287 Appendix7 15 What'syour sign1 'THE 81QNS OF THE ZOOIAe Eläintaoan l 1Ir m' UliEkI CAPRICOAN [k. publishedby Weilin+Göös Textbook . Source: You Too 8 (1989).yt ll6RA (It.] ICMtostl CANCliiR LEOlij.QUl [ 1 RIIPU U!ljoQIl VIRGQ [vo:g ul Nall. YQU now tilldout if thi$ is true or not.1 have..Mba] Vosimies Pl$CES.safKl2i't rlM.

Dickens.rliyn MQnro . YQU il.. Charlie k Chllplin.1 never 'fou havu good impgine.'I.1 lIY VOI.: PlaMt. I åfeam VOll lika beino indepel'lOent VOI) are mmanllc and. . evttr)'OI'1It. keeP our prorni$e$. Isaac i-Ie.IIII<o being wi people ta cllmb ta the lOp In Hfe. 'r'ou IgS your temper easily. I"CIlII MeCartn .ind and you try lQ pllas8 lorgl\18 and mrg81 8u1lV.. saturn PIMe!S. FMlQ\. You lille to be difkirent. full Df te yClur friendi and Blwayå lika. 83 Source: You Too 8 (1989).. bl11 YOll elso and l. Vou are taka1i1/8 and prabllbly 1)000 st laI'l9Ja Js. [)allid aowle ."tIIin goat 110\. Pr&/lley.tlon 8tQp trylng. You have a gQO!l G')r\SO 0' "ou 1lf very liv ly and you Oum9'-lr. GEMINI May 22 to Junli 22 PI.8 bil 01 a dl'eamef. Seturn.ne\: MerQ\l1Y MIltto: I think YOLllike lIaying IQ1$ of cMnge anl:!flxclhlmsnt In ycur life.tnelS: Juplblr.IS p(!opht: Queen Vlctori"" M!. ..l1er King.rc syrr.ed . "ke a 10101 el1ange h your 8h!. . Vou work hard.I. Jonn F.us Molto: I etimb Malto: I know Lik a me . Umr. Pamcur. Elvis Prino9S$ S\ophanie.. ·. Charle& Darwin. Farnolls peopJe: Vincent Van Gcg/1."and 101. P&Dp!s: Mozart.i! 23 to JBlilllll 19 AOUARIUS January20 to Febluary 19' . VOIl ar'e lallhful and YOII ara alwayr.I lirlfl ry 4lCM enCl havl) many intereSts. 288 Appendix 7 CA"' !CORN December . I(enr. Charllti Farnous peo!)le.patn8tiO and tree. YOI. published by Weilin+Göös Textbook . HDUClini.OIl.=1 i AAIES March 22 to Aplil O FOilllruary 2() tO Mareh 21 Plan8t: Mars PI. Martin lUl. Neplune MotlO: I dare MgtlQ. and YDII hlve 11:118o frlsnds.

8$ th()U$htlc y 1U if shlt was not tb. door dittr aJutiUoo1«:d usea 11 ht ytaf$..)lIlet at tbc snme tirlle - andtM man knocked do -n andwcllked o.ised tu. published by Weilin+Göös Textbook . and a litt1c! aitllC)ingtbe other 'Ml>'. Steveosoll.'&lt 11S .apttd.J'k.poi d t() a strange hou$e tbat bad nu II) wintl(lVl.n0ld Tllt wu hO . and 1 also had tbe naI. So n a a»\\'d ot peöple ga(h . 1 was Olit walking one Sunday afeemoOtl ".l.a.cd.+'Ue was the ugliesl. "1'hat heuse rcminds me. aud <>oly man alh't wbo T 1 pe1'haps am tnc cu len il. 10 rse..<.$ a terrible brQk.. 1 will never fOI' t the first time 1 D.: oottle of medl. a Imwl mun .too1dn& 1 sl. He wc:nt into tbat lQOk d at the <Joor anel Oust.. ma.1t)' strang. d 1l)r..e.Stl1ltlgeStQry()f* Doctor JekyllandMrHyde.)i. ' Whllt SlPr ?" T Il.n hld tvtt sten .'k.U. 1 did.1.\*tite-n Jlt.iU). The stozy af Doetor Je ll aud Mr Hyde is VI. lt beloDged..hadn 't prQm. "ADd w.. r $IIW.ld 'u il$ thongh no on hlld eere for. but 1 kOe\"! whase hOll9C t was. Episode 1 IThisis 81lad.t WU (lUUt:)la1c.eine lt0me tor her moth« - was. n wa.eJi bottle ot m. to D\l'sood liierltL Dr JekyU.! luck io know me ul1 peakably =\'U Mr Hyde. u· qnedl. badly hurt." Enficld . mQ#r.ere. 289 Appendix 7 Th .hl\t WA$ his ntUD ?" JO ·EdwudHyd. (al"l)'iD$ twa$ wb.vered.ing.ked.\\..f e..ith my tuusin Richard FAifield. te. \\1\S lek):W$ 5 lawyer and Ilis fnen<l. L.tory. "r a straI\&C $1Ol'Y.ediane had cut lI\'jf.1> 11() .girl wa.ilt>tb tbt maa an4lhe girlt!lecame gid :w to the (c.) scc. Thl. $he a Jitdt."'er her. lki qui towards the comer af that street (lvtf there. Source: You Too 8 (1989).* on lbat DOhody SCtlmt.pay fOf.rthe house.y du.'Vcnin& io winter LWiS comiQ& home alone this street.wit.e. The tb.lldthey would Itave kilttd 2$ hi1llj. II t'On:te$ from.l1 tt l Enfield.di<ll the IbODe}'.1l btmk b)' R." he said.wd Ml Hyde's name.

