STATUS REPORT JUNE 2009

STORMFÅGELN AB (PUBL)

REPORT AND CONCLUSIONS FROM INTERIM REPORT “STORMFÅGELN PROPULSION SYSTEM TRANSIENT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS”

STATUS REPORT, JUNE 2009 STORMFÅGELN AB (PUBL)

CONTENTS
Summary Verification analyses that are crucial for the Stormfågeln Positive results from strength and lifetime analyses The “Stormfågeln Driving Unit Transient Dynamic Analysis” project Competitive efficiency The CFD-analysis of propulsive efficiency Further verifications planned in the next stage 3 5 6

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STATUS REPORT, JUNE 2009
STORMFÅGELN AB (PUBL) SUMMARY
Several interim reports from the ongoing verification analyses of the Stormfågeln performance have provided the company with a clearer image of the competitiveness of its products and the segments of the marine industry in which the products have their greatest commercial potential. One of the conclusions of the interim reports is that the Stormfågeln concept is probably suitable for commercial marine transport that needs to operate at speeds that exceed 30 knots. This covers, for example, ferry traffic, paramilitary applications and goods transport that aims to compete with road transport. The Stormfågeln concept has several clear advantages over the main technologies that are currently used for this type of marine traffic, such as traditional propeller systems with straight shafts, water jet technology, and traditional surface–piercing propellers. The advantages are economic, environmental and performance-related. Work will now continue such that it will be possible during the autumn to confirm the advantages of the Stormfågeln over conventional systems. Potential OEM partners will be courted in parallel with this, informing them of the new and probably crucial facts that are presented in the interim reports. The company CTD Marine, Lennart Berghult, in Switzerland (where “CTD” is an abbreviation for computational turbomachinery design) has determined the efficiency of the Stormfågeln propeller, under commission from Stormfågeln. The calculations have been carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, and they have formed the basis for ongoing strength calculations for the propulsor and its propeller blades and mechanism. The latter calculations are being carried out by IMES, the Institute of Mechanical Systems at the Zürich University of Applied Sciences, and consist of two parts – static and dynamic analysis. The static analysis is now complete. The static analysis, supplemented by fatigue analysis, has allowed IMES to conclude in the interim report that the propulsion of the Stormfågeln will satisfy the demands for lifetime placed on it. CTD Marine has calculated that the efficiency of the Stormfågeln propeller is 62%, which agrees well with previous assumptions from field trials of the prototype Stormfågeln. The analyses suggest that there is a relatively large potential for improvement, and CTD Marine believes that the efficiency of the propeller can be increased to over 70% by optimising the blades. This figure is in line with that achieved by other surface-piercing propellers. An efficiency of 70% will mean that the Stormfågeln is in line with water-jet technology, the optimal performance of which is calculated to be approximately 70% at its design speed. It should be pointed out in this context that the optimised speed for water-jet boats is normally set to lie between 30 and 40 knots. There are, furthermore, indications that the efficiency of water-jet technology tends to decrease at speeds above 40 knots. 3

