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Personification as a Mode of Greek Thought

Author(s): T. B. L. Webster
Source: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 17, No. 1/2 (1954), pp. 10-21
Published by: The Warburg Institute
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she says..000 instances in which they occur. and that the peculiar achievement of the Greeks in thought can be seen as a continuous battle between the tendency to personify and the opposite tendency to schematize. 3. the winds. because such terms would mean nothing to an ancient Greek and they obscure the unity which this way of thinking had in early times: it must be remembered that the gods whom Homer describes so vividly were often worshipped in the form of aniconic stones1- Aphrodite at Paphos.g. I. Space will preclude the quotation of many examples. XIV. II. (b) mental powers and feelings. (in and awhich sense that I shall define) affected their thought on all subjects. Webster M y thesis ininthis was a way whichpaper is that the early Greekspersonification looked at the world. animate. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about. or exha or the human mind (the mind and the heart.9. anthropomorphization. fear. personi- fications of things.248. Ocean the origin of gods and mother Tethys":2 the physical fluid Ocean and the anthropomorphic Okeanos are combined in the same sentence. En 03. (c) bodily appearance as a man or woman. but I have refrained from subdividing personification into. or human life generally such as fate and Nemesis. B. p justice. 200. such as the 'ruthless stone' and the spears that 'y to taste flesh. 1953. cf. strength. It is therefore safer the single word personification to cover all the phenomena which for subject. I hope therefore that my collection may be representative. Hist. I0. PERSONIFICATION AS A MODE OF GREEK THOUGHT By T. In any particular case of personification only one of these need be present. 94. 2 Iliad. sleep.C. but it will be found useful later to classify personifications according to their strength and according to their function. 38. rumour). Okeanos is both water and person just as Aphrodite is both stone and . and neuter personifications I count rather fewer than 300 personifications and have examined about 2. and invisible which sufficiently understood. activization. 3 Manchester Memoirs. I include all cases in which something not a human being is described as if it had a quality or qualities normally associated with human beings.8 on Tue. 27. Charites at Orchomenos-and that when Hera goes to visit Okeanos who has quarrelled with his wife Tethys. and the body). Demeter =corn-grow- IO This content downloaded from 132.jstor. "I will go and see the boundaries of the earth. invisible forces which either the human body (such as death. I do not restrict the meaning of personification to the conscious creation of artificial human figures in which neither the creator nor anyone else believes. In an earlier paper3 I wrote: "the range of personification in Hom cludes inanimate things. infatuation. L. excluding local personifications. the earth. and I do not claim that my collection of personifications in literature and art from the late eighth to the early third century B. Eros at Thespiai. H man is surrounded by things physical.. love. The obvious qualities associated with human beings are (a) physical life and movement. is in any way complete.' natural phenomena (the heavens and the heavenly bod animization. Personification is a means of taking hold of 1 Tacitus. e. Pausanias IX. Pylos tablet. 1.