.... 4 1And'hbiv at m)' h<lme.(0) dicd./r.'(Card 6. in \\'belllle .Jf)' catfcd 'Slwrll:J(k lIoJ 4nrllhe C4 e o{th(' in'fI$fh/erPJ.l.S JtkyU's wil'.ltook out the otl\'elope tb. wben 1 bealmc his IA\\'}-er. (i(HO lhe.Atld - remembered fhe will tbat JekyU h(.t' r ItPiliud.theto/il Mr Hyde. ".4tre(}bowhe k .ey woufd go to Mr Hyde. twon.·tlx1fJk. . published by Weilin+Göös Textbook .T J.tolllltjm.. 41 Source: You Too 8 (1989).(! Qlle cJa '.ltD lwl takl:. 290 Appendix 7 llmew Jekyll wasai od aL1d n. t Jekyll had siren lWl the envelo 1!.Qman. aU hi$ thl)ll. me.(!$tvefl meyears befClrt. and hQWtbo Jitll ..nmoney somcthing else ""'orrietJm evenmöre 1 s f..

...et d. ..tavat tlikaa vaihtoehto.u r . Rasti 1 KUu'Jltele 8äoMecn alkuosa iti mieti mlS$ä tytöt 1lW'.ve .lhOite . Keepgoing Almo.lkojcn aikana..jJl? DO! 2 Kuuntele nal. tuntuu? S 1itä nti h S'Ilu1r on $CUraa\1SIH tunn<!ista? -4 Mik. Ok.i<K.. there .Klrjoita Vdstausten avainsanat .t'lI nough fOT .. tunnin jälkem.. kkk Tlu:ee Hattlt:r .käJimiseslä"? .:. i4 Source: You Too 8 (1989).k. rdn Th:t. A (a) Jot a pop amt:t:n? (h) in a ball..l. . _ .. _o.. published byWeilin+Göös Workbook .ihkoon. . 291 Appendix 7 DO! olla PGfhailaan.. Higher. tytöistä. ttn OUy.. K. . Kirjoila puuttuitat sanal ta\. Kuunlel& äänitteen {eiMo 008 ja V&)$\aa Iyhyesli kysynr)of<siin$l.itytö käyvat näiUå<\ ai' Mitä mii!l\äht ovat i. Stayill_-- .t cmii "rää.'[ala loisen kerran.lQme i. " fl... Watch.. he 1jikl)Vat lohduttaa itlU li. (elin an aerohit)l dass? (ei) tn a maths kl! OIlP . 2 Millaiselta.a)'tolher me - 011(\ .

bur thert _ he C"'. 1 hy-. ___ as 1 live.t to .$on'j\ lilUng ___ thought lhal Mtmd) Me _.a. huonomp palwmpi paha.d. __ Qf tting one. MaM)' Sm)' _" rwo..anothc .. YI:ii. cream __ _. .v Uwr_. published by Weilin+Göös Workbook .W ______ .mpi .ä parempi Source: You Too 8 (1989).:\nd abig...d.. _ _.}mcara! r{!nU()DCi Kirjoita ne SUOmalaiston \ ereen. Mrm4Y ou dn want as hard as m . .nd)' \'\'e'te_. ... don't you? __ . wdke._ _. 292 Appendix 7 $art.. S4nrl. A14nå)' --" __ YO\l liil-j' tbat week.1 ___ -- g<l lbl'(lugh. wan. lt get evert -eek. . MitbaelJac:k. ____ Dor 3 Muistathan ua 'lieiä $8utsa"'at ad:!'ktii'lit englanniksi? Sftien ". bar. hidu hitaampi 1 huone. l __ kovempi .. Slitu!. DOpeampI korkeampi bdpompi 15 iso ismtlJlI . M4.. MfI.. a Stma.lldy I'll racc YQU the snatl:. _ _YOIl kidding? 's watk...

)t! rWn. a dplphil1 UI )'ou? *' Whkll nk higher. sia wsymyk ä..odo!näille advetteille. .kl lUnuuille _ ____ Kirjata vihkcosi vas:aw!<. think .a \ffl$\(t s.. u or Garfiddt' Source: You Too 8 (1989).ill 1 t!l e 1 it could be hardr. LOPUKSi valitKaa pat( mitlleiSintänna.. Et:li no ta klrjc1ta SOOOl(!llllO$ten viereen.k tl.lJbstantiiveJI r rzn maJ' ajat flgUlUt' Kaksimiel'ln(ll.ovu 2 nopeasti S lnrk.r.mln 4) 'to.Don 't vou think.t:aUe Tehtävän numero 2 teksl. ft.'syrrry'ksiln.I).yttäkää hy\'lik$ElI'lI'lC cd$llisen h1ujoltukSElO adjoktl1vejaja IaahO(QSI.. ja 1..til uopcllm....auseiden 1iään..li.lsl!! löydät i(omparatii'vl'lll. I J. t1tJ Don't b d? 15 - j'1.'$$. sellft»1v-ar. tbt. "Ttbink lt could he fallt" .'ofks JI.':n. 1 V. 293 Appendix 7 DO! 4 La$di par. Kt'W1å kokonaisi rauseita. 4 k()Yt:rup.'hkh swims f'aster. .1 hlj-::-- · . cat ilO iut? bC [lu. yIJisi olla Kä.dialogia ja klrj ttak!la n \iihklY.. k il.a. a jet planc.set näitlill k.trdt. who \. \I(l!tte . published by Weilin+Göös Workbook .t' .(l löytY'lil1 $UbStantir 'Cla.01' a hktl? .iita sopiVia adjf:lktiN S.uva$ti. .it$e!cio!11l..

