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ducation in the first two decades of the twenty-first century undoubtedly will be remembered for the ongoing
clamor for reform. From the mandates of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) through those
of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to those adopted by most states in the Common Core
State Standards (CCSS), relentless efforts are underway to improve the academic outcomes of U.S. students. And like
all students, those who struggle to learn because of intellectual, physical, sensory, emotional, communication, learn-
ing disabilities, or other special needs must be taught using research-based practices and are expected to reach the
same high academic standards as other learners. Further, teachers, administrators, and other professionals are being
held directly accountable for the achievement of all of their students.

In many ways, the current educational climate is consonant with the beliefs on which Including Students with
Special Needs: A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers is based. In this seventh edition, we have continued our
efforts to integrate today’s expectations for students with our own continued strong commitment to inclusive prac-
tices, a commitment tempered by our knowledge and experience of the realities of day-to-day teaching. We know
that teachers cannot do the job themselves; they rely on strong and sustained administrative support and adequate
resources. We cannot guarantee that such key supports will always be in place, but we can provide teachers with
a firm grounding in critical special education concepts, an understanding of the professionals who support these
­students and the procedures followed to ensure their rights are upheld, and a wealth of research-based strategies and
interventions to foster their success.

The textbook is divided into four main sections. The first section provides fundamental background knowledge
about the field of special education as well as current information on how students with disabilities are served within
inclusive school environments. This is information that readers will find essential as they move from being students to
teachers. The second section of the book provides a framework for thinking about effective instructional practices for
students who struggle to learn. It provides a foundation for the remainder of the book. The third section introduces
readers to students with specific disabilities and other special needs. Although each student is unique, this mate-
rial provides readers with examples of students they may teach and summaries of their most typical characteristics.
The material in the fourth section of the text represents the heart of any course on inclusive practices: instructional
­approaches that ­emphasize teaching students effectively in the academic, social, and behavior domains. Our empha-
sis is on reality-based techniques that can be implemented for many students and that are consistent with today’s
instructional expectations.

We have brought to this project our own diversity: Marilyn with expertise in elementary and secondary educa-
tion, especially in urban settings, and in collaboration, inclusive practices, and co-teaching; Bill with expertise in sec-
ondary education, literacy, instructional strategies, assessment, and grading practices. Our collective perspective on
educating students with disabilities and other special needs is reflected in the organization and substance of the book;
our ultimate goal is for general educators to be well prepared to effectively teach all of their students. Our a­ pproach
to preparing this book is based on our research; our analysis of the scholarly literature on instruction, teacher prepa-
ration, and professional development; and our experiences teaching undergraduate and graduate educators. Our
understanding, though, ultimately is grounded in our many observations of and conversations with general educa-
tion and special education teachers who are diligently working, often in difficult circumstances, to make a d ­ ifference


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in the lives of their students. We truly hope that we have managed to find the right blend of reader-friendly and
research-based information. Above all, we hope this seventh edition is responsive to the many instructional dilemmas
confronting today’s teachers.

New to the Seventh Edition
Each time we revise Including Students with Special Needs, we carefully consider feedback from reviewers and us-
ers who contact us to offer their perspectives, and we also analyze the current trends, issues, policies, and practices
influencing schools. The following are several of the key revisions made for each chapter in the seventh edition:

• Chapter 1 has been streamlined so that the admittedly complex concepts that characterize special education
are outlined in a way that maximizes reader understanding. In addition, readers are provided with an over-
view of several of the most critical issues that are shaping education for students with disabilities and other
special needs as well as a discussion of inclusive practices as they occur in this second decade of the twenty-
first century.
• Chapter 2 provides detailed information on response to intervention (RtI) as an alternative to traditional ap-
proaches for determining whether students have learning disabilities. It outlines details about parents’ rights
in making decisions regarding their children who may have disabilities that general education teachers must
understand. This chapter’s discussion of the professionals in special education emphasizes those with whom
­elementary and secondary teachers most typically work.
• Chapter 3 explores the well-established importance of professional collaboration in the delivery of special
education and other school services, including those related to RtI. It directly addresses the complexity of
­collaboration when disagreements occur, especially those between school professionals and parents. Strong em-
phasis is placed on co-teaching, teaming, and consultation, with attention also given to teacher–­paraprofessional
• Chapter 4 has expanded coverage of math and writing in its already-comprehensive section on curriculum-
based assessment. The chapter also provides the latest information on the use of universal screening and prog-
ress-monitoring assessments in RtI.
• Chapter 5 contains comprehensive coverage of foundational teaching practices that has been expanded by pro-
viding more in-depth information on the use of evidence-based practices in Tiers 1, 2, and 3 of RtI.
• Chapter 6 highlights the characteristics and needs of students with autism spectrum disorders and other low-
incidence disabilities, including physical, health, and sensory disorders. Strong emphasis is placed on the use of
technology to meet the needs of students with these special needs, but attention also is paid to practical ideas
for supporting these students in general education classrooms.
• Chapter 7 includes expanded coverage of students with mild intellectual disabilities as well as important up-
dates on the use of assistive technology in reading and controversial therapies in special education. Practices for
identifying students with learning disabilities using RtI have also been expanded.
• Chapter 8 is intended to alert educators to the many students they will teach who have special needs, but not
necessarily disabilities. It includes updated data related to these students and focuses on students with attention
deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the best ways to accommodate them. It also covers students who have
special gifts and talents, and it e
­ xamines the role of RtI in preventing the need for special education for some
at-risk students.

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• Chapter 9’s practical, research-based coverage of differentiated instruction has been reorganized, making it
clearer and easier than ever to apply.
• Innovative strategies for implementing RtI in high school have been added to the already extensive focus in
Chapter 10 on strategies for fostering ­student independence in learning
• In addition to the strong section on classroom testing accommodations in Chapter 11, the section on grading
adaptations has been updated and reorganized.
• Chapter 12 covers a dimension of education that can truly shape students’ lives: strategies for addressing their
social, emotional, and behavioral needs. Emphasis is placed on preventing behavior problems, addressing seri-
ous problems through the use of behavior intervention plans, and fostering positive social interactions among
students with disabilities and their classmates.

Every chapter of this text includes features designed to help readers learn more effectively, as well as to
add to the general discussion and in-depth ­information about topics such as teaching strategies, cultural
diversity, and t­echnology. Video hyperlinks also have been inserted throughout the book so that readers
can ­immediately view real examples of students, the implementation of strategies, and the ­perspectives of
teachers and other professionals.

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evidence-based practices. No. Analyze key themes that characterize today’s educational priorities for students with disabilities. 4. Explore significant factors that have shaped contemporary special education services. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. 2. including those in federal law. 3. high expectations and accountability. 2 C/M/Y/K . including prevention. CHAPTER one The Foundation for Educating Students with Special Needs Learning Objectives After you read this chapter. you will be able to 1. Explain fundamental terms and concepts that describe special education.indd 2 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:21 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. and inclusiveness. Describe the categories of disabilities addressed in federal law and note other special needs your students may have.

When Thomas began elementary school. he was enrolled in a special education class for students with autism. The goal is for her to learn as many academic skills as pos- sible while also working on her skills for interacting with peers and adults and her ability to function in the larger environment of general education. a special education teacher worked in his classroom with the general education teacher. Since second grade. art. and recess. is one of those students who makes his presence known very quickly. Shriner. lunch. she listens to her favorites for as long as permitted. he had completely outgrown his old shoes but would not wear new. Ms. he came to school wearing only socks on his feet. MONIKA diagnosed when she was just 1 year old. Thomas meets with his special education teacher. 3 C/M/Y/K . describes her as eager to please and “sweet. including speech/language therapy because of her delayed language development and occupational therapy to help her with fine motor skills such as grasping a pencil and cutting with scissors. Shriner also knows that Monika is easily overwhelmed. Ms. and when group projects are assigned. Ms. However.” In all his classes. Because Monika has a moder- ate intellectual disability and has significant delays in learning academic skills. No. and the teacher and Thomas’s parents quickly realized that he needed to be challenged academically in a way that could not happen in that class. or a paraprofessional was present to assist the teacher and all the students.indd 3 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:22 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. If an issue arises in a general education class. social studies. most of his classmates had significant intellectual disabilities. because. THOMAS He announced on the first day in his seventh-grade social studies class that the color of the walls was xantho (yellow). He AARON also takes medication for attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). once each day with several other students who have learning and behavior dis- abilities to learn strategies related to their schoolwork. as his mother explained. Meyer. Thomas would like to be a linguist when he grows up. Aaron is continuing to learn how to compensate for the academic M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. Now such support generally is not necessary. Monika’s teacher. Thomas tends to keep to himself. and so she sometimes permits her to work in a quiet corner of the classroom wearing headphones or with just one or two classmates. better-fitting ones because he said they “had knots in the toes. physical education. and he receives social skills instruc- tion from a counselor. he has spent most of his time in a general education setting.” noting that she works best on days when a clear routine is followed. How likely are you to teach a student like Monika? What is an intellectual disability? What factors have led to students like Monika being welcomed members of their school commu- nities instead of being relegated full time to separate classrooms and schools? has a learning disability that was identified when he was in third grade. she spends about half of her day in a special education classroom for instruction in language arts and math but joins her peers without disabilities for science. Meyer problem solves with the teacher to address it. Ms. For several days later that fall. Now in 11th grade. In some situations. he has difficulty knowing how to talk to his classmates about any- thing except the subjects he enjoys—French words commonly used in the En­glish language and Alfred Hitchcock movies. What is special education? How does special education meet the needs of students with autism or other disabilities? Why is it so important for Thomas to access the same curricu- lum as his peers? is a second-grade student who has an inherited disorder called Fragile X. One reward very effective when encouraging Monika to complete difficult tasks is music. She has received special edu- cation and related services since that time.

intended to enable these students to reach their potential. learning When teachers refer to students with disabilities. Monika. eligible to receive special education services according to federal and state guide- lines.indd 4 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:22 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. Monika. As a teacher. Even though his doctor has cautioned him to take the medication exactly as prescribed. Although he is a bright and personable young man. He doesn’t like to talk about his learning disabilities (LD). Like all students. websites. and Aaron are just three of the 5.S.seriweb. What Is Special Education? WWW RESOURCES As you begin your study of special education and think about your responsibility for teaching students with disabilities. How often will you meet students like Aaron? What is a learning disability? What types of supports and services do Aaron and other students with LD and other dis- abilities need to succeed in school? S tudents like Thomas. and Aaron along with other students with disabilities or other special needs. you can be the teacher who makes a profound positive difference in a student’s life. they mean students who are disabilities. In his U. Because he doesn’t like to be sin- gled out. you probably will instruct students like Thomas. and his writing is much like that of a student in second grade. 2013b). Ultimately. many of them deriving directly from federal the Internet (SERI) provides links special education law. The purpose of this text is to help you understand these students and learn strategies for effectively teaching them. Special education includes three types of services. No. 4 C/M/Y/K . With the knowledge and skills you learn for educating learners with exceptional needs. it M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. they have positive characteristics and negative ones. grouped by topic. and on the basketball court he feels equal to his friends. so his grades are lower than they could be. He is even more sensitive when asked to talk about why he takes medication. he sometimes refuses to take tests in that manner or get additional assistance during study period. he reads at about a seventh-grade level. history class. each briefly described next. What these key concepts illustrate clearly is the importance of to thousands of disability-related your role in contemporary thinking about educating students with disabilities. he sometimes secretly skips taking it to see if he can get along without it. SDI is tailored to meet the individual needs of the student with a disability. they have great days and not-so-great days. Aaron is most successful on tests when he answers questions orally. But their disabilities do not tell you who they are: They are children or young adults and students first. he doesn’t want other students to make fun of him or treat him differently because he has LD. and they have likes and dislikes about school and learning. However. from those on inclusive practices Special Education Components in schools to those on specific disabilities such as autism. 2012). you will be prepared for both the challenges and the rewards of helping them achieve their education goals.8 million school- age students in the United States who have disabilities that make them eligible for special education (Data Accountability Center. and behavior Special Education Resources on guided by a number of critical concepts. his parents are concerned that his interest in sports is distracting him from schoolwork. it is important that you understand that the field is (http://www. 4 Chapter ONE difficulties he experiences. Specially Designed Instruction All students who are eligible for special education services must receive specially designed instruction (SDI) (National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities [NICHCY]. he understands the concepts even if he sometimes cannot write down his thoughts. Aaron is an excellent athlete. however.

As a general education teacher. especially their accommodations and modifications (e. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. whom you met in the introduction to this chapter. both professionals participate in SDI delivery. behavior challenges. assistance beyond academic instruction that enables students to benefit from special education. simplified assignments. For example. many students with disabilities need accommodations. 2013a). including physical therapy. but sometimes these services are delivered in the general education classroom and integrated with the other instruction occurring there. your most common responsibilities as part of special education will be to provide students with their supplementary aids and services. but it also may address students’ communication skills. a student may be learning the same math as classmates. and students’ progress related to it must be documented. vocational or functional skills. 5 C/M/Y/K . ­Modifications refer to what the student learns and usually imply that some cur- riculum is removed. T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 5 is monitored closely. both speech/language therapy and occupational therapy. some receive them for just a relatively brief period of time (e. and others require them throughout their school years. However. Students with disabilities are entitled to receive accommo- dations and modifications as part of their instruction. Scanlon & Baker. as needed.. focusing instead on words that he is likely to encounter in day-to-day life. a student with a significant intellectual disabil- ity may not learn all the vocabulary in a science unit.indd 5 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:22 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. as would be the case for Thomas. adapted physical education. that is. but he may be assigned fewer math problems because he takes longer than other students to complete each one. As you might surmise. many other related services are available to students with disabilities. Some related services are offered in a separate setting such as an office or specially equipped classroom. and transportation to and from school in a specialized van or school bus (NICHCY. speech therapy in kindergarten and first grade). Some students eligible for special education do not need related services. You may encounter one additional set of terms related to supplementary aids and services. is an example of a student receiving related services. and you will be expected to make those changes so that the student can succeed. 2012). supports such as preferential seating.g. this specialized instruction may pertain to students’ academic skills. For example. more time to complete tests. when special educators work with general education teachers in their classrooms.. 2013c). Even when this is not the case. ­Another student may respond to an essay question on a history test by writing bullet points instead of paragraphs. but in some states general education teachers share this responsibility. counseling. and instructional adjustments (e. Monika. No. an increasingly common arrangement. the curriculum has remained the same. That is. Related Services  Students with disabilities also may receive related services.g. and other school settings so that they can be educated with peers who do not have disabilities (NICHCY. If you have questions about the changes. you will be informed of changes such as those outlined in this section needed by each student with a disability whom you teach. This is a broad array of supports that enable students with disabilities to participate in general education. social interaction skills. alternative but equivalent instructional materials). extracurricular activities. SAS may include. or any other areas affected by the disability. In each case. whom you met at the beginning of the chapter. Further.g.. Accommodations are changes in how the student learns key curriculum. but only those with significant intellectual ­disabilities usually require modifications. access to computer technology. a special educator will clarify what is expected. Special educators are the professionals primarily responsible for delivering SDI. Supplementary Aids and Services The third part of special education is termed supplementary aids and services (SAS). but it will be your responsibility to be sure that the required supports are part of your instruction. because it reduces the writing task and the goal is to determine what she has learned about history rather than to assess paragraph-writing ability.

possibly ­including specialized materials. their children. IEPs are written by a team of professionals and the student’s parents.S. Students with disabilities must be restrictive environment e­ducated in the educational setting most like that for students without dis- is discussed. • Nondiscriminatory evaluation. and technology. For a few. This law was origi- nally passed as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. or website special it has been revised several times to increase the range of services students with Managed by the U. it is a combination of a general education and a special education setting. However. The instructional services and other assistance for a student with disabilities must be tailored to meet his assessed needs according to a prepared individualized education program (IEP) that is reviewed and updated annually. it establishes pro- cedures for identifying a student In today’s schools. 6 C H A PT E R one Federal Special Education Law The three components of spe- cial education just outlined are spelled out in federal special ed- ucation law. expand the groups of students who are eligible for of Labor.g. WWW RESOURCES Core Principles of IDEA  Over the four decades since IDEA was enacted. the following six core related to disabilities across the principles have remained its foundation (Aron & Loprest. For some students. called the Individu- als with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In addition. (http://www.. This education is provided at no cost to parents. serious student behavior incidents). You will learn much more detail about IEPs in Chapter 2. American students might conjure up their favorite teams and think about touchdowns and the gridiron. It describes categories of dis- abilities that make students e ­ ligible to receive special education and specifies the related services and supplementary aids and services to which students might be enti- tled. You can learn more about IDEA’s history and accomplishments by viewing the video at (http://www. the LRE is the general education classroom for much or all of the school Students from many other cultures would M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01.indd 6 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:22 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. 2012): lifespan and includes links to resources available in each state. That carefully to see what the settings. a special education setting for most or all of the school day is required. In this video. the law clearly sets an expectation that students with disabilities should LRE looks like in the classroom. • Individualized education. 6 C/M/Y/K . and they are a sort of roadmap for educating the student. Students with disabilities are en- titled to attend public schools and receive the educational services that have been designed specifically to address their special needs. Watch abilities in which they can succeed with appropriate supports provided. Department disabilities must receive. • Free appropriate public education (FAPE). and clarify procedures for addressing particular types of is a comprehensive set of resources issues (e. Students must be assessed using instruments that do not discriminate on the basis of race. in 1975. the Disability.disability. the least • Least restrictive environment (LRE). (EHCA) Public Law 94–142. culture. Here is a simple example of this concept: If a math test item was based on football. except to the extent it is the only option for them to be appropri- ately educated. For most students with disabilities. students with as needing special education and disabilities most often are educated outlines the rights of parents who disagree with the educational services offered to alongside their typical peers. No. not be assigned to separate special classes or schools without access to typi- cal peers.

• Students with disabilities must be taught by teachers who are highly quali- fied in the core academic content being taught.2. • Students with disabilities must be included in the assessment program that exists for all students. 2011). video clips (the link is located in the list at the bottom left of the page). they may be entitled to accommodations so that they can demonstrate their learning (e. Generally. you will become familiar with many additional parts of IDEA that will guide your practices as an education professional.. school district representa- FY I tives may not tell the parents of a child with a disability that the child has The Council for Exceptional Children so many needs that they cannot be met through the public school system. Some of the most important additional provisions in the current law include these: • On most teams writing the IEP for a student. Winzer. a specific set of informal and formal procedures must be followed in order to resolve the dispute. be proactive in locating children who may be entitled to special education services (e. 2002. it has been influenced by the social and political context in which it based on research and trends in education (Zirkel. If a disagreement occurs concerning a student’s eligibility for special education. No. Students’ eligibility for special education cannot be decided on the basis of only one test. (CEC). However.indd 7 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:23 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. shorter test sessions. at least one general education teacher must be a participating member. It is interpreted through court cases and periodically revised (http://idea.g. • Due process. if necessary. What Influences Have Shaped Special Education? Special education as it exists today has been shaped by a number of different factors. Further. In fact. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. This provision also prohibits schools and other advocates for the rights of from excluding children who have communicable diseases. education law through a series of brief lent to that of their typical peers. a way to appropriately educate them. the student’s educational placement. in considering eligibility for special education services. you can learn more detail about the core principles of IDEA are unlikely to be modified. founded in 1922 by Elizabeth Farrell. is a professional organization If children have extraordinary needs.. No student may be excluded from receiving a public education because of having a disability. such as AIDS.ed. Collectively. This implies that students either should be in general education with the classroom teacher or in a special education setting with a teacher who has met state requirements to demonstrate proficiency to teach the core curriculum. Further IDEA provisions are summarized in Figure 1.cec​ services. As special education has evolved. what you learn At Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004. these pro- cedures are referred to as due process. social skills). about special education now may change over the next several years. The child find part of this principle mandates that each state must . students with disabilities. T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 7 immediately assume the question was about soccer and might thus interpret it incorrectly. the appropriate court. administrators. 7 C/M/Y/K .sped. through public service announcements or highway billboards). 1993). nor are its most essential the requirements of federal special provisions that ensure students with disabilities can receive an education equiva. or the services the student receives. parents.1. However. Additional Provisions of IDEA  As you continue your study of the field of special education. read- ing or math. no changes can be made regarding the student’s education until the issue has been resolved at a for- mal hearing and. Explore its or from expelling students and ceasing the provision of special education many resources at (http://www. as summarized in Figure 1.g. longer time to take the test. special education grew rapidly only in the twentieth century (Kode. That is. Although people with disabilities have been identified and treated for the school district is obligated to find for teachers. a student must be assessed by a multidisciplinary team in her native lan- guage using tests that are valid for assessing the areas of concern (e. • Zero reject/child find. assistance with instructions). Keep in mind that WWW RESOURCES IDEA is not static.

. a plan must be implemented to prepare the student for life after school (e. special education programs were available in many school from diverse backgrounds. Even if a student commits a serious offense (e. 1936). • Placement justification A clear justification must be provided whenever a student is assigned to a setting other than general education. current civil rights law. the number of special classes in public schools grew. 1998). 1986. students in special classes often were considered incapable of learning academic M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. 1983). vocational training. parents.1 In addition to the core principles that have characterized special education law since its 1975 passage. Special classes were developed as a place for students of developing cultural competence who could not keep up with their classmates. understanding ably had mild or moderate learning or intellectual disabilities. The Context for the Development of Special Education When compulsory public education began near the turn of the twentieth century. Schools were DIMENSIONS expected to be like efficient assembly lines. Payne. and current general education legislation. Rogers. & Beirne-Smith. Because many students with dis- by increasing your awareness of abilities still were not in school. many states explicitly permitted school districts to prohibit some students with disabilities from attend- ing (Yell. as compulsory education became widespread during the 1920s and 1930s. You will learn more about these and other provisions as you continue your study of special education. 1932. 8 C H A PT E R one FIGURE Provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 1. the civil rights movement. this list summarizes several major provisions in the current authorization of IDEA. No. strategies for addressing a student’s behavior must be included as part of the IEP. This plan must be updated annually and have specific and measurable goals. For example. districts. If this has occurred. However. a job). and developing effective that segregating them would preserve the efficiency of the overall educational cross-cultural communication skills so that you can interact effectively with system (Bennett. & Rogers. school districts are required to take steps to correct the problem. • Parent participation Parents must be part of the decision-making team for determining eligibility for special education services as well as for determining the appropriate education placement for their children. Many children with significant intellectual or physical disabilities did not attend school at all. School professionals must report to parents on their children’s progress at least as often as other parents receive such information. Scheerenberger. most of the students sent to special classes prob- your own worldview. parent advocacy. and others were educated by private agencies or lived in in- stitutions. several precedent-setting court cases. Students whose disabilities were relatively mild—that is. • Transition services By the time a student with a disability reaches age 16. almost no school programs existed for students with disabilities (Kode. for the first half of the twentieth century. • Discipline As needed. but some undesirable outcomes were becoming apparent.. 2002. you will learn about the importance Scheerenberger. 8 C/M/Y/K . In fact. students. 1983). Pertsch. Educators at the and valuing worldwide cultural time believed that such students would learn better in a protected setting and differences. citizens prepared to enter the workforce (Patton. bringing a weapon to school). • Disproportionate representation School districts must take specific steps to ensure that students from minority groups are not overidentified as being eligible for special education. learning or behavior problems or minor physical impairments—were educated along with other students because their needs were not considered extraordi- nary. with each class of students moving OF DIVERSITY from grade to grade and eventually graduating from high school as productive As you prepare to be an educator.indd 8 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:23 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. college. the student must continue to receive special education services. and colleagues By the 1950s.g.g.

1987). These early advocates usually were reacting to the then-common practice of institutionalizing children with significant disabilities. dis- cussed in more detail in Chapter 6).2 Historical and political context Current civil Current general rights legislation education legislation Civil rights movement Precedent-setting court cases Parent and professional advocacy skills. Hobbs. they found the latter group of- ten had learned more than the former (Goldstein. Christopolos & Renz.indd 9 DESIGN SERVICES OF 22/02/14 12:58 AM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. 1975. Parent Advocacy During the same time period that the number of special education classrooms was growing and professionals were beginning to question their value. parents of children with significant disabilities began to organize (Blatt. They advertised in the newspaper for M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. Moss. Dunn. many authorities in the field questioned whether segregated special classes were the most appropriate educational setting for many students with disabilities (Blatt. By the late 1960s. 1965). When they compared students with disabilities who were in special education classes to simi- lar students who had remained in general education. Several organizations whose names you may know were founded during this era: • United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) was founded in 1949 by two sets of parents whose children had cerebral palsy (a disability affecting motor skills. 1969. 1971). T h e F o u n d at i o n f o r E d u c at i n g S t u d e n ts w i t h S p e c i a l N e e d s 9 FIGURE Influences on Current Special Education Practices 1. they wanted their children to live at home and to receive appropriate services in their communities. Lilly. 1968. Researchers began questioning this practice and conducted studies to explore the effectiveness of special education. & Jordan. No. 9 C/M/Y/K . 1958. They spent their school time practicing what were called “manual skills” such as weaving and bead stringing.

