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Enhanced Ground Proximity

Warning System

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1.  FOREWARNING

•  The information contained in this presentation
is a general presentation of EGPWS also
called Terrain awareness and warning system
(TAWS);
•  It does not replace information contained in
Flight Crew Operating Manuals relatives to
each type.

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2.  INTRODUCTION
•  The original GPWS concept relied on
information from the air data system and radio
altimeter;
•  The GPWS just “see” below the aircraft;
•  It is unable to see ahead of the aircraft.

Radio
Altitude

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EGPWS Training Programme
1

  INTRODUCTION What is EGPWS? (Cont.  INTRODUCTION What is EGPWS? (Cont. •  The EGPWS uses aircraft inputs including: o  Geographic position.  INTRODUCTION What is EGPWS? •  EGPWS is a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) providing basic GPWS functions plus additional enhanced terrain alerting and display features. o  A process feature called Envelope Modulation. o  “Peaks” function. •  Based on the aircraft’s GPS (or FMS) position and the internal database. the terrain topography (within the display range selected) that is above or within 2000 feet below the aircraft altitude is presented on the system display.) Terrain Alerting and Display (TAD): •  Provides a graphic display of the surrounding terrain on the Weather Radar Indicator. 21/10/08 5 2. and o  Glide slope deviation. and o  A Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) function.2. o  “Obstacles” alerting function.) •  The EGPWS incorporates several “enhanced” features: o  Terrain Alerting and Display (TAD). 21/10/08 6 EGPWS Training Programme 2 . o  Airspeed. 21/10/08 4 2. o  Attitude. EFIS. or a dedicated display. o  Altitude.

and •  Additionally. when TAD is enabled.) “Peaks” function: •  It is a TAD supplemental feature providing additional terrain display features for enhanced situational awareness. additional elevation (colour) bands.) Envelope Modulation: •  It is a process feature which utilizes the internal database to tailor EGPWS alerts at certain geographic locations to reduce nuisance alerts and provide added protection.) “Obstacles” alerting function: •  It is a feature utilizing an obstacle database for obstacle conflict alerting and display. independent of the altitude of the aircraft.  INTRODUCTION What is EGPWS? (Cont. •  This includes digital elevations for the highest and lowest displayed terrain.2. Obstacles are graphically displayed similar to terrain. 21/10/08 7 2.  INTRODUCTION What is EGPWS? (Cont. 21/10/08 9 EGPWS Training Programme 3 . 21/10/08 8 2.  INTRODUCTION What is EGPWS? (Cont. and a unique representation of sea level (0 feet MSL). •  EGPWS visual and audio alerts are provided when a conflict is detected.

21/10/08 10 3.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Additional functions of the basic Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS): In addition to previous functions. “Windshear Protection” (Mode 7 ) is provided on some aircraft types. “Windshear” 21/10/08 12 EGPWS Training Programme 4 .  INTRODUCTION What is EGPWS? (Cont.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Functions of the basic Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS): Mode 1 Mode 2 Excessive Descente Rate Excessive Terrain Closure Rate “Sink Rate” “Terrain…Terrain » « Pull Up » “Pull Up” Mode 3 Mode 4 Altitude Loss After Take-Off Unsafe Terrain Clearance “DON’T SINK” “Too Low Terrain” “Pull Up” “Too Low Gear” or “Flaps” Mode 5 Mode 6 Excessive Deviation below Advisory Callouts Glide Slope “Bank Angle” “Glide Slope” “Minimums” 21/10/08 11 3. •  This feature is enabled with the TAD function.) Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF): •  This function adds an additional element of protection by alerting the pilot of possible premature descent. Mode 7 Windshear Protection “Caution Windshear” “Windshear”.2. •  This is intended for non-precision approach and is based on the current aircraft position relative to the nearest runway in the database.

