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J.S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No.

2 in F Major

Thursday, March 5, 2009

Today ...
Baroque Music

"Odd pearl or strained syllogism,
baroque music was to both Pluche and
Rousseau bizarre, extravagant, and
- Claude V. Palisca

Thursday, March 5, 2009

Baroque Architecture

Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th
century in Italy, expressed the triumph of absolutist
church and state. New architectural concerns for
color, light and shade, sculptural values and intensity
characterize the Baroque.

Thursday, March 5, 2009

Mezquita de Cordoba - Cordoba, Spain

Roman Temple Visigothic Cathedral Muslim Mosque Baroque Cathedral
The site on which the Mezquita stands has long been a sacred space – it was first host to a Roman temple,
then a Visigoth cathedral church of St Vincent of Saragossa, then a mosque (the Mezquita). Finally, a Baroque
cathedral was added inside the mosque by the Christian conquerors in the early 13th century. The
construction of the Mezquita lasted for over two centuries, starting in 784 AD under the supervision of the
emir of Cordoba, Abd ar-Rahman I. Under Abd ar-Rahman II (822-52), the Mezquita held an original copy of
the Koran and an arm bone of the prophet Mohammed, making it a major Muslim pilgrimage site. The
Mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd ar-Rahman III ordered a new minaret, while Al-
Hakam II, in 961, enlarged the plan of the building and enriched the mihrab. The last of the reforms,
including the completion of the outer naves and orange tree courtyard, were completed by Al-Mansur Ibn
Abi Aamir in 987. When finished, the Mezquita was the most magnificent of the more than 1,000 mosques
in Cordoba. But Cordoba was subject to frequent invasion and each conquering wave added their own
mark to the architecture. In 1236, Cordoba was recaptured from the Moors by King Ferdinand III of Castile
and rejoined Christendom. The Christians initially left the architecture Mezquita largely undisturbed — they
simply consecrated it, dedicated it to the Virgin Mary, and used it as a place of Christian worship. King
Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the structure of
the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features: Enrique II rebuilt the chapel in the
14th century; a nave was constructed with the patronage of Carlos V, king of a united Spain. The heavy,
incongruous Baroque cathedral was sanctioned in the very heart of the mosque by Charles V in the 1520s.
Artists and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century, making the
Mezquita an intriguing architectural oddity. In 1931, Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal was the first Muslim to
pray in the Mezquita since it was closed to Islam. In 1984, the historic center of Cordoba, including the
Mezquita, was made a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Thursday, March 5, 2009

2009 . March 5. King Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)was the first monarch to rule England after the English Restoration. Thursday.

John Dryden (August 19. 1631 . literary critic and playwright. 2009 . Thursday. 1700) was an influential English poet. who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles as the Age of Dryden.May 12. March 5.

And could not heave her head. from heavenly harmony This universal frame began: From harmony to harmony Through all the compass of the notes it ran. and dry. And Music's power obey. The tuneful voice was heard from high: "Arise." Then. Cecilia's Day (1687) From harmony. from heavenly harmony This universal frame began: When Nature underneath a heap Of jarring atoms lay. March 5. From John Dryden's A Song for St. and hot. cold. ye more than dead. [To culminate all harmony] in man. From harmony. In order to their stations leap. and moist. 2009 . Thursday.

The double double double beat Of the thundering drum Cries: "Hark! the foes come. March 5. And mortal alarms. Charge. Less than a god they thought there could not dwell Within the hollow of that shell That spoke so sweetly and so well. And. His listening brethren stood around. 2009 . With shrill notes of anger. 'tis too late to retreat. What passion cannot Music raise and quell! When [man first] struck the corded shell. What passion cannot Music raise and quell! The trumpet's loud clangor Excites us to arms. charge. wondering. on their faces fell To worship that celestial sound." Thursday.