This organization was the first to call atten- tion to the connection between lead-based paint and intellectual ­disabilities in children (The ARC. 2010). although civil rights era. They of individuals with disabilities. Several other landmark cases are pre- sented in Figure 1. 2008). No. • The National Association for Down Syndrome (NADS) began in 1960 when a young girl’s parents ignored their physician’s advice to institutionalize their daugh- ter and decided to raise her at home. a voice that continues in the present day. For children. lobbied for increased research to address their children’s disorders. Parents and advocates soon began arguing that the education of children with disabilities was not just a moral obligation of public schools. These parents were the first to call media attention to the needs of this group of children (UCP. In the Brown v. Klingner. Board of Education decision in 1954. Supreme Court ruled that it was unlawful under the Fourteenth Amendment to discrimi- nate arbitrarily against any group of people. 2013). it was a civil right to which all children. & Shealey. Fleischer & Zames. Rueda. These and other parent groups became a strong voice for the rights of children uted to the recognition of the rights with disabilities (Osgood. • The ARC (originally called the National Associa- tion for Retarded Children) was founded in 1950 by a group of parents committed to helping others ­understand their children’s potential and to gaining access for them to preschool programs. and it still has an impact that characterized the today (U. 10 C/M/Y/K . the U.S. The Civil Rights Movement Watch this video for a During the 1950s and 1960s. were entitled. 10 C H A PT E R one parents of other children with disabilities to join them to advocate for community integration and services. Department of Education. 2013). & Velasco. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. Such groups focused public attention on these children’s needs. education.S. The civil rights movement. 2001). ruling that the state-mandated separate education for African American students could not be an equal education. Soon people with dis- abilities were recognized as another group whose rights often had been violated because of arbitrary discrimination. initially focused on the rights of African Americans. Brantlinger. The following cases are especially important to your under- standing of today’s special education. Sager. The Court then applied this concept to the education of children. They joined with other parents of children with Down syndrome (a con- dition explained in more detail in Chapter 6). orga- nized educational and recreational programs for them. 2013). 2005. 2008). and jobs. 1950s and 1960s strongly contrib. Precedent-Setting Court Cases The combination of the civil rights movement and parents’ (and professionals’) advocacy for children with disabilities led to a number of precedent-setting court cases (Blanchett. and sought assistance through legislation and litigation. the notion that the only way to protect students’ constitutional right to equal opportunity was to ensure that diverse student groups learned together. another powerful force began contributing to the glimpse into the tensions development of new approaches for special education. The civil rights movements of the and provided supports for families (NADS.indd 10 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:23 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. This court deci- sion introduced the concept of integration into public education. 1975. expanded and began to influ- ence thinking about people with disabilities (Chaffin. the discrimination occurred when they were denied access to schools because of their disabilities. questioned traditional practices and insisted that children with disabilities were en- titled to the same educational experiences as other children. regardless of disabilities or other special needs.3.

The Court ruled that schools may not refuse to educate students with intellectual disabilities and that a free public educa- tion must be provided to all students. Weast (126 S. Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. No. it typically had been assumed that a school district had to prove that its position in a lawsuit was correct. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ruled that appropriate placement for students with disabilities depends on whether (1) a student can be satisfac- torily educated in the general education setting with supplementary supports provided and (2) the student is included to the maximum extent appropriate in cases in which the general education setting is not successful. 2009). Mr. the law does not require optimum services.S. Common- wealth of Pennsylvania (343 F. Cameron and the U. Supreme Court ruled that although special education services must provide an appropriate education. Wilson Riles (793 F.2d 1036) (1989) The U. District Court for the Northern District of California ruled that intel- ligence (IQ) tests—because of their racial and cultural bias—cannot be used to determine whether African American students have intellectual disabilities or any other disability. two civil rights laws currently protect individuals with disabilities against discrimination. Rowley (632 F. 279) (1972) This decision.2d 969) (1986) The U. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit established that school districts Cook (2013) reported that general must make available in the general education setting a full range of supports education teachers’ goals for and services in order to accommodate students with disabilities. numerous legal decisions have clarified the rights of students with disabilities and the responsibilities of schools for educating them (e.S.000 in punitive damages.S.S. when he was moved to a special education setting after an unsuccessful attempt to include him in general education. goals were focused Doe v. T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 11 FIGURE Court Cases Affecting Special Education 1. • Board of Education of Hendrick School District v. West Virginia Circuit Court ruled that Mr. 11 C/M/Y/K . the family was awarded $5000 in compensatory damages and $30. a student with Down syndrome. even if the district had not filed the lawsuit. The unfortunately. as largely irrelevant. The fact that a students with mild disabilities in their student learns differently from other students does not necessarily warrant that classrooms related to academics and student’s exclusion from the general education classroom. behavior. • Daniel R. The school dis- trict did not violate the rights of Daniel. Current Civil Rights Legislation Based on events of the civil rights movement and court cases such as those just outlined as well as many others. resulting in a failing grade and athletic ineligibility. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. Withers was personally liable for failing to make a good-faith effort to provide required accommodations. not just those school officials decided they were prepared to serve. with a learning disability. & Katsiyannis. Withers (20 IDELR 422. Oberti v. Ryan. Board of Education of Clementon School District RESEARCH NOTE (995 F.g. Withers refused to make the accommodations needed by a student with academics viewed. Supreme Court ruled that the burden of proof in any disagreement about a student’s individualized education program lies with the party bring- ing suit—in this case.3 Since the passage of federal special education law. issued by the U. 528) (2005) The U. the Schaffer family. Yell. For students with severe disabilities.S. State Board of Education (874 F. 426-427) (1993) As a high school history primarily on social development. teacher.. Several cases that have significantly affected special education include these: • Larry P. • Schaffer v. v. Supp.2d 945) (1982) The U. The result was that the parents’ request for a sign-language interpreter for their daughter was denied because she was achieving at an average level without this support.2d 204) (1993) This decision about a child with Down syndrome by In a qualitative study. Rozalski. District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.indd 11 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:23 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. v.S. Until this case. Ct. R. is considered the basis for most of the key principles of IDEA.

Department of law also ensures that transportation. Most recently reauthorized in 2002 and sometimes referred to as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). elevators. For children of school age. Her teacher describes her as a student who “acts first and thinks later. it is the law that has the goal of ensur- ing that all students. to make reasonable emotional/behavioral disabilities) accommodations for them. 2011). is the most underrepresented in certain significant disability legislation ever passed (Bowman.S. disability categories (e. whether in the public or private sector. Through Section 504. 2009b). and responsibility for the plan lies with the principal and teachers.. including those with disabilities. and wide entries with automatic doors probably will have to be installed. and it requires other health impairments. and most employers. some students not eligible for services through special education may be entitled to receive specific types of assistance to help them succeed in school (Zirkel. W. Current General Education Legislation One additional significant influence on special education has been legislation passed to govern the education of all students. 12 C/M/Y/K . then ramps.g. More detail on Section 504 is presented in Chapter 8. 12 C H A PT E R one Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973  Section 504 prevents discrimination against all individuals with disabilities in programs that receive federal funds. Combined with recently developed federal provisions for flexibility related to the requirements of ESEA (U.. open to the public are accessible to people with disabilities. Bush signed into law the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The professionals at her school are required to create and carry out a plan to help Sondra access education. as do all public schools. 2012). Some other students who might receive assistance through Section 504 include those with health problems such as asthma and extreme allergies and those with physical disabilities who do not need special education (Zirkel. including those who live in poverty. President George H. including those with disabilities. Americans with Disabilities Act In July 1990. For example. If you are a teacher with a disability. Although ADA does not deal directly with the and overrepresented in others education of students with disabilities. she is distracted by every noise in the hallway and every car that goes by her classroom window. Think of how the follow- ing key provisions of the law and its related mandates affect the expectations M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. If you have a disability. Department of Education. 2009b). buildings. and many places Education. but Sondra does not receive spe- cial education services. have equal access to a high-quality education. 2012). autism. This law. Section 504 ensures equal opportunity for participation in the full range of school activities (Zirkel. if your school is not accessible to wheelchairs and undergoes renovation. For example. It protects all individuals with disabilities from discrimination. 2009a). This impairment) (U.g. She can- not follow a lesson for more than a few minutes at a time. the workplace. this law also protects you from discrimination when you look for a teaching position. you might be influenced by ADA in the same way that it affects you in other situations. it does clarify the civil rights of all (e. 2011. Zirkel. No. but she does need extra assistance and is considered disabled according to Section 504 ­because her significant attention problem negatively affects her ability to function in school. it generally mandates higher academic standards and increased account- ability for all students. but it further extended the rights OF DIVERSITY of individuals with disabilities. learning disability and hearing individuals with disabilities and thus has an impact on special education. The most far-reaching law is the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). This law DIMENSIONS was based on the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Sondra is a student with a severe attention problem. amended and updated through the Hispanic students are Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments (ADAA) in 2008. Special education teachers may assist because they know techniques that will help Sondra. It also mandates that telecommunications companies make available options so that individuals with hearing loss and those with speech impairments can communicate with others.indd 12 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg.S.” Sondra does not have a disability as established in special education law.

gov/teachers/ comprehensive services in a wide variety of settings are supplied. These materials academic areas as well as in the essential related areas such as art. • More than ever before. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01.. Crockett. Today (http://www2. & Griffin. those from racial minority groups) compares to that of other students. general education teachers—in traditional core 600 resources. No. whose stories began this chapter: • All students must be assessed to determine their academic progress. those who live in pov- erty. the development of the field. for teachers. as well as students in elementary and The U. par- ticularly those in reading and math. teaching practices and instructional programs. have more access to general education settings and teachers who generally have more extensive knowledge about the core academic subjects than do some special education teachers. These provisions and the many others of ESEA reinforce the notion that students with disabilities can and should achieve at a level comparable to that of most students.S. Hughes. and in- clusive schooling (e.jhtml) very young children and young adults. Special education has evolved on the basis of many factors. families.ed. Teachers should receive supports to ensure they have the most current knowledge and skills. Sanctions may be ap- plied if year-to-year goals are not met. When special WWW RESOURCES education began. 13 C/M/Y/K .g. they should have a strong basis in studies that demonstrate their positive impact on student learning. 2012). including prevention through response to intervention and related ap- proaches. those with disabilities. music. must be based on rigorous research. evidence-based practices. What Are the Key Themes of Contemporary Special Education Practice? Now that you have learned about the key concepts that guide special education. high expectations and accountability.. and school administrators. and include legal and technical physical education—have become increasingly involved in their education. Alper. several of the most central themes that characterize special education are outlined. Department of Education. Ryndak. & McDonnell.g. and states report these data to the U.indd 13 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 13 and educational practices for Thomas. The purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate that special education no longer is a set of services isolated from the rest of education and that. and Aaron. As the rights and needs of students with website for helping students with disabilities have been better understood and federal legislation has set higher disabilities includes more than standards for their education.S. a information. • Each state must make adequate yearly progress (AYP) or have annual mea- surable objectives (AMOs) toward the goal of achievement at grade level for all students. this education law has made it clear that to expect anything less is unacceptable. Department of Education’s secondary schools. and both needs/speced/list. Smith. This provision includes students with disabilities as well as all other students. increasingly. 2012. parents. This provision also helps to clarify how the achievement of stu- dents in particular groups (e. especially those in middle school and high school.. you have a strong foundation for understanding the context for contemporary practices for students with disabilities. Sansoti & Sansoti. general educa- tors are expected to play a critical role in all students’ education. This provision has helped to ensure that students with disabilities. Although flexibility exists in how that goal is achieved. • Assessments must include the reporting of individual student scores (not just aggregated scores) so that parents can be informed of their children’s achievement. That is. Brownell. Monika. essentially no services were offered in public schools.g. • All students must be taught core academic subjects by teachers who are highly qualified in the content areas. Local school districts report these data to their states. as well as information trend that surely will continue (e. In the following sec- tions. benefit from them. and the range of factors that have shaped special education services. 2012).

and those with significant intellectual disabili- ties. students’ school experiences and professional judgments also play a role in determining their presence. A clear procedure is in to determine which learners are at risk for failure so that place to determine appropriate next steps for assisting interventions can be implemented at the earliest indica. RtI. You will IN S T RUC T IONAL E D GE 1 . social. education when possible and (b) identify students as having • Tiered instruction with increasing intensity. No. and other supports are only those demonstrated through re- search to be effective. Increasingly learning disabilities based on their lack of responsiveness to specific interventions are used when student functioning intensive interventions. 14 C/M/Y/K . 2010).indd 14 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. of its use. 1 Understanding Response to Intervention (RtI) Response to intervention (RtI) is a process outlined in IDEA as • Fidelity of implementation. most often in reading and math. Response to Intervention One prevention strategy is a procedure called response to intervention (RtI). and the need for special education can be prevented. or emotional domains. Rather than relying just on test scores. attention has increas- ingly focused on this latter group of students and the options that might help the students succeed so that they do not need special education services. hearing or vision loss). RtI permits school professionals to base that decision on whether or not increasingly intensive instructional interventions. those with physical or health disabilities. The principles on which RtI was developed are outlined in the Instructional Edge feature. implemented to address the student’s academic problems have a positive impact on learning (Zirkel & Thomas. behavioral. with most systems having three tiers of levels of cally or behaviorally. administrators. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. has rapidly become central the type of intervention selected as well as the frequency to most schools’ efforts to reach learners struggling academi. no disability exists. Because RtI is not part of special educa. Interventions are imple- an approach (a) to address student learning problems as soon mented consistently and precisely the way they were as they are recognized so as to avoid the need for special demonstrated to be effective. Academic. If little or no improvement occurs after carefully selected strategies and programs are used more frequently and for longer periods of time. If they do. RtI is an approach for exploring whether students have learning disabilities (Zirkel. tion services. • Evidence-based instruction. such as tests of ability and achievement. Introduced for the first time in the 2004 reauthorization of IDEA. and although these problems are real and are verified through specific assessment procedures (outlined in ­Chapter 4). and its basic procedure is outlined in this brief video: (http://www. intensity. literacy and math • Progress monitoring. does not adequately improve. general education teachers. 2013). functioning of all students must be periodically assessed • Data-based decision making. the student may be found to have a learning disability. These are learning is accelerating and the gap between the stu- the key elements of RTI: dent’s functioning and that considered typical is becom- • Universal screening. intensity may pertain to tiered system of support (MTSS).youtube. and many other professionals are of students’ progress is made to determine if student those who have responsibility for implementing and social ing smaller. Over the past decade. Detailed and frequent assessment specialists. However. or the more general model multi. learners. includ- ing those who have sensory disabilities (that is. behavior. performance and progress. grounded in data gathered about the student’s tions of problems. These students often are identified at a very young age and receive special education services throughout their school careers. These disabilities most often are identified when students face the demands of formal schooling. most students who receive special education do so because of gaps between their academic achieve- ment and that of their peers or because of serious problems in the behavior. 14 C H A PT E R one Prevention of the Need for Special Education Some students have disabilities based on physical or medical conditions. The academic.

Also similar to RtI. but for many students problems related to behavior also may lead to a need for special education. For example. or high school. enables educators to coordinate their work and focus their efforts to help all their students to succeed (Verill & Rinaldi. 15 C/M/Y/K . one that partly is being addressed through the use of RtI. OF DIVERSITY Disproportionate representation refers to the fact that students from some Some students are overrepresented racial and cultural groups. and services for struggling learners. Skiba. reading specialists. This makes sense. Department of Education. professionals have decided that it is logical to create a single system for responding to student academic and behavior needs and to coordinate resources. That is. the goal is to intervene before the problem is so serious that special education is viewed as necessary. even though special educators sometimes participate in delivering interventions. historically have in special education: Indian/Alaska been identified as needing special education in greater numbers than would be Native students are 1. your understanding of your own culture and your ability to be responsive to the cultures of your students. a blended system. 2011). This means that it is very likely you will have a role in an RtI process. That is. 2011). professionals implement increasingly intensive interventions to try to clearly identify the reason for the behavior and to help the student to learn alternative behaviors that are acceptable in the school setting.S. 2011). 2011). Eliminating disproportionate representation is a top priority nationwide (e. it is easier to ensure that clear communication occurs among professionals serving students and to allocate the resources needed to provide intensive supports. general educators have primary responsibility for implementing an MTSS.75 times more likely than would be expected to receive special education services. drawing on district supports. will be essential for fostering student learning (Dray & Wisneski. No. termed a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS). T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 15 learn more about this concept in Chapter 2 and the rest of this text. and MTSS. If you are M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. Disproportionate Representation One additional topic must be DIMENSIONS mentioned in any discussion of preventing the need for special education. It is not a special education service. general education teachers usually are responsible for implementing many of the behavior interventions effective in re-directing and re-shaping students’ behavior. including its broader application as a means for carefully monitoring and assisting struggling learners (e. & Losen. Although not specifically addressed in IDEA.46 times more likely (U. but in some states and school districts. Department of Education.. personnel. 2013). Just as for RtI. in a single system. As a general education teacher. Multi-tiered System of Support RtI and PBS both have value. You will learn more about positive behavior supports in Chapter 12. when a student displays problematic behavior.indd 15 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg.28 times as likely to be identified and African American students as having emotional or behavioral disabilities (U. professionals across many states and school districts have applied principles similar to those of RtI to the behavior domain. particularly because the procedures implemented for RtI and PBS are similar and because in some cases an individual student may have both academic and behavior challenges. 2012). community outreach. For now what is essential for you to remember is that RtI is implemented primarily by general education teachers. given the overall composition of the student population. both as team members who contribute to decision making about students and as the implementers of interventions for groups of students and individual students. including the influence of poverty and the impact of cultural and linguistic differences between students and their teachers. Fisher & Frey.. be identified as intellectually disabled and 2. MTSS approaches also usually extend beyond the school. 2013).g. As with RtI and PBS. Positive Behavior Supports Response to intervention was designed to address students’ academic learning needs. and other resources to improve learner outcomes. Further.g. and this is so whether you plan a career in elementary. are 1. an approach termed positive behavior supports (PBS) (Goh & Bambara. especially African American males. likely than all other students to African American students are 2.56 times more expected. Many reasons have been proposed to explain this unacceptable situation. middle. and others. Albrecht. PBS. including their language.S. A second major theme for the field of special education concerns holding students The National Center on Response with disabilities to the same high expectations established for all students and to Intervention provides a professional accountability for reaching that goal. an online course) or by learning from a special educator who is qualified to deliver that curriculum. curriculum access occurs through instruction in the general education setting. introduced in the chapter-opening vignette.. it also resources. For the latter group of students. Further. 2012). and make progress in it. You will learn more than school psychologists or special about assessment as it pertains to students with disabilities in Chapters 4 and 11. the priority for educat- straightforward explanation of RtI. and they may receive other supports. Increasingly. No. Specific examples of UDL will be introduced throughout this textbook. training modules and other ing students with disabilities is not just raising their achievement scores. ESEA mandates that all students. This is true for all students with disabilities. access may be defined as learning related to the curriculum while focused on life and practical skills.indd 16 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. Students with significant intellectual disabilities take alternate assessments designed to measure their learning in the selective general and functional RESEARCH NOTE ­curriculum in which they participate. the increased rigor of the standards necessitates use of a variety of learning supports. However. Specifically. and other activities designed to address this issue. Access to the general curriculum was added as a specific requirement to special education law in 1997 and is still in effect. Assessment of Students with Disabilities As noted earlier. be assessed in order to evaluate their learning progress.g. many students receive special accommodations related to completing these assessments. be directly involved in it. you are likely to participate in specific professional development. They may take the tests in the special education classroom so that distractions can be minimized. Adopted in some form by nearly all states. That is. WWW RESOURCES High Expectations and Accountability (http://www. either by participating in electronic instruction (for example. including those with disabilities. data collection. 16 C H A PT E R one employed in a district in which disproportionate representation is still occurring. including those with significant intellectual disabilities. For most (but not all) students. and a free monthly includes reducing the gap between their achievement and that of typical peers. that is. In fact. these new standards address English/language arts and math from kin- dergarten to 12th grade and are intended to focus education on the knowledge and skills that students need to succeed in the twenty-first century. A relatively recent development in curriculum access pertains to the ­Common Core State Standards (CCSS) (McLaughlin. careful planning so that instruction is designed prior to delivery to be accessible by all learners. especially when they use the principles of universal design for learning (UDL). nearly all of them take the same standardized assessments as their peers without disabilities. Curriculum Access  The first critical component of setting high expectations for students with disabilities relates to ensuring that they have access to the same learning opportunities as other students. unlike past practices when many students with such disabilities were exempt from the academic assessment pro- General education teachers and cess because of a belief that it was not applicable to their education. Some students access curriculum in a special education setting. because a large majority of students with disabilities do not have intellectual disabilities. from additional or more inten- sive practice to electronic options (e. 2012). newsletter. teachers’ performance evaluations (and M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. students’ learning outcomes. students must have access to the general curriculum. Professionals know that for many students with disabilities. digitally recorded instructional materi- als). educators and (b) less knowledgeable Professional Accountability One additional component of high about these students’ needs (Segall & expectations and accountability concerns the responsibilities of educators for their Campbell. the clear ex- principals are (a) less positive about the inclusion of students with autism pectation now is that the progress of all students is a priority. General education teachers play a key role in ensuring that students have the tools that make access possible. the practice implemented for Thomas. 16 C/M/Y/K .

you will find as you read this textbook that the strate- gies presented for improving learning for students with disabilities are strongly M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. 2011): 1. The scores of students with disabilities and other special needs (for example. and even the effec- tiveness of earlier instruction. Whatever your view of this accountability issue.indd 17 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:25 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. and corrective actions may be required. and that a teacher’s General education teachers are instruction may not be powerful enough to over. 17 C/M/Y/K . 3. In contrast. T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 17 sometimes their pay and continued employment) rely in part on the achievement gains of their students ( Jones. and programs implemented as part of students’ education should be grounded in research that has demon- strated their effectiveness. this means that if students with disabilities are not improving enough in terms of achievement. Interventions. tradition. accountable for the education of come negative influences in students’ lives. The studies used to determine intervention effectiveness should be of high quality as defined by the profession. policies. at the school level. & Fuchs. those who live in poverty. including education. & Turkan. or popularity resulting from advertising or celebrity endorsement. tation for evidence-based practice. Yet others see the current teacher-accountability trend as a strong positive. (EBP) is an approach based on these principles (Cook & Cook. No. Evidence-based practices are mandated in both ESEA and IDEA. like never before. Fuchs. and the importance of this priority is obvious: How can it be justified to spend the limited precious minutes of any child’s education using interventions that have not been demonstrated to improve learner outcomes? For example. many educators believe that teaching to students’ learning styles is an effective practice. Further. you probably have heard about student learning styles. affirming that it will. cul- ture.g. EBP is intended to close what is frequently a gap between what researchers know is effective and the practices teachers actually use in their classrooms. little research directly supports this view (Fleischman. be eligible for special education. 4. 2013). techniques. 2006). Although this text focuses on special education for students in kindergarten through 12th grade. Many issues are being raised about holding teachers directly accountable for student achieve- ment. background experiences. the school is identified as needing improvement.. including the home and neighborhood environment. Begun in the field of medicine in the 1990s IDEA includes specific provisions for and adopted in many professions. EBP is designed to eliminate the use of interventions without demonstrated effectiveness that may still be common practice because of teacher prefer- ence and familiarity. 2012). it reinforces the importance of all teachers FY I knowing the most effective ways to reach all their students. focus a positive spotlight on maximizing achievement for students with disabilities. Some professionals note that many influ- ences contribute to student learning. Some educators question whether all the students in their classrooms. Evidence-Based Practice young children—those birth to age 5—also may be determined to Yet another strong trend that has directly affected special education is the expec. those whose native language is not English) are part of this calculation. Buzick. Yet. general education teachers should be accountable for the learning of students including those with disabilities. 2. McMaster. strategies. but these approaches have consistently been demonstrated to improve student learning (e. Consistent with EBP. anecdotes about their value. evidence-based practice their services. known to have disabilities. some professionals are reluctant to group students and provide instruction through peer-mediated strategies such as peer tutoring and cooperative learning.

just as all individuals should have those rights in the larger society. The Professional Edge feature includes a summary of critical characteristics of inclusive schools. introduced at the beginning of the chapter (McLeskey & Waldron. The increased use of inclusive practices in today’s schools can be demonstrated through r­ecent data: During the 2011–2012 school year. 2011). Luckner. Understanding Inclusive Practices Inclusive practices represent a philosophy based on three dimensions (Friend. participation in assessment) as well as other education and civil rights legislation you have already read about in this chapter provide a strong foundation for inclusive practices (McLaughlin. but in some instances typical peers may interact with students with disabilities in the special education classroom. Although some professionals still express concerns about in- clusive practices (e. Orsati. 2009). least restrictive environment.g. other peers. and few ­efforts were made to provide assistance so they could be successfully educated with their nondisabled peers. it is important to understand that inclusiveness does not imply that all students should be in a general education setting at all times. For some students with significant intellectual disabilities. needs of students with disabilities. Social integration: Relationships should be nurtured between students with disabilities and their classmates.g. (McCray & McHatton. After a course on inclusive practices. preference should be given to changing the expectations instead of routinely presuming that a different setting is necessary (Roach & Salisbury. Anastasiou & Kauffman. 2011. Physical integration: Placing students in the same classroom as nondis- abled peers should be a strong priority. & Reed. 2012). Theoharis. more than 30 percent did the ­assumption that students who need more intensive services should routinely not agree or were undecided about ­receive them in a more restrictive setting (Causton-Theoharis. 18 C H A PT E R one grounded in research.indd 18 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:25 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. Instructional integration: Most students should be taught in the same ­curriculum used for students without disabilities and helped to succeed by ­adjusting how teaching and learning are designed (that is. 2010). Jones. and removing them from that setting should be done only when absolutely necessary. you can find further details and examples of EBP resources in Chapter 5. 2006). Valle & Conner.. Inclusiveness is not directly addressed in ESEA or IDEA. As you might sus- pect. Such a practice would be detrimental to students and would violate IDEA. Theoharis.g. many students with disabili- ties were only temporary guests in general education classrooms. the preferred location for accomplishing this goal is the general educa- tion setting. 2013): 1. many professionals now seriously question However. Antia.g. However. If you’re curious about EBP and would like to learn more about it. 2011). ­Connor & Ferri. Kreimeyer. providing spe- cially designed instruction and accommodations) and measured. instructional integration M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. separate candidates were more positive about special education classrooms and schools) must be made available to meet the teaching students with disabilities. The concept of inclusive practices implies that students are more general education.. They ­further main- tain that if students cannot meet traditional academic expectations. 2. Dukes & Lamar-Dukes. 2007. curriculum access. & Bull. elementary and secondary teacher Qi5_ccs1ULc). Inclusiveness RESEARCH NOTE A final major theme characterizing contemporary special education is inclusive- ness. Although IDEA stipulates that a range of settings (e. 2012). many educators now find that most supports for students with disabilities can be provided ­effectively in general education classrooms when teachers are prepared to work with such students and related concerns are addressed (Causton-Theoharis. 18 C/M/Y/K .. illustrated in the touching video at (http://www. approximately 61 ­percent of all school-age stu- dents with disabilities received more than 80 percent of their education in general education classrooms (Data Accountability Center. and adults. & educating these students mostly in Cosier. Keep in mind that in the not-too-distant past. but many provisions in those laws (e. especially those alike than different and that all students should be welcomed members of their with intellectual or multiple disabilities learning communities (e. 3. as is true for Monika. Cosier. 2011).. 2011. 2011).

