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current entering the channel at D is designated by ID. The device consists of an active channel through which charge carriers. the terminal that modulates the channel conductivity. FABRICATION/MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS (FET) There is provided a method of manufacturing a top contact field-effect transistor including forming a protection layer on an active layer formed in a semiconductor layer forming process. through which the carriers enter the channel. and polyvinyl alcohol/Au/poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates by using solution processes. FETs are also known as unipolar transistors since they involve single-carrier-type operation. Drain-to-source voltage is VDS. or minority-charge-carrier devices. The FET's three terminals are:  Source (S). one can control ID.  Drain (D).  Gate (G). current entering the channel at S is designated by IS. electrons or holes. polyimide/Au/poly(ethylene terephthalate). By applying voltage to G. a field-effect transistor. which is generated by the voltage difference between the body and the gate of the device. and developing the photoresist film passing through the exposure process using an alkaline developing liquid to form a resist pattern and removing a region exposed by the resist pattern from the protection layer to etch the protection layer in a subsequent development process. The conductivity of the channel is a function of the potential applied across the gate and source terminals. Many different implementations of field effect transistors exist. Conventionally. Conventionally. The conductivity between the drain and source terminals is controlled by an electric field in the device.FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR: The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behavior of the device. n-channel field-effect transistor (FET) devices have been fabricated with thin films of fullerodendron on SiO2∕SiSiO2∕Si. forming a photoresist film on the protection layer and pattern exposing the same in an exposure process. 1. through which the carriers leave the channel. FETs can be majority-charge-carrier devices. and a method of manufacturing a display device. in which the current is carried predominantly by majority carriers. in which the current is mainly due to a flow of minority carriers. The value of field-effect mobility μ of the . Field effect transistors generally display very high input impedance at low frequencies. Source and drain terminal conductors are connected to the semiconductor through ohmic contacts. flow from the source to the drain.

In order to maximise the performance of the P3HT. Different spin coating techniques are used for the various layers. vapour phase HMDS or liquid phase OTS treatments are also possible. Surface treatments are important to obtain high mobilities from P3HT OFETs and so a spin- coated HMDS surface treatment was used prior to P3HT deposition.000 and dissolve it close to the solubility limit (40 mg/ml) in order to provide the thickest possible films and reduce gate leakage. the solution was heated for 30 minutes at 80°C and stirred at 1000 rpm before being left to cool to room temperature over 10 minutes and filtered through a 0.2. when used with suitably stable semiconductors (such as PCDTBT).45 µm PTFE membrane filter. but this process is compatible with most polymeric semiconductors such as PCDTBT and PBTTT. All stages of the organic deposition were performed within a nitrogen glovebox. We use a PMMA with a molecular weight of 120. In a static dispense. However.300 kDa). P3HT has been used as the organic semiconductor. fullerodendron FET reaches 1. Mw = 31.15 and 1. For most polymeric semiconductors. However. however the molecular weight of the PMMA is important as a thick uniform film is required.7×10−3cm2V−1s−1 at 300K. . OFETs were fabricated in a bottom-contact top-gate configuration with the following layers spun sequentially. The mobility gap and optical gap have been estimated to be 0. the substrate is first covered in solution and then started spinning.4-Trichlorobenzene (TCB) in conjunction with a medium molecular weight P3HT (Ossila M107.7×10−3cm2V−1s−11. The P3HT was dissolved in the TCB at 10 mg/ml on a hotplate at 80°C for 30 minutes with stirbar (1000 rpm) before being left to cool to room temperature over 10 minutes and filtered with a 0. we have used the high boiling- point solvent 1.  Surface treatment (HMDS)  Organic semiconductor (P3HT)  Gate insulator (PMMA)  Gate electrode (PEDOT:PSS) In the example devices shown here. a gate dielectric of PMMA in butan-2-one will fulfil the required parameters. in a dynamic dispense the substrate is set spinning (and allowed time to reach the correct spin speed) before the solution is dispensed into the centre of the substrate. The channel conduction in the FET device follows thermally activated hopping-transport mechanism below 300K. The use of sequential spin-cast layers means that the choice of gate dielectric and its corresponding solvent are also critical and an orthogonal solvent system is required to ensure that the active semiconductor is not washed away when the gate dielectric is deposited.45 µm PTFE membrane filter. To aid dissolution.4eV. these steps could also be performed in air. with the most important difference being between a static and dynamic solution-dispensing technique. respectively.