Whose dirge is whispered by the warbling lute. Thursday. What human voice can reach. Sharp violins proclaim Their jealous pangs. and height of passion. disdainful dame. Fury. The soft complaining flute In dying notes discovers The woes of hopeless lovers. March 5. and desperation. frantic indignation. Depth of pains. Notes that wing their heavenly ways To mend the choirs above. For the fair. But O! what art can teach. 2009 . The sacred organ's praise? Notes inspiring holy love.

John Dryden's A Song for St. But bright Cecilia raised the wonder higher: When to her [voice her saintly] breath was given. And trees unrooted left their place. March 5. 2009 . Cecilia's Day (1687) Thursday. Mistaking earth for heaven. and straight appeared. Orpheus could lead the savage race. An angel heard. [When he would play] the lyre.

March 5. The Home of Baroque Music Thursday. 2009 .

and the philosophical explorations of Descartes. It was the age of the scientific discoveries of Galileo and Newton. Spinoza and Locke. the mathematical advances of Descartes. Newton and Leibnitz. artistic and social atmosphere. The era of Baroque music was an age of spectacular progress of knowledge. Thursday. which in so many ways signaled the birth of modern Europe. 2009 . There was a new and vibrant intellectual. March 5.

. was a musical theory popular in the Baroque era (1600-1750). Doctrine of the Affections “The Doctrine of the affections . the composer could create a piece of music capable of producing a particular involuntary emotional response in his audience. “The Perfect Chapelmaster”). At the centre of the doctrine was the belief that. which stated that music had the power to alter moods.. fury may be aroused by a roughness of harmony coupled with a rapid melody. he notes that joy is elicited by large intervals. It is a theory of musical aesthetics.” Thursday. but it has its roots in the ancient Greek doctrine of ethos. sadness by small intervals. and René Descartes' treatise "The Passions of the Soul. There is no one writer credited for creating the doctrine of affections. March 5. obstinacy is evoked by the contrapuntal combination of highly independent (obstinate) melodies. widely accepted by late Baroque theorists and composers. that embraced the proposition that music is capable of arousing a variety of specific emotions within the listener." which stated that emotions could be controlled. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714–1788) and the Mannheim school were exponents of the doctrine. In Der vollkommene Capellmeister (1739.. Mattheson is especially comprehensive in his treatment of the affections in music. by making use of the proper standard musical procedure or device... 2009 .

The scope of the work as a whole is breathtaking . This was something entirely new to the public of the time. in a way that had not been seen before. Claudio Monteverdi (May 15. and he was one of the most significant revolutionaries that brought about the change in style. Monteverdi wrote the earliest dramatically viable opera.each part (there are twenty-five in total) is fully developed in both a musical and dramatic sense - the instrumental textures are used to precise dramatic and emotional effect.” Thursday. matched only by works such as Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli. Matthew Passion. March 5. and was fortunate enough to enjoy fame during his lifetime. Bach's St. 2009 . Orfeo. 1643) produced works that can be classified in both periods. the) transition composer from the Renaissance to the Baroque period.This is one of his few sacred works of any scale. 1610). 1567 (baptised) – November 29. Handel's Messiah. and was an immediate hit. The Vespers of 1610 are also one of the best examples of early repetition and contrast. with many of the parts having a clear ritornello. and J. but it remains to this day one of the greatest examples of devotional music. “Known as a (perhaps. S. It is arguable that Monteverdi's greatest work remains the Vespro della Beata Vergine 1610 (The Vespers of the Blessed Virgin.

European art music written between approximately 1600 and 1750. BAROQUE MUSIC . 2009 . March 5. Thursday.