T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 19 PROFE S S IONAL E D GE 1 . benefit to students is maximized and their cost to stu. social behavior. adult inter- minimized. Walsh. • Inclusiveness is communicated in many ways—materials dents (e. this list of characteristics can help you part of a whole. giving general educators a major responsibility for them. • Multiple locations for instruction are available to stu- ability rather than disabled student). Skilton-Sylvester & Slesaransky-Poe. featured in the beginning of the chapter. However. speech and ESL are pullout integral part of the school culture. resource. We also would like to note that we prefer the phrase inclusive practices to the term inclusion because the latter can imply that there is a single model or program that can serve all students’ needs.g. Bless. room • Special education and other services do not exist as assignments. In most locales. When such students were permitted to participate in term outcomes for two brothers general education. One more term should be mentioned in this discussion of inclusiveness. the concept of inclusive practices as used in this text means that all learners are viewed as the responsibility of all educators (Dessemontet. actions with students and each other. they are integrated and always addressed as dents with disabilities. 1 Characteristics of Inclusive Schools As you learn about your responsibilities as a teacher for stu. 2009). time out of a general education classroom) is displayed. as well as in a special education setting. including service in a separate setting—but only • Emphasis is on abilities rather than disabilities. No. tolerance is considered a dated term and has been replaced with the phrase inclusion or for change) were more positive for inclusive practices. their participation and collaboration are actively sought.g. student with a dis. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. Storch. separate entities (e. it was called mainstreaming. 2012. with a system of supports around them. inclusiveness is a school-level belief system. supported by special educators (e. books and other media available. one students with disabilities in general education settings only when they can meet who was educated in self-contained traditional academic expectations with minimal assistance or when those expec.indd 19 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:26 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. need to be in sepa- rate classes because of their below-grade reading levels. 2012). Outcomes (for for access to social interactions with peers).g. making modifications). 19 C/M/Y/K . programs”). It further implies that educators’ strong preference is for these students to be edu- cated with their peers without disabilities. • Parents are not just welcomed partners in the schools. Alper. ­person-first language (for example. • The principal is a strong and vocal advocate for all stu. as you participate in field experiences and speak the latter brother..g. and so on. the vocabulary of inclusion is used. “we have inclusion. but the practices implemented seem more like mainstream- ing. teachers may say that their school is inclusive but then explain that students like Aaron. you may find that in some schools. and • The term inclusion is rarely needed because it is such an self-contained programs. • Professionals and other staff routinely use respectful. Ryndak. & Morin. RESEARCH NOTE When the LRE concept became part of special education laws during the 1970s. adamant that they access the general curriculum curriculum. That is. understand in a real-world way what an inclusive school is like. Ultimately. and the LRE for most students with disabilities was usually a part-time or full-time Montgomery (2010) compared long- special education class. whereas the former more accurately conveys that inclusiveness is made up of many strategies and options that are discussed throughout this textbook. participation only in recess or school assemblies inclusive education. schedules. Ward.. settings and one who received an tations are not relevant (e. • Specially designed instruction required for students with • Every person who works in the school is committed to disabilities can be offered in a general education setting the goal of helping all students achieve their potential. means ­anchoring instruction in the standard general curriculum but appro- priately adjusting expectations (that is. • Differentiation is considered the rule. • Assistive technology enhances access to the general dents. not the exception.. Mainstreaming involves placing with intellectual disabilities. when it is the last choice and only for as long as data • Special education and other services are seamless—their indicate it is effective.. This practice is actually mainstreaming. to experienced educators. dents. mainstreaming now example.

highly collaborative cultures. One parent research briefs on specific disabilities commented that when her fourth-grade son with autism was integrated into a gen- as well as special education law. Special education is a field with many ­dimensions and extensive terminology. 2002). and others. Litvack. Banda. & Sood. The their children learn critical social skills when they spend most or all of the school website includes fact sheets and day with their typical peers (Salend. Turnbull. and understanding its technical language will assist you in carrying out your responsibilities for students with disabilities. and. academic outcomes in inclu- and not their labels. In both studies. & Montgomery. & McCulley. Ward. eral education classroom for most of the day. compelling positive results have been reported. & Coleman. 2012). She also noted that the other students in the class were clearly kind to as well as English. McLeskey & Waldron. 2012). Because of this complexity. However. 2013. For example. 2009.. 2009). Generally. 2011). developing skills for addressing their needs. Cade. 2009. & B ­ aker-Kroczynski. that knowing the terms used in special education is not nearly as important as learning about your students. Piscitelli. Hayden. though. Solis. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. additionally. Keep in mind.” ­Mastergeorge. 2007). & Cronin. 2011. Alper. then in- to ensure that you focus on students clusion is not in their best interests.g. For example.” eighth-grade assessment at a higher rate than similar students with disabilities Never say “special education who were educated in special education settings. and discipline referrals (Cawley.g. 2006. extensive information on disabilities They believe that inclusive practices are beneficial for academic achievement.indd 20 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:26 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. 2012.. 2012). and she was grateful that they sought him out on the playground and chose him as a lunch partner. Students educated in general students” or “IEP students. especially with the understanding that inclusiveness provides for separate instruction when needed. Parents generally are positive about special education ser- (http://nichcy. in a statewide study. 2003). though. his behavior improved both at school Most pages are available in Spanish and at home. Not surprisingly. and they often prefer that their children be educated with peers in general for Children with Disabilities provides education classrooms (Leach & Duffy. & Parrish. Causton & Theoharis. inclusiveness is influenced by many factors. and programs and instructional practices demonstrated to be effective with students with disabilities (Huberman et al. That is. Inclusive practices also have been found to have a positive impact on students’ math achievement (Kunsch. Williams & Reisberg. a glos- sary is provided at the back of this textbook. Ritchie. they also strongly believe that families. Silverman. Navo.. The Effectiveness of Inclusive Practices As you might imagine. & Jackson. if students Using person-first language is a way with disabilities in inclusive settings do not progress in their learning. 2013. WWW RESOURCES A second way to determine the effectiveness of inclusive practices is to con- sider parent perceptions. Jitendra. any discussion of inclusive practices must consider the ­impact on student achievement (Huberman. sive schools have been found to be positive (Hang & Rabren. Hazelwood. the districts were characterized as having strong leaders. her son. teachers. 2007). & Shore. Kurth & say “students with disabilities” instead of “disabled students. and disability-related issues for especially for children with intellectual disabilities. No. 2003). Keep in mind. Vaughn. 20 C/M/Y/K . problem-solving skills (Ryndak. Two other studies examined the policies and practices in school districts achieving higher-than-expected academic outcomes for students with disabilities. parents’ perceptions of inclusive practices are more positive when they participate in collaborative decision making concern- ing their children’s educational services (Matuszny. from the characteristics of the students being educated to the preparation and skill of their teachers to the amount of administrative support available (e. Purcell. and the results have been mixed. researchers found that and “my student who has autism” students with disabilities who spent more time in general education passed the instead of “my autistic student. firm and sustained commit- ment to inclusiveness. F YI For example. Storch. The National Dissemination Center vices. that some students—whether their disabilities are considered mild or significant—­ receive part of their instruction in a special education setting for at least a small part of the day in order to achieve such success (e. research regarding inclusive practices has been difficult to conduct. 2010). Hoppey & McLeskey. 2003). 2006). Many terms will be explained further in subsequent chapters. language development (­Rafferty. & Boettcher. and celebrating your role in enabling them to achieve success.” education settings also graduated from high school with a standard diploma at a higher rate (Luster & Durrett. 20 C H A PT E R one The vocabulary terms introduced in this section and elsewhere in this c­hapter may be a bit overwhelming.

In some studies. is for educators.g. and work with them as • Working with paraprofessionals: If your class includes a stu. They recognize the value of inclusive practices but are uncertain about implementation and their own skills for teaching these students (DeSimone & Parmar. you • Interacting with parents: Perhaps the most important part of may co-teach with a special education teacher or related ser. DeSimone & Parmar. McLeskey et al. 2001. Sze. You may find yourself struggling to reconcile all these views. 2012). you share teaching responsibilities. 2006. you will find that collaboration— professional. as a means for extending your expertise. Vinciguerra. Burdge. class to ensure that student support is appropriately provided. As you will learn in the c­ hapters that follow. Gradel. discussed in Chapter 2. & Black. 2009. In your field experiences. Teachers who support inclusive practices report making instructional accommodations to facilitate student learning and feeling positive about their work with students with disabilities (e. Rea. No. you are likely to discover that in some schools inclusive practices are the norm. T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 21 WORKING The Importance of Collaboration for Meeting TOGETHER 1. help with field trips. Edwards & Da Fonte. 2006). A special educator may contact you to see how a You also may be part of a team that tries to address student student is doing in your class. You will guide the work of that individual in your working together with others—is one of the keys to successful inclu. & Kearns. you and your classmates may come across studies on inclusive practices that present contradictory results. If a student in your class behavior. It is a topic so critical that a feature on collaboration even while you retain primary teaching responsibility for all of appears in every chapter.g.. In ing with parents. whereas in others very traditional approaches are still in place. here are just a few examples of how you will work • Meeting on teams: Various school teams support inclusive with others on behalf of students with disabilities: practices. Cooney. with both notes sent home and through e-mail. yet others may be readily addressed and fit easily into the larger picture. The latter two teams are conferences. Even in your own course.indd 21 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:26 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. & Walther-Thomas.. with them at formal team meetings. you will be part of that team. In today’s schools some of the pieces may be missing and others difficult to fit into place. ment team likely will spend part of its time discussing students quently with special education teachers. Kleinert. is being assessed to determine whether special education is bility for meeting with parents during open houses or parent needed. 21 C/M/Y/K . ­Zascavage & Winterman.g.. both formally and with disabilities and problem solving to address their needs. Clayton. meet with them occa- educators working with all students in the general education sionally as they express concerns about their children. To introduce how important collaboration the students. collaborating on behalf of students with disabilities is work- vices professional such as a speech/language therapist. Kozik. 2002). general education teach- ers in elementary. You may communicate with parents through co-teaching. inclusive practices are like puzzle pieces. some teachers’ perceptions of inclu- sive practices are more ambivalent (e. Pavri & Monda-Amaya. 2003. 2006. informally. middle. 2009) and to use collaboration with colleagues and parents (e. and participate dent with a significant disability or several students who need in other school activities and initiatives. McLaughin. and high schools are found to believe strongly in inclusive practices based on high standards for students (King & Youngs. 2001).1 Student Needs As you read this textbook and learn about your responsibilities for support (but not co-teaching). and such perceptions can be represented along a continuum (e. you may collaborate with a para- educating students with disabilities.. 2006). This topic is addressed in detail in Chapter 3. The perceptions of teachers form a third aspect of analyzing the effective- ness of inclusive practices. One way that you can put the puzzle together is to learn to teach in a way that is responsive to a wide range of student needs (Sobel & Taylor. as described in the Working Together feature. 2009). or you may contact a special learning and behavior problems prior to any consideration educator to ask for new ideas for responding to a student’s of the need for special education. they volunteer at school.. Putting the Pieces Together  In some ways. Denham. confer classroom. • Co-teaching: Depending on local programs and services. At the same time. much is known about effective ways to instruct students with M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. Your grade-level or middle or high school depart- • Meeting with special education teachers: You will meet fre. You and the special educator may share responsi.g. sive practices.

At RESEARCH NOTE this point. They also may have difficulty following directions. Who Receives Special Education and Other Special Services? Throughout this chapter. to tasks. Check with your instructor or your state ­department of education website for the terms used in your state. some states use cognitive disability. Pisha & Stahl. Each state has additional laws that clarify special education practices and procedures.4. 2006. although IDEA uses the term intellectual No. organizing assignments. few have examined the effects of children with learning disabilities. and managing time. According to IDEA. Similarly. Labels are a form of shorthand that professionals use. including guidelines about a student. but it they are looking at. but no label can accurately describe a student. 22 C H A PT E R one disabilities. students like those depicted in the video at family members. tions. we will introduce you to the specific categories of disabilities that may Although many researchers have entitle students to receive special education services. and many of those strategies will help other students learn as well (e. Categories of Disability in Federal Law When we say that students have disabilities. As you read the following defini- significant disabilities on their families. although federal law specifies the label emotional disturbance for some students. as well as other special studied the effects of children with needs that may require specialized assistance.g. keep in mind that additional information about these disability categories. students with one or more of the follow- ing 13 disabilities that negatively affect their educational perfor- mance are eligible for special edu- cation services. Your responsibility is to under- and negative reactions from extended stand your students with disabilities. 2005). Learning Disability  Students with a learning disability (LD) have dysfunctions in processing information typically found in language-based activities. McGuire. (http://www. including the federal eligibility criteria for each. By welcom- ing all your students and making these strategies an integral part of your instruc- tion. we have used the phrase students with disabilities. and compute. remember that a disability label can only provide general number of negative effects. or mental Sometimes these students M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. They generally have average or above- average intelligence. Meo. write. in ways that extend be- yond what any label communicates so you can help them reach their goals.. your pieces of the inclusive practices puzzle will fit right into place. Scott. They may not see letters and words in the way others do. the term behavior disorder or behavioral and emotional disability may be used in your state. general stress. attending a student’s abilities and potential. and the terms used to refer to disabilities in state laws may differ from those found in federal law. parent disagreements. 22 C/M/Y/K . & Shaw. but they often encounter significant problems in learning how to read. intellectual impairment. we are referring to the specific cat- egories of exceptionality prescribed by federal special education law. they may not be able to pick out A disability label protects a student important features in a picture and gives access to resources. and they may take longer to process a question or comment does not ­provide information about directed to them. are included in Chapters 6 and Dyson (2010) found a surprising 7. These disabilities also are summarized in Figure 1. For example. Most important.indd 22 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:26 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. 2008.

23 C/M/Y/K . Hearing impairment (HI) A partial or complete loss of hearing. Orthopedic impairment (OI) A significant physical limitation that impairs the ability to move or complete motor ­activities. the most common is the combi- nation of intellectual and physical disabilities. accounting for almost half of all students receiving special education. T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 23 FIGURE Idea Disability Categories 1. Intellectual disability (ID) Significant limitations in intellectual ability and adaptive behavior. potentially affecting learning. examples include cancer. Visual impairment (VI) A partial or complete loss of vision. social skills. 2 More complete federal definitions of each category are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. 1 The terms used in your state may vary from those specified in federal special education law. the most common disability.indd 23 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:26 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. No. this disability occurs in many different forms and may be mild or significant. Developmental delay (DD) A nonspecific disability category that states may choose to use as an alternative to spe- cific disability labels for students up to age 9. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) A medical condition denoting a serious brain injury that occurs as a result of accident or injury.4 Federal Disability Term1 Brief Description2 Learning disability (LD) A disorder related to processing information that leads to difficulties in reading. and ­diabetes. Multiple disabilities The simultaneous presence of two or more disabilities such that none can be identified as primary. Speech or language A disorder related to accurately producing ­impairment (SLI) the sounds of language or meaningfully ­using language to communicate. Emotional disturbance (ED) Significant problems in the social-emotional area to a degree that learning is negatively affected. Deaf-blindness A simultaneous significant hearing loss and significant vision loss. and language. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. behav- ior. this disability occurs in a range of severity. sickle-cell anemia. Autism A disorder characterized by extraordinary dif- ficulty in social responsiveness. writing. Other health impairment (OHI) A disease or health disorder so significant that it negatively affects learning. and computing.

one of the students you met in the introduction to this chapter. Students with ED display these impairments over a long period of time. A significant problems receiving and producing language. For other students education but to a lesser degree. rather. 24 C H A PT E R one appear to be unmotivated or lazy when in fact they are trying their best. speech/language services supplement their other educational For example. That is. or the production of speech sounds. and they may not make eye contact. exists. they may need highly routinized behavior. described at the beginning of this chapter. They generally avoid physical contact (e. In these instances. a speech or language impairment is involved. whether minimum or extensive. Most individuals with this disability lead independent lives after they leave school. Problems with social interactions persist as these children grow. Some most adversely affects a student’s students have far-reaching speech or language disorders. A few individuals need lifelong support. They may F YI omit words or mispronounce common words when they speak. 24 C/M/Y/K . Monika. speech/language services are usually considered a related service. in which they have educational performance. they have chronic and extremely serious emotional or behavioral problems. they may get extremely angry when peers tease or play jokes on them. or repeating something heard on television over and over. repeating what others say. They may communicate secondary disability is an additional through pictures or sign language. they may have extraordinary trouble making and keeping friends. such as speaking without inflection. such as a significant stuttering problem. Some students’ primary disability is a speech disability that also affects a student’s or language disorder. Although the federal description of disability categories does not distinguish between students with mild intellectual disabilities and those with more significant intellectual disabilities. across different settings. Aaron. cuddling and holding). such as a precise procedure.indd 24 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:27 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. Intellectual Disability  Students with an intellectual disability (ID) have significant limitations in intellectual ability and adaptive behaviors. some state descriptions do. but many other types also exist. Students with emotional disabilities are not just students whose behavior in a classroom is challenging to address. a student with a learning disability also might receive with a learning disability as a primary disability could have an emotional speech/language services. and they may receive services for this. Learning disabilities are by far the most common special need: Approximately 41 percent of all students receiving special education services in public schools in 2011–2012 had a learning disability (Data Accountability Center. with disabilities. others are aggressive. has one type of learning disability. Students with this disability may have trouble with articulation. and to a degree significantly different from their peers. They may have unusual language patterns. 2012). Emotional Disturbance When a student has significant difficulty in the social-emotional domain—serious enough to interfere with the student’s learning— emotional disturbance (ED). and no single description characterizes all students with LD. Students with this disability may have difficulty with interpersonal relationships and may respond inappropriately in emotional situations. Some students with ED are depressed. has an intellectual disability. followed every single day. No. a student identified services. injury. Autism  Students with autism. holding jobs and fully participating as community members. They also may A primary disability is one that experience difficulty in fluency. usually lack appropriate social responsiveness from a very early age. Some students M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. and they may reach a point at which their learning levels off. and they may repeatedly and significantly show little or inappropriate emotion when it is expected. for putting on their clothes or eating their meals. also sometimes called an emotional and behavior disorder (EBD) or an emotional disability. sometimes referred to as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because of its many variations. as defined earlier in this chapter. For example.. They learn at a slower pace than do other students. such as when a family pet dies. To feel comfortable. as might a student with autism or traumatic brain disability as a secondary disability. Speech or Language Impairment When a student has extraordinary difficulties communicating with others for reasons other than maturation. they appear unaware of others’ feelings and may not seek interactions with peers or adults.g.

For Mr. If I insist. meeting. For example. Bryant said that John really likes science and that to observe in Ms. . but I hope we can get a clearer sense cause John really wants to do the labs. but that made it worse. No. Mr. Diaz: John is a student with many dimensions. You can learn a little more about autism by reading the Case in Practice feature. Powell: You’ve mentioned the problem of transitioning be- tween activities as one concern. can get in to observe this week. Diaz: No. also is present. think will happen at the next meeting? On the basis of this case. the school psychologist. Ms.1 Problem Solving in Inclusive Schools: The General Education Teacher’s Role At Adams Middle School. I’ve been cuing him as you we transition from one activity to another. staff members are meeting to discuss your team—to gather some additional information. one of the students you met at the beginning of the chapter. It Ms. You might be familiar with the term Asperger syndrome as a specific form of autism. and his behavior is much less disruptive him within the next couple of days so we can come up with new than it was at the beginning of the school year. Ms. the strategies you’ve given me. has autism. even using charts). Diaz: Let’s see . T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 25 CASE IN PRACTICE 1. He also said that some. he usually is attentive. there is a fairly strong suggested—it’s not working now (she shows Ms. I also tried to ignore him. Diaz is John’s English prevent or lead to his behavior. Before we start addressing that. John often starts Mr. I hope we can come up with some ideas to improve about assignments that are very concrete or literal. he knows the nuances of parts of speech better than nearly any of the other students and always knows the answers and wants Ms. Diaz: That would be helpful. We are com. in which teachers meet to problem solve regarding another student with this disability. Ms. Let’s work out the details on observing. Horton is the special educator who provides John during rapid and slower transitions. of the pattern of John’s behavior and the context in which it is times he can tell by watching John’s facial expression that John occurring so we can find the right strategy for addressing it. Horton. It will help John. Bryant is experiencing the same ring. There is no time to waste. Reflection are there any other problems we should be aware of? Why was this meeting a positive example of teachers address- Ms. out. others have intellectual disabilities. the whole situation. Thomas. I’d like to observe teacher. Horton. Powell: Our meeting time is nearly up—the bell is about to Ms. Ms. . He usually Ms. Horton: One contribution I can make is to get into your how would you describe the role of general education teachers classroom—and also into the classrooms of other teachers on in addressing the challenges of inclusion? with autism have above-average intelligence. Ms. The causes of autism are still being researched. and Ms. begins work when was difficult to respond because I think that perception is fairly assigned. If we is trying very hard to transition between activities without a prob. and our data tell stand John better. Right now. and makes a good contribution when we’re talking ­accurate. but whenever strategies. and it will be valuable his specially designed instruction and other needed support. and by viewing the video clip at (http://www. Although this label probably will continue to be used to describe some M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. Powell. Are we all clear on next steps? Ms. Horton: I know you also discussed John at your last team to share when an objective like that is the focus. I’ve had two calls from other parents who said their children reported that John takes up too much of my time in class.indd 25 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:27 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. a seventh-grade student who has a formal diagnosis of to gather data on the sequence of events in class that seem to autism from a pediatric psychologist. Powell: Maybe we should focus for a minute or two on what rocking and singing in a loud voice and essentially shutting me is going well for John in your class. He tries to give John try to generate some strategies? extra time to finish what he is doing in order to avoid the rocking and singing Diaz: That would be great. him? What would you like others to observe in the classroom in mitted to finding more solutions before the problem becomes relation to him? In relation to you as the teacher? What do you more serious. but I hope you can observe does fairly well in class. could we meet next Tuesday to lem—and that it’s very difficult for him. it’s the behavior during transitions— ing a student problem in an inclusive school? What did they do and I want to be clear that all of us on the team know John is that has set them up for success? If you were trying to under- quite capable of learning what we’re teaching. Diaz: Everyone except Mr. what other questions would you ask about us he is making very strong gains academically. 25 C/M/Y/K . Horton her data chance that John will refuse to change. to gather data on how other students respond when he has a Mr. What did his other teachers have to say? Mr. need answers right away. will you be able problems. problem during a transition. Diaz’s class by the end of the week? I know you his behavior problems might not be as pronounced there be. and the best approaches for working with students with autism are still emerging.

