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Introduction to Helicopter Aerodynamics and Dynamics

Prof. Dr. C. Venkatesan
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Lecture No. # 26

(Refer Slide Time: 00:33)

Left last lecture, essentially, we got the expression for the thrust in forward flight, but the
rotor disk is in a state of climbing as well going forward. That is why, we put the V cos
alpha V sine alpha and the total inflow through the rotor disk, you will have the
component of this nu and this is due to the flight speed. So, this is the V sine alpha, as
well as, nu.

(Refer Slide Time: 01:03)

Now, usually the expression, that is the thrust, which is written as rho A nu v cos alpha
square plus identical to your similar to momentum theory. The only difference is, now let
us plot certain variation of the inflow because in hover it is supporting the same weight
of the helicopter. So, thrust is same even if it is climbing forward or moving forward.

So, in hover we write. So, please note, that I am putting a subscript H to denote the
difference between the hover inflow and the forward flight inflow. But since the rotor is
supporting the same weight, so what you have to do is you equate both of them and write
an expression, which is given their nu is nu H square or you can, because when you
equate both, you will get nu is nu H square over this. Ok, straight away.

2. which is 1. that is easy. it is. Alpha is the oncoming flow with respect to the horizontal.(Refer Slide Time: 02:47) And then. it is just an indication. .5. you can set alpha 0. only thing is. then this is. Now. Now.5 and 2 and here X-axis. this will be. may be 0. This curve for various values of V over nu H because alpha is 0. that means. this term will go of V over nu H square plus nu over nu H whole square. 1. because this curve is plotted. you can have V over nu H. because you know. if you just plot it. 3. 1. let us take alpha is 0. I will erase this part because you can plot like this. the curve will start and go like this. I am just (( )) for alpha 0. Suppose. it could be a little. it is a little sharper. this is the momentum theory in forward. how inflow varies with forward speed. how it is done is. This is nu over nu H and on the X-axis you have. you will write this expression. Now. the disk is flying forward straight. take it. hover the value is 1 nu over nu H. because please understand. I. that is the key. this is just a modified form of the same inflow expression in forward flight. No audio to 02:52 to 03:28 So. may be I am. So. it is non-dimensionalized with respect to the hover inflow. that is all. nothing else. means this is. what is the value of alpha. this curve can be plotted. this is plotted for. if we take alpha 0.

that is. at. that is. when the rotor will behave like a wing. nu into V is nu H square. you can write. you equate these two because thrust is. in which case. So. at high speed the rotor behaves like a wing.5. V is much larger than inflow velocity. if I plot this curve. that as V become 0. Assumption of high speed. that 1 over x type curve will come. that is. very simple. the high speed assumption is fine. this is like a 1 over x type of curve.Now. for V very large. this is. means. it is supporting the same weight of the helicopter. but in general. you will have…. you take 1 nu H this will lead to…. at. I do not bother about this complicated. how large? You will find out the thrust becomes (( )). at what speed.5. you will have nu nu H. this is the exact. because we mentioned last class. So. I am just saying very large. now your question is V over nu H. this is again. this term will become 1. I am making an assumption. this going to become asymptotically infinite. it will go. So. flying at high speed and if you plot this curve. So. you can make this assumption greater than 1. the disk is flying horizontally. this is. which we can have is. sorry. only this term V cos alpha. Now. my thrust is this expression. This is high speed. this curve because you know. the deviation will start V over nu H greater than 1. this is directly high speed assumption. you see. nu over nu H 1 over v. but this is only for very basic level. the another question. So. Therefore. (Refer Slide Time: 10:42) . because we were asking last class. but now when alpha is 0. whatever momentum theory says.

let us look at in terms of non-dimensional quantities. but mu is greater than 0. then you can use the high speed assumption for inflow. The wing. usually forward speed.05. for what non-dimensional value you can make the assumption of almost the wing.075. in non-dimensional. the rotor acts like a wing.1. 0. yeah. we took it the velocity in the disk divided by (( )). usually they say. non-dimensional quantity you will have. rather than specifying forward speed. mu greater than 0. Now.1. if you take 0. we know lambda H is C T by 2 and if C T is. basically the rotor behaves like a circular wing. Usually. you take it the V cos alpha. sorry. lambda H is a hover inflow. this is basically. advance ratio is V cos alpha over omega R. So. but in between 0 to 0. because V over omega R. greater than 0. usually it is called. this is nothing. nu over lambda hover.1 in the forward speed. rotor is called in transition. I am saying up 005.1. Now.05 into 5. in this range. (Refer Slide Time: 11:24) Because we defined last time. you put it in non-dimensional forward speed. Because this is forward speed advance ratio in the range 0 to 0. So. . but approximately. alpha is 0 we have taken. then lambda H is 0. which is in terms of advanced ratio. reasonable.Now. Now.