577 f. say that personification of a gener a people who are accustomed to take this personal vie Two other sources of personification may be menti ture and art. There is.8 on Tue. Jb. 2 Cf.248. Pickard-Cambridge. 19. 6 E. the blaze of the . Rumpf. the because they survive the individual holder of them. say that general no like this. But in all th not borrowing personification as a method of think detailed applications of personification. Namen fir Satzinhalte. IX. squinting. A gorgon-faced Rhodian plate of the early sixth century B. fig. 4 Odyssey. 502. 257. in the sixth Odyssey . wh individual personality and impersonal functions. VI. PERSONIFICATION AS A MODE OF GREEK THOUGHT 11 which suddenly appear startlingly uncontrollable rolling stone. the king who also represents the god. however.C. 277. This content downloaded from 132.. 5 British Museum A 748. in a divine being whose myth they form. etc. no. the incurable desire. gested that one. p. 76.9.g. if not the only. It can now be regarded as established that of divine rulers in Hesiod's Theogony but also the cos begins is derived from Oriental sources. Dithyramb. Rylands Bulletin. We must not. A somew be suggested for the personification of Infatuation ninth book of the Iliad. is well known. If this is co use of personification as a means to 'form a general n instances. I th some of Homer's personifications such as Eris and Ph the terrifying figures on Oriental works of art whic to Greeks in the latter part of the eighth century occurred earlier in Minoan/Mycenaean art). Porzig. 3 Iliad. 1933.5 an cotta masks of wrinkled old women have been fou Artemis Orthia at Sparta. or the rule by which men conduct their poli seem to have some kind of life and so are in some wa This view of the world is much older than Home account of its origin but we can see certain things w certain things that we must not say. Nausikaa an and her nymphs. or that behind every abstract noun lies an earl or even of personification. 18.6 other cross-links are known of Artemis in the Peloponnese and in Asia Minor... 1 Principium Sapientiae 237.4 there may hav ugly leader and less ugly chorus.jstor. all the personified nouns impersonally and we are guessing when we try to sa we may. lame old women. The patter less beautiful chorus.3 where Infatuation is a strong r are wrinkled. e. starting-point for an divine man. The Olympians a great act of systematization and personification: He Homeric Eros still retain the traces in their names. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about.g. and that Ori responsible for Homer's calling Ocean the origin of a choosing water as his original element. 102 f. however. 48..

This content downloaded from 132. Force and St papyrus has added Dike). H on red-figure vases of the en My point here is not to dis part of the atmosphere in w make it natural for him to to their gender) if he wish Besides the artistic and dr have tended to keep person dokles and Parmenides in t goes back through Solon to in Hesiod. Gorgias. WEBSTER modelled his Infatuation an by a gorgon-headed Artem For these personifications be regarded as one of the f The artist and the dramatis thing immaterial instead of visible things. Fu 2 88. whi theme of Marathon. Aristotle." he means by Medicin Another way of making a 1 Plato. L. th Unjust Argument of Arist personification of the Law much weakened instance (logos) the protagonist in tra The large number of local grows out of the very ancien who could easily become city But in this last use we see keeps it alive: for a numbe When Herodotos3 says that tions of men. 50a. 548. partly to expres powerful independent thin control of their master.8 on Tue. Crito. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about. 6 Plato.9.248. Persae. V.12 . Ma abstracts such as Health. Hellas countries as of the people common personification of t to substitute artists or tech in the Gorgias6 that "Medicin for. 28. 1449a 17. 5 4 Aeschylus. 5 Naples 3253. B. b mourns for the Persians who people who inhabit the lan the late fourth century. the city is p generation of its citizens. Poetics. 3 Herodotus.jstor.

the scale can usefully b into deification. Legend naturally does not grow round the deified elemen 1 Plato. but are deified at moments of great and compelling Homer makes Ate the eldest daughter of Zeus when Agamemnon ap and Hesiod makes Dike a daughter of Zeus because the Boeotian is corrupt. An example of a rather different kind where new life is given t personification is the personification of the star Arcturus as the prolog of Plautus Rudens. weak personification. The heavenly bodi in legend and in worship. for Helios in the legend of the Odyssey any other minor who owned cattle might have been substituted. pa in the late fifth and early fourth century. 