E l.... B' Lieon vogr back.. [ . km:<: IIp t your chin.. . .. . and kid VlHlrMi: leg in rhe alr. tIoor with yoi.. jI. b 3 . i-'. publishedby Weilin+Göös Workbook . 294 Appendix 7 6 Match the right . ad (hnij "" I a hiUld lh"md!- Source: You Too 8 (1989).-1 .I.o.. tS I I 4.1r hands hy Y()UI' >lklc .ie On your back witb YClUT hands behind your head.lnsrrucrionwith lne l'ight pkture.hc.hl.TI tn rhe Iight.. C Raise }'ow' l'ig..... Raisebotb legs as lu JJ a. A Tcuch Y( W' toes withom bending )'OIJI' kll( (:'. .I111 in tue air and h!l:I.. D Sil on t... F Raisc yt)u ' ldi 4..IIP lowly. vou can.

l ha. . c .eat af }'OU.kI. _ YQu'll have ta try 10t har._. V<littrul mo".._--- " Source: You Too 8 (1989). . mol' Inl1l:vl .. IloU\..:. kthli a tram. _ .::()S::l. ....:. UI\ll. rrainer iwgiving him a Iewwords of'advice before tlie Bnatrounu.... what's got mtoyouP SOOner.. ..... ·give a few wonb of lI1dviee f..:1!:.=e:.:-. lm ... loppu...'i 1 jf JOu wan.aking ."lJllL lULtiUI.j' ftrejna*.. .. iirneinen -=Ue.§MLi....!I. qJ.... bess. me? bit more quiedy ? Yes.. ...:*\1l!=d:. He· m. _..tt II.. a .. .. ..worldCnampiol1$rups....licklyJ ".... w.ll. Tony." __ ____ _______ ..\ll... 295 Appendix7 In the ring Tony Macaroni is rtghrlng Fisty Guffi :inthe. W.. You're fighting worse than I'veever seen yoo 6ght before..1er ifwe're going tO win this match.op rU(JIlingaway and start nghtingback.. published by Weilin+Göös Workbook . '.U'ld mming faliter th. know 10u can tight much better than t.lln yOIl..I!!r...)d'vaisl "..or latU: you'n have o D'}"Ou hear t!) sl. .!1'I:I.Ion! '"Win.. Tony's .._w . .incem..'" 10 smUll mp}'}' \WID.. .en.. ....m.. T e ()ther PY LSthinking moreql1ickly }.:::· ..:få:. _ ..LI :.ld.l:. won ..:uml ..· But could )'ou yeU . a. nnn1lfaio lL.t to..

6 Please ydl more quietly.t befm'C'. J Tt}" harder!· --- 2 Figbt bt:tterr _____ 8 Think more quic.e. published by Weilin+Göös Workbook . c}thinner 6 The trainer thinks Fisty's um. ______ Source: You Too 8 (1989). a)go home.. t:) win !he match. t) h:U'det . 296 Appendix 7 2 His gMng mm a} pl"e!lClllx. h sbwer man dl<ul Tony Macaroni. q adrice. 8 Kirjoila $\lomeksi nämä TOljyn valmentajan kehotukset.mg a) al:e$ ll} 'll U $()UP otTony. . .ldy! ____ " KiljQita \Ilelli suorrel<sl. c}nmteem t 6 'fIc Mlys: Tony 1s fighting a) hetttr b) W()l'$e than . YIStY Cuft"s::iS aitk"tl:l .. bj Stan nuuW:ag a. b)money.feo>n pyytltö.way.

297 Appendix 7 Source: You Too 8 (1989). published by Weilin+Göös Workbook .

.l.'M'\' 5J Source: You Too 8 (1989).I\(' lH)H1s from rhe lisr whi.W'gT'.es.?.wti +1alk. aww ·/. 298 Appendix 7 7 'Vhat's up? * * * DO! 1 choose .tir.y. fm [ing.lfd wqrried )/dtJfuJ &i } ru j1fl.". Write dn: wmd on tbeJin. h!/'('rffit:d U.bolU yrmr chokes with YOUI' pölllner.1 d P1(Ji>/i .cir. II sOO\ how a) Jim .:. Model roflO "'i h u tL"lJ I LCt\1Mn Ittr. published by Weilin+Göös: Workbook .lHk4PP)1 åtJaAt.a:rc Jim 1JA'aJfl.!Jlf.ulIi b) Rid.