now if you look at this. you start the forward speed. the wake gets. it is in a skewed cylinder. wake in the sense. initially the rotor wake. which is coming out from the rotor blade. because one. the lifting theory or anything. (Refer Slide Time: 14:06) . what really happens is. But once you start moving forward. I will show.(Refer Slide Time: 13:35) The time the rotor wake. whatever is the disturbance. the wake comes below the rotor straight.

So. it is not straight below also. in this range of 0 to 0. that is straight. then there is another. Let us write this as a tan from this diagram. helicopter you do not fly in this.1. where it is 60. minimum power point is actually beyond this 0. but the . 0 to 60. in the range of 0 to 60. Normally. then that angle is close to around 60 degrees. but you do not try to operate fully flying. when nu is 0. tan chi. but it is very close to that and then. So. 0. usually you will have high vibration.15. you have to. If you take it. you find that this zone. that nu over lambda H. in the sense. that is why. etcetera in that transition zone. it is skew. somewhere around that. When the blade travels. When nu is very large. this is called the wake skew angle. But if you want good range.1. Later. And this really complicates the problem because the wake is close. that is the transition. Of course. And if we apply this rule. we said. this angle is going to keep on changing. approximately 1. when you increase the speed you will be going in that. tan chi is basically nu over lambda wake skew angle. when you go to the power curve.(Refer Slide Time: 14:32) When you go in a skewed cylinder. So. which is still further. it is around 0. the wake from the front blade will close to the rear blade.1. usually the angle of that becomes. the wake is swept and this angle is almost 90 degree. tan chi is 0. the wake is not completely swept behind the rotor disk.5. see. If you go around advance ratio 0. you have lot of variation in the vibration. as you increase the speed. if you want to fly at a minimum power.

(( )) This curve. Now. Please understand. it is the velocity defines the high speed. alpha does not define the high speed. I can fly horizontally. nu over omega R. you can take it because cosine alpha is almost. this is. that is. see alpha is small. Here you can write it as mu over lambda H. exactly this is the curve. but it is the high speed assumption and if I plot this curve. this curve.important thing is. And as a result.. Our assumption of uniform inflow over the entire disk is not really valid because you have done one homework. how. then only it starts deviating. is almost come close up to 1. (( )) Why. aspect ratio is only very small. you can divide by omega R. which you use it to get the. no. please understand. I wrote the high. we did the. both of them. This I wrote last time. this curve with alpha 0.5. see this curve is essentially. Of course. this is essentially the equation. how do we get the varying inflow in the rotor disk? But please remember. whether you are climbing and moving forward. they are used to get the. then it will become lambda I over lambda H.. this equation or the earlier expression. Here. I have plotted this with alpha 0. please understand. but please remember. I can have alpha 0 and the disk can go like this. there is a lot of variation in the inflow. this continuous line. when I plot this. This is induced flow. even in the hover case it is not. but in forward flight it is still never. high speed is when V is much larger than nu. this is not high speed break. tip speed. Alpha defines the. Please understand. which I showed you. the rotor behaves like a circular wing and I said. these are different ways of. Whereas. when we did. that is all. here it is non- dimensionalized with respect to omega R. this curve non-dimensionalized with respect to hover inflow. it is not nothing do with alpha. is it clear? . v over… high speed. (( )) This one. the high speed assumption. this relationship. that is not high speed. this. This is. So. Alpha is.