246 ff. and both Homer and Hesiod show traces of their acting as r angels. the audiences of Parmenides and Plato wo the legend of Herakles' drive to heaven which is common in art. but from the time of late Plato and early Aristotle the stars complicated movements had become especially interesting. with great difficulty the perceive in its drive the Platonic Ideas dwelling in their place beyon Here three allusions would not escape Plato's . derived from a play written by Diphilos in the latte of the fourth century. as we have just seen. Phaedrus.9. Nike. strong personification. and the the Platonic Epinomis made them recording angels like the Ar Diphilos. Secondly. In general it is probably true to say that with a few excepti as Themis. PERSONIFICATION AS A MODE OF GREEK THOUGHT 13 known legend.1 The soul is personified as a charioteer of a winged drawn by a good horse and a bad horse. In all these ways Greek personifications might still be alive and vivi the personal view of the world was no longer the normal view. Here the astronomical advances of the fourth century ad life and a sanction to a long-established personification. the audience when they heard of the Ideas in their place beyond heaven.8 on Tue. This legend was allegorized by Her a contemporary of Sokrates. Thirdly. among whom the personi stract Hygieia is once included. would the pictures of Herakles with the Hesperides. A clear and interesting case is the chariot drive of t Plato's Phaedrus. The belief that stars were persons or gods is Homer. may re divinity.jstor. and Hygieia personifications of abstracts do not often with the same kind of permanent and developing individualit Olympian gods. the serpent passion and the three apples virtue. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about. In the Phaedr Plato's process is similar but different: certain elements from the Herakles are applied anonymously to the soul and thus make the pe tion of the soul convincing.248. Parmen already described himself as driving to heaven to receive a revelat Plato has shifted the emphasis to point out the difficulty of philosophy ordinary man. and alth sections of this scale run into one another. who made the lion-skin courage and philosophy. The a both re-interpreted old stories and invented new stories. This content downloaded from 132. and science. and terms. Nev they can be arranged in a scale of decreasing vividness. The position of the deified elemental powers is rather d in Homer (like Okeanos) the sun and the winds are both natural ph and gods who have a legendary life outside the natural phenomeno they represent.

momentary deificati think we may note very briefly th and ideals. at least in the intention of th For personifications of abstracts. bad kneading of the . WEBSTER philosophers (to which I shall ret had. Tyranny. 14 T. and precipices to witness the treachery of Neoptolemos.9. I. 6 similarly a great personal emotion moved Aristotle to write an epigram for an altar of Friendship which was erected to honour Plato and a hymn to Virtue in memory of his dead friend Hermias.248. the temples and the shrines beg the jury for help. but personification can be strong without deification.c. and later still the orator Lycurgus4 cries that the land and the trees. and Equality but also "recognizing friends. The boundary between strong and weak personi- fication is hard to define. 150. 2 Iliad. not only Hope. the docks and the wells. III. a distinction can be drawn between personifications in which the 1 Homeri vita Herodotea. B. lxii. In art the problem does not arise except in so far as it may be convenient to distinguish between figures such as Himeros (desire) and Lyssa (madness). Cook. In Euripides particularly any important idea can be called god to stress its momentary importance.. headlands." Deification is a strong form of personification. but it would be unrealistic to separate them from the Homeric passage. CR. 936.5 Eirene (peace) was given yearly sacrifices and a statue a little before 370 B. M. be found in the names of satyrs mean especially the personification of great emotion such as the swe Iliad2 summons besides Zeus the S which he swears before the duel of Menelaos and Paris. which give the atmosphere of the scene but are indistinguishable from each other except by the inscriptions giving their names. 3 Sophocles. 446 f. fr. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about.8 on Tue. 7K. The third kind of deification which should be mentioned is the giving of a hymn or cult to abstract ideas which are felt to be of extreme importance at some particular moment. L. I28. 55. the harbours. in the later passages elements of the landscape are given momentary strong personification rather than divinity. however. A good example of dev in the Homeric epigram' if they nected with mishaps which occur to firing. Thus also much later Sophocles' Philoctetes3 calls on harbours. In literature. Thus Pheme (rumour) was given an altar in 467 B.jstor. 4 In Leocratem. 277. because the news of the victory at Eurymedon reached Athens so quickly. 6 Theopompus. and figures such as Health and Happiness on vases of the late fifth century. R. ID. meeting-places of birds. Philoctetes. phenomena). 5 Scholiast to Aeschines. This content downloaded from 132. the famous statue by Kephiso- dotos of Peace holding the infant Wealth-in the early fourth century the Athenians desperately needed peace and prosperity.C. In the Homeric passage natural phenomena are equated with Zeus as divine witnesses.. whose attitudes show that they are participating in the action. as is clear from con- temporary comedy.