)t'i6 ·ll<f1Jq:f1J#J) lOi' II A Girl and tho Jungle 55 1'jl_ a L\.\tx II Nature in Ksnya 41 l2! 1!!I·..&n" ? .ii: "(1)3Mft6 .t:.* 112 'Ui *1!1i')-&t!i' . (.. sha.1H). 2. 60 - 114 72..\:l:fmuttt lZt!&U .Ijif(l)jl>Jt 1 6 _ (f.-.(::. 103 J __. ------------ 5 .iRVOO languilges.. iZl S1Udy Foreign j&1. m A Report Card 50 :."...!r.. best/*Ijt..'ta _..:ctr<! PART. ------ !)efJ..?-> guhlg to / 8\1(: Hl il 88 u 18"'" be wl\ J\ 24 i! win l !{*xQ)*c cn90 31 i3l 111.! 1RJllJIlf4016m..!1t> 17 ..:ilflw.t"5. _-- lOS 'fi:lfoilq)tt.PART . f havu to 36 _ .. W (lrdM und l'hr"""" 112 ..IJI H3 . A.i A.(1) ·j(!I'i·Xit_i1Jå:C" 100 i4I _'t!a* lttiJJLilt.-. 83" """--"" n2 ) 138 . .tA-I(-'? 60 :Ei.a .. '09 öl li.ll/llUlY 151 e 1.I "'C 49 IOb ... .(f).3W!d .""""""" 1)) W 1 Strange Shopping Center ord! hl Uuok 118 *zC UI 79 :w.. ru !il1ilt::rnel\1t:t it U J.:o_ Q)1t' Jwttl.

...m...ent e tj j}..i " __ .':.1 ... {·u.lt)) tlil:id) [:laild}) m AlIyonf ieniw!.:.. l.ButJhjle y a .tY..ruu..g. "'te day I by hinuef{ 18 e.. .. .U .I."....l InOl"ry [nlihil 15'1 hit hIili .. :.rcn .mJ m h yolle.·I .'v.r"". .Jm hj'<" }lod Sh Lha.:.\ ..< ® JuLrworkea at hja ·n1nL.... Jgti..sho .J:!e.going .pr't.." to his "frJeruli. and.n .<hit Il. by Ilm"l) W deo!l) lin'l. "" : "T 'Y l! Jl her.. 1 he - "a\:.j l:!... . 4-1 1'.Af8frH{dal. ..J'iibl...fl'Z{H :-· :J!i(t.toJS4 He. had 1 1. to hirnarl .I. nlJa< . :r"":J}:.: .· l . fi "./1 ' F i-dce1Lh"' J " t.:.nj <:) <:) et) l!l him 1f [himsilfl tBill Green '''ii gri.. ... n... hicnd..

.. We use the v. Hut whllt1athemufterwithyou ? leaves and aOl'ing()' fcr green apples. Nancy iI .(til rn quito (kwaitl rn i11·t!f.r'ry lw :r!fw. l . ID tomi (fi.Let's gu. · . !II"l. l'U/bclpyou.riend in. N4flt:y: ft'sgreen.K Jlji.wmcy_: Lcan't do-the tnathhomcworkgivcn lOU8 yesterday.udJ v chc 1l.y [dikhlleri/d!kfallö>riJ bi: #1\"1\1\ Ipivnl 1[ wc. Kenji: Don't worry.) dlt-tlon·ar. Nanc}-: No. Nlf IIWI1!X. ·that'sright. Nancy: Ifcclblue .. Y ou say 'nolla t for green KIlttj. . But AOn'lC pcople do.kUQw. Thlr-i II II cl1r.. no. Ile shouldn't do that.'siquite aU<right. lleec1is a{ri(mcl. mndl1. Nanc)'! Oh.-gllve IIl. KP1I}i Look at thnt boy el'ossing the street at the red light.inJnl)an r:i) .Utcked. not blue.it 10 your blue' [or · · g"l'ocll. Nrlrwy: Nothe shouldn't.today.' dietionary. _ . Thil. Cheek . Wc ·somethnes say when wc ure sad.5-1 5-··2 ! W Colors Talk..l'nl1dtdll Japan. Kervi: 'l'llolight has iturncd blue llOw.it.: O.K. .l) 1m lmd t". KC11ji! 'l'hankiyouso much.l1tlUlldi:(1) .i"L-givQl\} .'otd'blue' Oh.A ... i Iwelt (gi". Kenji: You don't look blue. Km}i: That.