When spun from TCB the P3HT also benefits from a two-stage spin due to its high boiling point. Meanwhile a dynamic dispense is often preferable at high spin speeds and for fast-evaporating solvents and uses much less material (at 1000 rpm and above 20 µl is usually sufficient). and consequently.  The MODFET (modulation-doped field-effect transistor) uses a quantum well structure formed by graded doping of the active region. 2. A static dispense can often give better coverage at spin speeds below 1000 rpm and also give more time for surface interactions which is why this technique was used for the HMDS.  The MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor) utilizes an insulator (typically SiO2) between the gate and the body. amplifier and memory node at the same time. The best spin-coating technique depends upon the wetting properties and viscosity of the solution and the evaporation rate of the solvent among other factors.  The FREDFET (fast-reverse or fast-recovery epitaxial diode FET) is a specialized FET designed to provide a very fast recovery (turn-off) of the body diode. It can be used as an image (photon) sensor. the corners would take an excessively long time to dry or require the solvent to be removed by a cotton bud. in the case of enhancement mode FETs.  The HIGFET (heterostructure insulated gate field-effect transistor) is now used mainly in research. or doped of similar type to the channel as in depletion mode FETs. stage is used to dry the corner beads that are still wet after the end of the first stage. As such a dynamic dispense was used for the P3HT and PMMA. slow drying time. Types of FETs include:  The JFET (junction field-effect transistor) uses a reverse biased p–n junction to separate the gate from the body. much faster. The drain and source may be doped of opposite type to the channel. .  The DGMOSFET (dual-gate MOSFET) is a FET with two insulated gates. Without the second stage. Field-effect transistors are also distinguished by the method of insulation between channel and gate.  The MNOS (metal–nitride–oxide–semiconductor) transistor utilizes an nitride-oxide layer insulator between the gate and the body. Typically the first stage is used to dry the film to the desired thickness over the majority of the substrate and a second. TYPES OF FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS (FET) The channel of a FET is doped to produce either an n-type semiconductor or a p- type semiconductor.  The TFET (tunnel field-effect transistor) is based on band-to-band tunneling.  The DEPFET is a FET formed in a fully depleted substrate and acts as a sensor.

CPFETs. BeetleFETs. can be made using bandgap engineering in a ternary semiconductor such as AlGaAs. These are commonly used for the 200–3000 V drain-to-source voltage range of operation.  The HEMT (high-electron-mobility transistor).  The ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor) can be used to measure ion concentrations in a solution. when the ion concentration (such as H +. by using a gate made of single-strand DNA molecules to detect matching DNA strands.  The VeSFET (vertical-slit field-effect transistor) is a square-shaped junctionless FET with a narrow slit connecting the source and drain at opposite corners. .  The MESFET (metal–semiconductor field-effect transistor) substitutes the p–n junction of the JFET with a Schottky barrier.  The NOMFET is a nanoparticle organic memory field-effect transistor. Power MOSFETs are still the device of choice for drain-to-source voltages of 1 to 200 V. changes in the electrostatic field at the BioFET surface result in a measurable change in current through the transistor. ImmunoFETs. The fully depleted wide-band-gap material forms the isolation between gate and body.  The QFET (quantum field effect transistor) takes advantage of quantum tunneling to greatly increase the speed of transistor operation by eliminating the traditional transistor's area of electron conduction. and is used in GaAs and other III-V semiconductor materials. These include EnFETs.  The CNTFET (carbon nanotube field-effect transistor). Two gates occupy the other corners. The IGBT (insulated-gate bipolar transistor) is a device for power control. DNAFETs. and control the current through the slit.  The DNAFET (DNA field-effect transistor) is a specialized FET that acts as a biosensor.  The GNRFET (graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistor) uses a graphene nanoribbon for its channel.  The BioFET (Biologically sensitive field-effect transistor) is a class of sensors/biosensors based on ISFET technology which are utilized to detect charged molecules. It has a structure akin to a MOSFET coupled with a bipolar-like main conduction channel. and FETs based on ion-channels/protein binding. also called a HFET (heterostructure FET). the current through the transistor will change accordingly. when a charged molecule is present. GenFETs.  The OFET (organic field-effect transistor) uses an organic semiconductor in its channel. see pH electrode) changes.

Transistor Symbols JFET-N Transistor N-channel field effect transistor JFET-P Transistor P-channel field effect transistor NMOS Transistor N-channel MOSFET transistor PMOS Transistor P-channel MOSFET transistor 3. FET SYMBOLS: .