20. This is found also in the orators. Phaedo 89b. . The spears "year 1 Aeschines. the "leg" of the couch may be a caryatid. e. and conspire against democracy. 3 Poetics. So also Physis (human nature) is a person when in the well-known fragment of Euripides' Auge2 she "willed it. Laches 194a. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to . however. the cup may be given eyes and if it has an inscription will speak in the first person. Many ethical personifications are of the for Obvious instances are Infatuation and the Prayers in the ninth bo Iliad and Virtue and Vice in Prodikos' Choice of Herakles. or die and rise again. 984a 18. or action and implies no personification but derive from the old personal view of the universe. . at any time emotion may be fully personified again. quality. 5 Plato. or destroyers. persons who summon slaughter. But the violent pleasures of the body and the refusa to be content-these fill the pirate ships. When. At the bottom of the scale comes what I have called technical terminology. the lip the cup. as we shall see when we speak of persuasiv personification. 503a. capturers. I mean by technical terminology here terminology which correctly describ a given thing. these man the privateers. Aeschines in the speech against Timarchos:1 "Do n think that the impious as in tragedies are driven by Furies who punish the with flaming torches." The pleasures are Furies. 2 Euripides. 2 This content downloaded from 132." This person fication is helped by the possibility of substituting good doctors for medicine. fr. Rep. th event itself made a road for them and compelled them to research" the per sonification seems less strong but still "the event itself" is given some sort special status by this phrasing. and being able to give an account of each of these things. having no car for laws. I449a 9. and finally stopped when she had attained her nature" here the chronological sequence of Attic tragedies is viewed as a growth fro youth to maturity of a human being. Things are personified i Homer because they seem capable of independent action. sneak away with covered head.. and that although the metaphor i probably dead by the fifth century." Strong personification is by no means confined to ethical ideas I have already quoted from Plato's Gorgias the personification of medicine "having thought out the nature of what it is caring for and the reason for the care. 4 Met. One particular kind of weak person fication survives through the whole period from Homer. holders. I think there is littl doubt that this use is in origin personal. these ar each man's Poine. Lysis 213e. Plato's personification of his argument m be compared:5 it may shout encouragement or laugh to scorn. Such terms are based on a visible likeness and/or a functiona analogy but come into being because the mountain is felt as a person. Aristotle4 says that "as the early thinkers advanced. I. these summon them to slaughter citizens. 90o.248. 920N. PERSONIFICATION AS A MODE OF GREEK THOUGHT 15 human qualities are clearly seen and personifications in which a sin suggests that the abstract idea is conceived personally or is given so independent reality.jstor. the personification of emotions as victors. serve tyrants. and conspire. yet the emotions are still believed to have some real existence apart from the person who feels. the foot of the couch.8 on Tue. but no such substitution is possible when Aristotle3 says that "tragedy gre little by little . I need only note briefly such phrases as the head or foot of the mountain.

-K. and sickness as a therefore in political/persona elements with the addition o round. as long as we remember that no sharp boundary divided them. distin- guish three attitudes." which may reasona the treatise on Ancient Med unable to rule food" and "so is an enemy of cheese. The two passages in Homer where he speaks of Ocean as the "origin of the gods" and as "the origin of all" probably show his acquaintance with Oriental cosmogonies. 27 f. B.248. Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. WEBSTER to taste flesh". I want now to say something about these three attitudes. 6 Ancient Medicine. 574.9. E in Theophrastos' botany6 "pl to be planted near olives . I think. They all seemed to have some kind of life and so to be in some way human. B go. B xoo/i8. etc. 376. was surrounded by things physical. 20.. Plant. 16 T. The early Greek might assume them to be persons. as I have said. . but this was undoubtedly an acceptable explanation as soon as the Greeks wanted to explain cosmogony. 8 Caus.-K. XVIII. We can. 14. ch. 4 D.jstor. 3 D. Homeric man. No difficulty is felt in the three different aspects of 1 Iliad. cold." Here terminology for assimilatio unprofitable to decide exact and technical terminology. 2 Diels-Kranz. the wheeled the gods of their own will. "closenes tended to disregard the dist again we find a belief which instances are more and som technical terminology of act tion and the like derives fr some of its flavour. This content downloaded from 132. B4. I propose here only to speak of the former assumption. B 17. or he might explain them by describing them as persons. XI. L. 4." when he writes of the air " by water and speaks of the upon the bitter.." Empedokl sonal and sometimes impers 'we have technical terminolo of the idea of ruling is inte temporary of Empedokles. III.. technical terminology or sh belief in oikeiotes. Two assumptions seem to be practically universal in Greek thought..8 on Tue. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about. that the world is in some sense personal and that the human mind is a person. and invisible which were insufficiently understood. animate. . or he might per- suade himself or other people of their importance (perhaps at some particular moment) by treating them as persons.