: ·.V{esay/people turn lIike lu swim. the sun ·doean't shine » In -Iapan because of thesmog. But. .r:nburru8sed.i. NtUJey! Really? Ah8.ll. Asian countries.1 Nancy: The meaning of eolors ls dlfferent in eaeh eulture. m rneall·iulf [ml nilJl .11il em·bBr'·rass(ed)limMr + becaulfe of !6iaonit.1. <lhö:! Idecij ([J read lred).. Kp. [<10". exältlple we wear black toshow outsa.lnlr-mcunt> 32 lh'lly-two .)rid3ill:>Ii]I . .I o'rig+nsHy [. It is fun. wenr Iwe I'1 1m feei..jng(9) [f::lli)(z. Myfather ·says that (yellow t origtnallymeants.5 3 5-. Kf!nji: And it's sornetimes difficult for ne to understandforeign eultures.· m IIln(Jg [ I!IUD!Nm:Jg] . i .I readillallews.. Nancy: Youal'O right. "..' Kenji: In our.dfeelings for deadpeople.nji ! Why is the sun yellow in YOUl' picture ? Ken. Right" Kenji? K('nji: Of cou:rseit does! Nancy: Now you are red . pietures the sun is red.toshine. red whenthoy urollngryioric. Kenji.c:y: Bocause it's-shining.ji: Really ? "Ve wear black in Japan justtt NlJ. '" It is fUIl (:fo!' me) to swim.1Sl :r A·sian ])un·gry [2nari. (-]1 9 i· paper that people wear white in somo "1 .ij'oJlI <toad-relld l'ead} <tn""n-mel... (I 1 new!t'IlI'-pf!rInj":zpcilJQrJni(rsJ)C.!..meant {mtont]Ii'iIå·hs[I1!h6.l) 41 dead I.. 1 .. 1.

18-·· ..\E. Loren.. .. ---1.PJlened io New York 15 -·· '-r'" 1 . .--44 ...'--" I «..8% Source: Sunshine English Course 2 (1993). with . L-.. .... 31 '.. 303 Appendix9 C 0 N(>r ...I. f -t9 ."'...il\lr._.nnK"'l 0) _... ----.. ·51 51 &9 .. (jlas.. H--· '\\Iho . Flyer -.. - Special Program (2) HMiku _. IIDd Wild Mftfe .. ...+-..-25 [. '-"-!.+_.... _... . CnllIw4rd } _. K....0''''01''' SeDd!\& Bitthda)' Present....... So ccr in Bruil .... a.."t-.r. ---r· 31 ..tKumJ'$ Trip ta 2 l.ondon8-. ...--f lm +----1' ---" __ POl" 13<Ix ('. '<M'lL (4) Th Man Problem _.-"L---.ite. ..--- 1 1 @What ()oes lhatMulll . publishedby Kairyudo Contents . ..Ant 1?/What Am ·-e __ .fjO i a-- .-1.-T.': . il -. Mothtr to Bitcl. 82 (5) ()ur Club Aethities V'I" .uoom.. -_. . 6 hp lOI[ {t) Where ts My Friend? . . ... .... . .. ..S EngUsh-- .. '- Clipbo fd {!:o ..31 _. 13 ilntefestilll1: Thinfs anti f'laeesin AUWBli-.._ ! . U.Q .--- (S)A Story by Miyau'lV8 K nji f-.n Glln You .----1.. _. -- .... +--3& Nobittt Goes ro Åmeric. _-. .

.lst/Ma ' . 2 1!i . better. 57 -59 -62 69 jt'R (2).·jl:e -82 -)(:. ? There Is fareh? -. 304 Appendix9 . 18 -" 19 1 f..?. Source: Sunshine English Course 2 (1993). ) -75 80 ·lä ·il?1"T.tr. f. ? /wi II /SV +tha. published by Kairyudo Contents . 1III1!.. best -70 IJttf'ii.'IJ)1.. tlt lt·.: 'l"I:.: >..1 .:It ii:tJJt.·i::fi4tk. 6 Fflt -7 -13 he going t().-..:Ni 38 :{..: J.ilij/Jtt Ul -50 -51 {....j ( M&.j'\'·t" . ::!:I· <J.j'i wlHm/SVCiSVQO/wnI "·"-25 mN -31 --34 Shall J -? !Will YIJ1.:t UJ --39 ····44 wj.{..

and "Ob . Then sight and "The dogs time.t (lut vr - tVlien:y-j 'te 25 Source: Sunshine English Course 2 (1993). meno "Ycs. .n <.l) Iä JOI!r (fi"r) f.rk [qa: rkJ t7J die(d) ldw(d. ( ))j iai B) f!. published by Kairyudo Textbook . 305 Appendix9 n PROGRAM 5 A Story by M iyazawa Kenji Two mountaina. J.ing) fhAn."f'. 0: nuntl.ight IlIllill 161dl\.Jr SOUl!: time " dl<! tro.

I} 3.lon. 1. JE. 2.:tIå-f. published by Kairyudo Textbook .. "'J = ifl1) PElt gave YOUT puesporl:. a quel$(. YOl1 3. U·JI1-r:.. l. Bob Rked me. 306 Appendix 9 wORI{ tSHIl<p".n .LI..Pl Source: Sunshine English Course 2 (1993).. (i) :tr.

. b. .... SAY IT YOURSELF! II J KaJ: \Vhatdo.See soccer garne... published by Kairyudo Oral Communication A (everyday conversation) . He doesn't want to go....... ...- LISTEN FOR IT! €f: " 1... . . c.(")... ' ....... ........ i ·_ ... a 3. See a baseball gamc. ..... " ...... ... I'd like..: _.. . .... Hc'd rather do something ei!)!....... .. a. ' . . 307 Appendix9 LESSON 14 DESIRE __ _.. 28 Source: Sunshine English Course 2 (1993).......'" .to go Jo a baseball ga111e....._ __ ..... YOtlwant to do on Sarurday? rOll: [{('II: Lel'" dl) that. ... Ken : Fine. Canada.... b... Hc'd like to go.. i':r. a. . Km: What doyou 'wantro doon Saturday'? Scott._ .l'd Ii keto go toa baseball garne... The United Siates.... . h... . 2. c:... ....... a. . Let's do thät..... .._-. ....!..... . c.. too... .. . [2] Yaif: Scu/l: ....... See a football game.. Australia..