The Stormfågeln concept has major advantages over both water-jet technology and traditional surface-piercing propellers. The water-jet suffers from a low or very low efficiency at all speeds apart from just the designed optimal speed, and this means that the fuel costs are relatively high and thus also the impact on the environment. Further, water-jet technology is sensitive to weight, and normally needs extensive and expensive maintenance. The expense arises from, among other factors, cavitation problems, which lead to damaging erosion when the load deviates from what is suitable. Traditional surface-piercing propellers experience problems in reaching the planing condition, and there is a risk that they will loose the planing condition at speeds around the planing threshold. These vessels also suffer from poor reverse thrust properties. These are the Achilles heels of conventional surface-piercing technology, and the principal reasons that it cannot gain territory from waterjet technology. The Stormfågeln solves all of these disadvantages. The pitchable propeller blades of the Stormfågeln are of major significance for its unique performance. They are used to obtain rear thrust during reversing, at the transition to the planing condition, and when planing at different speeds, in order to achieve an optimal ratio of engine rate of revolution to propeller rate of revolution. It is worth noting in this context that the international patent for which Stormfågeln has applied relating to an adjustable surface-piercing propeller with fully ventilating blades was published on 2 April 2009, which means that the patent application has been approved. The pulsating forces that arise naturally when the propeller blades continuously pass from air to water and from water to air are relatively low in the Stormfågeln system, and thus the risks that the propeller blades are damaged or broken are also low. This is otherwise a further weakness of the traditional surface-piercing propeller technology. One of the critical advantages of the Stormfågeln concept in comparison with competing systems is the rotation of its propeller blades. This function makes it possible to achieve the lowest possible fuel consumption in all speed regions, independently of how the vessel is loaded. The adjustment of the ratio of the rate of revolution of the engine to that of the propeller can be carried out taking into consideration the efficiency of the propeller and the specific fuel consumption of the engine. Such an adjustment is not possible on installations that use water-jet units or propellers with fixed blades. These can be optimised solely for one optimal speed at any given load. A number of verification analyses and calculations remain to be done, in order to optimise the propulsion of the Stormfågeln for increased strength and efficiency. We hope that it will be possible to complete these during the summer and autumn. At the same time, we are seeking deeper contact with potential OEM partners and other interested parties, who initially can contribute to the financing of the remaining planned analyses. 4

VERIFICATION ANALYSES THAT ARE CRUCIAL FOR THE STORMFÅGELN

The measurements of fuel consumption that were carried out in October 2008 showed that the Stormfågeln concept is probably commercially interesting for several segments within the marine industry. If a system, however, is to be used for commercial marine transport, its strength, lifetime and maintenance requirements are critical. To put it another way: there are many good ideas that have the potential to provide both environmental and economic advantages, but few of them can prove that they are viable in the long run, and in daily commercial use. The verification analyses that Stormfågeln started at the end of 2008, and which were initiated by several potential OEM partners, are thus crucial for the future of the Stormfågeln and the possibilities for the company to place its products on the market. The analyses consist of five parts: 1. the propulsive efficiency of the Stormfågeln propeller 2. static calculations of strength and lifetime of the propeller blades and mechanism of the propulsor 3. dynamic calculations of strength and lifetime of the propeller blades and mechanism of the propulsor 4. optimisation analyses of propeller blades 5. comparative analyses of competing propulsions and hulls. Of the five parts listed above, the efficiency has been determined and the static analyses have been carried out. The results from these were presented as an interim report on 26 May 2009 at IMES, the Institute of Mechanical Systems at the Zürich University of Applied Sciences, which is responsible for the analyses of strength and lifetime. The efficiency has been determined by CTD Marine, Lennart Berghult Computational Turbomachinery Design, Switzerland. The conclusions of the interim report allow us to conclude that the propulsion of the Stormfågeln will satisfy the demands for lifetime required for commercial marine transport. The Stormfågeln has thus passed a significant obstacle on the pathway to commercialisation, and has been able to overcome an obstacle at which many good ideas fall. Further, the efficiency that has been determined allows us to see more clearly and to confirm the segments of the marine industry in which the Stormfågeln will have the greatest competitivity. 5

The performance of the Stormfågeln propulsor and its propeller blades and mechanism has been verified in a number of analyses, presented on 26 May 2009.

POSITIVE RESULTS FROM STRENGTH AND LIFETIME ANALYSES

A complete 3D model of the Stormfågeln propulsor has been created within the framework of “Stormfågeln Driving Unit Transient Dynamic Analysis”, including the propeller blades and the complete mechanism by which the blades can be rotated.

The commission undertaken by IMES, the Institute of Mechanical Systems at the Zürich University of Applied Sciences, is divided into several parts, as described above, all of which are included in the project “Stormfågeln Driving Unit Transient Dynamic Analysis”. The first stage carried out by IMES has been static strength and lifetime calculations for the propeller blades of the Stormfågeln and the mechanism of its propulsor. IMES has built a 3D model of the complete Stormfågeln propulsor, including the propeller blades, the complete mechanism that allows the blades to rotate, and those parts of the propulsor that transfer power from the engines. Professor Dr. Jürg Meier at IMES has led the work. His conclusion of the results from the static analyses includes the following: “We have carried out several analyses as a part of the project ‘Stormfågeln Driving Unit Transient Dynamic Analysis’. Frequency and static stress analyses of the blades and mechanism under dynamic load show that there are no critical weaknesses that cannot be solved by minor design and/or material improvements. Based on the facts from these analyses and a complementary fatigue analysis, our conclusion is that the Stormfågeln propulsion system will meet the lifetime requirements. With the results from our next step – a dynamic analysis – we will be able to determine the exact lifetime and make suggestions concerning detailed design and material improvements.” 6