8 1. PERSONIFICATION AS A MODE OF GREEK THOUGHT 17 Ocean-to be a character in legend.8 on Tue." "the wet. * Principium Sapientiae. than Homer feels in giving the same name to Ocean different functions. This content downloaded from 132. to be a distant sea. and for the first time th assumption of a world being is justified by an argument. B 23-5- Holscher. Akousilaos of Ar Orphics." From it the elements were "born" but again Anaximander seems to hav generalized the elements as "the hot. 2 Anaximenes. In Hesiod the cosmogony is given in greater detail: comes into being and then earth. Hi successor Anaximenes identified the original element with air. consciousness. the tall mountains and the sea. Anaxi- mander1 went a stage further by substituting the Boundless for Water." "the cold. 1953.jstor."2 Moreover this argument attributes a new property to the world being. The assumption of a world being continues in two different In the prose cosmogonies of Pherekydes of Syros. it is no longer simply a generator. the anthropomorphism of the gods is fundamental. "air surrounds the whole kosmos just as our soul being air holds us together. Therefore. this last fragment does not suggest a designing intelli gence planning the order of the world or providentially controlling events. and feels no more difficulty in putting a completely anthr god like Zeus in the same pedigree as the tall Mountains and neu such as Lies. and Kronos is also Chr Earth is given as a present to Cthonie (the goddess of the und the other elements are formed out of the seed of Chronos." "without toil he makes all things vibrate by the power of his mind. P.3 Xenophanes.385 f. Lastly Heaven."3 As Cornford4 says." "the dry. Erebos and Nig produce the Upper Air (Aither) and Day who lives there. now U. Cf.9. Then Hesiod proceeds t proper. the principle of life. The cosmogonies of the philosophers are much more interesting because they show the tendency to modify the old assumption to fit the observed facts It seems a fair guess that Thales conceived of all things as arising from a divine water by a process of generation as in Homer. The main purpose may fairly be described as a desire to provide an account of the growth of the universe which shall form a background to a moral and religious life. In the cosmogony itself the only personal q persons concerned is their power of reproduction. Anaximenes' contemporary Xeno phanes can put the world being into a line with anthropomorphic gods and men as "greatest among gods and men. to be all . 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about. the children of Chaos are Ereb ness under the earth) and Night who lives there. which was go and the origin of gods and of all things that exist. but his Boundless still has the divine attributes of immortality and indestructibility and apparently not only surrounded everything but "steered everything." "the whole of him sees and appreciates and hears. B 2. so i Zeus is also Zas. Earth and Ocean are embroidered on a cloak which Zeus gives to Cthonie and his marriag with Cthonie is the prototype of human marriages. 147. in no way like mortals in structur or thought.248. but Thales modified the assumption by substituting the less personal Water for Okeanos. B I. Hermes. 1 Particularly A 15-16." But he speaks of them as appearing out of the mass like Homeric champions and makes them pay for their aggression like criminals in the law-court.

