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Chapter​ ​7:​ ​The​ ​Road​ ​to​ ​Revolution​ ​(1763-1775

)
I.The​ ​Deep​ ​Roots​ ​of​ ​Revolution
A.​Republicanism​:​ ​Citizens​ ​gave​ ​up​ ​their​ ​private​ ​interests​ ​to​ ​the​ ​common​ ​good​ ​opposed
to​ ​hierarchical​ ​rule
B​.​Radical​ ​Whigs:​ ​shaped​ ​america’s​ ​politics,​ ​group​ ​of​ ​british​ ​commentators
II.Mercantilism​ ​and​ ​Colonial​ ​Grievances
A​.​Mercantilism:​ ​theory​ ​that​ ​trade​ ​generates​ ​wealth​ ​and​ ​that​ ​wealth​ ​is​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​of
gold​ ​you​ ​have;​ ​and​ ​that​ ​you​ ​can​ ​sustain​ ​the​ ​mother​ ​country​ ​with​ ​the​ ​income​ ​of​ ​the
colony
B​.No​ ​other​ ​colony​ ​except​ ​Georgia​ ​was​ ​created​ ​by​ ​Britain;​ ​the​ ​rest​ ​were​ ​created​ ​by
religiously​ ​persecuted​ ​groups
C​.Tenants:​ ​way​ ​British​ ​would​ ​see​ ​the​ ​Americans;​ ​expectations:​ ​massive​ ​production​ ​of
tobacco,sugar,​ ​and​ ​ships​ ​for​ ​England.
D​.​Navigation​ ​Laws​ ​of​ ​1650​:​ ​regulations​ ​for​ ​the​ ​mercantilist​ ​system​ ​since​ ​they​ ​were
transporting​ ​goods​ ​with​ ​all​ ​places​ ​like​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Dutch.
1.Currency​ ​shortage-to​ ​cure​ ​the​ ​more​ ​buying​ ​than​ ​exporting
2.Right​ ​to​ ​invalidate​ ​any​ ​law​ ​created​ ​in​ ​the​ ​colonies
III.The​ ​Merits​ ​and​ ​Menace​ ​of​ ​Mercantilism
A​.Laws​ ​benefited​ ​the​ ​colonies​ ​in​ ​some​ ​way:
1.Colonies​ ​received​ ​protection​ ​from​ ​England
2.Britain​ ​paid​ ​to​ ​colonial​ ​producers,​ ​because​ ​they​ ​were​ ​benefitting​ ​from​ ​the
colonies.
B​.Laws​ ​creating​ ​difficulty:
1.Dependent​ ​of​ ​the​ ​British
2.Colonists​ ​felt​ ​used​ ​and​ ​felt​ ​they​ ​were​ ​in​ ​a​ ​never​ ​ending​ ​economic​ ​youth
IV.The​ ​Stamp​ ​Tax​ ​Uproar
A​.After​ ​seven​ ​years​ ​War​ ​Britain​ ​in​ ​debt:​ ​result​ ​impose​ ​taxes​ ​on​ ​colonists​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​for​ ​them
B​.George​ ​Greenville:​ ​in​ ​1763
1.Demands​ ​Navigation​ ​Laws​ ​to​ ​be​ ​applied​ ​strictly
2.​Sugar​ ​Act:​ ​1764,​ ​parliament​ ​enforced,​ ​to​ ​tax​ ​colonists
3.​ ​Quartering​ ​Act:​ ​1765,​ ​stated​ ​that​ ​certain​ ​colonies​ ​should​ ​provide​ ​home​ ​and
food​ ​for​ ​british​ ​troops
4.​ ​Stamp​ ​Tax:​ ​1765,​ ​to​ ​raise​ ​taxes
A.required​ ​the​ ​use​ ​of​ ​stamped​ ​paper​ ​to​ ​certify​ ​payment​ ​of​ ​taxes
C.​​ ​After​ ​greenville’s​ ​enforcements​ ​many​ ​people​ ​rebel;​ A ​ dmiralty​ ​Courts:​ ​courts​ ​without
juries​ ​“No​ ​taxation​ ​without​ ​representation”
V.Forced​ ​Repeal​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Stamp​ ​Act
A​.​Stamp​ ​Act​ ​Congress:​ ​1765,​ ​place​ ​NYC,​ ​delegates​ ​from​ ​9​ ​colonies​ ​join​ ​to​ ​list​ ​their
grievances​ ​and​ ​rights,​ ​but​ ​were​ ​completely​ ​ignored​ ​by​ ​the​ ​king
B.​Nonimportation​ ​Agreements:​ ​Boycotts​ ​against​ ​british​ ​goods;​ ​more​ ​effective
1.Intercolonial​ ​Unity:​ ​enforced
2.​Sons​ ​of​ ​Liberty​ ​and​ ​Daughters​ ​of​ ​Liberty:​ ​enforced​ ​the​ ​nonimportation
agreements
a.”Liberty,​ ​Property,​ ​and​ ​No​ ​stamps”
C​.Effect​ ​Stamp​ ​Act​ ​invalidated​ ​by​ ​1766.
D​.​ ​Parliament​ ​then​ ​reconfirmed​ ​its​ ​right​ ​to​ ​“bind”​ ​the​ ​colonies,​ ​since​ ​they​ ​are​ ​the​ ​ones
who​ ​established​ ​them
VI.The​ ​Townshend​ ​Tea​ ​Tax​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Boston​ ​“Massacre”
A​.​Townshend​ ​Acts:​ ​1767,​ ​light​ ​import​ ​tax​ ​on​ ​glass,​ ​white​ ​lead,​ ​paper,​ ​paint,​ ​and​ ​tea.