Students with diseases such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sickle cell anemia also may be categorized as M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. and it has been discontinued as a diagnosis distinct from autism. Hearing Impairment Disabilities that concern inability or limited ability to receive auditory signals are called hearing impairments (HI). students who are blind do not use vision as a means of learning Diversity has many faces. The category of disability addressing their needs is called other health impairment (OHI). Others may lack the fine motor skills needed to write and may require extra time or adapted equipment to complete assignments. and other aids religious. It includes and instead rely primarily on touch and hearing. students with ethnic. and racial to assist in learning. The degree of the vision and hearing loss may vary from moderate to severe and may be accompanied by other disabilities. may teach. No. Visual Impairment  Disabilities that concern the inability or limited ability to receive information visually are called visual impairments (VI). Students with physical limitations resulting from accidents also may be orthopedically impaired. as are those with other diseases that affect the skeleton or muscles. 26 C H A PT E R one individuals with autism. short-term memory problems. complex electronic device implanted near the ear that can provide a sense of sound. Orthopedic Impairment  Students with orthopedic impairments (OI) have physical conditions that seriously limit their ability to move about or complete motor activities. Depending on the extent of the disability. it does not appear in special education law. and sports injuries are among those who might be eligible for services. they have a significant hearing loss but are able to capitalize on residual hearing by using hearing aids and other amplifying systems. and sudden mood swings. which is a small.indd 26 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:27 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. and social skills. These students have extraordinarily unique learning needs. cultural. including limited strength or alertness. 26 C/M/Y/K . developmental delays. Students with orthopedic impairments are difficult to describe as a group because their strengths and needs vary tremendously. linguistic. Students who have cerebral palsy are included in this group. economic. diagnosis by a physician is required along with assessment of students’ learning. as might those with severe and chronic asthma. In addition. some students with vision loss need specialized differences among the students you training to help them learn to move around successfully in their environment. Students who experience serious head trauma and resulting TBI from automobile accidents. irritability. Traumatic Brain Injury  Students with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have a wide range of characteristics and special needs. or other strategies to communicate with others. falls. particularly in the domain of communication. Some students have DIMENSIONS partial sight and can learn successfully using magnification devices and other OF DIVERSITY adaptive materials. Students who are deaf have little or no residual hearing and therefore do not benefit from traditional devices that aid hearing. ability. some students with this disability are unable to move about without a wheelchair and may need special transportation to get to school and a ramp to enter the school building. behavior. computers adapted for their use. Deaf-Blindness  Students who have both significant vision and hearing loss sometimes are eligible for services as deaf-blind. When students are hard of hearing. hearing or vision loss that may be temporary or permanent. Students who have chronic heart conditions necessitating frequent and prolonged absences from school might be eligible for special education in this category. Other Health Impairment Some students have a disease or disorder so significant that it affects their ability to learn in school. speech reading. Because TBI is a medical condition that affects education. Students in this category are likely to receive special education services beginning at birth or very soon thereafter. visual impairments may use braille. students with hearing impairments may use sign language. Depending on need. and they require highly specialized services to access their education. For example. gender. Their characteristics depend on the specific injuries they experienced. Some students with hearing loss may be assisted through the use of advanced technology such as a cochlear implant. and their needs often change over time.

depending on the impact of their illnesses on learning. depending on state and local policy and practices). visual impairments. 2012). speech or language impair- ments. most of the strategies presented throughout the text can M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. Multiple Disabilities  The category used when students have two or more significant disabilities is called multiple disabilities. at the same time that (a) the term or adaptive development. and emotional disturbance. students gen- erally are discussed in terms of only the following two groups: 1. It should be noted. It is an option that states FY I may use for children ages 3 through 9.indd 27 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:27 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. varying exceptionalities. 2. orthopedic impairments. Students in this group often have an intellectual disability as well as a physical disability. where more attention is paid to students’ learning needs than to their labels. simple or complex devices that facilitate their learning. throughout this text. as explained in the Technology Notes feature. it acknowledges the substituted and (b) the law’s wording difficulty of determining the nature of a specific disability when children are was revised to person-first language. Developmental Delay  The category developmental delay (DD) is somewhat different than the other disabilities recognized in IDEA. this classification is used only when the student’s disabilities are so serious and interrelated that none can be identified as a primary disability. & Goran. that this pattern gradually is changing. This option has two advantages: First. the most recent year for which official data are available (U. cognitive. social-emotional. Together these disabilities account for nearly 80 percent of the disabilities reported in 2006–2007. T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 27 having other health impairments. but this category also may be used to describe any student with two or more disability types (with the exception of deaf-blindness). Specifically. but it is applied instead of one of the more specific handicapped was removed and disability categories. Low-incidence disabilities are those that are less common and include all the other categories: moderate to severe intellectual disabilities. though. Consistent with this cross-categorical approach (also sometimes referred to as multi-categorical. traumatic brain injury. Students with multiple disabilities often benefit from assistive technology. When you prepare to teach a student. students labeled in different categories often benefit from the same instructional adjustments (Gage. However. or similar terms. A Cross-Categorical Approach to Special Education Federal and state education agencies and local school districts use the categories of disability described in the previous section for counting the number of stu- dents receiving special education services and allocating money to educate them. you probably will find that the specific category of disability does not guide you in discovering that student’s strengths and devising appropriate teaching strategies. mild intellectual disabilities. No. Some students—but not all—with attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also receive special education services in this category. rapidly growing and changing. characteristics of students with disabilities are discussed in more detail in Chapters 6 and 7. 27 C/M/Y/K . Lierheimer. 2011). deaf-blindness. and developmental delays. This category includes youngsters who Autism and traumatic brain injury have significant delays in physical. multiple dis- abilities. including learning disabilities. High-incidence disabilities are those that traditionally have been most com- monly identified. Further. communication. or exceptional education. however. Department of Education. In addition. the use of large-print books for students with visual impairments). were added to IDEA in 1990. and second. it avoids the use of the preferred term disability was more stigmatizing labels for young children. that is. hearing impairments.S. autism. other health impair- ments. as the number of students with ADHD served in the category of other health impairments grows and the number of students identified as having autism increases. although some strategies specific to categorical groups are outlined in those chapters (for example. Therefore. the students considered to be in “high-incidence” groups are likely to change.

28 C/M/Y/K . . of its use: peers. Assistive technology. product. For example. The instructional strategies you learn in this book also sometimes can assist you in teaching many other students who may struggle in school. 1 The Opportunities of Assistive Technology Whether the students you teach have mild or significant disabilities. Other Students with Special Needs Not all students who have special learning and behavior needs are addressed in special education laws. No technology (no-tech) or low technology (low-tech) refers to • Ellen is a college student with significant physical disabili- items that do not include any type of electronics. low-tech options for assisting students community. No. These are • This video shows how Kara uses a small electronic head mouse examples of the levels of assistive technology students might use. • The video at the following site demonstrates one type of ing. Examples: • Voice-recognition software that allows a student to use a mi- crophone to dictate information that then appears in print on the computer • Electronic communication boards on which a student can touch a picture and a prerecorded voice communicates for him. the functional capabilities of an individual with a disability. a student touches a picture of himself and a voice Electronic communication boards are an example of says “ • A nonslip placemat on a student’s desk that makes it easier for watch?v=fAdEOXD9Tvk). or other item) used to increase. Examples: • A digital audio recorder that a student uses to record lectures • A calculator that assists a student in completing math computations • A timer that lets a student know it is time to change from one activity to another High Technology Items considered high technology (high-tech) incorporate more so- phisticated. and others. In this video.indd 28 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. My name is Danny. and fully participate in school and in the technology. complete assignments. you will see that many options are available for helping all students succeed. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. Examples: ties. to use her computer and participate in her high school classes: (http://teachertube. she demonstrates how she uses switches • A rubber pencil grip that enables a student with a disability to she touches with her head to control her wheelchair better grasp a pencil or pen and communication device: (http://www.php?video_id=75646&title=Assistive_Technology_for_ ment. If you adopt a cross-categorical approach in your own thinking about teaching students with disabilities. which students with disabilities are with writing tasks: (http://teachertube. refers to any device (that is. sometimes costly technology.php?title=Jefferson_ No Technology or Low Technology Parish_Assistive_Technology&video_id=117641). piece of equip. access learn. her to pick up items because it stops them from sliding • A study carrel that helps a student pay closer attention to the schoolwork at hand Mid-Technology Devices in the mid-technology (mid-tech) category use simple elec- tronics. What is your name?” today’s assistive technology that enables students with Are you interested in assistive technology? Here are examples ­communication disorders to interact with teachers. that is. 28 C H A PT E R one T EC H NOLOGY NO T E S 1 .com/viewVideo​ entitled to use as needed. Examples of Technology Use they can use technology to help them to communicate. including those described in the following be used effectively with many different students with disabilities. or improve Writing_Low_High_Tech_Options).

The impact of this disorder on students’ schoolwork can be significant. however. those who live in poverty or move frequently. Other students who might be considered at risk include those who are homeless. environment. he has participated in state and national piano recitals. including those who are English language learners. when this is the case. Adequate funds are not always provided to implement these laws. and his parents have requested that he have access to the music room during recess so he can practice. that helps them focus their attention. students with attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They are sometimes described as “falling between the cracks” of the educational system be- cause although most professionals agree they need special assistance. These services may occur in a separate classroom or within the general education setting. specific academic subjects. but they often cannot keep pace with the instruction in most general education classrooms without assistance. Students Protected by Section 504  Some students not eligible to receive The person being special education services are entitled to protection through Section 504 and interviewed in this video receive specialized assistance because of their functional disabilities. and they may need assistance in learning at school. 29 C/M/Y/K . still in elementary school. and so the availability and scope of services for students with particular talents vary across the country and even within each state. They receive bilingual education or English as a second language (ESL) services to have opportunities to learn English while also learning the standard curriculum. A second group of at-risk students includes struggling learners whose educa- tional progress is below average but who do not have a disability. and she also is eager to learn about almost everything. These students have a medical condition often characterized by an inability to attend to complex tasks for long periods of time. but some states have separate laws that provide guidelines for identifying and educating students with special talents. other students who may be protected by Section 504 include those with dwarfism. Erin is included in this group. Students with ADHD may take medication. they are not eligible for special education. T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 29 Students Who Are Gifted or Talented Students who demonstrate ability far above average in one or several areas—including overall intellectual ability. Evan is considered talented. These students are learning to the best of their abilities. Students in these groups are at risk for school failure because of the environment or circumstances in which they live. and those who are victims of physical or psychological abuse. such as Ritalin or Strattera. Among those likely to be included in this group are some in education. creativity. Many students with learning disabilities or emotional disturbance also have ADHD. athletics. or experiences make them more likely than others to fail in school (and they also may have disabilities). The checklist presented in the Professional Edge feature is a tool you can use to analyze your readiness to work with students and families from diverse backgrounds. Students at Risk Often. or those with a medical disorder such as Crohn’s disease.indd 29 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. and the visual or performing arts—are considered gifted or talented. Students whose primary language is not English—sometimes referred to as English-language learners (ELLs) or students who have limited English proficiency (LEP)—sometimes are considered at risk. as do students with ADHD whose disorder is so significant that they are determined to be eligible for special education. as described explains Section 504 earlier in this chapter. but these students receive assistance through IDEA. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. They are likely to access and benefit from response to intervention (RtI) or similar services described earlier in this chapter. leadership. those who have spina bifida. she seems to learn without effort. both English- language instruction and special education may be provided. the general term at risk refers to students whose characteristics. those who are born to mothers abusing drugs or alcohol or who abuse drugs or alcohol themselves. Some ELLs also have disabilities. and/or impulsivity. In addition to those mentioned earlier in the chapter. excessive motor activity. No. Students who are gifted or talented are not addressed in federal special education law.

You can find and social interactions expected of male and female the complete self-assessment checklist at the National Center children). how families respond to illnesses. Here is an excerpt from a tool designed lies may vary significantly among different cultures to help professionals reflect on their awareness of a variety of (e. or C for each item • I accept that religion and other beliefs may influence listed below. current trends in education can help you. may not necessarily demonstrate values and engage in practices that • They may or may not be literate either in their ­language promote a culturally diverse and culturally competent service-delivery of origin or English. system for children with disabilities or special health care needs and • I use alternative formats and varied approaches to their families. or statement applies to me to may influence a family’s reaction and approach to a a moderate degree.indd 30 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. or statement applies to me to and death. 30 C/M/Y/K . tional Center for Cultural Competence.” you communicate effectively in their language of origin. • I recognize and understand that beliefs and concepts documents/ChecklistCSHN. as students with disabilities spend increasing amounts of time in general education classes. 30 C H A PT E R one PROFE S S IONAL E D GE 1 . First.georgetown. who makes major decisions for the family. preparation. actions with children who have limited English proficiency. Copyright diverse backgrounds may desire varying degrees of © 2009. Reprinted by permission of Georgetown University Center for acculturation into the dominant culture.pdf). feeding. already introduced. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. • I avoid imposing values that may conflict or be incon- From Promoting Cultural Competence: A Self-Assessment. No. you can access RtI procedures. gestures.. if you frequently responded “C. You may find it challenging to find effective strategies to reach your stu- dents who have special needs but who do not have disabilities according to special education law. I always keep in mind that: from culture to culture. for research-based interven- tions for your struggling learners. disability. English. A = Things I do frequently. or other interventions. 2 Promoting Cultural Competence: A Self-Assessment Cultural competence refers to your understanding of and re. Promoting sistent with those of cultures or ethnic groups other cultural diversity and cultural competency: Self assessment checklist for than my own. communicate and share information with children Checklist excerpts are included with express permission from the Na- and/or their family members who experience disability. and use are different proficiency. ing toileting. However. • I accept and respect that male–female roles in fami- sponses to diversity. Thus. • I understand that traditional approaches to disciplining • For children who speak languages or dialects other than children are influenced by culture. B. and physical prompts in my inter. for Cultural Competence at (http://nccc. However. In addition.g. child born with a disability or later diagnosed with a C = Things I do rarely or never. Note: This checklist is intended to heighten the awareness and sensi- • Their limited ability to speak the language of the tivity of personnel to the importance of cultural diversity and cultural competence in human service settings. Child & Human Development. play factors that contribute to cultural competence. • Limitation in English proficiency is in no way a ­reflection of their level of intellectual functioning. other students with special needs often benefit from the inclusive education for students with disabilities. treatment. I attempt to learn and use key words in their lan- • I understand that families from different cultures will guage so that I am better able to communicate with them have different expectations of their children for acquir- during assessment. disease. and other self-help • I use visual aids. of emotional well-being vary significantly from culture to culture. • I recognize and accept that folk and religious beliefs B = Things I do occasionally. skills. personnel providing services and supports to children with disabilities & • I recognize and accept that individuals from culturally special health needs and their families by Tawara D. Goode. DIRECTIONS: Please select A. or statement applies to me physical/emotional disability or special health care to a minimal degree or not at all. • I accept and respect that customs and beliefs about • When interacting with parents who have limited English food and its value. special education teach- ers and other special services providers often informally assist teachers in plan- ning and adapting educational activities for at-risk students. a great deal. dressing. There is no answer key with ­dominant culture has no bearing on their ability to correct responses.

Remembering that Aaron does not want to stand out or be treated differently. and her teachers? Which of the laws and court cases you learned about in this chapter led to the educational op- THOMAS. and its regulations. M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. If you believe ability. the United States who have disabilities. and supplementary aids ing students meet them. including those cases. Assessment After completing this chapter. check your understanding of the concepts by completing the End of Chapter Assessment. the civil rights movement that delay. speech or language impairment. deaf-blindness. The questions and activities that follow ferred option for some students? What could be the demonstrate how the concepts you have analyzed con. hearing • Current special education practices have been influ. her classmates. related services. impairment. as you may recall. ortho- enced by a number of critical factors. AARON. autism. multiple disabilities. drawbacks to this approach for Monika. what would you say MONIKA. The require.indd 31 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. and whose life situations comprise high in implementing. Several of the assistive technologies mentioned in Thomas would be more successful learning in a special the Technology Notes on page 28 could provide support education setting. is a student with autism. intellec- Disabilities Education Act. who have ADHD. both as she proceeds through school and being a member of a general education classroom has during her post-school life? been successful for Thomas. high may have these special needs. at risk. including the pedic impairment. including English-language learners and strug- ized by several themes that all teachers have a part gling learners. traumatic brain injury. impairment. and the concept of inclusiveness. who are gifted or talented. receives some of Summary • Special education refers to the specially designed in. These include prevention of the risk for school failure. is troubled by his learning dis- cess for other students with disabilities. However. many students have special needs not began in the mid-twentieth century. • Federal law identifies 13 categories of disability that ments for special education services are specified in may entitle students to special education services: learn- federal special education law. Students with disabilities also need for special education whenever possible. and developmental tury. explain what factors led you to that for Aaron’s problems with attention and written tests. and current civil rights and education legislation. visual impairment. explain what factors led you to that conclusion and how they may contribute to suc. other health context in which it began early in the twentieth cen. If you believe that for Monika. implementation of evidence- and services received by the millions of students in based practices. mend to Aaron. 31 C/M/Y/K . the Individuals with ing disability. parent advocacy. Why might this be a pre- at its beginning. who are • Contemporary special education practice is character. academic expectations and accountability for ensur- struction. the elementary student with fragile X syn- to him to help him accept these assistive supports? drome and an intellectual disability. conclusion and how those factors may prevent success Select at least two technologies that you would recom- for other students with disabilities. tual disability. nect to the everyday activities of all teachers. as you may remember from the beginning of tions ­Monika has? What do you think the future holds the chapter. No. emotional disturbance. significant court addressed through special education. T h e F o u ndat i on fo r E d u cat i n g S t u den t s w i t h S p ec i a l N eeds 31 Wrapping It Up Back to the Cases This section provides opportunities for you to apply the her education in a general education setting and some knowledge gained in this chapter to the cases described in a special education setting.

think you can make a contribution to your students’ education? What types of support might you need? If you write your responses to these questions. ­reduce these risks and concerns? How might your ity. ment. learned in your professional preparation program: and Tory’s special needs might be demonstrated in an elementary school. Tory’s responses to teachers and classmates 5. He frequently is absent middle school. as you read and consider the information in each and Tory might bring to your classroom? How can following chapter. and Tory. You are excited about your new these students to a general education classroom like job but worried about following the district curriculum yours? How do the provisions of IDEA and ESEA and making sure your students succeed on high-stakes ­affect these students’ educational rights and respon- tests. To read. If a teacher points at positive outcomes should you expect? How can you the whiteboard and says. What are some of the benefits and opportunities of light. What are your concerns and questions when you often change suddenly: Although he sometimes fol. book or crumples a paper. and she gets fatigued from the effort required educating these students in your classroom? What to use what little vision she has. No.indd 32 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. types of supports could prevent or significantly • Ramon is identified as having a learning disabil. . Ramon. look at this . 32 C H A PT E R one Applications in Teaching Practice UNDERSTANDING CONTEMPORARY SPECIAL EDUCATION It is a new school year—your first as a teacher in the their difficulties? What is the rationale for assigning Danville School District. or high • Cassie is a bright student who has a visual impair- school classroom. What are some of the risks and concerns related to to. middle school. She also needs to work in bright 2. he frequently asks for help immediately after direc. Then you learn that you will be responsible for the sibilities? What are appropriate goals that you as a following students. unique views might each student’s parents have? • Tory lives in a foster home.” ensure these positive outcomes? Cassie will not know what the teacher is referring 3.. Ramon. at other times he refuses to work. He was removed from How might their views be influenced by their fam- his mother’s care because of several incidents of ily cultures and experiences? abuse. and 4. what might you expect them to say? What tions for an assignment have been given. 32 C/M/Y/K . His reading ability is significantly below grade own beliefs be either a benefit or a risk for these level. the information must be stated out loud for her educating these students in your classroom? What to follow the instruction. or high school? In what ways do you from school. and you find that you need all the teacher should have as you begin to instruct them? skills for reaching diverse groups of students that you Discuss with your classmates how Cassie. He often forgets students? to bring materials and assignments to school. Ramon. keep Questions them at hand and use them as a basis for discussion 1. you emphasize their possible strengths instead of M01_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH01. dents with disabilities and other special needs in and he sometimes loses his temper and throws a your classroom—whether in the elementary grades. He also seems disorganized. What are the possible strengths that Cassie. . think about your responsibilities for educating stu- lows directions. she uses a computer that greatly mag- nifies materials. “Everyone. If you spoke with the parents of Cassie.

Outline the types of services that students with disabilities may receive and the settings in which they may receive them. Examine the role of general education teachers in the procedures and services of special education. 6. Describe the process through which a student may become eligible to receive special education services. Discuss how parents participate in special education decision making and what occurs when parents and school district representatives disagree.indd 34 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:22 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. 34 C/M/Y/K . 5. 2. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. Analyze the roles and responsibilities of the individuals who may participate in educating students with disabilities. Name the components of individualized education programs (IEPs) and provide examples of them. No. you will be able to 1. CHAPTER TWO Special Education Procedures and Services Learning Objectives After you read this chapter. reflecting on their critical contributions to positive outcomes for students with disabilities. 4. 3.