. 18 T. beating her w the other hand. de part.jstor. The pl become Nature. 28c. Hesiod goes further t Homer in personifying ideas such as Justice. On the chest of Kypselos (a Corinthian work marquetry of the late seventh or early sixth century B. Fate forges her sword. 29c. in name at When he justifies the study man provides unspeakable who are truly philosophe planner: Nature does the b man each thing to him wh of Aristotle's unmoved mover3 and the universe moves for love of him. Attic Redfigure Vasepainters. The fur equated air with mind and of the human body to the f the world has become a m of this way of thinking sur universe is displayed as the external model.. Io072b 15. I have already said in another context that wh Phoinix is pleading with Achilles to listen to the Greek envoys. 2 Aristotle. Met. WEBSTER nor did Anaxagoras take t only in the personal attribu in hymn style as eternal an ledge and control.) Dike was a beautifu woman dragging along an ugly woman Adikia by the .8 on Tue. This content downloaded from 132. Efficiency (Are etc. In Aeschylus such persuasive personifications are extremely common: "t anvil of Dike is set. So difficult is it to banish a personal world being. B. but this is merely an explanation of of generation itself survive well as a craftsman. if Achilles refuses he will in turn be infatuat and meet with the disaster that attends infatuation.248. Beazley. Good Order. 645a 3. he personifies Infatuation as a strong runner and Prayers as lame. The deep-hearted Fury bring 1 Timaeus. and altho special sense in which Plat central notion of a planner is difficult to discover the tell of him to everybody . Of this I need onl give a few clear instances. 3 Aristotle. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about. 4 Nicosthenic amphora in Vienna. The second attitude which I mentioned is to treat certain ideas as perso in order to persuade oneself or others of their importance.9. L. which he regards as of supreme importance for the community: Are lives at the end of a steep path but though she is difficult at first she is e when she has been reached. Plato is in fact arguing fro the divine planner. I3. anim. squinting o women who come after her: Agamemnon has been infatuated but is n praying Achilles to listen to him. wrinkled.c. a similar scene appears on a red-figure vase of about 530 B Adikia is a hideous spotted woman and Dike attacks her with a hammer.

6 I have only mentioned ethical p fications but many others including political personifications could b and persuasive personifications overlap with explanatory personificat cause the idea to be explained is felt to be so important that other must be persuaded of its truth. 6 Demosthenes. Kertscher Vasen. I. I o. 2 Xenophon. Schlefold. 10 Od. the personification procession. XXIII. 646 f.. Schriftquellen. IX. 6. 4 Phaedo. cf. 94- 8 Squat lekythos in New York. A ge is the commonest way of relating personifications to one another bu forms of human relationship also occur: thus in Homer the war-god A a sister Eris (strife) and a son Phobos (panic). Laodike. Lysippos can sculpt Kairos."' In the late fifth century Prodikos2 described Herakles' m with Virtue and Vice: "Virtue is a beautiful girl of noble birth.. about 4Io B. her skin her eyes bashful. Eranos. 2. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about. 838. '1 Iliad. I45. which is probably r ascribed to Demetrius of Alexandria. and Iphianassa are aspects of his 1 Aeschylus. and all that is good against all that is bad. op. Cf.jstor. I19. I I. Lampos and Phlaethon are horses of Eos. 20. or Apelles can paint Diabole. In the Odysseyxo th has two daughters by Neaira called Lampetie and Phaethousa. 9 Iliad.9. and Pompe. cit. or and place by the nymph of the locality. no. . Eros. Explanatory personification is obviously a useful shorthand for the If he wants to say that Alkibiades has won a victory at the Olympia Pythian games. 21. where 7 Overbeck. her gait modest. Demosthenes5 says: decision of every one of you jurors love of mankind is ranged against jea justice against vice. Phobos and Deimos (fe Ares' grooms. Panathenaic amphora in Harvard 1925. Mem." In Plato's Apology3 Vice runner who catches Sokrates' accusers. 