Created​ ​by​ ​Charles​ ​Townshend
B​.Smugglers=​ ​BIG​ ​CONFLICT
C​.​Boston​ ​Massacre:​ ​redcoat​ ​troops​ ​killed​ ​11​ ​citizens
1.Within​ ​this​ ​was​ ​Crispus​ ​Attucks:​ ​powerful​ ​mulatto
VII.The​ ​Seditious​ ​Committees​ ​of​ ​Correspondence
A​.People​ ​forced​ ​prime​ ​minister​ ​to​ ​tell​ ​parliament​ ​revoke​ ​the​ ​Townshend​ ​acts
B​.​Committees​ ​of​ ​Correspondence:​ ​Samuel​ ​Adams​ ​1772,​ ​keep​ ​opposition​ ​to​ ​british
policies​ ​alive.
1.Communication​ ​for​ ​unity​ ​before​ ​revolution
2.exchanged​ ​ideas​ ​and​ ​info;​ ​also​ ​John​ ​Adam’s​ ​cousin
VIII.Tea​ ​Brewing​ ​in​ ​Boston
A​.British​ ​East​ ​India​ ​Company​ ​at​ ​edge​ ​of​ ​bankruptcy​ ​and​ ​collapse
1.British​ ​government​ ​would​ ​lose​ ​taxes
2.Government​ ​allowed​ ​company​ ​to​ ​sell​ ​tea​ ​at​ ​a​ ​sale​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Americas
B.​Wise​ ​Americans​ ​thought​ ​this​ ​was​ ​a​ ​trick​ ​and​ ​therefore​ ​destroyed​ ​ships​ ​and​ ​revolted
C​.​Thomas​ ​Hutchinson​:​ ​forced​ ​citizens​ ​in​ ​Boston​ ​Harbor​ ​to​ ​let​ ​the​ ​ship​ ​unload​ ​the​ ​tea
1.​American​ ​Colonists​ ​disguised​ ​as​ ​Indians​ ​in​ ​December​ ​16​ ​1773​ ​destroyed​ ​342
chest​ ​full​ ​of​ ​tea*Boston​ ​Tea​ ​Party
IX.Parliament​ ​Passes​ ​the​ ​“Intolerable​ ​Acts”
A​.Cause:​ ​Boston​ ​Tea​ ​Party,​ ​rebel​ ​actions​ ​Effect:​ ​Parliament​ ​punishes​ ​people
1.​Intolerable​ ​Acts​:​ ​restrict​ ​colonists​ ​rights;​ ​led​ ​to​ ​unification​ ​against​ ​britain
2.NO​ ​town​ ​meetings
B​.​Boston​ ​Port​ ​Act​:​ ​denied​ ​use​ ​of​ ​Boston​ ​Harbor​ ​until​ ​they​ ​payed​ ​taxes
C.​Quebec​ ​Act:​​ ​It​ ​stated​ ​that​ ​the​ ​conquered​ ​French​ ​colonies​ ​could​ ​keep​ ​their​ ​catholic
religion,​ ​their​ ​old​ ​customs,​ ​they​ ​could​ ​not​ ​have​ ​their​ ​representative​ ​assembly​ ​or​ ​juries,
and​ ​they​ ​were​ ​given​ ​more​ ​boundaries​ ​south​ ​until​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Ohio​ ​River.
X.Bloodshed
A​.​First​ ​Continental​ ​Congress:​ ​1744,​ ​Philadelphia,​ ​convention​ ​discussion​ ​about
colonial​ ​struggles
B​.Congress​ ​acts​ ​out​ ​with:​ ​The​ ​Association-​ ​complete​ ​boycott​ ​of​ ​British​ ​goods
C​.​Lexington​ ​and​ ​Concord:​ ​revealed​ ​that​ ​British​ ​and​ ​Americans​ ​were​ ​on​ ​a​ ​war;​ ​and​ ​tht
they​ ​were​ ​easy​ ​to​ ​defeat
XI.Imperial​ ​strength​ ​and​ ​Weakness
A.​British​ ​apparent​ ​something​ ​stronger​ ​than​ ​what​ ​they​ ​were
B​.Colonist​ ​were​ ​inspired​ ​once​ ​defeated;​ ​they​ ​wanted​ ​to​ ​create​ ​a​ ​better​ ​place
XII.American​ ​Pluses​ ​and​ ​Minuses
A​.Marquis​ ​de​ ​Lafayette:​ ​helps​ ​organize​ ​Americans,​ ​good​ ​leadership,​ ​secure​ ​aid​ ​from
France
B​.​Articles​ ​of​ ​Confederation:​ ​first​ ​written​ ​constitution
C​.Colonies​ ​lose​ ​trust​ ​un-unify
XIII.A​ ​Thin​ ​Line​ ​of​ ​Heroes
A​.Limited​ ​food​ ​and​ ​weaponry​ ​supply
B​.​Valley​ ​Forge​:​ ​starvation​ ​place​ ​when​ ​american​ ​army​ ​spent​ ​three​ ​days​ ​without​ ​food​ ​in
the​ ​winter
C​.​Baron​ ​Von​ ​Steuben:​ ​Trained​ ​american​ ​fighters
D​.​Lord​ ​Dunmore:​ ​Virginian​ ​governor​ ​promised​ ​ ​freedom​ ​for​ ​any​ ​enslaved​ ​black​ ​in
Virginia​ ​who​ ​joined​ ​the​ ​British​ ​army.