The loads have been applied as static loads in the computer model analyses referred to by Professor Meier above. The next stage in the work is constituted by dynamic analyses, in which the propulsor is rotated while being subjected to varying loads. In simple terms, this means that the frequency and static stress that arise when the parts are in motion (which increases the tensions that affect the fittings) are examined. The main aim of the dynamic analyses is to obtain the background information required to optimise the design. Lennart Berghult at CTD Marine has stated that it has been established that the Stormfågeln possesses a robust system with respect to a long lifetime. “The lifetime analyses carried out by the university are compatible with the standard for lifetime calculations for commercial and military systems. The results are unambiguous, and are of major significance in several respects. They indicate, for example, that the maintenance cycles of the Stormfågeln are more advantageous than the cycles that can be achieved by currently available water-jet applications. The Stormfågeln cycles are equivalent to those used by robust conventional propeller systems used in vessels.” Stormfågeln has developed contacts with several potential OEM partners. Discussions with these have come to something of a standstill while waiting for the results of the strength and lifetime analyses. A positive result from these will probably determine the result of these discussions. Stormfågeln has previously intended to present the results once the study has been completed. The conclusions reached by IMES and CTD Marine, however, are so clear and unambiguous that the company can proceed with the discussions now.

THE “STORMFÅGELN DRIVING UNIT TRANSIENT DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
The analyses are based on a 3D model of the complete Stormfågeln propulsor, including the propeller blades, the complete mechanism that allows the blades to rotate, and those parts of the propulsor that transfer power from the engines. Rotation of the blades is used in order to reach the planing condition rapidly and remain in it, and while reversing under reverse thrust. The latter situation involves turning the blades such that the propulsive force of the propeller changes direction from forwards to reverse. CTD Marine, Computational Turbomachinery Design, has used a computational fluid dynamics calculation to determine the efficiency of the propeller. The thrust and the torque have been calculated with the aid of the calculated blade forces, and these in turn give the efficiency. IMES has subjected the design to these loads in a computer model, and examined the tensions that it creates. Static calculations of the oscillations and the stress that the blades and other parts of the construction experience have been carried out in a first stage in order to calculate the strength and lifetime. The calculations are based on the maximal load, which from the point of view of strength is a “worst–case scenario”, in which the force has been a maximum. In this case, this gives the efficiency of the propeller at 58 knots. The forces applied in the analyses have been static and not varying. The next stage in the work will involve dynamic analyses. To put it simply, this means that the propulsor is rotated and subjected to varying loads, something that increases the tensions it experiences. The experience gained from the static analyses allows us to predict with reasonably high confidence the magnitude of the increase, and we can therefore already assess the strength of the Stormfågeln propulsor. The main aim of the dynamic analyses is to produce the information required to optimise the design at a detailed level and to specify the values of lifetime for all parts of the construction.

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COMPETITIVE EFFICIENCY
The propulsive efficiency (the ratio between the power supplied and the power delivered) of the Stormfågeln has been calculated, and used as a basis for the analyses of strength and lifetime. The efficiency that the Stormfågeln currently has and the potential optimisation of the blades have also given valuable information about the performance of the Stormfågeln in comparison with competing systems, and thus also concerning the segments in which the concept of the company will be most interesting. CTD Marine, Lennart Berghult Computational Turbomachinery Design in Zürich, has used parameters in the form of speed, rate of propeller revolution, blade design and blade angle to determine the propulsive efficiency of the Stormfågeln, by computational fluid dynamics. CTD Marine has used the parameters of only one particular condition, and calculated the efficiency at this condition: the loads experienced by the propulsion at maximal load, which occurs at its top speed of 58 knots. The efficiency at this speed is 62%. This means that it is not possible to plot the graph of propulsive efficiency at various speeds. CTD Marine, however, has drawn up a probable graph of the propulsive efficiency of the Stormfågeln, based on the values that were measured during the measurement of fuel consumption. An important fact on which this graph is based is that the fuel consumption of the prototype is essentially constant in the range of speed from 22 to 58 knots (where it is 4.1 litres per nautical mile).