6 Apud Stobaeum. no. 46. she holds her that she seems taller than she is. 165." The were particularly fond of ethical personifications of this kind and fittingly end this series with the dialogue first between Courage and Cow and then between Continence and Incontinence. pl. II. 299. XV'. 132.. 440. XII. 25. CVA. Diiring.' If he wants to say that a you (like many heroes of New Comedy) fell in love with a girl in a proces paints him with Aphrodite. pl. i.C. XX. Ix. mot daughters are aspects of the sun's light which are thereby fixed and and shown in their relation to him. Oenochoe in New York. slander. her dress is to show her charms to the best advantage. IV. Cho. Bcazley. 83d. 246. . But all these personifi occur in literature as well as art and most of them in prose as well as In particular here I want to notice the use of personification to ex relationship between ideas. and Phobos has a companion Phyza (flight). Moon. her eyes are wide open. XIII. VIII. 19o.8 He can indicate time by adding figures of Sun. XLI. her dress white. cf. Similarly Agamemnon's three da in the Iliad. Vice is plump an her skin painted to be redder and whiter than nature.9 The group explains that all these ideas are related to war. he paints him being crowned by Pythias and Oly personifications of the festival period. PERSONIFICATION AS A MODE OF GREEK THOUGHT 19 child home. which are thereby isolated and fixed. 3 Apology. x132.8 on Tue. th moment.11 Chrysothemis..248. This content downloaded from 132. 213. 30. and in the Phaedo4 Pleasure nail in her hand to nail the soul to the body.

2 Marble relief in Copenhagen. X. 20 T.-K. pl. Plato mad essential elements in the lo to Zeus Epiteleios Philios a Success is the result of frien Two early fifth-century in difficult new . because of and chariot-horses in swif thus the source of light and in sport precious to men. I449a 9. Nilsson. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about. and C with Aphrodite or Dionyso or Ecstasy. 618 f. L. WEBSTER Hesiod used these patterns disparate things in afamily as the daughters of Ocean a very different meaning an advantage: Chaos is the ult tion. to co phrases the opposite abstra as pairs of deities who rece Strife and charming Har Truth and black-haired Ob ing.. Justice. and achieve.4 D. Earth of the Seasons. 3 Cf. Wilamowitz. 20. they are also equ be as important as the seas point of contact here is P prosperity and could easi fourth century. 2. the right which ru Justice. P herited from Hesiod. Movement and Rest."6 I have said that the development of Greek thought may be seen as struggle between the tendency to personify and the tendency to schematize 1 Symposium. 38. Dichtung u. to other things. Theia of many names. I. B.jstor. Gesch. Themis.9. Tragedy. The artists rep guise Plato imagined his Id he banished her from the when he speaks of her "gro she has attained her nature. Speech. This content downloaded from 132. 6 Poetics. 200.8 on Tue.. 6 Republic. 765. and Infatuation. Good Order. 607e. B 122-3. Pindar sun." Of these Harmoni logical figures in quite diff cations are grouped. 203b. Frankel. Pindaros. So.248. Philosophie. to century Aphrodite and Dio the Graces and Seasons b Procession.

but. a vaguely apprehended general idea clear and discussabl for the thinker? This content downloaded from 132. weak or had its own dangers because personified ideas seeme stantive reality. as we have rationalized something of the old assumption of a person remains in Aristotle's conception of Physis. We have not why personification stayed alive and vivid. But if the usual personification is to persuade to virtue or dissuade from remembered that personification has two intellectual use in the explanatory personifications just discussed. and put into relationship with as child or parent or companion.jstor. Thus personification m of rational thought. But must we not say that assumptions and mistakes and dangers personification. Aristotle saw the danger when he depri of their independent status. 29 Aug 2017 00:30:57 UTC All use subject to http://about.9.8 on Tue. A gen isolated from its particulars. the most impor the natural feeling that something deeply moving is in som if the emotion is strong enough a .248. their si relationships were expressed by personification. PERSONIFICATION AS A MODE OF GREEK THOUGHT 21 It is a losing struggle in so far as the mythical view of yields to a rational view of the world. and in the fifth century when large nouns came into use in every kind of thinking.