Jennifer needs to complete unit tests in a small. At the faculty meeting MS. But now in first grade. It also mentions steps being taken to help Jennifer prepare for a vocational program she will attend after high school. she realizes that it is a summary of the individualized education program (IEP) for Jennifer. Lee’s room. This means he will receive additional reading instruction three times each week for 40 minutes. She has many questions related to the apparent pressure to keep students with disabilities in general education. Ms. but she is not sure what her role is supposed to be. and longer timelines for assignments) as well as specification of test accommodations Jennifer should receive. even when they are struggling to learn. is to address Christopher’s academic def- icits before they become so significant that special education might be needed. develop a plan for improving services to students. and she is preparing for a meeting with her school’s ­ tudent Intervention Team (SIT) to discuss his slow learning progress. If. That means she will go to the special education classroom on test days instead of reporting to Ms. one of her first-grade MS. his learning accelerated. the transition specialist. and another teacher—will decide to move Christopher to Tier 2. and the social worker are mentioned in the document. she learned that her school district has been cited by the state department of education because too many students are assigned to special edu- cation classes for core instruction and proportionately too many African American students are identified as needing special education services. and be accountable for the imple- mentation and outcomes of the plan. has just pulled from her mailbox a docu- MS. KUCHTA ­students. What actions do Ms. Ms. Nyugen has been appointed to the leadership team. but the special education teacher is listed as the person to contact to answer questions. he will receive even more inten- sive interventions at Tier 3. Kuchta anticipates that the team—which includes the school psychologist.indd 35 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:22 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. At today’s meeting. NYUGEN that just ended. continues to worry about Christopher. Kuchta has been implementing what are referred to as Tier 1 interven- tions. Christopher was iden- S tified as being at risk for school failure early in kindergarten. but Ms. that intervention is not increasing his learning rate. LEE. What roles do general education teachers play in writing and implementing IEPs? How are they responsible for ensuring that IEP accommodations and modifications are available in the classroom? Who are the other service providers that teachers may work with as they educate students with disabilities? teaches pre-algebra to eighth graders. structured en- vironment. seeing that it appears that a bias exists but wondering what is supposed to happen if those students are so far behind their peers that they need the support special education can offer. Ms. Kuchta’s data indicate they are not having enough of an impact to help Christopher catch up to his peers. Ms. the literacy coach. problems are ­occurring again. preferential seating. if at all possible. after 10 weeks. Lee notes that the speech/language therapist. With intensive instruction and frequent monitoring of his progress. ment titled “IEP at a Glance. 35 C/M/Y/K . For example. She also is troubled by the information about African American students.” As she reads through it. research-based reading strategies. To resolve these problems. The goal. the district has di- rected each school to form a leadership team to examine school-level data related to these two issues. one of her stu- dents. This process of data-driven and increasingly intensive interventions is referred to as response to intervention. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. The summary includes a list of tools Jennifer should receive as part of instruction (including shorter assignments. the assistant principal. No. Kuchta and other teachers take when their students are struggling? How do educators decide whether Christopher’s (and other students’) learning challenges are so significant that they may constitute a disability and require special education services? a high school English teacher.

a stu- dent whose behavior is so different from that of other students that you suspect an emotional disorder. Together. you will encounter students who struggle to learn. you will learn about your role in working with other professionals and parents to prevent the need for special education by us- ing effective instructional strategies. you are the first professional discussed in this section because for many students with suspected or documented disabilities. you are the person who has the most detailed knowledge of their day-to-day strengths and needs in your classroom. and you may find that the strategies effective with most students do not work with them. You will discover that parents play a crucial role in special education procedures and that when they or students disagree with school professionals about special services. understanding of their African American students negatively affects those relationships (Henfield & General Education Teachers Washington. You are the person most likely to bring to the attention of other professionals a student whom you suspect may have a disability (McClanahan. No. Caucasian however. Some may appear to do everything they can not to learn. This chapter introduces you to people who specialize in working with stu- dents with disabilities and procedures for deciding whether a student is eligible for special education services. almost every day. 2009). Yet other students may have challenging behaviors that interfere with their learning. or a student who has extraordinary difficulty focusing on M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. 36 C/M/Y/K . and who provides them. As the general education teacher. Your responsibilities span several areas. those approaching adolescence. 2012). and evaluate the special education teachers report that their lack of that students with disabilities receive. and monitor student learning.indd 36 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:22 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. how a student becomes eli- gible for those services. carry out students’ educational programs. Not surprisingly. such OF DIVERSITY as special education teachers. many different individuals can be involved in the delivery of DIMENSIONS these services. That is. Others you might work with Although teacher–student only occasionally. You may wonder whether some of these students should receive special education services. 36 CHAPTER TWO How do general education teachers and other school staff members contribute to the identification of students as needing special education and the instruction of students eligible for those services? What options exist for students with disabilities to receive the services to which they are entitled? To what extent does this occur in the general education setting? Why? How are such decisions made? W hether you teach young children. these educators create. implement. You also will learn how students’ individualized education programs (IEPs) are designed and monitored and which services stu- dents with disabilities access. Who Are the Professionals in Special Education? Students with disabilities are entitled to a wide range of supports and programs. Others may try their best but still not be successful. Some of these professionals serve students indirectly or work relationships can profoundly only with the few students who have the most challenging disabilities. or those about to leave school for post-secondary education or vocational preparation. you may encounter a student who is reading significantly below grade level ­despite your use of instructional strategies demonstrated to be successful. Most important. procedures exist to help them resolve these differences. determine student eligibility for special edu- cation. You probably will interact with some of these professionals. affect achievement.

compiling descriptions of his behavior. & Caldarella. objectives. Special Education Teachers Special education teachers are the professionals with whom you are most likely to have ongoing contact in teaching students with disabilities. they may consult with you regarding a student suspected of having a disability and work with you to determine whether a referral for assessment for possible special education is warranted. For example. They typically also provide direct and indirect (Data Accountability Center. & Johnston-Rodriguez. That profes- sional may work indirectly with other special education professionals to ensure that each student’s educational plan is being implemented and monitored. including writing and implementing the individual. instruction to students who are assigned to them. for some students. For example. you may work with a consulting teacher or M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. For example.. special education teachers may be designated by the type of services they provide. For example. Munk. United States for students ages 6–21 ized education program (IEP). 2009. 2013). In addition. & Lenz. you may work with different types of special education teachers. Feuerborn. & Kirkpatrick. your role in planning and provid- ing special services to students may seem overwhelming. studies of general education teachers typically indicate that they positively contribute to the education of students with disabilities. you might help others understand the curricular expectations in your classroom and the types of accommodations that may be necessary for the stu- dent to succeed there. When you suspect a disability. If the student is referred for assessment for special education. 2012). especially when they receive support in doing so. Gibb. sufficient time for collaborative planning. When all your responsibilities are listed.456 Deshler. and keeping notes of how you have attempted to address the problem (Walker-Dalhouse et al. Mitchell. you contribute information about his academic and social functioning in your classroom and help identify the student’s strengths. Vostal. Lylo. 2011). Pearl. 2009). 2010. 2010. The supports most often mentioned as critical include administrative leadership. & Hua. 37 C/M/Y/K . If special education services are deemed necessary. and adequate funding and other resources for program support (Conderman.1.. for some students with high- incidence disabilities in your class. a special education teacher may support a student with a learning disability and also a student with a moderate intellectual disability or a speech or language impairment. special education teachers work only with specific groups of students. 2013). gathering data to document the impact of those interventions (e. 2014. You also might assist special services staff members in updating parents on their child’s quarterly and yearly progress. you are expected in many instances to effectively teach the student as well as to work with special services staff mem- bers to provide appropriate instruction within your classroom (Friend.g. Dieker. and these profes- FY I sionals have increasingly complex roles (Fuchs. & Tyre. Hoppey & McLeskey. Some- times. Sometimes special education teachers are assigned to work with all of the students with disabilities in your class. 2011. In other situations. and educational program components. 2012). However. you document the student’s characteris- tics and behaviors that led to your concern by gathering samples of the student’s work. You work with special education colleagues and other professionals to systematically implement interventions in your classroom to clarify whether the student’s problems need further exploration.indd 37 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:22 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 37 learning. & Stecker. needs. Fuchs. a teacher for students with visual impairments or hearing loss generally will be responsible only for students with those disabilities. The most recent data available indicate that there are 370. In states that do not use categorical labels for students. Depending on the state in which you teach and the disabilities of the stu- dents in your classroom. you participate in deciding appropriate goals and. Lee. Several of the key responsibilities of a general education teacher are summarized in Figure 2. No. Most important. They are responsible for managing and coordinating the special education teachers in the services a student receives. a process explained later in this chapter. Sarin. staff preparation and professional development. some teachers work with students with high- incidence disabilities or low-incidence disabilities.

No. perhaps an inclusion facilitator (Friend & Cook. and coordinate students’ services. Teachers for students with vision or hearing loss often are itinerant. stylized “strolling. 38 C/M/Y/K . You also might work with a resource teacher who divides time among were shown videos of students directly instructing students. 2003). McCray. provide services to students. to-intervention (RtI) procedure. at- achievement. regarding students with disabilities. Provide evidence-based and behavior. 2013). In some high schools. 38 CHAPTER TWO FIGURE General Education Teacher Responsibilities Related to Implementing IDEA 2. This professional might meet with you regularly to monitor students’ progress. a topic addressed in Chapter 3 (Friend. or other needs serious appropriately differentiated enough to seek input from day-to-day instruction. Hurley-Chamberlain. Cook. Webb-Johnson. However.1 Identify students with learning. if you work in a school district where each school M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. 2010). problem solve with you DIMENSIONS about student concerns. education than the former students For some groups of students. special the latter students had lower education teachers now are assigned to work with a particular department. were more aggressive. in some cases working OF DIVERSITY directly with students but in other situations working indirectly by supporting When middle school teachers teachers. and displaying “traditional walking” or ­co-teaching. but they travel between two or more school sites to difference in the results. Itinerant teachers often have roles like the pro- of the student did not make a fessionals just described. working with teachers regarding student needs. & Bridgest. tending department meetings and providing supports for all students with dis- and were more likely to need special abilities enrolled in that department’s courses. Implement strategies and gather Collaborate with colleagues data as part of a response. colleagues. 2010.” they concluded & Shamberger.indd 38 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. Swanson & Vaughn. the special educator with whom you interact (Neal. The race or ethnicity might be an itinerant teacher. Participate in writing IEPs as a member of the multidisciplinary team.

or post-secondary edu- cation (Balcazar et al. play important roles in edu- cating students with disabilities. a psychological report). school psychologists sometimes chair the multidisciplinary team that meets to decide whether a student has a disability and. First. Regardless of the type of special education teachers with whom you work. these professionals typically are part of the team that designs and implements interventions prior to a decision about referral for pos- sible special education services. academic. whether in specialist works with local businesses to arrange core academic areas or related student job sites and resolve problems related to student workers. accompanying a student to a job site and educators to ensure that students helping her master the skills needed to do the job successfully. are likely to work with special sional also may serve as a job coach. & Wehman. A transition General educators. you will find that they are important instructional partners who are no longer relegated to teaching just in the special education classroom. even the special educator for students with high-incidence disabilities may deliver services this way. if so. you might work very closely with a transition specialist. emotional. arts. school psychologists often have a major responsibility for determining a student’s intellectual. the professionals in your school who used to be called special education teach- ers are now referred to as intervention specialists (IS) or exceptional educators. They typically contribute a detailed written analysis of the student’s strengths and areas of need. This professional typi- cally works in a high school setting and helps prepare students to leave school for vocational training. The video at (http://www. A second major task for school psychologists is designing strategies to ­address students’ academic and social or behavior problems. and/or behavioral functioning. In a related role. with disabilities receive the specially As the nature of special education services changes. No. employment. 2012). 39 C/M/Y/K . in many school districts. School Psychologists School psychologists offer at least two types of expertise related to educating students with disabilities (Merrell. too. whether students have been identified as having a disability or not (Bennett. Ervin. social. what types of services are needed. The following list includes the individuals with whom you are most likely to work. working directly and separately with students who have disabilities. and similar areas. & Bartel. & Gimpel. you will have contact with a variety of other service providers. industrial and other vocational arts. you might find that are entitled. This change in title represents an effort to de-label teachers and parallels the ­effort to de-emphasize students’ labels—that is. One other type of special education teacher is a transition .. 2009). Brooke. consumer sciences. 2012. Revell. so also do the job designed instruction to which they ­responsibilities and titles of special educators. Erchul. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. They.indd 39 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. No matter what subject you teach in high school. Young. They support students by creating adapted materials. Sometimes they serve as behavior consultants. Related Service Providers and Other Specialists In addition to working with special education teachers. This professional also spends time working directly with students to assess their skills and interests related to life after school. For example. For example. 2012). This profes. S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 39 has only a few students with disabilities. teach- ing with you in the general education classroom. but this is especially likely in business is an example of the roles and responsibilities of one high school special education teacher. and often serving as coordinators for all the ­services any single student may receive. this document is referred to as a “psych report” (that is. to focus on student strengths and needs rather than the language of disability.

and sometimes a department chairperson or team leader are the administrators most likely to participate actively in the education of students with disabilities. 2011). a student with severe language delays. Every team that determines whether a student is eligible for special education must have administrative representation. Some have mild problems in pronouncing words or speaking clearly. and to community health services. Similarly. the mother of Marisha. For example. including areas such as self-concept. At the early elementary level. they can create a family history by interviewing parents conditions in the home—are more and visiting a student’s home. assistant principal.g. & Heath. For example. Yet others rely on alternative means of communication. requested that her daughter receive speech/language therapy for 40 minutes M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. they may help involved in their school teams for other school professionals work with families on matters such as gaining access students struggling to learn. However. 40 C/M/Y/K . 2013). and they have a tremendously diverse range of school responsibilities (Harris. counselors might provide individual assistance to a student struggling to understand a parent’s death or unexplained departure from the family or other stressful events. to incorporate activities designed to enhance students’ self-concept into day-to-day classroom social workers may serve as consultants to teachers and also may student learning (as opposed to provide individual or group assistance to students. Speech/Language Therapists Many students with disabilities have communication needs. such as communication boards. counselors in some school districts assess students’ social and emotional functioning. and social skills. and teachers. The school social worker often follows up on are more likely to implement RtI teacher reports about the suspected abuse or neglect of students. strategies (Nunn & Jantz. they assist a teacher by working with an entire class group on social skills. motivation. 2009. Burdette. they also work at other school levels and contribute to the education of students with disabilities (Serres & Nelson. they might work on vocabulary with a group of students and might also help a student with a moderate cognitive disability pronounce some words more clearly or combine words into sentences.. 2012). they might help a student with an intellectual disability learn to read common signs and complete tasks such as ordering in a restaurant or asking for assistance. 2011). they often focus on functional vocabulary and work mostly with students with low-incidence disabilities. 40 CHAPTER TWO Occasionally. In one school. 2005). No. 2009). Counselors  Although counselors most often advise high school students and assist students with disabilities as they transition from school to post-school options (Milsom & Hartley. McConnellogue. they might work with an entire class on language development or with an individual student on pronouncing sounds. peers. You can learn more about the responsibilities of school psychologists by viewing the brief video at (http://www. they might suggest ways to draw out a student who is excessively shy. attitude toward school. For example. For teachers. They also might provide individual assistance to students with emo- tional or behavioral problems who are not eligible for special education. The professionals who specialize in meeting students’ communication needs are speech/language therapists. Their role is to offer knowledge about the entire school community and provide perspective on school district policies regarding special education and also to help address parents’ concerns (e. They often are liaisons between schools and outside their control—such as families. At the intermediate elementary level.indd 40 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. or work with an entire class on how to interact with a peer who has a disability. Prater. this information may be critical in determining powerful) are more likely to be whether a student needs special education services. social workers have those who believe that factors additional expertise (Massat. Thus. RESEARCH NOTE Social Workers  Social workers’ expertise is similar to that of counselors in Teachers who believe that their terms of being able to help teachers and students address social and emotional efforts truly make a difference in issues. Administrators  The school principal. Counselors also can provide services to both teachers and students. For students. or to create an emotionally safe classroom environment. arrange group sessions with several students who share specific needs. Others have an extremely limited vocabulary. At the middle or high school level.

• Mobility specialist. School professionals were in agreement that this amount of therapy was not appropriate. A few students have medical conditions that require a specially trained paraprofessional be present to monitor their status. These individuals usually have a certificate based on completing a community college or similar training program. and assist in monitoring to ensure that students with disabili- ties receive needed supports. • Bilingual special educator. 2009). Gathers needed medical information about students with disabilities and interprets such information from physicians and other medical personnel. Other Specialists  Depending on student needs and state and local practices. that is. Listens to classroom instruction and relays it to students who are deaf or hard of hearing using sign language. Assesses and intervenes related to gross motor skills. These paraprofes- sionals’ primary responsibility is to work with students with disabilities. • Occupational therapist. aides. Specializes in serving students from diverse cul- tural and linguistic backgrounds because of expertise in both special educa- tion and bilingual education. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. but two roles are especially common. Designs physical education activities for students with physical. S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 41 daily. a student with no ability to move his arms may have a paraprofessional who takes notes for him and completes other tasks such as feeding. This professional specializes in understanding the sometimes complex procedures of special education. Some paraprofessionals are assigned to specific students who need ongoing individual assistance. Here is a list of these individuals and a brief description of their roles: • Physical therapist. A second and more common role for paraprofessionals is to assist in the delivery of special services for many students. but they sometimes also help other students and the teacher as the need arises and time permits. For example. The Professional Edge feature contains more information about recom- mended responsibilities for paraprofessionals. these service providers generally complete their work under the direction of teachers and other professional staff members. problem solve with teachers when issues arise. other professionals also may participate in the education of students with disabilities. and during bus duty. some are licensed teachers. Helps students with visual impairments learn how to become familiar with their environments and how to travel from place to place safely. a special education coordinator or supervisor is part of the district’s adminis- tration. Wade. at assemblies. O’Rourke. Regardless. 41 C/M/Y/K . especially large urban and suburban districts where it is difficult to ensure that all required special education procedures are followed. • Sign language interpreter. Paraprofessionals also might be called paraeducators. Assesses and intervenes related to fine motor skills. depending on local practices. In some locales. teaching assistants. Dr. School districts use paraprofessionals in many different ways (Carter. health. worked with the team and the parent to negotiate the amount of speech therapy needed to accomplish Marisha’s goals. Coordinators help alleviate the pressure on principals and assistant principals to accurately interpret and follow guidelines. They also explain services and options to parents. instructional assistants. & Pelsue. Paraprofessionals  Individuals who assist teachers and others in the provision of services to students with disabilities are paraprofessionals (Fisher & Pleasants. No. Sisco. • Nurse. that is. small muscle activity such as grasping a pencil. These paraprofessionals often work in both general education classrooms and special education classrooms as well as on the playground. • Adaptive physical educator. Paraprofessionals in this role may be referred to as personal assistants or one-to-one assistants. the principal. large muscle activity such as gait. or other titles. 2012).indd 41 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. or other special needs that affect participation in tradi- tional programs.

bathroom use. The parents—or a person serving in language interpreters. and retaining them. also called loading zones. problems • Assist with routine school–home communication (e. arrange. & Doyle. juvenile justice system) and serves as the liaison between such ser- vices and school personnel. 2010. • Move or accompany students from one place to another.. • Advocate. hospital. their preparation for their jobs. • Score tests and certain papers using a key or rubric. be represented. dressing. especially during transitions from such services back to school. • Professional from outside agencies. and/or with typical peers. • Locate. halls. • Help prepare the classroom for students and keep work assisting students with mobility and transition. gram. specific job expectations. and student perceptions of these sending a reminder to a parent about a needed permis. Provides services away from school (for example.indd 42 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. • Maintain files or records about students. in a review of recent research. No. and they do not have sole • Assist students using adaptive equipment or assistive responsibility for any aspect of a student’s educational pro- technology (e. ­including practices for hiring. respect for the work paraprofessionals complete. • Communicate with professionals about their work and • Assist students with eating. and students’ progress on assigned tasks. These are some of the responsibilities a paraprofes- sional could have in your classroom: • Support student behavior and social needs according to plans and under teacher supervision.. Olivos. lunchrooms. buses.. paraeducators. and at some point working closely with paraprofessionals. in small or From the Research large groups. related to supervision. suction to provide support to students with disabilities. supervised by li- As the list suggests. core instruction. Giangreco. sion form). 2012) found persistent issues • Collect data for professional team members regarding in the roles and responsibilities of these school personnel. & Aguilar. However. personal care. These individuals are employed by school districts • Address students’ specific health needs (e. like sign. a topic addressed in more detail later in this chapter. either by working tracheotomy tubes as assigned and trained by a school with particular students one-to-one or by working in general or nurse). the best interests of the student and her family must Some professionals. especially when parents believe they are not knowledgeable enough about the legal and educational re- quirements of special education. Such instruc- dents. 1 Working with Paraprofessionals No matter what grade level you teach. assigning. Gallagher. a communication board). student progress toward IEP goals. or construct instructional materials. areas neat. Suter.g. 2010). Doyle. Giangreco tion generally is review or reteaching rather than initial and his colleagues (e.g. • Instruct students with disabilities individually. & Suter. special education classrooms on behalf of several students. Giangreco.. paraprofessionals work under the direction of disabilities and typical peers. Parents and Students When decisions are being made concerning a stu- dent with a suspected or documented disability. 42 C/M/Y/K . such as a guardian or foster parent—have the right to participate highly specialized services to in virtually all aspects of their child’s educational program (Lalvani. teachers or other professionals. you will likely find yourself • Supervise playgrounds. provide the role of a parent. paraprofessionals offer many valu- censed educators and as specified in students’ IEPs or by able services to students and teachers in support of stu- professionals on the service delivery team. pri- vate school. 42 CHAPTER TWO P R O F E S S I ONAL E D G E 2 .g. support personnel. Serves as an advisor and sometimes represents parents at meetings related to their children with disabilities. • Facilitate appropriate interactions between students with Generally. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. 2012.g. specific groups of students.

and the professionals’ and the individuals themselves and parents’ commitment. on this student? If you are thinking that the student is not making enough academic progress. 2011. potentially. No. They can as- sist teachers by reviewing at home what is taught in school. you need to ask yourself some questions. Hart & The Beach Center on Disability. the type and impact of the disability. be assessed for eligibility for special education? Perhaps. Increasingly. and families. the greater her ability through research. and behavioral disabilities—such as those displayed by Christopher. Thus. technical to contribute. and the higher the value placed on her contribution. In general. and physical impairments usually are identified when they are infants or toddlers. participation. Combined with data gathered to measure all students’ progress. You can learn more about student participation on teams in the Professional Edge feature and in Chapter 10. the special education decision-making process. you may decide that the student’s achievement is not within the typical range. given the standards of your school district. affiliated with the University of Brehm. attentional. when you review a student’s records of academic progress and consider your own impressions and evaluation of student for themselves. if needed. high school help teachers work effectively with students with disabilities usually attend and participate in their team meetings. you are the person most likely to notice an unmet need. educators are in- WWW RESOURCES volving students so they can directly state their needs and goals and learn to advocate (http://www. 2009). sensory. What does the student do that leads you to conclude that motivation is a problem? Is it that the student doesn’t make eye contact when speaking to you or that the rewards and consequences that other students enjoy seem to have no effect. the greater the assistance. introduced at the beginning of this chapter. Analyze Unmet Needs As you teach. 2013). Because you are the professional in daily contact with the student. as is true of Ms. or it might take several months to emerge. rewarding their child for school accomplishments. their priorities and preferences are central to decision making (Martin & Williams- Diehm. a concept referred to as self-determination (Griffin. For example. you sometimes will discover that you have a nagging concern about a student. and working with school professionals to resolve behavior and academic problems (Cianca & Wischnowski. 2013). But first. This concern might begin early in the school year. Whenever appropriate. teaching. your judgment is essential for initiating the process of increasingly intensive interventions S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 43 Often parents are strong allies for general education teachers. and community service. has as its goal helping watch?v=wrNy_2ljVdo). However.beachcenter. what does that mean? Is it that classmates have M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. students with disabilities also should be active partici- pants in decision making about their own education. positive or negative.indd 43 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. explained in the student presentation at (http://www. What Are Specific Examples of Unmet Needs?  Having a vague worry about a student is far different from specifically stating a concern. learning. How Do You Decide Whether a Student Need Might Be a Disability? You will play a key role in deciding whether a student in your class should be evaluated for the presence of a disability. These students often have strong opinions about what they would like to do after high school. and they also take on more responsibility for monitoring their progress in reaching their goals (Hartman. language. first-grade students with disabilities usually are not expected to The website has many resources to participate in making most decisions about their education. Should you propose that the student receive inten- sive interventions and eventually. For example. Kuchta. Although youngsters with obvious intellectual. introduced at the beginning of the chapter— often are not diagnosed until children experience difficulty in school. and state achievement standards. 2012). sensing that a student is unmotivated is not a clear concern. called universal screening. the older the student. community Kansas. 43 C/M/Y/K . The extent of student participation on the team depends families of individuals with disabilities on the age of the student.