( ) 29 Source: Course 2 (1993). ( ) 5. My dream i 10 be a nurse. . He can hardly wait te see his test results. l. ( 3. ( ) he a 2.et's do . e t . 308 Appendix 9 00 ET YOURSELF! A: I'd like ta y'.sir. 1 want to pilot. The dog is longing for a walk. B: Fine.es. ( ) 4.that. WORK IT OUT! I 1.i.t. published by Kairyudo Sunshine English Oral Communication A (everyday conversation) . Hc'd like to rravel on a bullet train.tl J.

cloudy ( ) 6. clearing ( ) 3. raining ( ) hail ( ) 5.cs. freezing sleet and 28 Source: Sunshine English Course 2 (1993). Dudng l:\ storm. SUllUY ( ) 4. Sahurois surpriaed tllllt his 'flight tp Chicago has been canceled. two feer of snow ( ) 2. we wait cagerJy for clearing skles and mild Wcathcr. J. SJlOW. Listen to th passagc.pCI. 309 Appendix9 LESSON Dl And at ···Now·Let's·Look Weather the WTRODucnON Wcalhcr rcports hc1p lJ avoid rain.':iaHy iJwc ase crowded into airports or running oUlöffood. Match th W' Qther conditions b low with tne II ptaees on the map. published by Kairyudo Oral Communication B (listening) . and J)'cct.ing sleet or hai].

\\Ihy . 3. ) a.ete is ".1sth('.in. ( ) 5.. atCh wcatbet map. The dri:yeway surfac:e fcels fine. b. . a.tbe Sabun:)in1. New York airport. I. decp. [b:. ChQOs .: c. L ( ) 4. is the snow .e is . c. cgonia!i.. b. l!a Listcntlltlle !ipe.p. published by Kairyudo Oral Communication B (listening) .same evening.e 'y'Y otlds. Tll. b.(b . fiB Tlle Repeat sounds thelU. LOOk. One foot. a.isltl1 to thesutences ..h's t\lllning out ofevtilrythillg. When maythestorm come te New York? ( . .e.the yast b. 1Ve. Sunny.iairport unple uant1 f» a. } t) . Eighteen mches. Rainy. A Chicago airporl. It's empt>' .'ist. 1. Two fcet. ( ) 6.aku'! S. b. L !Jig. How Is thc weather in Florida? a Sllmvy.. !8SeS mnkc ytty geautiful holders for Yirginiu. A Florida airport. Ul the yital final questinn is <ihout the ase.. c. 29 Source: Sunshine English Course 2 (1993). rect . c. fine weather egins fortheftay }. Tol'vkyo. 6. c. c. How. of i"fj. To Chicago...isten Which airpurt t9 thcpaS5. 3. 310 Appendix9 U. 5.in ChicllgQ?( ) . It's free7.. t J 2. b. T(}. The next day. Never. Where does he want to go'! <. and (v1 are durel'eDt. a. We. b.nteDctS. l.t.l'l!w York. 3.. A 2. ( ) 4.-t nrea ronowin . 2.

eultivating basic international understanding. (arTo speak words or sentenees c1early and eorreetly .. and to deepen interest in language and eulture. and to arouse interest in listening (2) Toenable students to speak about simpleand familiar topicsin plain English. and to arouse interest in writing 2 Contents (1) Language-use Acitivities The following language-use acitivities should be eondueted in order to develop students' abilities to understand English and express themselves in it. and to foster a positive attitude toward eommunication. to foster a positive attitude toward eommunicating in it. 2 Objeetives and Contents for Eaeh Year English [First Y ear] 1 Objeetives (1) To enable students to understand plain spoken English on simple and familiar topics. A Listeriing The following aetivities should be included. direetions. and respond apropriately to them (e) To listen to a series of sentenees and understand the eontent B Speaking The following aetivities should be inc1uded.towrite about simple and familiar topics in plain English. to familiarize them with listening to English. 311 Appendix 10 The Course of Study for Lower Secondary School in Japan Foreign languages 1 Overall Objeetives To develop students' basic'abilities to understand a foreign language and express themselves in it. to familiarize them with speaking English. and to arouse interestin speaking (3) To enable students to understand plain written English on simple and familiar topics. and to arouse interest inreading (4) Toenable students .to familiarize them withreading English. ete. (a) To listen to words or senteneesand understand the meanings (b) To listen to questions. suggestions. requests. to familiarize them with writing English.