21/10/08 15 EGPWS Training Programme 5 . •  This mode has inner and outer alert boundaries. and •  An Envelope Modulation database to reduce localized threshold of alarm triggering.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Additional functions of the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS): •  The EGPWS adds to these 6 basic functions the ability to compare the aircraft position to an internal database and provide additional alerting and display capabilities for enhanced situational awareness and safety (hence the term “Enhanced” GPWS). 21/10/08 14 3. •  Catalogued obstacles 100 feet or greater in height located within North America.3. 21/10/08 13 3. portions of Europe and portions of Asia (expanding as data is obtained).  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 1: Excessive descent rate •  Mode 1 provides alerts for excessive descent rates with respect to altitude AGL and is active for all phases of flight.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Data Base: The EGPWS internal database consists of four subsets: •  Terrain data of varying degrees of resolution. •  Airport runway data containing information on all runways 2000 feet or longer in length.

•  Mode 2B is automatically selected with flaps in the landing configuration (landing flaps or flap Override selected) or when making an ILS approach with Glideslope and Localizer deviation less than 2 dots.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 2: Excessive Closure to Terrain •  Mode 2A is active during climb-out. 21/10/08 17 3. cruise.3.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Mode 1 : Excessive rate of descent 25 2450 ft Radio Altitude x 100 ft 20 1 15 “Sink Rate” 10 2 “Pull Up” 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 Descent Rate 1000 ft/mn 3.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 2A: Excessive Closure to Terrain “Terrain Terrain” “Pull Up” 21/10/08 18 EGPWS Training Programme 6 . and initial approach (flaps not in the landing configuration and the aircraft not on glideslope centreline).

3.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 2A: Excessive Closure to Terrain 2000 Gear UP. Rising terrain Radio Altitude (FT) ALERT AREA > 310 KTS) 2000 1000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10 000 Terrain Closure Rate (FPM) 21/10/08 19 3.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 3: Altitude loss after take-off “DON’T SINK” Radio Altitude (FT) 1500 1000 “DON’T SINK” 500 0 0 100 200 300 Altitude Loss (FT) 21/10/08 21 EGPWS Training Programme 7 .  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 2B: Excessive Closure to Terrain “Terrain Terrain” Radio Altitude (FT) “Pull Up” 1000 “Terrain Terrain” “Pull Up” 0 2000 8000 Terrain Closure Rate (FT/MN) 20 21/10/08 3. Flaps UP From 2450 FT AGL Level flight.

  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 4: Unsafe terrain clearance (Cont. This provides alerting during cruise for inadvertent flight into terrain where terrain is not rising significantly. or the aircraft is not descending excessively. 21/10/08 24 EGPWS Training Programme 8 . •  Below 1000 FT and with a speed above 190 KTS.3. 21/10/08 22 3.) Mode 4B is active during cruise and approach with the gear in the landing configuration and flaps not in the landing configuration: •  Below 750 FT and with a speed above 150 KTS. and •  Below 500 FT and 190 KTS the aural alert is “TOO LOW GEAR”.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 4: Unsafe terrain clearance •  Mode 4A is active during cruise and approach with gear and flaps up. the aural alert is “TOO LOW TERRAIN”. the aural alert is “TOO LOW TERRAIN”. and •  Below 200 FT and 150 KTS the aural alert is “TOO LOW FLAPS”.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 4A: Unsafe terrain clearance Minimum Terrain Clearance (FT) Aircraft slowed to less than 190 KTS 1500 1000 “TOO 500 “TOO LOW LOW “TOO LOW TERRAIN” “TOO LOW GEAR” GEAR” TERRAIN” 0 0 100 200 300 Computed Airspeed (KTS) 21/10/08 23 3.

) Minimum Terrain Clearance (FT) “TOO LOW TERRAIN” 1500 1000 Warning Area (> 250 KTS) 500 “TOO LOW TERRAIN” Warning Area (< 190 KTS) 0 0 800 1600 2400 Radio Altitude (FT) 21/10/08 27 EGPWS Training Programme 9 .  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 4B: Unsafe terrain clearance (Cont.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 4: Unsafe terrain clearance (Cont. It is active after takeoff when the gear or flaps are not in the landing configuration. •  Mode 4C is based on an EGPWS computed MTC floor.) •  Mode 4C alert is intended to prevent inadvertent controlled flight into the ground during takeoff climb into terrain that produces insufficient closure rate for a Mode 2 alert. that increases with Radio Altitude. 21/10/08 26 3. •  It is also active during a low altitude go-around if the aircraft has descended below 245* feet AGL.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 4C: Unsafe terrain clearance (Cont.) “TOO LOW Radio Altitude (FT) 1500 TERRAIN” Aircraft slowed to less than 159 KTS Gear down 1000 500 “TOO “TOO LOW TERRAIN” “TOO LOW FLAPS” LOW “TOO LOW FLAPS” TERRAIN” 0 0 100 200 300 Computed Airspeed (KTS) 21/10/08 25 3.3.

