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u ltra s u percritical b oiler s

b oiler s ol u tion s for a world


Throughout the following century. Nordjylland The company dates back to a period when Denmark’s industrial Power Station unit 3 . This was followed by the second USC boiler in 1998.. In 1846 he went into partnership with Carl Christian Burmeister.. possibility of operating at full load on 73% biomass as fuel input. With the a machine shop in Copenhagen. the company continued to develop the boiler technology and in 1955 a Benson license for once-through boilers was acquired. The history of the a world record. the unit is the largest biomass boiler in the all began in 1843 Burmeister & Wain Energy A/S is a Danish company with many The first once-through Benson boiler was supplied to Masnedø years of experience as a supplier of high-tech solutions for the Power Station in 1960 and in 1997 the first Ultra Supercritical (USC) power generation industry. In 1980 Burmeister & Wain Energy A/S (BWE) was established as an independent company. Baumgarten retired in 1861 and was succeeded in 1865 by William Wain. . and the company Burmeister & Wain was finally founded in 1872 soon becoming the largest and most important enterprise in the iron industry of Denmark.with a net efficiency above 47% establishing development had not yet gained momentum. and in 2002 it was acquired by the Italian company STF SpA. The Hans Heinrich Baumgarten.. industrial boilers and power station boilers. The boiler history of Burmeister & Wain has its origins in the second half of the 19th century when the company supplied steam for the industrial revolution in Denmark – in the shape of marine boilers.Burmeister & wain energy a/s . firing system was supplied to Avedøre Power Station unit 2. was awarded a royal license to establish boiler can utilize coal. NG and wood pellets as fuel... HFO.. In 2001 the first USC Boiler with a unique multi-fuel company began in 1843 when a young and enterprising engineer. boiler in Europe was supplied to Skærbæk Power Station unit 3.

• To be a significant European player providing • By introducing the best available technology services and maintenance to utilities directly both in new power plants and when retrofitting or through alliances. .Vision Advanced Clean Technology in Boiler Design • To remain a leading supplier of boiler and environmental technology through technology • Fossil fuels and especially coal will be the supply and engineering services to national main energy source to cover the increased and international clients. high efficiency and load flexibility. BWE benefits from being part of the history of • The BWE USC Flex boiler and its power generation in Denmark high efficiency makes the subsequent implementation of the CCS technology Since the energy crisis of the early 70’s. lower emissions or for conversion boiler design is an important factor in meeting to alternative fuels. biomass combustion. fuel flexibility and efficiency. • The first step to make Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) viable is to maximize efficiency. The collaboration of BWE with local utilities has allowed our company to acquire direct experience with different fuels. Danish power industry has been focusing on the feasible. the plant efficiency is increased and consequently the CO2 emissions are reduced. ……. this to ensure and enjoy a better future • The BWE Ultra Super Critical Flex Boiler is a solution to utilize fossil and biomass fuels in USC boilers maximizing efficiency. fuel flexibility and use of renewables. environment. the world’s CO2 reduction target. demand for power generation for many years to come in a growing world. existing. co-combustion. BWE is ready to export the Danish example in power generation to the worldwide market. • To be a significant international player in the upgrading of existing boilers for higher • The BWE Advanced Clean Technology in efficiencies.

Skærbæk Power Station owned by DONG Energy . Porto Tolle 45 Fyn 7 43 Staudinger/Rostock** 41 Asnæs 5 39 Walsum 9 37 35 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 * Natural gas/HFO firing ** Partial scope Year During the transition period from subcritical to USC. This transition process itself has been a step-wise progress and the outcome is now a success on all major technical features. i.Sub. During the period the steam temperature has increased from 540 °C to 600 °C and the pressure from 200 bar to 305 bar. once through principle. the water/steam process. pulverized fuel combustion and heat transfer.e. from Skærbæk 3* Avedøre 2*  Plant Efficiency (LHV)  % 49 the subcritical through the supercritical to the ultra supercritical Nordjylland 3 47 design. the net electrical efficiency has increased from 40% to 49%. Super and Ultra Supercritical Boilers The background for the USC process is the well-known Rankine steam cycle which was further developed by BWE during the 1980’s BWE references 51 and 90’s in the form of the Benson.