and to cultivate a willingness to write English. etc.to develop students' abilities to understand English and express themselves in it. (3) To enable studentsto. in simple written English sentences or passages. in simple spokenEnglish sentences or passages. and to foster .understand the. requests.:t positive attitude toward communication. (c) To convey intended message in simple. and to cultivate a willingness to read English.n. (a) To read aloud words or sentences c1early and correctly (b) To read questions.spoken sentences C Reading The following activities should be inc1uded. and respond appropriately to them (c) Toread aloud.enable students tounderstand the speaker' s intended message . [Second Year] 1 Objectives (1) To . language elements suitable for the attainment of the objectives stated in 1 above.a series of sentences in a man. and to cultivate a willingness to listen to English. questions. directions. to accustom them to writing English. 2 Contents (1) Language-useActivities The following language-use activities should be conducted in order.passages.in simple spoken Englishsentences or.appropriate for the content D Writing The following activities should be inc1uded.and to . requests. (4) To enable students to express their ideas etc.should be ehosen from among those elements in LIST 1. to accustom them to speaking English.a willingness to speak English.er. to accustom them to reading English. (2) To enable students.to express their ideas etc.312 (b) To respond appropriately to greetings.writer's intended messageinsimple written English sentences or passages. etc. A Listening The following activities should be inc1uded. to accustom themtolistening to English. (a) To copy words or sentences correctly (b) To listen to words or sentences and write them down correctly (c) To write intended messages in simple sentences (2) Language Elements In carrying out the language-use acitivities stated in (1).cultivate. (a) To listen to sentences or passages spoken or read aloud naturally and to understand the content .

(a) To read silently sentences or passages and understand the content (b) To understand the content ofsentences or passages andreadthem aloud in a mannerappropriate for the content DWriting The following activities should be inc1uded.and to fostera positive attitude toward speaking (3) To enable students to understand the writer's intended message in simple written English passages. (a) To listenand respondappropriately to other speakersby. A Listening The following activities should be inc1uded. in simple written English passages. in simple spoken English passages. and to foster a positive attitude toward communication.the main points . [Third Y ear] 1 Objectives (1) To enable students to understand the speaker's intended message in simple spoken English passages. to develop proficiency in writing English. (a) Toorganize intended messages and write them withoutmissing important points (2) Language Elements In carrying out the language-use acitivities stated in (1). 313 B Speaking The following activities should be inc1uded. to develop proficiency in listening toEnglish. to develop proficiency in speaking English. language elements suitable for the attainment of the objectives stated in laboveshould be chosenfrom among those elements in LIST 1. andito foster a positive attitude toward reading (4) To enable students to express their ideas etc. (a) To listen to passages and understand the outline and/or .asking and answering questions (b) To ask and answer questions about what has been listened to and read C Reading The following activitiesshould be included. and to foster a positive attitude toward listening (2) To enable students to express their ideas etc. and to foster a positive attitude toward writing 2 Contents (1) Language-use Activities The following language-use activities should be conducted in order to develop students' abilities to understand English and express themselves in it. to develop proficiency in reading English.

why C Sentence Patterns (a) 'Subjeet+V erb' (b) 'Subject+Verb+Complementdn which the verb is beand the eomplement is a noun. (1) Element C (d) b in LIST 1 is for recognition only. (a)To organize intendedänessagesand express them orallywithout missing important points CReading The following aetivities should be included. feelings. (a) To write the outline and/or the main points. LIST 1 LANGUAGEELEMENTS A Pronunciation (a) Contemporary standard pronunciation (b) Word stress (c) Basic sentence intonations (d) Basic breath groups in sentenees (e) Basic sentenee stress B Sentenees (a) a Simple and eompound sentenees b Complex sentenees (b) Affirmative and negative declarative sentenees (e) Affirmativeand negative imperative sentenees (d) Interrogative sentenees that begin with a verb or an auxiliary verb such as can...of what has been listened to and read (2) Language Elements In carrying out the language-use acitivities stated in (1). (a) To read passagesand understand. etc. which.etc. basic language elements necessary to eonvey the speaker's or the listener's ideas. can be used in addition to those elements in LIST 1.whose. 3 Treatment ofthe Contents (1) In order to conduet language-use activities effectively. may. what. does. a pronoun. where. and in which the verb is other than be and the eomplement is a noun or an adjeetive (c) 'Subjeet+ Verb+Object' a in which the objeet is a noun. language elements suitable for the attainment of the objectives stated in laboye should be ehosen from among those elements in LIST 1. a gerund or an infinitive . (2) Element D (a) b in LIST 1 is for recognition only. a pronoun or an adjective.the outlineandz' or the main points DWriting The following aetivities shouldbe dncluded. who. andthat begin with an interrogative sueh as houi. that contain or. do.314 BSpeaking The following aetivities shouldbe included. when.

+ to-infinitive (e) 'Subjeet+Verb+Objeet+Complement' in which the complement is a noun or an adjeetive (f) Other. + Objeet + to-infinitive DGrammar (a) Pronouns: a personal. demonstrative. interrogative and quantitative pronouns b basic restrictive uses oftherelative pronouns that. and cause/reason (e) Gerunds: the objeet of a verb and other basic uses (f) Present and past participles: adjective use (g) Passive voices: present and past tenses E Words and Idioms: (a) words up to approzimately 1000 inc1uding those in LIST 2 (b) basic idioms FLetters (a) small and capitalletters of the alphabet in print and script G Punctuation (a) basic use of a period. a question mark. (b) Tenses:present. tell. + c Subjeet + ask.present progressive. ete. 315 b in which the objeet is how + to-infinitive or a c1ause that begins with that or what.Patterns a 'There is' and 'There are' b be + (+for -) to-infinitive It + . and that and which used as the objeetiveease. (d) 'Subjeet+Verb+lndireet Object+Direct Objeet' a in which the direet objeet is a noun or a pronoun b in which the direet objeet is how. which. a comma. etc. LIST2 a about across after afternoon again ago all already also always am among an and animal another answer any anyone anything April are arrive as ask at August aunt away back bad be beautiful because become before begin between big bird black blue boat book both . past progressiveand future tenses (e) Comparison: adjectives and adverbs (d) Infinitives: noun use. past. ete. ete. and who used as the nominative ease. an exc1amation mark. and basic adverbial use denoting purpose. adjective use. present perfeet.