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The CFD analysis shows that the propeller blades of the Stormfågeln have a potential for improvement (see the box on Page 15 for details). It has been calculated that it will be possible to improve the efficiency from its current 62% to over 70%. The latter value corresponds to the efficiency of traditional surfacepiercing propellers. CTD Marine is of the opinion that it will be possible for the Stormfågeln to reach this value, based on the optimisation potential revealed by the CFD analysis, and based on the observation that the propeller blades of the Stormfågeln are the result of “assumptions made during the design process and in the absence of appropriate design tools”. An optimal graph of the propulsive efficiency of the Stormfågeln shows that the efficiency is 58-63% at 10 knots and 72-75% at 60 knots. It is, however, very important to point out that the graph is based on assumptions. The efficiency below 15-20 knots is particularly uncertain. A CFD analysis based on optimised blades and the efficiency at several speeds are required in order to determine a more exact calculated curve. The verification calculations are included in analyStormfågeln vs Submerged Conventional Propeller ses planned for the future (Part 4 of the analysis programme).

Overall Propulsive Cofficient

The graph to the right shows the assumed propulsive coefficient of the Stormfågeln. CTD Marine has based its assumptions on the efficiency determined at 58 knots with the current design of the propeller blades in combination with a probable potential for optimisation.

0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 10

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(Black et al 2006) The optimal graph for the propulsive efficiency of the Stormfågeln allows a number of interesting comparisons to be made with competing systems. These in turn allow us to determine which segments are commercially interesting for the Stormfågeln concept.
The comparisons presented below relate to the propulsive efficiency of common propeller systems. The comparisons do not take the possibility of optimising the fuel consumption at different speeds into account. This possibility is a major competitive advantage of the Stormfågeln concept. It is possible to turn the blades of the Stormfågeln propeller to a position at which the best efficiency is achieved at all speeds. Only limited power is withdrawn from the engines when driving at a relatively low speed, such as 30 knots. The engines have their lowest specific fuel consumption at a specific rate of revolution, for this level of power. It is possible to adjust the engine rate of revolution when the blades are rotated. The ideal rates of revolution of the engines and the propeller, however, differ. It is therefore necessary to compromise be9

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The Stormfågeln was run at 58 knots during the electronic measurements of fuel consumption in October 2008, with short spikes at 59 knots. The consumption lay constant in the range of speeds 22-58 knots at approximately 4.1 litres per nautical mile.

tween the ideal values for the engine and the propeller in order to obtain optimal low fuel consumption. The Stormfågeln makes it possible to set this optimal compromise, and in this way obtain the optimal low fuel consumption, independently of how the vessel is loaded. Such an adjustment is not possible on installations that use water-jet units or propellers with fixed blades (known as “fixed pitch” propellers). These systems force the user to accept the parameters achieved at any one speed, and the rate of revolution is determined by the current torque developed by the propeller. This means, in turn, that it is only possible to optimise the propeller for one speed. It is not possible to influence the fuel consumption at any other speed.

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A comparison of the Stormfågeln with conventional propellers: COMMERCIALLY INTERESTING AT SPEEDS ABOVE 30 KNOTS Stormfågeln vs Submerged Conventional Propeller
The diagram shows a comparison between the assumed curve of the Stormfågeln propulsive coefficient (red) and the curve of a conventional underwater propeller (yellow). The latter curve has been published by the ITTC (The International Towing Tank Conference), with reference to “Black et al. 2006”. The ITTC is an international association responsible for predicting the hydrodynamic properties of marine installations by physical and numerical modelling.