If you want to know if the velocity is non-dimensional. (Refer Slide Time: 22:42) 1 over x curve will just go like this. when it is 0 what happens? (( )) Yeah. no. But you have some question? (( )) No. this is the x. how this curve will be? (( )) . I am just plotting Y equals 1 over h 1 over x. this is y.That is. V is higher. I am plotting a curve Y equals 1 over x. you guys have a doubt? See. this is V. What. based on that assumption. high speed. then you can take it my inflow calculation is pretty quick. but later you realize that things are slightly different. This is nu. this is. This is just for understanding. that is why. no. this is nu over nu H. more than 0.1 mu. (( )) Yeah. V. it shoots. you draw this curve. your inflow quick calculation. when it becomes low.

the velocity at which you can make the high speed assumption. That is different thing. otherwise you just take this. this expression is same as this expression. is it clear. this is plotted. it is going… (( )) Yes. (( )) Dotted line. this curve is this. is it clear. you can do it. I have to do iterative. it is the momentum theory. make and then as a. another curve no assumption. Alpha equal to 0 because I have to assume them. you do a meaningful root. directly from here. this curve. . I took it. yes. When I make a high speed assumption. when v is higher. what it is. See. but then when you do. Because nu over nu H is on right hand side also. my inflow will be… But this I cannot directly solve because it is in both sides. is it clear or doubt? (( )) Wait. when alpha is 0. only thing is. otherwise what you will say. that is. when V tending to 0. I do not make an assumption that my nu is much smaller than v cos alpha or anything like that. Now. that 0 value and I am getting inflow purely from this equation. wait V should be… (( )) Higher. wait. as far as in a momentum theory. now at what point I can make the high speed assumption. V is higher means.Yeah. high speed assumption is only on this side I am saying that. alpha. they give almost same values. this is exact. it is greater than 1. same means. straightaway. that is. but is it still clear or not clear? I am plotting two curves. I will square it. V are definitely. v is higher means. I plot this curve. one curve with high speed assumption. become a 4th. at what velocity? That was the question. try to get the roots. 4th order and then. V is higher only.

how the wake. wake is close to the rotor and it is of course. I have just drawn for two blades. But during the time. what we are going do is we will follow it. It is greater than 0. So. that is transition. (Refer Slide Time: 28:21) Well.1. that region. that corresponds to. I will briefly give a. .5. V over nu H. if you take nu H as. we assume. how they keep moving behind because each blade will give out import x. alright. is it clear. as well as. There will be substantial variation in the inflow over the radial as well as Azimuthal location. getting skewed. rotor behaves like a circular disk.1 forward speed. this is how the wake. Now. now circular disk. you say. the question is. If it is in the range of 0 to 0. beyond that it is ok. which is the advance ratio. but this is. lambda H is root of C T by 2. I am going to show. that is why the assumption of (( )). that the inflow is constant everywhere. is it clear. you have to have a theory. you will have a (( )) x also. sorry. 0 to 0. the wake goes back. Then. we in this. I showed you.075 precisely.You are not making lot of error is when V over nu H is greater than 1. As you increase the speed. this is only history. you will have trailing as well as shed. forward speed divided by tip speed. so you get this. but which is not true.1. because if you want to get quick answer what is the inflow. So. you cannot make that assumption in this zone. you can non-dimensionalize as mu over lambda H. but you normally take greater than 0.

will give and they may go and interact with the other blade. . at every section we had. similar because if you want to get momentum theory.But if you make the assumption. how do you get the inflow? So. you will have lot of helix inter point initially. right. it is. it will be like a lot of wake semi-infinite skewed cylinder. Now. So. what you do is. That means. uniform loading gamma is constant. my circulation gamma is constant over the span of the blade. it is a very interesting part. That means. does not give you the very variation here. you assume actuator disk. you do not start using the differential momentum theory what we derived in the class. it is almost like a skewed cylinder. I will just write the. I am just giving you a brief history. that means. that my loading is constant that means. you will find. So. that sigma A over 16. because I will not go into the details of this formulation because these are all a little… (Refer Slide Time: 30:06) So. that means. it has infinite number of blades and every blade is giving out. infinite number of blades momentum. you will have only tip vortex and the tip vortex is what is shown here. etcetera. this is actuator disk first. Please understand. but assume. Actuator disk win. do not use that here. That lambda I. they will come in each blade. which is the function of the blade pitch angle. With this assumption.