1967 400MWe.The history of the Benson once-through boiler system . 1998 Operational flexibility in modern coal fired power stations • Modern coal fired power stations should be able to follow demand changes rapidly and at the same time ensure reliability and availability • The Benson Technology and the developed control philosophy follow this need. 1991 415MWe. .supplied on a license from Siemens since 1955 Asnæs Power Station unit 2 Asnæs Power Station unit 3 Fyn Power Station unit 7 Nordjylland Power Station unit 3 150MWe. 1961 250MWe.

it also gives the advantage of a symmetrical and well defined flue gas flow. In order to control the steam outlet temperatures in an economical way. owned by DONG Energy . The BWE design consists in a fully drainable tower type boiler for Ultra Supercritical installations adaptable both for the single and for the double reheat water/steam cycle. Process and operational wise. Avedøre Power Station. For efficiency reasons BWE recommends the single train air/gas flue gas path. which will lead to a more homogeneous temperature profile of the flue gas and of the water/steam.Decades of experience designing and manufacturing once-through USC boilers The main design features of the Ultra Supercritical boiler are: • One pass tower type design • Superheaters and economizers in horizontal tubing • Tangential firing system with circular burners This design is chosen because it gives the most compact. The boilers are equipped with a complete BWE multi-fuel Low-NOx firing system and an SCR system capable of bringing the NOx emission as far down as 50 mg/Nm3. an FGR (Flue Gas Recirculation) system can be installed. material-saving design.

Using the design and operation experience from these. BWE has also developed a standard 660 MWe size boiler.Standard size BWE USC boilers BWE has three 400 MWe size USC references. BWE has developed a standard coal fired 400 MWe net USC Boiler. the company is also qualified for the supply 400 MWe size boiler island. 3D model of a standard 660 MWe size boiler island. of larger size boilers. Due to its long experience with USC boiler design and available 3D model of a standard engineering resources. such as the 800 and 1100 MWe class .

preferably sea water • using reheat or maybe double reheat • optimizing the feed water temperature • selecting the single train mono component solution for the air/flue gas path and thereby reducing the auxiliary power • increasing the boiler efficiency The boiler efficiency can be increased by: • reducing the flue gas exit temperature by means of an effective air preheater • reducing Unburned Carbon (UBC) in the fly ash by an effective combustion • reducing the air excess and thereby obtaining a reduced flue gas loss • reducing the leakage in the air preheater • reducing the pressure loss of the water/steam cycle The USC boiler with a PF combustion system will still be the simplest and most efficient way of using coal for power generation.Best Available Technology The plant efficiency can be increased by: • raising live steam parameters (temperature and pressure) • reducing the condenser pressure by means of a cold and effective cooling media . .

15 (full load) • OBA (protection of membrane walls) • OFA (air staging) . and at the top of the furnace OFA (Over Furnace Air) openings.Combustion system The design idea of the combustion system is to establish the best possible conditions for Low NOx combustion. Above each burner are OBA (Over Burner Air) openings. The circular burners are placed in the corners of the furnace. • Tangential firing • Up to 6 burner levels • n*4 Low NOx BWE Circular Burners (3 air stages) • Single Burner Concept (full control of coal / air ratio) • Low Air Excess 1. which together with the air split in the burners establish the air staging.

pelletized peat & biomass (wood & straw). gaseous and pulverized form. One burner may operate on any of the 3 types of fuels. BWE has references on hard coal. NG. HFO. .Low NOx Combustion and a wide range of fuels The BWE Low NOx burner can be applied for fuels in fluid.

Tower type boilers are suitable for easy installation of SCR.Improved SCR built in The installation of an SCR becomes mandatory. The split ECO improves SCR operation (320 to 400 °C) in full load range. . In addition a flue gas recirculation system improves SCR operation at low load. The design of an SCR without bypass prevents leakage in bypass dampers and results in proper heating of SCR during start up.

The heaters are equipped with various sealing systems in order to Quad sector type APH and single train solution minimize the leakage of air to flue gas or untreated gas to treated gas.2%. The BWE APH and GGH heat exchangers operate according to the rotating. . Heat transfer elements placed as a matrix in an open rotor transfer heat from one gas sector to another when slowly rotating.Regenerative Air-preheaters and Gas-Gas heaters Regenerative heat exchangers play an important role in fossil fuels steam power plants as air preheaters (APH) and as gas-gas heaters (GGH) in emission control plants such as FGD plants and tail-end SCR plants. The secondary air section is divided into two sections embracing the primary air section which reduces the air leakage. regenerative. This single train train design can improve the overall efficiency of approximately 0. counterflow principle.

The Active Leakage Control is an important feature for rotating regenerative heat exchangers and BWE’s inductive system has proved to be particularly suited for this application. BWE has developed a highly efficient sealing system for the radial sector seal plates.Improved sealing system for APH & GGH Automatic leakage control system In order to minimize the leakage between the gas flows which is not beneficial for the overall plant efficiency. Cold condition Hot condition The system: • is insensitive to gas properties and fly ash content • requires very little maintenance being a none contact system • has proved to have a very high reliability • has been in continuous development since 1978 .