0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 10

Overall Propulsive Cofficient

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(Black et al 2006) The graph shows that a conventional propeller has a higher efficiency at speeds below 25 knots. The efficiency drops dramatically at speeds above 30 knots. It can be added that the appendage drag from shafts and shaft mountings increases dramatically at higher speeds, and it can be noted that the Stormfågeln surfacepiercing propulsor does not experience appendage drag.
The comparison shows that the Stormfågeln should be interesting for segments that operate above 30 knots. This is the case for passenger ferries, for example, and for military and paramilitary applications such as Coast Guard vessels. The Stormfågeln may also be interesting for pure transport vessels such as supply boats for merchant vessels and oilrigs. It may also be interesting for goods transport with a high fuel efficiency that attempts to compete with road transport. The efficiency in this comparison concerns also the propulsive force produced by the propeller. Ocke Mannerfelt Design concluded in November 2008, based on results from measurements of the fuel consumption of the prototype Stormfågeln, that the propulsion and hull of the Stormfågeln give an efficiency that is 10% higher than the most modern drive technology in combination with a well designed ventilated stepped hull, and 35% higher than conventional straight drive shaft technology. The comparison shows that the Stormfågeln concept is robust and lies in line with the latest technology. This comparison, however, is rather like comparing apples and oranges. The most modern propulsion technology has not been designed for large vessels, while an installation with a straight drive shaft is not normally used for speeds above 30 knots. It is more interesting to compare the Stormfågeln concept with the systems that are normally used for large vessels and for vessels that operate in the speed range above 30 knots. Thus, the interesting comparisons are those with other surface-piercing propellers and with water-jet technology. 11

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The Misago boat (where “Misago” is the Japanese word for “Stormfågeln”) is a high-speed motor yacht that IF Design has drawn, with the propulsion and hull of the Stormfågeln.

Stormfågeln compared with a traditional surface-piercing propeller: THE SAME Stormfågeln vs Surface Piercing Propeller OR BETTER EFFICIENCY – WITHOUT ANY ACHILLES HEELS
The diagram shows a comparison between the assumed curve of the Stormfågeln propulsive coefficient (red) and the curve of a conventional surface-piercing propeller (green). The latter curve has been published by ITTC (The International Towing Tank Conference), which is an international association responsible for predicting the hydrodynamic properties of marine installations by physical and numerical modelling.

0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 10

Overall Propulsive Cofficient

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(Black et al 2006) The difference between the expected propulsive efficiency of the Stormfågeln and that of a traditional surface-piercing propeller is not dramatic. It is, however, a fact that the efficiency of the Stormfågeln is higher in the speed range up to 40 knots, as a result of the possibility of turning the blades of the Stormfågeln propeller. The largest difference between the two systems is that the Stormfågeln solves the Achilles heels that plague traditional surface-piercing technology. • severe difficulty in attaining the planing condition • problems with driving the boat at a constant speed at speeds close to the planing threshold, the boat readily falls out of the planing condition • poor reversing ability.
Thus, the pitchable propeller blades are one of the strengths of the Stormfågeln concept. They can be used: • when reversing, with reverse thrust to achieve high manoeuvrability • at the transition to the planing condition, by adjusting the ratio of the rate of revolution of the engine to that of the propeller (the Stormfågeln requires only a few boat lengths to achieve the planing condition), and • when planing at different speeds, in order to adjust the ratio of the rate of revolution of the engine to that of the propeller. The CFD analyses also show that the pulsating forces on the propeller blades of the Stormfågeln are relatively low. These forces, which arise when the propeller blades continuously pass from air to water and from water to air, can cause the propeller blades to become damaged or broken and are a further weakness of the traditional surface-piercing propeller technology. The ability of the Stormfågeln to reach the planing condition, to retain the planA sequence from the CFD analysis ing condition at speeds that lie close to the threshold speed, the high manoeuof the propulsor of the Stormfågeln, vrability when reversing and the relatively low pulsating forces on the propeller used to determine its propulsive blades all ensure that the Stormfågeln concept appears very advantageous when coefficient. compared with the traditional surface-piercing propeller technology. 12

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The Stormfågeln compared with water-jet technology: SUPERIOR EFFICIENCY IN MOST SPEED RANGES AND LOWER MAINTENANCE COSTSvs Waterjets Stormfågeln
The diagram shows a comparison between the assumed curve of the Stormfågeln propulsive coefficient (red) and the curve of a water-jet system (blue). The latter curve has been published by the ITTC (The International Towing Tank Conference), with reference to “Black et al. 2006”. The ITTC is an international association responsible for predicting the hydrodynamic properties of marine installations by physical and numerical modelling.