but another one is free wake. that is. I will take something similar. He said. this is the cylinder. they got some closed form expression. But vortex theory. wake can interact with another wake and finally. using this kind of. you have number of blade 2 or 3 or 4 or 5. this is like a disk. 52. lifting line. whereas here finite number of blades. you find out this wake structure. So. the computational capability because they all got close form. by Coleman. Then. So. the 49. but my loading is going to vary sinusoidally. Feingold and Stempin. in 1949. that is. what is the structure of the wake? This is the structure I have assumed. So. because of the forward speed. So. So. This assumes actuator disk. closed form solution. Simultaneously. you assume. he made a slightly different assumption. wake structure. only thing is. that is all. these are all till 50. long series. using the potential flow theory. you assume uniform loading. How it became like this? Purely. That means. yes 1949.So. he got a series expression for inflow series. get the pressure difference across it and he solved with. but please note all of them are actuated this theory. this was done in 1945. which is a realistic situation. Real situation. this is Mangler and Squire using potential flow in a pressure field. He again got the inflow variation on that. the wake is. you have. with that he made. that means. he had a trailing as well as shed vortex that means. you prescribe the. Then. but it varies with Azimuth location. I am leaving it. I am not going to assume uniform loading. That means. 1945 they used this. I am not. that period. like this. I do not know the strength and this is the prescribed wake analysis. Structure is decided. Now. that hey. you will have a trailing as well as shed vortex. his circulation is constant along the blade span. but it assumes infinite number of blades. this is called Drees model. but that is not the real situation. But then. basically prescribed wake. just giving in terms of a closed form expression for the inflow variation along the rotor. 52. only in the 4 and half direction. in 1950s. similar to fixed wing. slowly. this is also vortex theory only. I think that is 49. That means. prescribed. 1950. something like that. you allow completely. it will come to its own equilibrium for a . you have vortex theory. finite number of blades. I will put it. please understand. you need to have. it is the potential flow assumption and then. which means gamma is constant. 50. vortex theory.

but some people use even this. then still it is the question of debate. this is very. alright. here psi represents the Azimuthal location in this disk r over R. what we will do? I will briefly mention what these are. wake skew angle. if they want. But these are research fields. I am talking about only inflow modeling. this is x-axis. which people have been working on. they may have some models. otherwise these are good. time consuming. that means. industry. free wake computationally. And basically. they will use this part if it is available. this is my rotor disk and this is my. in this course. where I go and then improve my model. that is all these. these are all even.given condition. prescribed wake is reasonably. this is the traction of flight. So. very interesting. more and more accurate determination of vibratory loads. it is going on. you know. this is infinite blades. some people use it. very. absolutely no problem. one is finite number of blades. you know. better than free wake. Here. people have developed models. This angle is psi and this is the radiant. this is y-axis. (Refer Slide Time: 38:07) Because you write your nu… k x. What is the only parameter is wake skew angle. please understand. These are all computationally more involved and of course. only thing is. inflow modeling in forward flight steady case. they got in the 50s. Yes. how all of them ultimately is represented. Now. all of them. k x…. r represents wherever in the . Now. nothing more. Now. what is this nu naught? So. please understand. We use this and these results have.

That means. k y represent essentially the variation with respect to r and psi and that is all. So. but I will give the other one. I obtain these two quantities: k x. is it clear? (Refer Slide Time: 28:21) Because you assume there is a uniform inflow. you have to understand clearly. So.distance. but this is in forward flight. now. I wrote one of them. there are different symbols which may be confusing. And what are these? This I will write it. what just for reference. that what we are using. though I write is nu because this assumes uniform inflow. But please. which you get it from momentum theory. you nu 0 is this quantity. that becomes nu naught. if it is a. mean inflow. . now I am using one more symbol. but the idea is. please understand. nu sub-zero. even though I put I. that is this value. you can use this expression lambda I if you know C T directly. So. it now I am changed to 0 lambda I into omega R. nu 0 or in other words. inflow is basically the value you obtain from the momentum theory. this is. nu naught is some kind of a mean value. Therefore. So.