3. •  Bank angle call out. 50. and •  The second level alert occurs when below 300 feet Radio Altitude with 2 dots or greater glideslope deviation. 20).) Radio Altitude (FT) 1000 Mode 5 Below glideslope alert Gear down Soft alert area 500 “Glideslope” (soft) 300 Area Hard alert area “Glideslope” (hard) 100 Area 0 0 1 2 3 4 Glideslope deviations (dots) 21/10/08 29 3. resulting in activation of EGPWS alert lights and aural messages: •  The first level alert occurs when below 1000 feet Radio Altitude and the aircraft is 1. 300. 21/10/08 30 EGPWS Training Programme 10 . There is no visual alerting provided with these callouts. •  Decision height (minimums). 400.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 6: Advisory Callouts Mode 6 provides EGPWS advisory callouts based on the menu selected option established at installation. These callouts consist of predefined Radio Altitude based altitude and excessive bank angle voice callouts.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 5: Excessive Deviation Below Glide slope (Cont.3 dots or greater below the beam. 100. •  Radio altimeter callouts (500. 21/10/08 28 3. 200.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 5: Excessive Deviation Below Glide slope Mode 5 provides two levels of alerting for when the aircraft descends below glide slope.

5. 2. •  This feature is automatic and requires no flight crew action. •  The TCF alert is a function of the aircraft’s Radio Altitude and distance (calculated from latitude/ longitude position) relative to the center of the nearest or destination runway included in the database. and 4 are desensitized at other locations to prevent nuisance alerts. 21/10/08 32 3.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Enhance functions: Terrain Clearance Floor: •  The Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) function (enabled with TAD) enhances the basic GPWS Modes by alerting the pilot of descent below a defined “Terrain Clearance Floor” regardless of the aircraft configuration.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Enhance functions: Envelope Modulation: •  The EGPWS Envelope Modulation feature provides improved alert protection and expanded alerting margins at identified locations throughout the world. and 6 are expanded at certain locations to provide alerting protection consistent with normal approaches. 21/10/08 33 EGPWS Training Programme 11 .3. and •  Modes 1. •  Modes 4.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Basic functions: Mode 6: Advisory Callouts (Bank Angle) “BANK ANGLE” “BANK ANGLE” Radio Altitude (FT) 150 30 40 40 40 40 Bank angle degrees 31 21/10/08 3.

flight path angle. 21/10/08 35 3. and speed relative to the terrain database image forward the aircraft.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Enhance functions: Terrain Alerting and Display (TAD): 21/10/08 36 EGPWS Training Programme 12 . •  This is based on aircraft position. •  Through sophisticated look ahead algorithms. both caution and warning alerts are generated if terrain or an obstacle conflict with “ribbons” projected forward of the aircraft.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Enhance functions: Terrain Clearance Floor: TCF Alert Envelope 21/10/08 34 3.3. track.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Enhance functions: Terrain Look Ahead Alerting: •  This function provides the possibility to look ahead of the aircraft and detect terrain or obstacle conflicts with greater alerting time.

and o  “Peaks” enhances the display characteristics to provide a higher degree of terrain awareness independent of the aircraft altitude.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Enhance functions: Standard TAD +2000’ +1000’ Aircraft Elevation 0 -500’ -1000’ -2000’ 21/10/08 38 3. or other display is available. EFIS. •  Two types of TAD displays are available: o  “Standard TAD” when the aircraft is 2000 feet or less above the terrain.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Enhance functions: Terrain Alerting and Display (TAD): •  When a compatible Weather Radar. 21/10/08 37 3.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Enhance functions: Standard TAD 21/10/08 39 EGPWS Training Programme 13 .3. the EGPWS Terrain Alerting and Display (TAD) feature can provide an image of the surrounding terrain represented in various colors and intensities.