what examples. dent and to foster friendships with age-appropriate peers. You can learn more about this topic by visiting the with adults. & Soukup. and the strategies that will be most effective for teaching 2011). Palmer. It emphasizes these dimensions: that they have a right to act on those wishes. 2013). United States and Canada and usually is related to IEP plan- children typically begin to express their wishes. 2 Self-Determination for Students with Disabilities Think how you would react if other people constantly controlled Person-Centered Planning your life. sounds. working to ensure that the IEP and transition plan reflect their preferences and aspirations for the future. behave and typing awareness of resources available to help them.pacer. Another method of self-determination called person-cen- what career you should pursue. many students and him. 2004). A number of person-centered planning approaches have been developed. Carter et al.” “unmotivated. However. Identify the skills that will best assist the When students lead their IEP meetings. where you should go. clarify what I mean?” Is There a Chronic Pattern Negatively Affecting Learning?  Nearly all students go through periods when they struggle to learn. have you ever tried to convince a 3-year-old that the two articles of • Community presence. 2013. General education teachers find that students who actively par- ­Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATH). 2009. 44 CHAPTER TWO P R O F E S S I ONAL E D G E 2 .. The goal of person-centered Shogren. Beginning at a very young age. Griffin. deciding what you should wear. elderly grandparents moving in with the family.” “poor attitude toward school. Williams-Diehm. Wehmeyer. The and discuss accommodations needed. Clarify roles the student has in the school and local community. planning is to transfer as many choices to the student as possible. and what type of housing and tered planning was developed by professionals from both the roommates you should have. 44 C/M/Y/K . To prepare to share your concern with others. but this student knows only about half the letters? Is it that other students easily use basic math procedures in solving multiple-step equations. The goal is to strengthen and expand • Elementary students might have the role of introducing those roles and decrease or eliminate personal charac- their parents to the team and describing to team mem- teristics that might cause the student to be perceived by bers what they have been learning in school. goal is to identify individuals who can advocate for the stu- • High school students might lead the entire IEP meeting. Phrases such as “slow in learning. better understanding of their special needs. . They can learn to do this beginning at a very early age and those skills. but this student makes computational errors in 8 out of 10 problems? Vague concerns and hunches must be supported by specific information. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. sions made for the student. parents divorcing. The intent is to incorporate these settings into the adults with disabilities have been denied opportunities to make educational planning process.indd 44 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. or otherwise cause you concern. their own life decisions. • Students in middle school might explain their disabilities • Community participation. ?. your first step is to ask yourself “When I say the student . including Making Action Plans (MAPs).” “doesn’t pay attention. ness to accept responsibility for themselves (Test et al. For example. share their strengths. they learn to think and student to participate fully in the school and community advocate for themselves (Danneker & Bottge. and the student should gradually return to previous levels of functioning. or a family member being injured or arrested might negatively affect student learning or behavior. supported with data. Identify the community settings clothing she selected to wear do not match?) But despite good that the student uses and the ones that would benefit intentions by professionals and parents. Specify people with whom the and the impact of those disabilities.. (For example. student spends time at school and in other settings. mastered letters. gradually develop their skills as they progress through school: • Respect.g. and Circle ticipate in their IEP meetings have better skills for interacting of Friends. and blends. others in a stereotypical way. Identify decisions made by the student and deci- goal for the field (e. greater PACER Center website at http://www. No. Student-Led IEPs • Competence. the impact of these traumatic events should not be permanent. and more willing- person-centered planning into the site search option. Sometimes a situation outside school affects a student. and they learn ning. . the family being evicted from its apartment. Reversing this situation has become a • Choice.” and “never gets work completed” might have very different meanings to different professionals..

indd 45 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. you should make changes in those two areas before seeking other assistance. For example. part of your responsibility in attempting to help the student is gather- ing other information and trying to resolve the problem first. Communicate Your Observations and Try Your Own Interventions Your analysis of your students’ unmet needs is the basis for further action. who seemed to see well at the beginning of the school year. has difficulty remembering sight words no matter what level they are or how creatively they are introduced. Students with disabilities have needs that are significantly different from those of most other students. For example. Maybe you are an algebra teacher who finds that one student seems to lack many prerequisite skills for suc- ceeding in the course. Are the Unmet Needs Becoming More Serious as Time Passes?  Sometimes a student’s needs appear to become greater over time. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. However. who began the school year reluctant but willing to complete assignments. and you arrive at school each day wondering whether he will have a good day or a bad day. an eighth grader who ­experienced a severe head injury last year. Perhaps you are an elementary teacher who cannot seem to find enough books at the right level for one student in your fourth-grade class who is almost a nonreader. it has been demonstrated that students at risk for special education referral achieve at a significantly lower level than other students and are more likely to have serious behavior problems (Hosp & Reschly. No. 2003). Betsy. Indications that a student’s needs are increasing are a signal to ask for input from others. S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 45 Students with disabilities also may be affected by specific situations and events. who learns science with ease but is failing English. who has a learning disability. they struggle over a long period of time regardless of the circumstances. squints when he tries to read. the reason might be that the information or skills are beyond the reach of the entire group or that your teaching approach is not accomplishing what you had planned. Jared. For example. You are not sure why her learning is so different in the two subjects. Even though self-reflection is sometimes difficult. Perhaps ­Curtis has tremendous mood swings. in physical education. ­Although you eventually may decide to formally seek assistance for one of your students. and complains about headaches. Keep in mind that many students have needs that do signal the presence of disabilities. Ben. However. In such instances. 45 C/M/Y/K . when many students are experiencing problems. In a third example. is withdrawn whether sitting in a large class or interacting in a small group. the absence of a pattern in students’ learning or behavior is as much an indicator that you should request assistance as is a distinct pattern. Tyrone seems to have average motor skills on some days but on other days frequently stumbles and cannot participate fully in the learning stations you have created. a high school student with an emotional disability. refuses by November to do any work during class. Do You Discover That You Cannot Find a Pattern? In some in- stances. but their learning and behavior needs form a chronic pattern. if you have eight students who are all struggling. but she struggles to describe or apply them after instruction. In other words. Karen. according to a colleague on your seventh-grade team. you cannot find a way to predict which it will be. ask yourself how he compares to other students. Perhaps you are an eighth-grade social studies teacher who is worried about two students’ apparent inability to read the textbook or under- stand the themes of history integral to your curriculum. Julianna. now holds books closer and closer to his face. Or consider Becka. usually seems to grasp abstract concepts as they are taught. Is the Student’s Learning or Behavior Significantly Different from That of Classmates? As you think about your concerns about a student. it is important to analyze how the curriculum or teaching might be contributing to the situation.

46 CHAPTER TWO Contact the Parents  One of your first strategies should be to contact the student’s family (O’Connor. or whether a physician is concerned about a child’s medical condition. you will likely find that your school has an in-house resource you can access to check your perceptions against a broader perspective including data about the student’s performance. In many schools. Contact Colleagues  Especially as a new teacher. 2013). Here are some examples: • Have you tried moving the student’s seat? • Have you incorporated teaching strategies that help the student actively par- ticipate in lessons (for example. in which all stu- dents together repeat answers aloud)? • Have you thought about ways to make your tests easier for the student to follow (for example. keep a log of your conversations. a student whose family emigrated from Thailand is extremely quiet because silence signals respect in her native culture.g. using more white space between items or sections)? • Have you given the student only part of an assignment at one time to prevent him from becoming overwhelmed? • Have you observed the student closely to determine whether helping her work one problem is enough to get her to work on the rest? These are just a few instructional adjustments that many teachers make. Internet. Parents or other family members often can inform you about changes in the student’s life that could be affecting school performance.. including clubs. If you have implemented a plan to improve student behavior. keep a record of how effective it has been. you can make simple changes as part of your efforts to address a student’s unmet needs. using choral responding. whether behavior problems are occurring on the walk home.indd 46 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:24 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. 2010). be prepared to describe those strategies M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. 46 C/M/Y/K . They can assist you in monitor- ing whether homework is completed and returned to school. With a little exploration. department chairperson. Sometimes these small ­adjustments are sufficient to help a student learn. or another professional can arrange to observe the student in your class and then discuss the observation. McKenna & Millen. Try Simple Interventions Part of your responsibility as a teacher is to create a classroom where students can succeed. you might learn that what you perceive as a problem is mostly a reflection of a cultural difference. you need to demonstrate the seriousness of your concern and your systematic attempts to help meet the student’s needs. you will want to informally discuss your concerns with other professionals to gain additional perspectives on the student’s needs. your social worker or principal often can help you make needed contact. If you have students whose homes do not have a telephone or e-mail. Parents also are your partners in working to resolve some student learn- ing problems (e. not because she is unable to participate. literacy coach. or text messaging access and whose parents do not have transportation to come to school. To cultivate such a setting. Further. you can raise your concerns in that context. Document the Unmet Need If you anticipate requesting assistance for a student. employment. In any case. For example. Hallmarks of today’s schools include an array of professionals with expertise in many areas and a strong emphasis on the use of data. If your school psychologist is available. gang involvement. you might ask for consultation assistance. If you have contacted parents several times. a special education teacher. In schools where grade-level teams or other types of teams or departments meet. No. by contacting the family. If you have tried strategies to improve student learning. and responsibilities at home. many others are presented throughout this textbook. assistant principal. Family members also can help you understand how the student’s activities outside school might influence schoolwork. you should try common interventions before deciding a student might need the far more inten- sive service of formal interventions or special education.

it is your responsibility to find effective ways to reach your students so as to avoid. however. especially in the learning or behavior domains. It is your professional obligation to recognize this possibility. some students are McKinney. junior high. Your concern brings the This video illustrates an RtI model in student to the attention of other school professionals so that further informa. including how the professionals have integrated the tion can be gathered and decisions made.indd 47 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:25 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. formal procedures that RtI process into their overall school must be followed to determine student eligibility for special education services schedule. Most often. they part for extraordinary student needs. and social service agency personnel all may initiate the process of de- termining whether a student’s needs constitute a disability. Documenting student needs serves two main purposes. which illustrates the flow of the procedures from beginning to end. especially those whose backgrounds and cultures are different from yours. identified as disabled. the information you Latina mothers report that they collect will help you communicate with other professionals. No. Initial Consideration of Student Problems General education teachers. contributing to a student’s learning or behavior challenges. as a general education teacher. serious behavior problems. As introduced in Chapter 1. If you gather data from other students DIMENSIONS as a comparison. in Figure 2. Nyugen’s school as described in the chapter opening. you probably will have students nearly every year whom you refer for possible special services.2. or a persistent physical or sensory problem. even inadvertently. students may be found eligible for special education at any time during their school years. parents. the teacher brings the student to the attention of others who help decide whether special education services might be warranted. & Ritchie. The specific. there are exceptions. you will find that many students with disabilities already have been identified before they reach your classes. you can judge whether the unmet needs of one student are OF DIVERSITY significantly different from those of typical students. Depending on the policies of your state and local district. S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 47 and share the data you have gathered related to their impact. 2012). concerns a positive impact (Gillanders. Second. there are two pri- mary ways that the process of formally addressing student learning and behavior M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. principals. Further. a middle school. difficulties in social skills. phy- sicians. an issue being address at Ms. These procedures are described in the following sections and summarized needs of struggling students. a general education teacher notices a pattern of academic underachievement. and a tremendously important Having a serious and documented concern about a student is only the first watch?v=VlRM6kf7EZ0) step in considering whether a disability may be present.. In fact. or high school. As a teacher. Their work is reserved in large their children’s education. This problem of disproportionate representation begins long before formal special education procedures are triggered. (http://www. which includes intervention are designed to ensure that only students who truly need these services receive periods specifically to address the them.g. However. you always have the option of asking a team of professionals to consider WWW RESOURCES whether one of your students should be considered for special education services. First. may affect your assessment of their strengths and struggles. If you teach at the elementary level. How Do Students Obtain Special Services? The majority of students who receive special education have high-incidence disabili- ties (such as learning disabilities) that you may be the first to 47 C/M/Y/K . Sullivan & Bal. including how your interactions with these students could affect their performance on academic tasks and their classroom behavior. Sullivan. 2013). your perceptions of the student. When such problems occur. If you teach in middle school. their children with homework when directions are clear and they are Reflect on Your Understanding of and Responses to the informed that their efforts have Student  One final consideration. and your documentation will help in decision are most likely to continue to help making about the amount and intensity of support a student may require. at a rate that is significantly higher than expected (e. Special service providers have an important role to play in cannot possibly meet every need in every classroom. inconsistent learning. it helps you do a reality check on whether the problem is as serious as you think it is. special services personnel. your perceptions of particular students. 2011.

serious Intervention assistance Team or RtI student problem team or response-to. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. student would benefit from special education Delivery. continue services and placement *Federal law permits the identification of students as having learning disabilities on the basis of RtI procedures.2 No further action Intervention Phase Chronic. Monitoring. No. no further action Disability negatively affects learning. parents. 48 CHAPTER TWO FIGURE The Decision-Making Process for Special Education 2. agreement. 48 C/M/Y/K .indd 48 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:25 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. the full assessment activities may be significantly reduced. no further No permission. MDT monitors for student provide special and administrator three-year reevaluation placement education and meet for annual and notifies parents related services review Update IEP. procedure results exists that could be intervention (RtI) in referral to MDT a disability procedure used to for full assessment review case No further Interventions action recommended No parent No disability found. no no further action further action action Initial Decision-Making Phase MDT reviews Full individual School representative MDT prepares assessment occurs contacts parents for student IEP assessment results in all areas of permission for individual concern* assessment Disability found No negative effect of disability or benefit from special education found. When this option is used. and Revision Phase Change services or placement as needed MDT decides Professionals Teacher.

Challenges included student. Ms. Jorgé. and Center on Instruc. and the effectiveness of the interventions Although most RtI models have implemented to facilitate student learning. National Center on Response to Intervention. Skolits. and make a decision about Jorgé’s eligibility for special education. For example. 2013.. and an administrator. an option available since implementation of the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A team agreed that Jorgé’s problems are significant and de- cided that he should participate in a supplemental reading program in a small group led by the school’s reading specialist. and determine whether instruction. the gap between FY I their achievement and that of peers. Mccleary.. Petersen is a first-grade teacher. The teacher then meets with the team to discuss the written information. If data indicate that the Tier 3 intervention does not work. fostering high-quality core consider alternative strategies for assisting the student. considered for special education services. Intervention Assistance Team  The traditional way to begin the process RESEARCH NOTE of helping a student suspected of having a disability is to bring the problem Fisher and Frey (2013) report on to the attention of a team (Friend & Cook. 2010). This service occurred four times each week for 30 minutes and was considered a Tier 2 intervention. In the Technology Notes feature you three tiers. ­Petersen’s students. Dulaney. The most recent screening assessment showed that one of Ms. the student should have a detailed assessment for potential special education services (Young & Gaughan. it can tiers. 2010). gather additional assessment informa- tion. on which they describe the and decreased special education student’s strengths and problems and describe efforts they have made to assist the referrals. Poncy. intervention (RtI). S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 49 concerns can begin: (1) accessing an intervention assistance team or (2) using response-to-intervention procedures. After 12 weeks. The unifying characteristic of this type of team is an emphasis on problem solving among all members. the team may review the data. No. In other models. usually includes general education teachers. Results special services personnel. of RtI in a high school. Response to Intervention A more clearly data-driven and structured procedure for analyzing students’ learning problems is called response to intervention (RtI). has not made much progress in reading. in some cases there are four Although RtI is most likely to be implemented at the elementary level. Tier 3 consists occur whenever professionals determine a student is experiencing learning prob- of special education services rather lems that are significant and interfering with achievement (National High School than highly intensive interventions Center. Teachers who want to “bring included improved achievement a student to the team” complete a referral form. often called an the successful implementation intervention assistance team. Key to understanding RtI is the importance of data as the basis for making decisions about students’ functioning within the curriculum. his skills are still at a kindergarten level. the team reviewed the data gathered weekly about Jorgé’s progress and noted that he still was not making adequate progress to catch up to his peers.indd 49 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:25 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. 2013). She uses a district-adopted reading program in her class that has been demon- strated through research to be effective with students. research- based interventions as a means for deciding whether a disability exists (Skinner. This is called a Tier 1 inter- vention. The team enrolled Jorgé in an even more intensive skills-based reading program delivered 5 days a week for 50 minutes. Dana is a ninth-grade student whose assessed skills in M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. response to intervention calls for the systematic use of increasingly intensive. 2013).g. without special education eligibility. 49 C/M/Y/K . Here is an example of an RtI procedure. Feuerborn et al. after which students are can learn about resources that can assist you in gathering such student data. 2011). introduced in Chapter 1 and illustrated in Ms. tion. The the wait-to-fail model Instructional Edge feature provides examples of interventions and how they vary and response to by intensity. It is based on the assumption that approximately 75 to 80 percent of students will be able to learn if they receive high-quality instruction. This team. Currently authorized in federal law just for students who may have learning disabilities but established now in many states as a strategy to address a wide variety of student academic and behavior needs across all school levels (e. that approximately 15 to 20 percent will benefit from  his video explains the T moderately intensive instruction. & Cates. Kuchta’s story at the beginning of this chapter. and that the remaining 5 to 10 percent will difference between need highly intensive instruction and possibly special education services.

1 RtI and Intensity Response to intervention is based on increasingly intensive • Individual implementing the intervention. At Tier 3. comprehension. and the exact nature of the interventions vary depending on recognition that the traditional state and local policies (National Information Center for Children with Disabilities. Finally. & Woods. interven- these interventions include teaching specific strategies tion typically occurs in a setting away from the general such as those to improve ­vocabulary. 2011. she will probably be enrolled in a Tier 3 elective with a smaller group of students with a teacher as well as a literacy coach. In Tier 3. the ­interventions designed to avoid. 2013). if at all possible.g. Tier 3 interventions often require about their learning. as a general education teacher. it might be a strategy introduced F YI in Ms. behind in achievement to show Regardless of variations among RtI models. It is important to note that IDEA permits RtI but does not mandate it. Bucholz. and in some cases paraprofes- to intensity: sionals may assist with this instruction. & Tilly. pre-algebraic math skills. or material several times to improve reading fluency and For example. the need for general education teacher often is responsible for imple- special education. • Group size. Goodman. and support Tier 1 instruction (e. Tier 2 includes research-based intensive intervention). Further.. three or four times each week. • Duration of intervention sessions. Tier 2 instruction is ­ tion might be implemented for 30 minutes per session. in which a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS). Although specific group guidelines do not exist. In Tier 2. or education classroom. In Tier 2 (sometimes called specialist. 50 CHAPTER TWO I N S T R U C T I ONAL E D G E 2 . students receive highly inten- their students and provide interventions in homogeneous sive interventions that are more tailored to their individ- groups to students in need while other students com- ual needs (e. discussed in the chapter opening. approach for identifying students 2012. the intervention might be implemented for multiple opportunities to practice skills essential for suc- 45 minutes per session. Examples of plete practice or enrichment activities. a small group size—usually fewer than four—and some- times involve one-to-one instruction. it is largely carried potential. in this one-semester class the teacher focuses on key elements of written language. Vaughn & Fletcher. the length of time that interventions intervention (RtI) arose from are implemented. depending on what data indicate ample. Duffy. an intervention may be offered cialist may be assigned to instruct the targeted students.. That is. In Tier 3. The Case in Practice feature illustrates students had to fall far enough what might occur at a team meeting when RtI is being implemented. Jenkins. RtI calls for intervention as soon as a problem is documented. for example. Zirkel & Krohn. Nyugen’s school. three fourth-grade teachers skill group all comprehension). changed at one time. psychologist. you M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. McKnight. enhance. 2008). the interven. one element of RtI is consistent: a large discrepancy with their Even though it is included in federal special education law. the intervention tutoring) and repeated readings (reading the same story may be implemented in the general education setting. Two examples in reading at the elemen- tary level are peer-mediated instruction (such as peer • Location of the intervention. No. If her skills do not improve. The concept of response to the specific number of tiers of intervention. Thayer. As a Tier 2 intervention she is enrolled in a composition class with 9 other students. down through the tiers. Schiller. 2009). Here are several dimensions that contribute menting the intervention. times per week. remember that in some states RtI and posi- with learning disabilities (LDs) was tive behavior supports (PBS) procedures have been blended into a process called a “wait-to-fail” model. You might find that it is being utilized as a means of addressing the problem of disproportionality. out by general educators (Hazelkorn. and it provides students with In Tier 3. In Tier 3 (sometimes called • Type of intervention. a reading • Frequency of intervention. Tier 2 interventions tend to be delivered in larger As you might imagine. cess in Tier 1. 50 C/M/Y/K . students may move up and dents) and smaller groups in elementary school (for ex. 6–10 stu.g. written language are far below those of her peers. In Tier 2. & Brady. The goal is for Dana to complete the course and improve her skills so that she can take a more traditional elective next semester. 2012). and so although it is becoming common practice you should check locally to see whether an RtI procedure is in place. Further. Blackorby. In Tier 2. interventions typically occur five programs and strategies that supplement. special educator. Mellard. syste­matic and explicit.indd 50 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:26 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. or other spe- targeted intervention). several of these dimensions can be groups in middle or high school (for example. 3–4 students).

and analysis of the gathered data so dilemma of sustaining RtI when budget cuts limit staff mem- that next steps can be identified. in schools with a high concentration educators should notify parents of their concerns and enlist parental assistance of students who live in poverty. S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 51 T E C H NOLO G Y NO T E S 2 . you will find a variety of templates for as time sampling. a parent is not legally required to be involved in the process. for addressing behavior problems. writing.” you will find many positive ideas eas as well as grade levels. Exam- ples of the materials and information you can find at the site include Intervention Central (http://interventioncentral​ these: .” you will find descriptions of various This website has so many ideas and options for RtI that you may approaches to RtI as implemented across the United States. from contracts and “mystery motivators. need several visits to explore all the information available.” you will find research-based in. reading fluency. No. including the ity with research-based interventions. • In “understand the model. Benner. following RtI procedures will help Sanders. At this point. This website includes many free RtI resources for teachers. Other tools include random-item generators so • In “graph data for visual analysis. and others as appropriate—assumes responsibility for making educational decisions regarding the student. and graph your student data. No student may receive special educa- tion unless the steps discussed in the upcoming sections are followed. They should be made aware of the existence of any serious problem as soon as it is noticed.php) sites to help you with RtI. or you may be asked to gather data In addition to academics. • The RtI blog discusses issues and topics in RtI. In some schools. needing special education. RTI Wire (http://www. and graph. many websites are bers available to assist in implementing intensive interventions. At the same time. the goal of RtI is to prevent some students from ever behavior problems. the student’s parents are formally contacted and the assess- ment process begins. and math computation. • In “select the right intervention. Ultimately. and other skill areas. Parents should never be surprised when the possibility of providing special education is raised. students’ inappropriate behaviors. However. RtI a reality. although the impact was less positive tiated. Nelson. a multidisciplinary team (MDT)—consisting of parents. 2011).” simple tallies of behaviors to more complex approaches such • In the “Tools” section. sites with academic interventions that span topics and skills ar- • Under “Behavior Resources.” the tools include several that you can easily create assessments on skills such as reading Excel® spreadsheets preformatted so that you can easily enter comprehension.” you will find descriptions of highlights: the various team models being used across the states to make • Under “Academic Resources. 51 C/M/Y/K . frequent and valid monitoring importance of principal leadership in implementing RtI and the of student learning progress. math. The Special Education Referral and Assessment Process If a student does not respond to increasingly intensive interventions or the i­ntervention assistance team believes the student’s needs are serious enough to consider special education as an option. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. and Ralston (2012) found ensure that students who need specialized instruction will receive it as soon as a that use of a tiered model reduced problem is identified. • In “monitor student progress. Strategies include the use of behavior data templates using a variety of recording strategies. Note that whether an intervention assistance team or RtI procedure is ini. graphing data. 1 Implementing Response to Intervention Using Technology Effectively implementing response to intervention requires familiar.” links are provided to sites with motivated students. assessments.jimwrightonline. including bullying and un. educators. in trying to solve the problem. Here are • In “use teams to problem solve. may be asked to work with a small group of students in your grade level during RESEARCH NOTE scheduled reading and language arts time. providing free materials to teachers so that they can implement RtI without having to develop interventions. terventions for reading comprehension. Here are two of the most comprehensive rti_wire.” links are provided to many writing. parents are routinely invited to team meetings and are active participants in the RtI process (Byrd.indd 51 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:26 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend ing tools on their own. response to concerning student skill acquisition or comprehension of key concepts in a math intervention is being used for student or English course.

and I’m using the supplemental fluency materials from our reading Reflections program. As you read about the rest of the proce- dures related to special education. Thomas: That’s a good idea. if they do. The narrator in this video Parents’ Rights  Before any discussion of how a student comes to receive explains parental rights special education services can proceed.indd 52 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:27 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. most students assume the rights that parents have held for them (National Center on Secondary Education ­Transition. you will notice many references to the rights parents have. 2002). 50 words per minute. Overall. Rozalski. That is. & Katsiyannis. ­Although it is not common for parents to deny per- mission. and at age 18. and she fessional). assessment. reading at 85 words per ried about keeping his attitude positive. Thomas. it is essential that you understand how in special education. The very first application of parents’ rights comes before any assessment process begins. responsible for implementing increasingly intensive Mr. As summa- rized in Figure 2. the students are just a little below embarrassed about his problems with reading. It’s important to do interventions for your students who struggle to learn? Why do something so we can see that Sam is making progress. intensive intervention or even to refer Sam for assessment for special education. eligibility. No. 52 CHAPTER TWO CASE IN PRACTICE 2. we should discuss whether Sam should start cide if we should make a different decision either for a more receiving more intensive instruction. Ryan. you also should know that be- ginning at least 1 year before reaching 18 years of age. 52 C/M/Y/K . will happen if Sam’s reading fluency does not improve? I’m a the school psychologist. in planning interventions for students? If you were Mr. and she is in favor of minute with fewer than five errors. making an average of eight errors. as an elementary. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. one of his students who is a struggling reader. students also must be ­informed directly of their rights. But I would need you to do a quick curriculum-based Why are you. planning. discuss Samuel. There are four other students with similar levels of skills. 2009). teacher. I spoke with his mother on Monday. what additional questions would you have about the planned School psychologist: I’d also like to suggest that Sam participate in intervention? the peer-tutoring program with the sixth graders. I do have some questions. But Sam is reading at only special education testing. we can meet to de- you’ve provided. Thomas: We can work on the schedule. They must be informed of their rights in their own language and in a manner they can understand (Fitzgerald & Watkins. middle school. Thomas. Jefferson (a parapro. She is very wor- average for this point in the school year. School psychologist: With these data and the other information but if we don’t see any change in 6 weeks. if we can work out the schedule. I think he would benefit from repeated reading with one of the older students. and placement process (Yell. For how long will we try these two interventions? What Here is a brief segment of the conversation among Mr. 2006).3. I can add that I already with him at home each evening? That would provide both her have a group that he could join. School psychologist: The guideline is to intervene for 12 weeks. central parents are in all aspects of the referral. special education. and the reading specialist: little concerned that we should refer him for an assessment for Mr. And we professionals consider data-based decision making so important need to talk a little bit about the data collection. I completed the reading fluency measure for all my commented that Sam is talking about hating school and being students last week. and us with an ongoing basis for communicating. parents are key participants in all decision making related to their child’s suspected or documented disability. or high school check twice each week to see if his fluency is improving.1 Response to Intervention: Looking at the Data Mr. though. Will Sam’s mother agree to assist by reading Reading specialist: Looking at his data. Thomas is a fourth-grade teacher attending a meeting to Mr. parents must give written permission for their child to be individually assessed. the process must stop unless the school district asks for a hearing to compel parents to comply. Thomas: With assistance from Ms. If you teach older students.