0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 10

Overall Propulsive Cofficient

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(Black et al 2006) The propulsive efficiency of a water-jet can be optimised by dimensioning the intake for one optimised speed. The propulsive efficiency is high at this optimal speed. The efficiency is lower at all other speeds – both below and above the optimising speed – and this gives relatively high fuel costs in these sequences, and thus also an increased impact on the environment.
It should be pointed out in this context that the optimised speed for water-jet boats is normally set to lie between 30 and 40 knots. There are, furthermore, indications that the efficiency of water-jet technology tends to decrease at speeds above 40 knots. The curve presented by the Internal Towing Tank Conference presented above is based on theory, allowing a water-jet to be optimised for the top speed of the Stormfågeln, around 60 knots. This comparison between the Stormfågeln concept and water-jet technology is based on this theoretical point. The Stormfågeln has considerable advantages over water-jet technology. The efficiency of the Stormfågeln is higher in all speed segments, with the exception of the speed that is optimal for the water-jet. A water-jet differs from traditional surface-piercing propellers and the concept of the Stormfågeln in that it has a high efficiency, and thus also a good fuel economy, only at its optimal speed. Despite this, water-jet technology has today a strong position within the ferry segment and as an application for military and paramilitary boats. The Achilles heels of the traditional surface-piercing propeller technology (described on Page 12) are a crucial factor in the general conclusion that water-jet technology is a better alternative.

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The original propeller blades of the Stormfågeln have been modified in several stages according to a method based on analyses of measured data, basic calculations, and trial and error. The propeller blades have not yet reached their optimal design, in their current shape and size. CFD analyses have indicated that there remains potential for improvement.

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Water-jet technology, however, also has weaknesses. • The propulsor of the Stormfågeln is not sensitive to cavitation, but this can constitute a major problem for water-jet technology, affecting its performance and its potential need for maintenance. • The design of a water-jet is adapted during its construction to the loads that will influence the system at an optimal speed, and to the need to avoid cavitation at this speed. Cavitation can have disastrous effects both on the efficiecy and lifetime of the system. The effect on lifetime arises since the cavitation in a water-jet causes harmful erosion. • To put it simply: this means that the maintenance requirements of water-jet technology are normally sensitive to speeds and loads that do not correspond to the optimal speed and calculated load. This may constitute, for example, an A sequence from the CFD analysis expensive limitation for shipping companies, since it means that they cannot of the propulsor of the Stormfågeln, optimise the load (made up of goods and/or passengers). The water-jet disused to determine its propulsive turbs stones and gravel from the water bottom, and this has a negative impact coefficient. not only on the environment but also on the costs of maintenance and of inactive periods. • Further, the hull of a water-jet vessel must be designed such that it avoids mixing air into the water flowing around the water-jet unit. Thus, for example, a modern high-efficiency hull with a ventilated stepped design is highly unsuitable for use with water-jet technology. The propulsor of the Stormfågeln does not suffer from these problems. Thus, the Stormfågeln has considerable advantages over water-jet technology. The propulsive efficiency of the Stormfågeln is higher in all speed segments, with the exception of the speed that is optimal for the water-jet. The efficiency of the Stormfågeln today at the speed for which the prototype boat has been designed (approximately 60 knots) is pretty much equal to that of a water-jet vessel optimised for the same speed. CTD Marine states in its evaluation of the strength and lifetime analyses carried out by IMES that “…the maintenance cycles of the Stormfågeln are more advantageous than the cycles that can be achieved by currently available water-jet technology. The Stormfågeln cycles are equivalent to those used by robust conventional propeller systems used in vessels.”