March 5. 2009 . Baroque music characteristic language style Baroque music has form ritornello Baroque music created with human voice Baroque music created with Baroque instrument(s) Baroque music has subdiscipline musical theory Baroque music has subdiscipline composition Baroque music has subdiscipline performance Baroque music has subdiscipline performance practice Baroque music has element Baroque rhythm Baroque music has element Baroque melody Baroque music has element Baroque harmony Baroque music has element Baroque timbre Baroque music has element Baroque instrument(s) Baroque music has element Baroque meter Baroque music has element Baroque tempo Baroque music has element Baroque dynamics Baroque music has genre chant Baroque music has genre madrigal Baroque music has genre Concerto grosso Baroque music has genre song Baroque music has genre suite Baroque music has texture monophony Baroque music has texture homophony Baroque music has texture polyphony Baroque music has associated body movement dance Baroque music has period Baroque Period Baroque music has composer Johann Sebastian Bach Baroque music has composer George Frideric Handel Baroque music has composer Antonio Vivaldi Baroque music has composer William Byrd Baroque music has composer Henry Purcell Baroque music has composer Georg Phillip Telemann Thursday.

Thursday. March 5.Handel was a German late-Baroque composer who made his fortune in England composing what amounted to Italian unstaged operas. know as oratorios. 2009 . George Frideric Handel GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL (1685-1759) .

” George Frideric Handel born in Germany George Frideric Handel lived in England George Frideric Handel has dates 1685-1759 George Frideric Handel important composer of Baroque Period George Frideric Handel composer of Baroque music George Frideric Handel composer of instrumental suite Thursday. 2009 . March 5. George Frideric Handel George Frideric Handel wrote “Italian Opera.

2009 . Antonio Vivaldi ANTONIO VIVALDI (1680-1743) . March 5.Italian composer of THE FOUR SEASONS (1725) who standardized the three- movement concerto grosso and influenced J. S. Thursday. Bach.

Antonio Vivaldi Antonio Vivaldi standardized 3-movement Concerto grosso Antonio Vivaldi composed The Four Seasons Antonio Vivaldi has dates 1680-1743 Antonio Vivaldi important composer of Baroque Period Antonio Vivaldi composer of Baroque music Thursday. 2009 . March 5.

English Baroque composer of the Elizabethan age and is among the three or four English composers since the Renaissance who have stood unequivocally as equals with their continental contemporaries. 2009 . William Byrd WILLIAM BYRD (1543-1623) . Thursday. March 5.

2009 . March 5. William Byrd William Byrd composed during English Baroque William Byrd has dates 1543-1623 William Byrd important composer of Baroque Period William Byrd composer of Baroque music Thursday.

March 5.Perhaps the outstanding composer of the English Baroque. 2009 . Thursday. Dido and Aeneas. sacred and secular vocal music. Henry Purcell HENRY PURCELL (1659-1695) . and instrumental music. He is perhaps best remembered for his opera. Purcell wrote dramatic music.

March 5. 2009 . Henry Purcell Henry Purcell wrote Dido and Aeneas Henry Purcell composer during English Baroque Henry Purcell has dates 1659-1695 Henry Purcell important composer of Baroque Period Henry Purcell composer of Baroque music Thursday.

2009 .Telemann was one of the most prolific composers ever. Georg Phillip Telemann GEORG PHILLIP TELEMANN (1681-1767) . Frankfurt. Eisenach. He worked in Leipzig. March 5. and Hamburg producing forty operas and twelve complete cycles of cantatas and motets (almost 3000 pieces altogether!) Thursday.

000 compositions Georg Phillip Telemann has dates 1681-1767 Georg Phillip Telemann important composer of Baroque Period Georg Phillip Telemann composer of Baroque music Thursday. 2009 . Georg Phillip Telemann Georg Phillip Telemann produced 40 operas Georg Phillip Telemann produced 12 cycles of cantatas & motets Georg Phillip Telemann composed circa 3. March 5.

March 5. 2009 . Johann Sebastian Bach JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH (1685-1750) .Bach was the most influential composer of the Baroque period. so influential in fact that the period from 1685 to 1750 is now referred to generally as the Baroque period in Western music history. Thursday.

2009 . March 5. Johann Sebastian Bach Thursday.