S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 53

Parents’ Rights in Special Education

IDEA provides extensive procedural safeguards to parents to guarantee that they
are active participants in decisions about their children. Parents’ rights include these:
  1. To give consent before their child is evaluated to determine whether a disability
exists and before any special education services are provided to that child.
 2.  To receive prior written notice before school professionals initiate, change,
or refuse to initiate or change the identification, evaluation, or educational
placement of their child.
  3. To have their child independently evaluated, that is, assessed by professionals
outside the school district. In some cases (but not all), the school district may be
responsible for paying for this independent evaluation.
  4. To access and review any records pertaining to their child’s education, to obtain
copies of records for a reasonable fee, to expect that their child’s records with be
kept confidential, and to know who has accessed records related to their child
(that is, through a log of each person accessing those records).
  5. To be reimbursed for fees related to enrolling their child in a private school, but
only if it is determined that the school district could not adequately provide the
educational services needed by the student.
  6. To participate in a voluntary mediation process, led by an impartial facilitator, as
a means for resolving conflict with the school district concerning their child with
a disability. Mediation must be made available to parents prior to a due process
hearing, but it may not delay a hearing.
  7. To file a formal complaint with the appropriate state agency and request an
investigation if they believe the school district is not adhering to special
education law.
  8. To file a request for an impartial due process hearing regarding the evaluation,
identification, education appropriateness, or education placement of their child.
Specific timelines must be adhered to in addressing such a request.
  9. To appeal for review any decision made as part of a due process hearing to the
state education agency’s special education department.
10. To file a lawsuit in civil court if the decisions reached through the IDEA due
process and appeals procedures are determined to be unsatisfactory.
11. To be reimbursed for reasonable attorney’s fees if they prevail in their due process
hearing or court proceeding. However, parents’ attorneys or even parents may
have to pay a school district’s attorney’s fees if the case is determined to be
trivial or unreasonable.
12. To access protective procedures related to discipline incidents. For example,
these procedures generally include limiting to 10 the number of days their child
may be suspended from school, unless a formal meeting is held related to the
issue and an agreement is reached concerning changing the child’s placement.

Components of Assessment  Although the specific requirements regarding
the types of data gathered vary somewhat by state and by the type of initial
intervention processes used, assessment generally involves gathering information
about a student’s strengths and needs in all areas of concern. Typically, if the student
has not had a vision and hearing screening and you have reason to suspect a
sensory impairment, these tests precede other assessments. If this screening raises
concerns, the parents are notified of the need for a more complete assessment by
a physician or appropriate specialist.
Assessments completed by school professionals may address any aspect
of a student’s educational functioning. Often, for example, the student’s intel-
lectual ability is assessed. An individual intelligence test (often referred to as an
IQ test) is administered and scored by a school psychologist or another qualified
school professional. Academic achievement usually is assessed, too. The student
completes an individual achievement test administered by a psychologist, special
education teacher, educational diagnostician, or other professional. A third area
often evaluated is social and behavior skills. This evaluation might involve a

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checklist that you and parents complete concerning a student’s
behavior, a test given by the school psychologist, or a series of
questions asked of the student.
Another domain for assessment is the student’s social and
developmental history. A school social worker may meet with
the parents to learn about the student’s family life and major
events in her development that could be affecting education. For
example, parents might be asked about their child’s friends and
favorite out-of-school activities, their expectations for their child
as an adult, and their child’s strengths. Parents also might be
asked whether their child has had any serious physical injuries,
medical problems, or recurring social or behavior problems.
As another assessment component, a psychologist, coun-
Before a team can make a decision selor, or special education teacher often observes the student
about a student’s eligibility to receive in the classroom and other settings to learn how he responds to teachers and
special education, a comprehensive peers in various school situations. For example, a psychologist may observe Scott,
and individual assessment of who usually plays with younger students during recess and gets confused when
strengths and needs must be playground games are too complex. Scott also watches other students carefully
completed. and often seems to take cues for how to act from how they are acting. Similarly, a
special educator may observe D. J., a sixth-grade student, in the cafeteria to try to
understand what is triggering his many behavior incidents there. Such observa-
tions are helpful for understanding students’ social strengths and needs.
If a potential need exists for speech, occupational or physical therapy, or
other related services, another component is added to the assessment. The pro-
fessionals in those areas complete assessments in their respective areas of exper-
tise. A speech/language therapist might use a screening instrument that includes
having the student use certain words, tell stories, and identify objects. The thera-
pist also might check for atypical use of the muscles of the mouth, tongue, and
throat that permit speech and for unusual speech habits such as breathiness in
speaking or noticeable voice strain. Similarly, an occupational or physical thera-
pist might assess a student’s gait, strength and agility, range of motion, or ability
to perform fine motor tasks such as buttoning and lacing.
Throughout the entire assessment process, IDEA specifically gives parents the
right to provide information to be used as part of the evaluation. In addition, as the
general education teacher, you typically provide details on the student’s performance
in class, patterns of behavior, and discrepancies between expectations and achieve-
ment. Your informal and formal observations play an important role in assessment.

Assessment Procedures  The exact procedures for assessing a student’s needs
vary according to the areas of concern that initiated the assessment process. The
assessment must be completed by individuals trained to administer the tests and
other assessment tools used; the instruments must be free of cultural bias; the
student’s performance must be evaluated in a way that takes into account the
potential disability; and the assessment must provide data that are useful for
designing an appropriate education for the student. School professionals are
responsible for ensuring that these obligations are met.

RtI and Assessment  It should be noted that, at least for students being assessed
to determine whether a learning disability exists, the data gathered as part of RtI
procedures may be the basis for making that decision. Based on state and local
policies, RtI data may be used in lieu of other assessments of ability and achievement,
or, as is more common, these data may be used in addition to other assessment data.

Decision Making for Special Services
After a comprehensive assessment of the student has been completed, the
multidisciplinary team (MDT) meets to discuss its results and make several
decisions. The first decision the MDT must make is whether the student is eligible
under the law to be categorized as having a disability. If team members decide

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S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 55

that a disability exists, they then determine whether the disability is affecting the
student’s education, and from that they decide whether the student is eligible
to receive services through special education. In most school districts, these
decisions are made at a single meeting, and parents must agree with the decisions
being made or the student cannot receive special education services. Most school
districts have specific guidelines to direct team decision making about the presence
of a disability and the need for special education services. However, the decisions
ultimately belong to the team. For example, most states specify that students
identified as having a mild intellectual disability should have an IQ less than 70
as measured on an individual intelligence test and should have serious limitations
in adaptive behaviors. However, if a student’s score is slightly above 70 and her
adaptive skills are particularly limited, a team can still decide that she has a mild
intellectual disability. Likewise, if a student has a measured IQ lower than 70
but seems to have many adaptive skills, the team might decide that she does not
have an intellectual disability.
If the MDT determines the student has a disability affecting her education and RESEARCH NOTE
is eligible for services according to federal, state, and local guidelines, the stage is set In a qualitative study of a high
for detailed planning of the student’s education and related services. This planning is school IEP meeting attended by an
recorded in the student’s individualized education program, or IEP, the document African American mother and her
that outlines all the special education services the student is to receive. More details son, Angelov and Anderson (2012)
about IEPs and their preparation are provided later in this chapter. reported that some decisions had
The final decision made by the MDT concerns the student’s placement. been made prior to the meeting,
Placement refers to the location of the student’s education. For most students that the special educator viewed the
(but not all), the placement is the general education classroom, often with some student from a deficit perspective,
type of support offered, either there or part time in a special education setting and that the parents’ rights material
such as a resource room. According to IDEA, when a placement is a location was written significantly above the
mother’s reading level.
other than general education, justification must be provided for that decision.
Later in this chapter, special education services are discussed and placement
­options are outlined in more detail.
In your school district, the essentials of the procedures described in the
preceding sections must be followed, but the specific steps, paperwork required,
and names for the different parts of the process may vary. Nonetheless, all school
district procedures are designed to ensure that students with disabilities are sys-
tematically assessed and that a deliberate and careful process is followed to pro-
vide for their education needs, and you are a critical participant throughout that
process. You are likely to participate on MDTs, you will contribute data related to
student academic and behavior functioning, and you will contribute to analyzing
students’ strengths and needs and the types of services that should be provided.
You offer a perspective that is critical, the understanding of the student’s perfor-
mance in a typical classroom.

Monitoring Special Education Services
In addition to specifying the procedures that must be followed to identify a stu-
dent as needing special ­education services, federal and state laws also establish
guidelines for monitoring student progress. The monitoring process ensures that
a student’s educational program remains appropriate and that procedures exist
for resolving disputes between school district personnel and parents.

Annual Reviews The first strategy for monitoring special services is the
­annual review. At least once each year, a student’s progress toward his annual
goals must be reviewed and the IEP changed or updated as needed, as illustrated
in the video at ( Not all
multidisciplinary team members who participated in the initial decisions about
the student’s disability and educational needs are required to play a part in the
annual review. However, a teacher instructing the student and an administrator or
other professional representing the school district must meet with the student’s
parents to discuss whether goals and objectives (as required) have been met and

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because a general education teacher is most knowledgeable about their day-to- day functioning. necessary changes can be made with parent approval and without reconvening the team. Due Process Yet another strategy for monitoring students receiving special education services is due process. Due process hearings seldom address blatant errors on the part of the school or parents regarding special education. not necessarily by writing them but by contributing a classroom perspective. For example. In some cases. Dotson filed a due process complaint in a dispute about the services their son Jeremiah would receive when he transitioned from middle school to high school. the set of procedures outlined in the law for resolving disagreements between school district personnel and parents regarding students with disabilities (Mueller & Carranza. the federal to prevent students with disabilities from remaining in services or programs that government for the first time may no longer be appropriate for them. and more often if deemed DIMENSIONS necessary by the MDT. IDEA stipulates that an IEP must be revised whenever a lack of expected prog- ress toward achieving goals is noted. Daly. & Park. most often. the MDT meets again to develop an appropriate IEP. the parents may request a due process hearing. 2006). if parents have their child independently evaluated ­because they believe the assessment for special education did not accurately portray his needs and if the school district does not agree with the findings of the indepen- dent evaluator. This safeguard is designed In IDEA 2004. 2011). Due process rights begin when a student is first brought to the attention of a team as potentially having a ­disability. Parents also may request a hearing if they disagree with the goals and objectives listed on the IEP and with the way services are being provided to meet those goals and objectives. students receiving special education services must be reas- OF DIVERSITY sessed to determine whether their needs have changed. ing new assessments. However. For example. In some cases. In practical terms. Three-Year Reevaluations A second monitoring procedure required by law is the 3-year reevaluation. They wanted him to spend much of the day in general education classes with M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. reevaluation. Additional Reviews  In addition to annual reviews and 3-year reevaluations. you will likely be asked to attend annual reviews for some students. that is. this means that formal communication about student learning progress now occurs every 6 or 9 weeks during the school year. In fact. you will find that the special educators with whom you work are unavailable because of their other responsibilities. at the end of each grading period. IDEA specifies that the parents of students with disabili- ties have the right to receive progress reports about their children as often as do parents of typical learners. Parents have one more formal mechanism for obtaining information about their child’s learning.indd 56 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:27 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. Depending on local practices. 56 CHAPTER TWO what the next steps in the student’s education should be. the reevaluation intellectual disabilities. This concept was highlighted with the mandate in IDEA that a general education teacher participate in the development of most students’ IEPs. At least every 3 years. they reflect the fact that many decisions made about students with disabilities are judgment calls in which a best course of action is not always clear. Mr. and may not involve any new assessment at all (Yell. if your school district completes all annual reviews during a given month. reevaluation information is gathered. No. This suggests that an IEP may need to be revised more frequently than the once per year mandated by the basic requirements of the law. in some cases students from minority groups. Parents are informed of this reevaluation required states (and thus local school but do not have to give permission for it to occur. but parents typically exercise their due process rights when they fear the school district is not acting in the best interests of their child ­(Ong-Dean. with parent and team agreement. or parents bring to the attention of the MDT information that affects the IEP. 56 C/M/Y/K . In many school districts. On the basis of the 3-year emotional disabilities. and Mrs. 2011). Both the school district and parents are entitled to protection through due process. a IDEA permits existing information to be used for reevaluation instead of requir- problem that is particularly serious in the areas of learning disabilities. the reevaluation districts) to take steps to correct the includes administering all the tests and other instruments that were used initially disproportionate representation of to identify the student as needing special education. such as meeting with parents.

adopted. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. is not allowed to cause delay in the parents’ right to a due process hearing. the federally required elements of IEPs are described in the following sections. Whether or not mediation occurs. introduced at the beginning of the chapter. The IEP addresses all areas of s­ tudent need. Whether or not you are the teacher who serves in this role for particular students. 2013). requires the new school district to including ­accommodations to be made in the general education setting and provide services similar to those the services and supports to be provided watch?v=3nsZkoBNuhI). S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 57 assistance from a paraprofessional and other supports. eral education setting (Diliberto & Breaver. as shown in the video at (http://www. and they would answer any questions you might have about your role in it. you would be asked to describe the student’s level of functioning in your classroom. learned. IDEA also mandates a dispute resolution session. To foster a positive working relationship. Required Components of an IEP The essential components of the IEP were established by Public Law 94–142 in 1975. district until records can be reviewed & O’Connor. The IEP also is the means provided by the previous school through which student progress is documented (Etscheidt. When discussion reached an impasse. As you read the following information.indd 57 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:27 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend the supports you provided. Hart. If a due process hearing occurs concerning a student you teach. which tend to be adversarial and can damage the parent–school work- ing relationship to the detriment of the student. 2006). 2010). and they have been updated through the years. a hearing is con- ducted by an independent and objective third party selected from a list provided by the state. however. If neither mediation nor a dispute resolution session is successful. but the school district bears the expense. uses to decide the best placement for a student with an FY I ­identified disability and that serves as a blueprint for a student’s education is When students who have IEPs transfer from district to district called an individualized education program (IEP) (e. or even from state to state. In mediation. Darden. In practice. What Is an Individualized Education Program? As introduced earlier. Lee. In such a case. Cheatham. the decision can be appealed to a state-level review hearing officer. Wright. if you have students with disabilities in your classroom. If either party disagrees with the outcome of a due process hearing. 57 C/M/Y/K . the document that the multidisciplinary team. An administrator and an attorney might help you prepare for the hearing. Wright. just as Ms. 2012). ­Malian. 2012. General education teachers generally are involved as team and the previously received services participants in preparing an IEP if a student has any participation in the gen. amended. a hearing officer was assigned by the state d ­ epartment of education to hear the case and issue a decision. including the child’s parents. most school districts and parents want to avoid due process hearings. you may be called to testify. School district personnel maintained that Jeremiah’s behavior outbursts when faced with frustrating tasks as well as his tendency to become overwhelmed in unfamiliar situations indicated the need for most of his education to occur in a separate setting. Although specific state re- quirements for IEPs vary somewhat.. If disagreement still exists. a sort of last chance for reaching agreement (Zirkel & McGuire. you will have opportunities to examine their IEPs or to meet with special educators to review highlights of these impor- tant plans. or dropped. Mediation. and your e ­ fforts with other special service providers to ensure the student was successful. A hearing is preceded by mediation—a less formal dispute resolution strategy—unless parents decline this option. IDEA & ­McDonald. a neutral professional skilled in conflict resolution meets with both parties to help them resolve their differences infor- mally. think about how important the IEP was for Shelby’s success. No. 2006. IDEA requires that all states have a system in place to offer no-cost mediation to parents as an initial means for resolving conflicts with schools (Wright & Wright.g. either party can then take the matter to court. 2010).

A student with autism might have participating in conversation as a goal. communication skills. and others as many as 8 or 10. and using the spoon to transport food from plate to mouth. the statement of services must include information about the supplementary aids and services. and Estimates of the percentage of other areas of concern must be included on an IEP. related to meeting his measured needs resulting from the disability. depending on state policies. Even for extracurricular and other nonacademic activities. 2013). that is. described in Chapter 1. and summaries of assessments by specialists such as speech therapists and occupational therapists also can be used to report the present level of performance. the document includes all the special education instruction to be provided and any other related services needed. 58 C/M/Y/K . math problem solving. disabilities range from 30 to 60 percent or more (Office of Often. Specifically. for a student with multiple disabilities whose annual goal is to feed herself. occupational and physical therapy. Extent of Participation in General Education In keeping with the trend toward inclusive practices. A student who is entitled to transition or vocational assistance has an IEP that clarifies these services. and increased emphasis is placed on annual goals that enable a student to progress in the general education curriculum. An annual goal for a student with a moderate intellectual disability. However. annual goals address desired changes in classroom behavior. picking up food with the spoon. extended time) M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. too. evidence-based explanation of why that student cannot participate in such activities must be part of the IEP. Services and Modifications Needed The IEP contains a complete outline of the specialized services the student needs. Prevention. 58 CHAPTER TWO F YI Present Level of Performance Information about a student’s current level of academic achievement. One additional element of this IEP component concerns assessment. its impact on student learning. and other areas in which a student has specialized needs. Examples of IEP goals and objectives are included in the Professional Edge feature. social skills. Thus. For some students. Some students have as few as 2 or 3. and other curricular areas. This information serves as incarcerated youth who have a baseline and makes it possible to judge student progress from year to year. For other students. For example. Annual Goals and Short-Term Objectives  Annual goals are the MDT’s estimate of what a student should be able to accomplish within a year.indd 58 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:27 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. Federal law requires that short-term objectives be written only for the IEPs of students with significant intellectual disabilities. annual goals may refer primarily to academic areas and may include growth in reading. No. or other adaptive skills. social skills. Annual goals also may encompass speech therapy. to be provided so that the student can access and progress in the general education curriculum. IDEA specifies that annual goals must be measurable. Another component of this assessment is information about how the student’s disabilities affect involvement in the general education curriculum. a student with a learning disability might have an annual goal to read and comprehend books at a particular grade level or demonstrate skills for finding and keeping a job. There is no right number of annual goals. and they may or may not be required for all students. Perhaps most important. for example. the IEP must include a clear statement of justification for placing a student anywhere but in a general education classroom for all or part of the school day. highlights of the information collected from the individual assessment of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency the student or RtI data are recorded on the IEP to partially meet this requirement. short-term objectives might include grasping a spoon. Individual achievement test scores. and the complexity of the goal. a student receiving adaptive physical education has an IEP indicating that such a service is needed. a specific. A student’s need for special transportation is noted in the IEP. The number of short-term objectives for each annual goal relates to the type and severity of the disability. if the team excludes the student from the setting for typical peers. IDEA stipulates that if a student needs accommodations (for example. teacher ratings. Short-term objectives are descriptions of the steps needed to achieve an annual goal. may be to order a meal at a fast- food restaurant. behavior.

As a general education teacher. in of six interactions initiated by the therapist. • Goal: Maria will make eye contact when communicating with adults in school in at least five out of six trials. not just for high-stakes tests. goals are supple. for all students with disabilities. dent needs. for others. and they are written in specific ways (Bateman & ­Jerome will use periods. Hispanic mothers problems. and punctuation with 80 percent accuracy. commas. the team must ensure the student will complete an alternate assessment that takes into account her functioning levels and needs. history. you will assist but not be primarily responsible. these should be specified on the IEP and implemented throughout the school year. The Elementary and Secondary Educa- tion Act set specific limits on which students are exempt from high-stakes test- ing and eligible for alternate assessments. Objective: When assigned to write one paragraph. Objective: Maria will make eye contact when the special mented by short-term objectives or benchmarks that measure education teacher calls her name and looks at her in at progress toward achieving the annual goal. 59 C/M/Y/K . accomplishing that goal without fostering appropriate student behavior. DIMENSIONS sionals undoubtedly will help develop the materials and activities you will use OF DIVERSITY when the student is in your classroom. including high-stakes assessments. For some students. No. as was true of Ms. a student with a mild intellectual or learning disability probably will be able to complete many class tasks with minor accommodations that you can make. 3 Sample IEP Goals and Objectives The goals and objectives on IEPs are related to assessed stu. Lee in the chapter-opening vignette. too. Courtade & Browder. question marks. and their scores will be part of the data for evaluating teacher and school effectiveness. Part of identifying services is indicating who is responsible for providing them. regardless of the severity of the student’s homework assignments in English. other profes. if your student has significant intellectual and physical disabilities.S.indd 59 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. • be measurable and specify the conditions under which Objective: Susan will write down homework assignments the student should be able to carry out an activity (such 90 percent of the time with 90 percent accuracy. 2006. capital let- ters. When queried about their goals for their children with significant Behavior Intervention Plan Every student with significant behavior disabilities. Jerome will use complete sentences. you may be included. Goals usually outline progress expected for approxi. must stressed their children’s (a) ability to have as part of the IEP an intervention plan based on a functional assessment of the protect themselves and (b) inclusion student’s behavior. However. S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 59 P R O F E S S I ONAL E D G E 2 . For example. and these limits were confirmed and clarified in IDEA. Objective: Maria will make eye contact with the speech/ mately 1 school year. For all students with significant intel. some states. disability. and U. 2011). 2012). Disabilities • Goal: When assigned to write an essay of three para- graphs. on district or state assessments. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. sample IEP goals and objectives: Objective: Maria will make eye contact when a classroom teacher calls her name and looks at her in at least five out Students with Mild/Moderate of six interactions. not just those students labeled as having emotional disabilities. They must exclamation points with 90 percent accuracy. Disabilities • indicate the level of mastery needed (such as a level of accuracy in an assignment). Most of the students with disabilities you teach will be required to complete mandated assessments. algebra. If a student is to be exempt from such assessments. • be aligned with the curriculum for the grade level of • Goal: Susan will complete at least 80 percent of her the student. as the reading level of print material or the people with Students with Significant ­Intellectual whom a student should communicate). Any of the professionals introduced earlier in this chapter could be listed on the IEP to deliver special services. language therapist during individual sessions in five out lectual disabilities who take alternate assessments and. you will be the teacher who completes most of the required instruction. This requirement reflects the increasing pressure for students in the community with a strong social to be supported in general education settings and the acknowledged difficulty of network (Shogren. The following are least five out of six interactions. and Linden.

if you do not do that. and access to appropriate resources on the Internet. Burden. even if the student does not master this concept. You can demonstrate that you are helping the student learn this by providing class discussion. & Coyle. you will have carried out your responsibility. role-play activities. IEPs guide the education of watch?v=IMu4OKG54aY) Would you like help in remembering students with disabilities. they are signed by the individuals who participate in their devel- opment. 2013). An IEP helps you clarify your expectations for a student what is included in an IEP? This and provides a means for you to understand the student’s educational needs. including the student’s parent or guardian. The rap summarizes the most critical document also informs you about the types of services the student receives and components of an IEP.. Students with disabilities who are college bound might have a transition plan that includes improvement of study skills. the most typical duration for a service is a maximum of 1 year. This plan must be tailored to match the assessed strengths and needs of the particular student (Martin & Williams-Diehm. No. In addition to the basic components. and a checklist might be used to judge student progress toward reaching the goal. If you do that. WWW RESOURCES The Value of IEPs (http://www. braille (unless specifically excluded in the IEP). you may be violating the IEP. appropriate supports. you are ac- countable for that failure. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. when the student’s educational plan will next be reviewed. In such cases. the frequency of the services. If during the year an MDT member sees a need to reconsider the student’s educational plan. suppose an IEP indicates that a student should learn the concept of freedom of speech. if a student has highly specialized needs. 60 C/M/Y/K . exploration of different universities and their services for students with disabilities.indd 60 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. Strategies for Evaluation  When a team develops an IEP. Although technical and potentially time consuming. Transition Plan  For each student who is 16 years of age or older. 2010). For example. the criteria might include specific point-to-point independent movement. the types of accommodations and modifications that are part of the services. Because the law generally requires that student progress in special education be monitored at least once each year. If you state that the student is expected merely to read about the concept in the textbook chapter and you refuse to create opportunities for supported learning in this area. 2010). IEPs have several other requirements. and completion of high school course requirements necessary to obtain admission to a university. It is updated annually. part of the IEP is an outcomes-oriented description of strategies and services for ensuring that the student will be prepared to leave school for adult life. 2013). when short-term objectives are 60 CHAPTER TWO Date of Initiation and Frequency and Duration of Service and Anticipated Modifications Each IEP must include specific dates when services begin. For students who plan to work immediately after graduation. For example. as well as developing important job skills such as punctuality and respect toward people in authority and customers.. with participation by professionals from agencies outside the school typically increasing as the student nears graduation or school departure at age 21 or 22. Sedaghat. Your job is to make a good-faith effort to accomplish the goals and/or short-term objectives in the IEP as they relate to your instruction. they must be addressed in the IEP. the members must clarify how to measure student progress toward achieving the annual goals and how to regularly inform parents about this progress (Wright et al. and assistive technology. For a student learning to move around the school without assistance. services. This part of the IEP is called a transition plan (Peterson. Examples of such needs are behavior. Kohler. the team indicates the criteria and procedures to be used to judge whether each objective has been met. additional IEP meetings can be convened or amendments made by phone with parent approval. the transition plan might include developing skills such as reading employment ads and filling out job applications. and the period of time during which services are offered. Gothberg. For example. In addition. and strategies must be specified (Wright et al.