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THE CFD ANALYSIS OF PROPULSIVE EFFICIENCY
CTD Marine in Zürich has determined the propulsive efficiency of the Stormfågeln based on values of speed, rate of revolution of the propeller, and the shape and angle of the propeller blade. The input values have been obtained from maximal load on the propulsor with its propeller blades and mechanism. The speed in this case was taken to be 58 knots. To put it simply: the propulsive efficiency is constituted by the power ratio between the power that is supplied to the propeller (the torque multiplied by the rate of revolution) and the power that is delivered by the propeller (thrust multiplied by speed). The CFD calculations have considered three media, and this makes them very complex and advanced. Not only does the propulsor function in the interface between water and air layers, cavitation also arises when the propeller blades move through the water. This gives rise to a third medium, steam, which arises when the pressure becomes so low that the water boils. The propulsive efficiency of the Stormfågeln has been determined to be 62% at a speed of 58 knots, which agrees well with the assumptions that were made in association with the tests of fuel consumption carried out in October 2008. CTD Marine points out in its report that a number of probable optimisation possibilities are available, which will increase the efficiency if carried out. A traditional surface-piercing propeller with welldesigned blades can achieve an efficiency above 70% at optimal speed. The propeller blades of the Stormfågeln are, as CTD Marine expresses it, the result of “assumptions made during the design process and in the absence of appropriate design tools”. The Stormfågeln has had access to only a single set of blades during the development of the blade design, and this has been, obviously, a limiting factor. This has led CTD Marine to the conclusion that the propeller of the Stormfågeln can reach a propulsive efficiency greater than 70%, given the correct optimisation. One indication of the potential for optimisation is the pressure that the CFD analysis discovered on the suction side of the propeller blade, which gives a counteracting force. To put it simply: the boat is pressed backwards by this pressure and this reduces the propulsive efficiency. It is the opinion of CFD Marine that it is possible to transfer this negative pressure to the forward pressure side of the blade by a redesign of the blade, and increase the efficiency in this way. There is probably further potential in an optimal adjustment of the size of the blade. The surface area of the blade has been gradually changed, and the blade profile was changed on one occasion, using a trial and error method. It is impossible to determine whether the current size and shape are correct. What we do know is that the current design is more efficient than previous versions. It will only be possible to determine whether the efficiency can be increased by redesigning the form and profile of the blade in two ways: either by further CFD analyses or by casting a series of new blade sets. The CFD analyses are preferable for several reasons – not least economic reasons. These analyses must also be carried out using trial and error, and they have been included in the planned programme of verification for the Stormfågeln performance.

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FURTHER VERIFICATIONS PLANNED IN THE NEXT STAGE

The evaluation presented in this status report shows that the Stormfågeln concept is strong in those segments that operate in the speed range above 30 knots. It shows also that the Stormfågeln has clear advantages over the systems that are normally chosen for these segments. The Stormfågeln company is in a financial situation in which it is of utmost importance to form ties with one or several OEM partners, who together with the company can take the Stormfågeln concept to commercial exploitation. The company will continue with further verification tests in order to present as strong a case as possible when discussing with potential partners. These tests have been previously planned. • Dynamic calculations of strength and lifetime of the propeller blades and mechanism of the propulsor The purposes of these calculations are to determine the lifetime of the propulsor and its components, and to draw up detailed proposals for improvements in design and material choice. They will be carried out by IMES, the Institute of Mechanical Systems at the Zürich University of Applied Sciences. • Optimisation analyses of propeller blades The purpose of these analyses is to optimise the propulsive efficiency. They will be based on the results from the CFD analysis that indicated that there is a large potential for optimisation. • Comparative analyses of competing propulsions and hulls A confirmed curve for the propulsive efficiency of the Stormfågeln will be determined using CFD analysis, based on the optimisation of the propeller. This curve will be used as a starting point for an in-depth and confirmed comparison with competing systems (traditional propellers, surface-piercing propellers and water-jet technology). Furthermore, CFD will be used to carry out comparative analyses of the overall efficiency (propulsion and hull) of the Stormfågeln with those of competing propulsions and hulls, at a model level. 16

Östgötagatan 93 SE-116 64 Stockholm Phone +46 8 717 80 70 Fax +46 8 551 136 44 Web www.stormfagel.se

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