2009 . March 5. Thuringia Johann Sebastian Bach composed concerti grossi Johann Sebastian Bach composed concerti Johann Sebastian Bach composed sonatas Johann Sebastian Bach composed partitas Johann Sebastian Bach composed passions Johann Sebastian Bach has dates 1685-1750 Johann Sebastian Bach important composer of Baroque Period Johann Sebastian Bach performer of organ Johann Sebastian Bach performer of harpsichord Johann Sebastian Bach performer of violin Johann Sebastian Bach performer of viola Johann Sebastian Bach composer of Baroque music Johann Sebastian Bach composer of instrumental suite Thursday. Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bach father Johann Ambrosius Bach Johann Sebastian Bach was composer Johann Sebastian Bach born in Eisenach.

How did we get there? Thursday. From the Modal music of the Renaissance to the Tonal music of the Baroque -. March 5. 2009 .

2009 .Thursday. March 5.

March 5. S. Number 1 in C major – Prelude and Fugue  from Siglind Bruhn J.S. Book 1. Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier In-depth Analysis and Interpretation Thursday. 2009 . J. Bach Well Tempered Clavier.

The Design of the Prelude The sections of this prelude are clearly discernible by their simple cadential patterns. the steps leading to it being: bar 1 = I. ii7. There are altogether four structural sections in this prelude: I bars 1-4 full cadence in C major II bars 5-11 modulation to G major III bars 12-19 modulation back to C major IV bars 20-35 complex. this harmonic close must also be regarded as a structural caesura. in fact. We can thus confirm the following analogy: section II (bars 5-11) corresponds with section III (bars 12-19):both consist of a 2-bar model + descending sequence + analogous cadence-ending. and bars 14-15 are conceived as a sequence of bars 12/13. extended cadence in C major While no portion ever recurs – either note for note or in variation – there is a transposed passage which. 2009 . The next harmonic progression concludes in bar 11. I in bars 7 . In both cases. As all structural breaks in this prelude are harmonically defined. The final steps of this cadence are: bar 9 = ii7 of G. bar 2 = ii2. In connection with this transposition we also find: Bars 7-8 are composed as a sequence of bars 5/6. bar 4 = I. March 5.11 in G major. forms part of an analogy. The only structural difference between these two patterns lies in the different amount of overlapping with the transposed portion. Thursday. bar 11 = I of G. IV2. in bars 15-19 in C major. The first cadential closure is in bar 4. this cadence must be interpreted as the end of a first (short) section. bar 10 = V7 of G. Bars 15-19 are an exact transposition of bars 7-11: see the progression I6 . V7. bar 3 = V65. a two-bar model appears repeated one diatonic step lower. As the F# accidentals from bar 6 onward clearly demonstrate. For the reasons mentioned above. Bach modulates to G major.

March 5. 2009 .Thursday.

March 5. Organization of Well-Tempered Clavier Thursday. 2009 .

Bach’s Prelude Endures Thursday. 2009 . March 5.

not equal temperament) does work and is effective in the creation of music. -David Ledbetter Indeed. It is ironic today to hear them in equal temperament and to realize that they are equally effective in a system of tuning for which they were not meant. March 5. these 96 works are Bach’s ‘proof-of-concept’ that this system (well-temperament. 2009 . -JDL Thursday. This work alone sets the stage for composers to explore the related equal tempered system of tones for the next 300 years.

The Well-Tempered Klavier J. book II: Prelude and Fugue No. March 5. Piano The Well-Tempered Clavier. 2009 . 14 in F# Minor Thursday. S. Bach Angela Hewitt.

2009 . How Did J. March 5. Bach’s Music Sound in 1722? Thursday. S.

Glory to God Alone: The Life of J. 2009 . March 5. S. Bach Thursday.

Giovanni Gabrieli (1555-1612): Sonata XIX. 2009 . from Canzoni e Sonate Thursday. March 5.