o  Global Positioning System (GPS). Airspeed. o  AHRS.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION System Inputs: •  The EGPWS utilizes signals from the following systems: o  Air Data o  Radio Altitude. VG. and control input functions. o  Terrain Display System (EFIS). signal/ status input.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION System Inputs: •  The EGPWS uses various input signals from other on-board systems. Attitude. •  Inputs are also required for discrete signal and control input.  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION System Outputs: •  The EGPWS provides both audio and visual outputs. IRS. DG. o  Discretes used for system configuration. o  VHF Nav Reciever. •  Systems providing Altitude. •  Visual outputs provide discrete caution and warning alert and status annunciations.3. 21/10/08 41 3. 21/10/08 42 EGPWS Training Programme 14 . And o  Configuration Module. Glideslope. •  Audio outputs are provided as specific alert phrases and altitude callouts or tones provided by an EGPWS speaker and via the cockpit Interphone system for headset usage. 21/10/08 40 3. and position are required for basic and enhanced functions.

  SYSTEM DESCRIPTION GPWS O I ALGORITHMS CONTROL/ U N FLIGHT DECK DISCRETS T SPEAKERS AND P AURAL INPUTS CALLOUTS P INTERPHONE U U T TERRAIN AWARENESS & T P OBSTACLE ALERTING AND P ALERT LAMPS R DISPLAY OR EFIS AIRCRAFT R O ALGORITMS DISPLAY SENSORS O AND C TERRAIN C SYSTEMS E CLEARANCE E S FLOOR ALGORITMS S EFIS NAV. 21/10/08 45 EGPWS Training Programme 15 . these enhanced functions are automatically inhibited. S S DISPLAY OR Wx I WINDSHEAR RADAR I N DETECTION INDICATOR AND ALERTING N G ALGORITMS G 21/10/08 EGPWC 43 4. then Terrain and Obstacle alerting is not available for that area. 21/10/08 44 4. smaller. •  If there is no source of aircraft position data meeting the accuracy requirements for the TAD and TCF functions.3. or unknown obstructions could be encountered.): •  TAD/TCF functions should be manually inhibited when within 15 NM and on approach to an airport or runway that is not in the airport database to avoid unwanted alerts.  OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES System Constraints: •  If terrain data is unavailable for a particular area.  OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES System Constraints (Cont. •  The display of terrain and obstacle does not provide the accuracy and/or fidelity to be the sole source for deciding terrain or obstacle avoidance. •  The EGPWS terrain/obstacle database is not all- inclusive and newer.

  OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES Normal Procedures (Cont.  If engaged.  Aggressively position throttles for maximum rated thrust. 21/10/08 47 4.): •  Caution Alerts: 1.  Stop any descent and climb as necessary to eliminate the alert.  OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES Normal Procedures (Cont. 3. 2.4. •  These consist of warning.  Continue climbing until the warning is eliminated and safe flight is assured. o  Descent below predefined altitudes or excessive bank angle (mode 6).  Advise ATC of situation as necessary.  Advise ATC of situation. disengage the autopilot and smoothly but aggressively increase pitch to obtain maximum climb performance. TCF. and 2. o  Below glideslope conditions (mode 5). and advisory alerts based on the detection alert threshold penetration. Analyze all available instruments and information to determine best course of action. caution. 21/10/08 48 EGPWS Training Programme 16 .): •  Warning Alert: 1.  OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES Normal Procedures: •  The EGPWS provides visual and/or audio alerts for detected: o  Potentially dangerous terrain conditions (modes 1 – 4. TAD). and 4. 21/10/08 46 4.

4.  If engaged. and 4. 21/10/08 49 Thank you for your ATTENTION 21/10/08 50 EGPWS Training Programme 17 .  Advise ATC of situation.): •  Warning Alert: 1.  OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES Normal Procedures (Cont. 3.  Continue climbing until the warning is eliminated and safe flight is assured. 2. disengage the autopilot and smoothly but aggressively increase pitch to obtain maximum climb performance.  Aggressively position throttles for maximum rated thrust.