Furthermore. manufacturing and delivery of high pressure piping systems including spherical TEEs and hangers.High pressure piping design BWE has a long-standing experience in design. The LP-bypass valves dumping the steam to the condenser normally have a capacity Pipe routing in 3D system (PDMS) of 60-70%.1. . the arrangement of the steam lines is simplified. Highly sophisticated software tools with integration between 3D modeling (PDMS) and pipe stress analysis (RORHII) ensure an efficient and reliable design according to state-of-the-art design codes like EN 13480-3 and ASME B31. Spherical TEE Safety valve arrangement The boilers are equipped with safety valve arrangements according to EN 12952-10 • 2 x HP combined controlled bypass and safety valve (Hydraulic Spring loaded) • 2 x RH safety valves (Hydraulic Spring loaded) The 100% combined HP bypass and safety valves secure sufficient cooling of the RH heating surfaces during turbine trip.

In drum boilers. the superheaters and the furnace walls. For the higher pressures and temperatures in the USC boiler. a line graine austenitic material like TP347HFG or Super304 has been selected as having the necessary creep rupture strength and high temperature corrosion resistance. . For the final stages in the superheaters. turbines and other main components of the power plant. The main design challenge in USC boilers can be found in the thick walled steam headers. The challenges are connected with the selection of materials and manufacturing methods. new ferritic/ martensitic high-temperature steels like the P91 and P92 have been developed for commercial use.Improved design and material development The improvements in the steam cycle and the related development of new materials have also been accompanied by major improvements in the design of boilers. it is possible to make the boiler pressure system in normal ferritic materials. By only using the austenitic materials in the relatively thin walled tubes. the problem with thermal fatigue is minimized.

The plant was put into commercial operation in 1998. owned by Vattenfall. the plant also supplies heat to local district heating companies. In addition to producing electricity to the public grid.000 of operational hours have proven: • Plant efficiency > 47% • Availability > 98% . NOx. Operational results: Size 415 Type Tower RH Cycle Double FW temperature 298 °C HP pressure 290 bar HP/RH temperature 582/580/580 Plant efficiency 47% More than 65. i. represents the latest technological development with respect to coal fired units and consists of an Ultra Supercritical (USC) boiler with full flue gas cleaning. dust and SO2 removal.e.double RH 415 MWe Nordjylland Power Station near Aalborg (Denmark).Nordjylland Power Station Unit 3 -1998 State of the art Clean Coal Technology USC Coal fired Boiler .

.Boiler The boiler of Nordjylland Power Station unit 3 is a supercritical. The furnace walls are designed as membrane walls with helical tubing. A flue gas recirculation system (FGR). is installed as part of the control of the IP outlet temperature. once-through tower boiler of the Benson type with double reheat. it has been possible to design the boiler to very advanced steam data. including reheat of the flue gas in a special sector in the quad sector air heater. The tangentially fired boiler with four levels of burners includes Over Burner Air (OBA) nozzles above each burner and Over Fire Air (OFA) nozzles above the upper level of burners. Low-NOx tangential firing system – single train solution The USC boiler of Unit 3 was designed with special attention to minimizing the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). By using special materials. This concept of air staging brings the NOx level below 475 mg/Nm3.

owned by DONG Energy. Operational results: Size 415 Type Tower RH Cycle Single FW temperature 320 °C HP pressure 305 bar HP/RH temperature 582/600 Plant efficiency 49% . Benson. In addition to generating electricity. the plant supplies heat to the Copenhagen district heating network as well. is one of the most efficient.2001 USC Multi fuel Boiler – 415 MWe Avedøre Power Station Unit 2. tangentially fired boiler. The main plant of Avedøre Power Station is the Ultra Supercritical (USC) unit incorporating a BWE once-through. fuel flexible. The plant has a total output of 415 MWe. Of these more than 300 MWe can be achieved by biomass firing (wood pellets).Avedøre Power Station Unit 2 . and environmentally friendly power plants in the world.

Boiler The boiler of Avedøre Power Station unit 2 is a supercritical. having a low thermal loading. it has been possible to design the plant to the very advanced steam data (HP: 305 bar. . HFO. The furnace walls are designed as membrane walls with helical tubing. By using special materials. Multi Fuel Firing System The USC boiler of Unit 2 has been designed with a unique multi-fuel firing system which makes it possible to utilize: coal. All these fuels can be burned in the same burners. The air staging is carried out through the burners as primary. once-through tower boiler of the Benson type with single reheat. 582 °C and RH: 74 bar. This concept of air staging ensures the low primary formation of NOx. secondary and tertiary air and above the burners as Over-Burner-Air (OBA) as well as Over-Fire-Air (OFA). 600 °C – with the biomass boiler in operation). NG and wood pellets as fuels. These are placed at four levels in the corners of the large furnace.



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