2009 . who seems to have written the first music in which a "concertino" and "ripieno" are combined in the characteristic way. oboe. In Corelli's day. March 5. who expanded the ripieno to include wind Thursday. in practice. being introduced by a preludio and incorporating many dance forms popular in the day. due to its great popularity. 2 In F Major (Movement 1) The concerto grosso (plural concerti grossi) (Italian for big concert) was a popular form of baroque music using an ensemble and usually having four to six movements in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno). the so-called Christmas Concerto. --www. which ends with a furious allegro and then has an optional pastoral tacked on which should. The most famous concerto by Corelli is arguably No. The first major composer of named concerti grossi was Stradella's friend Arcangelo Corelli. the movements were selected individually from a larger oeuvre) and soon spread across Europe. The former was more formal and generally just alternated largo or adagio (slow) movements with allegro (fast) movements. The form was probably developed around 1680 by Alessandro Stradella. a collection of twelve such pieces he composed was published (presumably. These distinctions later became blurred. and he also had a strong influence on Antonio Vivaldi. Corelli's concertino consisted of two violins and a cello. Several of the Brandenburg Concerti of Johann Sebastian Bach also loosely follow the concerto grosso form. two distinct forms of the concerto grosso were distinguished: the concerto da chiesa (church concert) and the concerto da camera (chamber concert). Other major composers of concerti grossi were Georg Friedrich Händel. especially in the case of the concerti da chiesa. both accompanied by a basso continuo. The latter was believed to be often realized on the organ in Corelli's day. finding many admirers and imitators. 8 in G minor. Composers such as Francesco Geminiani and Giuseppe Torelli wrote concerti in the style of Corelli. After Corelli's death. in theory. often be played twice even when it isn't.wikipedia. which has a concertino of recorder. and solo violin. only be played on Christmas Eve and must. whereas the latter had more the character of a suite. but in modern recordings harpsichord realizations are almost exclusive. notably the 2nd Concerto. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Brandenburg Concerto No. with a string orchestra serving as ripieno. though he did not use the term "concerto grosso". trumpet.

2009 . March 5. 2 In F Major (Movement 1) Thursday. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Brandenburg Concerto No.

Autumn Concerto . Antonio Vivaldi (1680-1743) The Four Seasons . representing the celebratory atmosphere of an autumn harvest festival. often with the mimicking of everyday sounds. This excerpt (the first movement of the Autumn concerto) tells the story of an autumn harvest festival. a wakeful and lively mood finishes the celebration. which yields to an atmosphere of slumber. 2009 . It is also an example of program music. March 5. Thursday. gives way to the ingesting of spirits.Movement 1 One of the most popular Baroque instrumental works. Vivaldi's Four Seasons is fundamentally a concerto grosso for solo violin. that is. The fast passage work in the violin and orchestra. music that tells a story. then.

March 5. 2009 .Movement 1 Thursday. Antonio Vivaldi (1680-1743) The Four Seasons .

S. "a piece to be sung". Cantata No. was used in the 17th century to mean a variety of vocal compositions. "Cantata". 78 (1st.the solo cantata with recitatives and arias and the chorale cantata with two or more movements based on chorale text develop a new prototype for the church cantata. Bach and the Baroque Cantata Bach's magnificent cantatas can find their origins in the earlier motets from the 1650s. Bach's tremendous musical achievement occupied much of his time during his years at Leipzig where he held his final position as municipal Kapellmeister. Bach fused two types of cantatas -. J. Bach. March 5. 2nd) Thursday. 2009 . J. literally.S. the common feature being the inclusion of at least one piece for solo voice.

S. Bach Cantata No. 78 Thursday. J. March 5. 2009 .

Baroque Musical Instruments Instrument Type Violin Chordophone Viola Chordophone Strings Cello Chordophone Doublebass Chordophone Flute Aerophone Oboe Aerophone Woodwinds Clarinet Aerophone Bassoon Aerophone Recorder Aerophone Trumpet Aerophone Brass Horn (French) Aerophone Sackbut Aerophone Harpsichord Chordophone Keyboard Spinet Chordophone Organ Aerophone Thursday. March 5. 2009 .