316 box boy bread break breakfast bring brother build building bus busy but buy by call can car card carry catch chair child city class dean dose cloud dub cold college colo(u)r come cook cool could country cry cup cut dark daughter day dear December desk dictionary different dinner do does door down draw drink drive during each ear early easy eat eight eighteen eighth either eighty eleven eleventh English enjoy enough evening ever every everyone everything excuse eye face fall family famous far farm fast father February feel few fifteen fifth fifty find fine finish first fish five flower fly food foot for forget forty four fourteen fourth Friday friend from fruit game garden get girl give glad glass go good goodbyte) great green ground grow hair half hand happy hard has have he head hear help her here hers high hill hirn his holiday home hope hot hour house how hundred 1 idea if important in interesting into introduce invite is it January [apan [apanese July June just .

317 keep kind kitchen know lake language large last late learn leave left lend let letter library life light like listen little live long look lose love lunch make man many March May may me mean meet milk mine minute Monday money month moon more morning most mother mountain mouth much music must my name near need never new news next nice night nine nineteen ninety ninth no noon nose not notebook nothing November now October of off often old on once one only open or other our ours out over paper park pen pencil people picture plane play please poor popular pretty put question quickly rain read ready really red remember rice rich ride right rise river room run sad same Saturday say school sea season second see sell send September seven seventeen seventh seventy shall she shop short should shout show sick since sing sister sit six sixteen sixth sixty sky sleep slowly small smile snow so some someone something sometimes son soon sorry speak spend sport spring stand star start station stay still .

318 stop store story street strong student study such summer sun Sunday sure swim table take talk tall teach teacher tell ten tenth than thank that the their them then there these they think third thirteen thirty this those thousand three through Thursday time to today together tomorrow too town .

paragraph 1. in accordance with the Comprehensive School Statute. the number of hours for language teaching must be a minimum of four. the Council of State has today decided as follows: Section 1 The lower level comprehensive school distribution of lesson hours . Environmental Studies.Section 30. and Civics 15- Religion/Ethics 8- History 3- Arts andpractical subjects: 44- Music 6- Art 6- Craft 8- Physical Education 12- The instruction in sign language will be part of the mother tongue and foreign language hours.is as follows: Subject Minimum hours per week Mother tongue 32- Foreign language begun at the lower level (A language) 8- Optionallanguage 4- Mathematics 22- Biology lGeography. Section 2 The upper level comprehensive school distribution of lesson hours is as follows: . If. as stated in the law passedon 3rd August 1992 (707/92). 319 Appendix 11 TIMETABLE FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL IN FINLAND The Council of State Decision on the comprehensive school distribution of lesson hours Made in Helsinki on 23 September 1993 Upon a recommendation by the Ministry of Education on the grounds of the Comprehensive School Act. Paragrap 1. there is instruction only in English and in the second national language. Section 36.

the number of hours for language teachiIl. For the teaching of a subject begun at lower level. Biology.Chemistry 6- Religion/Ethics 3- History. If. . The optionai foreign language begun at the lower level will be offered at the upper level as an elective subject and the syllabus of the language will correspond to the syllabus of the language started at the lower level.correspond . If the optional subject begun at the lower level is the second nationallanguage. maximum 20 The instruction in sign language will be part of the mother tongue and foreign language hours. minimum 70 Elective subjects. Technical work. it can be continued at the upper level in accordance with a syllabus which corresponds either with the syllabus begun at the lower level orone begun at the upper level. Social Studies 6- Music 1- Art 2- Home Economics 3- Craft.320 Subject Minimum hours per week Mother tongue 8- Foreign language: A language begun at the lower level (A language) 8- Language begun at the upper level (B language) 6- Mathematics 9 . Health Education is also taught.with the syllabi mentioned above.of four. Paragrap 1. In the Physical Education classes. and Textile work 3- Physical Education 6- Student Counseling 2- Compulsary subjects. there is instruction only in English and in the second national language. Section 36. in accordance with the Comprehensive School Statute.g must bea minimum.. Geography 7- Physics. the student is given other counselingin Student Counseling. Section 3 In addition to the lesson hours. there must be enough classes so as to.

.the first ofOctober 1993. 321 Section 4 This dedsion gains legal force on. a distribution of lesson hours basedon the then current Coundl of State dedsion on the distribution of lesson hours can be followed until the municipality introduces a curricu1um based on this decision. As this dedsion gains legal force. A curriculum based on this deeisien can be implemented starting with the school year 1994-95.

2. One unit school hour is a c1ass period of 50 minutes.322 Appendixll PRESCRIBED SUBJECTS AND THE NUMBER OF SCHOOL HOURS IN COMPULSORYEDUCATION SCHOOLS IN JAPAN Lower Secondary School Grade 1 II III REQUIRED SUBJECTS: JapaneseLanguage 175