However. In others. ers on the middle school team to attend a meeting about a Do you have questions about your role in the prereferral. Special Education and Other Services As noted in Chapter 1. and supplementary aids and services. a system must be in place to identify the IEP? students who are not making expected academic progress. S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 61 WORKING Understanding the Intervention. one still need to have intervention assistance teams and proce. RtI. Federal law requires participation of general education However. a representative from • I work in a high school. these services may include a curriculum aligned with the standard curriculum but significantly simplified. adapted physical education. involvement of parents. sition of the prereferral team is a school’s decision. and most students already have been the team might work with the team in monitoring a student’s identified by the time they get to this level. technology specialist). do not write sections of the IEP. and/or IEP team meetings for ing participating in services offered in the general education their students who have been referred or assessed? classroom and making adjustments to assignments and strat- In most cases. the eligibility process.indd 61 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg.. or IEP process? Additional considerations related to your role are presented in the Work- ing Together feature. transportation. Do high schools response to intervention. Both the ser- vices and placements are determined by the multidisciplinary team. too. it is not reasonable to expect all the teach. When an initial IEP is written. referral. No matter what your role ventions. including impact tant viewpoint to them. What Services Do Students  atch this video for an W with Disabilities Receive? example of the various types of services offered in special education. access to a special edu- cation teacher qualified to teach students with a particular disability. egies as specified. lim- ited only by the stipulation that they must be necessary as part of that student’s education. and cases. or high school teacher. includ- the intervention assistance. the types of services students receive can be grouped into three categories: special education.. Examples of related services are speech therapy. For example. Special education refers to the specially designed instructional services students receive. When a student’s special education teacher comes to the classroom and teaches with the general educa- tion teacher. 61 C/M/Y/K . physical and occupational therapy. Federal law requires that across all levels of schools. These services are provided in a variety of placements. middle school. When a student leaves a classroom for 30 minutes three times each week for intensive tutoring. you are obligated • Do all the teachers on the middle school team need to attend to carry out any IEP provisions that pertain to you. 2010). that is special education. student choice in selecting inter. Related services are all the supports students may need in order to ben- efit from special education. Here are a few common tervention assistance team and hold meetings during sched- questions and their answers: uled common planning time. The services that a student with disabilities can receive are comprehensive.g. the middle school team might actually serve as the in- the design of special education services. Assessment. re- tions of their roles (National High School Center et al. that is special education. elementary. that is special education. lated arts teacher. and indi- vidualized instruction using specialized approaches. related services. general education teacher usually can provide a representative dures in place for response to intervention? perspective for the team. No. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. • Are general education teachers responsible for writing parts of cluding high schools. In some response-to-intervention procedures. The compo- roles and responsibilities related to intervention assistance teams. recent research indicates that RtI in high school must teachers in most IEP meetings because they bring an impor- take into account significant context factors. TOGETHER 2. in. those teachers generally on graduation requirements. When a middle school or high school offers a life or study skills class for students with disabilities.1 and Decision-Making Process Even experienced teachers sometimes have questions about their student with a suspected or identified disability. and staff members’ percep. (e.

succeed when educated with typical peers has caused educators to rethink such classrooms for all except students with extraordinary needs. and even special assessment and instruction can professional development for general education teachers so they know how to significantly limit its potential address students’ instructional needs. psychological services. assistive and other technology. In another example. they can be placed in an alternative educational setting for up to 45 school days while a decision is made concerning long-term placement (Yell. and social work. emphasis now is on designing systems of support in general education settings. Generally. with supports. a student with physical and intellectual disabilities. too. the setting in which they can succeed that is most like the setting for other students. research Supplementary aids and services are all means used to enable students to indicates that inadequate teacher succeed in a general education setting. as well as a special education Lucas. and he is allowed extra time to complete tests. like Jennifer. as is a student’s Although RtI can lead to improved academic outcomes for students need for assistance with personal care such as toileting. through suspension) for up to 10 days in a school year. the range of possibilities for special education. it also provides recent data on the percentage of students with disabilities in each of those placements. Department of Education. No. Lee’s students at the beginning of the chapter. and supplementary aids and services is immense. 2011). but the requirement that teach- ers delivering core academic instruction be specifically qualified for that role and the increasing recognition that students with disabilities can. and speech/language therapist. par- ticularly those with high-incidence disabilities. peer culture. the MDT makes student placement decisions and reviews them along with the IEP at least annually. 2006). For example. receives the services of a physical and occupational therapist. Placement can be changed as often as ap- propriate. Administrators may unilaterally change a student’s placement (for example.indd 62 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. As you might guess. Exceptions to this occur when discipline issues arise. Students with more complex or severe disabili- ties may have a more highly specialized special education as well as numerous related services. a negative school at a different level or reformatted to make them easier for students to read. Regular (General Education) Classes Approximately 60 percent of students with disabilities spend more than 80 percent of the school day in a general education setting (U.4 shows the IDEA continuum of placements. provided such methods are used with other They include materials that are written preparation. that must exist for students with disabilities. a high school student with a learning disability in math. If students with disabilities bring a weapon or drugs to school. 62 CHAPTER TWO RESEARCH NOTE counseling. the LRE for most students is general education for more than 80 percent of the school day. Nearly all school districts still have some separate special education classrooms. r­ elated services. Student Placement and Educational Environments Where students receive their educational services is guided by the principle of least restrictive environment (LRE). 62 C/M/Y/K . attends a geometry class in which a special education teacher teams with a math teacher. Some students. In today’s schools. Lucas’s assignments are sometimes shortened. For example. For a middle school student with M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. receive a limited number of spe- cial education services and perhaps no related services at all.S. which you read about at the beginning of the chapter. with parental permission. He already is looking into colleges that are recognized for their support of students with his special needs. As in Ms. introduced as one of Ms. the student remains in the current placement until the disagreement is resolved. Turner’s school. referred to as educational environments. from diverse backgrounds. a kindergartener with a communication disorder might be served by a speech/language therapist who comes to the classroom and teaches language lessons with the general education teacher. if the parents and school district rep- resentatives disagree about placement. illustrated in this video prepared by the U. Charmon. Department of Education at (http:// www. 2010). As discussed earlier. Figure 2. (Orosco & Klingner. that is. and misalignment of or paraprofessional support. A student’s need to ride a special bus equipped with a wheelchair lift is a related service.

basic math skills may be taught.35% 0.ed. S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 63 FIGURE IDEA Educational Environments for Students with Disabilities 2. For instance. 2011). Department of Education. and all the second. a stu. In elementary schools.078 (20. annual reports to Congress on the riculum being taught in general education classes..html) Many statistics in this textbook go to the resource room together. For example.834 students) students) students) students) 80% 40–79% Less than Separate Residential Parentally Correctional Home or more 40% school facility placed in facility or hospital private school Settings most like those for typical Settings least like those for typical learners (i. some resource rooms are arranged by same-age groups. (2011). all fifth graders with disabilities needing some separate service may annual/osep/index. this class might be called.7% Percentage of all students with disabilities (3.4 Percentage of time inside general education 53. for example.97% 0.39 million students) 17. For a high school student with a learning disability. (http://www. DC: Author.6% (1. resource programs sometimes are organized by the skills being taught. No. general education) Source: United States Department of Education.9% (172.446 (23. often called a resource room.S. students are scheduled to have resource how they receive education services classes in the same way the rest of their classes are scheduled.212 (57.41% 0. resource algebra. resource English or past several years at this website.e.40% students) (24. about students with disabilities and In middle schools and high schools.e. 63 C/M/Y/K . Resource Programs Another group of students with disabilities attends school mostly in general education settings but also receives assistance in a special education classroom.16 million students) 23. an inclusion specialist might adjust a lesson on fractions by helping the student learn how to cut simple shapes into halves. Alternatively. core academic implementation of IDEA. You can instruction is taught in the resource room by a special educator qualified to teach find copies of the reports from the in the academic For example. general education) learners (i. This student also might have one special education class for instruction in study skills and learning strategies. from 10:00 am until 10:45 am. M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. In some instances. Washington.7% (1..03 million students) 2. for 21 to 60 percent of the day (U. come from the federally compiled dent may attend a resource class that provides study strategies or reviews the cur.and WWW RESOURCES third-grade students needing math assistance may come to the resource room at that time. a paraprofessional might provide assistance in biology class for carrying out lab directions and recording and completing assignments. intellectual and physical disabilities. Thirtieth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.786 0.indd 63 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg.

Department of Education. an approach that is supported by some professionals and parents and opposed by others. They may receive instruction in different classrooms from several special educators. However. unless the IEP team determines there is a compelling reason to discontinue services. 2011). They are not able to cope with the complexity and social stress of a typical school.S. most have complex with these students (McCord & medical problems that must be closely monitored. children and young adults who are convicted of crimes and incarcerated as adults also may be entitled to special education ser- vices. These students might harm themselves or others. If students in separate settings have even greater needs. Kyle’s special education teacher helps Mr. These students have opportunities for contact with typical peers who are brought to the school through a special program to function as “learning buddies. someone assists them. Further.S. A paraprofessional accompanies him because he has limited ability to understand directions and needs close guidance from an adult to participate appropriately. Home and Hospital Settings A very small number of students with disabilities receive their education in a home or hospital setting (U. 2011). For community time. Kyle goes to Mr. he takes a horticulture class with students without disabilities. can be addressed. RESEARCH NOTE Separate Schools  A small number of students with disabilities attend public Although nearly all students with or private separate schools (U. The students are about Kyle’s age and assist him with the community activities and learning. This placement often is used for students who are medically M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. 2011). Ballinger’s fifth-grade class. although such schools are. for the most part. Some separate disabilities participate in their schools exist for students with moderate or severe intellectual and physical school’s music classes. and physical disabilities. 2010). Residential Facilities A few students have needs that cannot be met at a school that is in session only during the day. Few students with disabilities are educated in this manner (U. Department of Education. For example. share important events from their lives.indd 64 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. The students for whom this placement is the LRE often are those with severe emotional problems or severe and multiple intellectual. children and young adults with disabilities who are incarcerated in the juvenile justice system must receive spe- cial education services. A somewhat different group of students also can be considered under the residential placement option. In some states. assemblies. and other school activities. a separate class placement does not mean that students remain in a single classroom or that they do not interact with typical peers. 64 C/M/Y/K . In this placement. particularly in high school. and most cannot move unless Watts. For example. including therapeutic supports.S. Department of Education. 2011). 30 minutes each day is called community time. in a small community near Chicago. although Kurt is in a separate class most of the day at his high school. These students all inadequate preparation to work need the services of a physical and occupational therapist. sensory. 200 music educators indicated that Other separate schools serve students with multiple disabilities who need high they seldom participated in IEP levels of specialized services. a special education teacher has the primary instructional responsibility for the students who receive grades from the special educator for the subjects taught there. and learn about their neighborhood and community. students who are blind or deaf also might receive their instruction in a residential facility. and so the least restrictive environment for them is a school where their highly specialized needs. They may attend general education classes for part of the day or a certain class period. Department of Education. a survey of disabilities.S. becoming obsolete. At Kyle’s elementary school. during which students read and write together. Ballinger plan appropriate activities for him during that time. they might attend school as well as live in a public or private residential facility. 64 CHAPTER TWO Separate Classes  Some students with disabilities attend separate classes for more than 60 percent of the school day (U. No. According to IDEA.” Some students with serious emotional disabilities also attend separate schools. and they also may participate with peers in related arts. meetings and believed they had approximately 25 students are educated at a separate school.

she sometimes which you would consider for your own teaching. writing. For a few students with limited stamina. but she is supplement the information you found in this chapter? unsure of what to expect. Although some school districts have selected research-based Tier I interventions.indd 65 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. She is conflicted about student needs versus poten- primary features of interventions described. to intervention for reading disabilities” (or search for especially the school’s African American students. The student data help you understand RtI and the tiers of intervention. Share observes that students’ right to an inclusive education can this information with two peers from your class and. assure Ms.asha. or another core academic area). a special education teacher comes to the home for a specified amount of time each week to deliver instruction. as a create unrealistic expectations for general educators’ ability group. At the same time. it often is appropriate for a specific skill or service and for a specific and limited period of time. pending resolution of the dispute. or who have experienced an emotional crisis. NYUGEN has become increasingly concerned as a districts may not have adopted specific strategies. any of the services in any of the place- ments just described can be extended into school breaks and summer vacations through extended-school-year (ESY) programs. That is. For these students. the Council for Exceptional Children (http://www tivities that follow connect to the everyday activities of all . will play a major role in the education of students with disabilities. Placements in separate classes and schools are far less preferred than those that support the education of students with disabilities in general education classrooms and schools. When placement includes a specialized setting. To member of her school’s leadership team. The questions and ac. Then. KUCHTA will report information about the Tier 1 work with teachers and IEP teams. How would you mend to the entire class. One more point should be made about placement. Will this mean lots of meetings? M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. who are undergoing surgery or another medical treatment. school comes to their homes because they do not have the strength to come to school. determine which intervention you would recom. LEE is looking forward to working with the special students and services? What resources might you access to educator and the speech/language therapist. Lee should expect to happen in her classroom. No. ter. other school MS. This means that you. Hearing Association (http://www. Home instruction also might be used for a student with serious behavior problems or for a student for whom there is disagreement about the appropriate school placement. 65 C/M/Y/K . the team may decide that their learning will suffer significantly if schooling stops during the summer. to teach all the students in a class S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 65 fragile. outline how a special educator and speech/language therapist MS.sped. Thus. Nyugen that she is a necessary participant in the special education process and address her concerns about as a general education teacher. explain what interventions she has used with Christopher at the meet- Ms. ing with the SIT. The appropriate and required educational setting for most students with disabilities is the same classroom they would attend if they did not have a dis- ability. thought that was what was needed when they struggle to Review at least three of the websites listed. Wrapping It Up Back to the Cases This section provides opportunities for you to apply the Should she be keeping records of Jennifer’s academic and knowledge gained in this chapter to the cases described language difficulties? Using information from the chap- at the beginning of this chapter. it is important for you to understand the kinds of special services your students receive and your role in assisting to deliver them. clearly paint a picture that indicates students are spending a conduct a Google search using the key words “response significant amount of time in a special education classroom. noting the learn.cec. but she mathematics. and decide tial prejudice at work. and the American Speech-Language- teachers. For some students.

The IEP also may possibly worsening over time. any aspect of a student’s special education program or gists. speech/language therapists. the concerns. due process procedures. a multidisciplinary team (MDT) fol. but she has extraordinary difficulties with reading Ms. beginning and ending dates for service ­examples. vironments in which these services are offered include sessed by an intervention assistance team (IAT) or a general education classroom. Richards. Hill To help set appropriate goals for the coming year. The educational en- • If concerns persist. and dispute resolution sessions. reading comprehension. Assessment After completing this chapter. comparing the student’s include a behavior intervention plan and a transition needs to those of comparable students. implementation. 66 C/M/Y/K . the person(s) responsible clarifying those needs by describing them through for the services. needs. she and her team members will be work. paraprofessionals. related services. joys extracurricular activities such as track and basket. counselors. response-to-intervention (RtI) procedures. 66 CHAPTER TWO Summary • The individuals who work to ensure that students with developing an individualized education program disabilities receive an appropriate education include (IEP). that is ning in the fall. the student’s needs may be as. Although it would be ideal for all the Psychologist: Ms. not feasible. identification of students who appear to have special vidualized assessment with parental permission. and other formally. plan and generally must be reviewed at least annually. a student newly identified as having level expectations related to reading and other skills. supplementary aids and services. sixth-grade team members to attend the meeting. and intervening to address the unmet IEP. Hubbert IEP for ­Natasha. or a separate • If increasingly intensive interventions do not resolve school or other separate setting. nizing that no pattern seems to exist for the student’s • The services a student may receive. Young is participating in an MDT meeting to create an Principal: Ms. and monitoring special education services. education. social services and if the disagreement cannot be resolved in- workers. administrators. with expertise in grade- ing with Natasha. as outlined by the performance. resource program. Special education middle school teacher: Ms. as well as parents and students. needed services. Young fluency. Applications in Teaching Practice A VISIT TO AN MDT MEETING Ms. justification for any placement outside general the nature and extent of the student’s unmet needs. special education teach. representing her colleagues. related service providers such as school psycholo. through assessment and identification. goals (and sometimes ob- be assessed for the presence of a disability by ­analyzing jectives). needed. check your understanding of the concepts by completing the End of Chapter Assessment.indd 66 DESIGN SERVICES OF 19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. Natasha has many friends and en. Begin. Freund M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. She also has significant problems organizing her work General education (fifth-grade) teacher: Mr. include special education. general education teachers. • If parents and school district personnel disagree on ers. mak. and needs and documenting those efforts. Young teaches language arts to sixth graders. it includes the student’s process of deciding whether to request that a ­student present level of functioning. general education teachers usually b ­egin a • When an IEP is developed. Ms. is a learning disability. and so Ms. separate special education classroom. • General education teachers play an integral role in the lows federally established special education referral education of students with disabilities. Tucker and remembering to complete and turn in assignments. General education (sixth-grade) language arts teacher: ball. to IEP ing decisions about the need for special education. No. from the early and assessment steps. determining that the needs are chronic and delivery. including mediation specialists. and written expression. possibly recog. are used to ensure • To determine whether special education services are that the student receives an appropriate education. including completing an indi. and criteria for evaluation.

in what setting would you Ms. Tucker: It’s not academics. No. given what you know and have heard about Natasha. ute during this meeting? Now apply what you said about Ms. • Natasha will identify with 90 percent accuracy the Mr. How might this meeting be different (with adjusted get the technology in place. Natasha’s general knowledge is very good. What is the purpose of having both the fifth-grade Ms. Given the Parent: Ms. Young take at the meeting? Why she helps out around the house with chores. Wright nods. Colt Ms. Given what you know. textbooks. Colt: Natasha has a very strong speaking vocabulary. Hubbert: Let’s focus for a minute on academic areas with a disability? of need. Young: In middle school. Before we finish 11th grade? today. Wright. that could be even more predict Natasha will be served? What is the justifica- of a problem. She also using materials at her instructional level: is near grade level in math skills. What steps likely were completed prior to this meet- low that. Wright. and other materials such as children’s first. Tucker. then social areas. but one strength I see main characters and the problem and solution in that Natasha has is her willingness to help classmates. and wrap up with related ser. teacher and a sixth-grade teacher attend the meet- pression are by far the areas that need the most work. she is considerably above average The conversation continues. Ms. Freund: Reading comprehension and written ex. Wright: Hmmm. What Ms. pare? What other team responsibilities were met? Ms. What part of the IEP is the team addressing? What the other kids make fun of her when she can’t read the other parts have to be completed before the meet- words. I’d like to suggest that we discuss academics ries. We need to be sure that she uses the same tion for your answer? textbooks as the other students next year. literature that she reads at a third-grade level. Hill: I agree that comprehension is the key.] Mr. Hubbert: Our next task is to develop goals for to a fourth-grade level on reading tasks that include sto- ­Natasha. ing? How might this improve the quality of the IEP? Natasha’s comprehension is just at a beginning third- ­ What problems might it cause? grade level. She also participated to fourth-grade level) and 80 percent of material in the service learning program and volunteered to read she reads to herself. so that she can use audio achievement levels) if Natasha was a kindergar- books. magazines. program for Natasha? How else might she contrib- She makes up her own recipes. that’s for sure. Ms. 3. let’s be sure that we talk about that some more. then. we need to Questions remember that Natasha has strong vocabulary skills and general knowledge and that she does not need services 1. She also was very active tive and expository material she reads aloud (third- in extracurricular sports this year. tener going to first grade? A 10th grader going to mental materials for her to use at home. What are the responsibilities of the professionals in math. Hill: As we write academic goals. Young to your own teaching role. 4. And 2. ing made for the educational services for a student Ms. and they tease her when you give her a “baby ing ends? What must occur for the IEP to be valid? book. What role does Ms. and she likes to cook. what sionals are required to attend? How would your re- strengths do you see in Natasha? sponses be different if this were an annual review? Ms. She really wants to assist everyone in class to learn even • Natasha will comprehend 80 percent of both narra- when she herself is struggling. Young and Ms. Ms. Before the meeting ends. I think a goal should be for her to improve her comprehension Ms. I’m sure we can also arrange to get some supple. Reviewing her scores. The a­ ssessment data completed for this m ­ eeting ing? How did the general education teacher pre- are very consistent with classroom data. what might be pri- orities for next year? M02_FRIE4433_07_SE_CH02. Hill: Helping really seems to be Natasha’s priority— contributions should you make when plans are be- let’s keep that in mind. Freund: Ms. too. in that realm. Hill. according to the assessment the following additional goals in reading comprehension data. 67 C/M/Y/K . the MDT has generated Ms. She minds me. Wright: She says she doesn’t like reading because 5. Hubbert: Ms. and her written expression is about a year be. Let’s look at Natasha’s strengths first—in all those areas. Perhaps we can use her social skills and other present at the MDT meeting? Which of the profes- interests to help in the academic arena. She likes to is her presence helpful in creating an educational help me watch her baby brother. to the kindergarten class. Wright data and the other information we’re discussing.indd 67 DESIGN SERVICES OF19/02/14 3:28 PM # 151791   Cust: Pearson   Au: Friend  Pg. Ms. how does that sound to you? [Ms. Freund: Along with that. vices needed. S pecia l E d u cation P roced u res and S er v ices 67 Speech/language therapist: Mr. let’s be sure we 6.” Mr.