he says k x is 0 for hover. it is a good model. which is written as 1 minus 1. How do you know. these are the two quantities. which is minus 2 nu. whether it is good or bad. you see. Of course. we can use a better approximation. he also gave k y. this is value only forward flight. But please understand. that. So. See. this term is there and this given directly in terms of chi by 2. in all these models if you want to use. That means.(Refer Slide Time: 41:37) He obtained is k x. which we use it in our thesis.8. we have option to use this. but please understand. this is not there. this term is (( )). this model is very good. this is tan chi by 2 and k y is 0. But please understand. this you can get it because tan chi is nu over lambda. that is enough. that is all you follow. Of course there are better models are now. please understand. you cannot apply it for hover because psi is 0. which have come. this is not only the nu V sine alpha you take. otherwise you will get infinity only for forward flight. But please understand. Drees model. Do not think. you know. that is only nu because this is the total lambda. you still . k y. these models. please understand. I define in terms of mu and lambda mu is in the plane of disk lambda. that we will come later. Now. you can say lambda over nu.8 nu square root of 1 plus lambda over nu whole square minus (( )). here. Drees model is a good model. that you have to take it. And then. he gave k x 4 over 3 minus 1. which is also given by this this (( )). k x. Now. when I define. in this the lambda includes V sine alpha plus nu. is normal to the disk.

Ultimately. which is a gross assumption. it does not vary with time. no. said it is pretty neat. I just gave a brief. which are resembling the flight test. no I would say the overview. because most of the expressions. I will give you.have to go and get this nu naught from momentum. purely depends on how would the results match with the experiments. 50. but need not be uniform. please understand. Now. if I use this model I will be able to get certain results. It is. but people were struggling to get expressions. that is all. we will go in this course. Just inflow calculation. we will just use this expression. you. those all started later and today it is at some stage. of course. but those . that this is the Drees model. But today. it is like a history because even the reviewer says. the most general is its time varying and it is not uniform and that is the much better approximation. that is the key. that relation you have to get that. you need to have that models. which would derive in the books. because this you have to know. I do not include this because it makes simpler. but some are good physical models and they are able to get results. basically algebra. whatever you get. But uniform. But if you want to get some closed form results in the reasonable length of mathematics. you know. this is. but this is 45. because there is this is not the end of it. it can be just constant. good. he has to develop his own computational tool to get an inflow. I would call it more refined results. it is old. the whole thing is. but Drees model is reasonable. but if one wants to use. When I say constant. but in all our formulation. is it clear. which are only after getting this you realize. computational capability has improved. So. it is uniform everywhere. but this not just sufficient. that is what this model is. If you want to get some more refined. but helicopters flew around 39 to 42. whether these are valid or not valid. but it can be time varying. how it all started. So. this is 49. So. that becomes. Please understand this is a constant. I leave at that part. please understand. So. then make an assumption. is it clear. now it is part of one of the my student’s PhD thesis. if I say Drees model. it can be uniform constant. that is one model. this is sometimes people use. my inflow is uniform over the whole disk even though it is not correct. where we can model the time variation also in an approximate version time variation of inflow. because if you want little bit more detail. But then. this is a good approximation for realistic problems. We need to take more time variation also into account here. it assume uniform inflow. when I say uniform.

take level flight. you know. Let us now go back. you say. for this course. equilibrium of forces and moments? Very simple. C T. Now. simple expression. let us go back to the rotor blade. which is called level flight or anything. you need to know C T and the C T was given here. Now. what should be the control because you need to fly? Whether you were able to achieve equilibrium. you will slowly realize. I want to fly at that speed. that is the first. you start analyzing only some narrow portion for a specific. forward flight we need to go and then analyze. that you include everything in your (( )) and then analyze it. What do we analyze in forward flight? First is. we learnt momentum theory. in forward flight things become much more complicated and then. how do we apply because you know. because we need to get the loads because hover we learnt. I will close this here. it is called a trim or equilibrium. that this is for you to get this nu naught. lambda I to C T expression is right there. Second one is. Please remember. is it stable? That is the stability part. that is the flight dynamics. It is not. Then. for the helicopter to fly at just. (Refer Slide Time: 51:59) . actually start. if there is a disturbance. C T is given here. but the trim equilibrium part itself is a aero-elastic problem. for the body. this is what happens. You cannot put it. but even the first part.models are time consuming. we got an expression for inflow in forward flight good. that is why. you have to do computationally.

this is advancing and this is retreating. the lift is going to be. we said. one will come here. another will go. When you say flap that is the out of plane motion of the blade only. you know. therefore you expect. that we will come to that later. But later we will see how we very crudely take the radial flow. But this is one approximation I am showing because this is .So. but we will call the flap motion by the symbol beta. the blade is flapping and the flap. Now. we know that. this velocity varies. in forward flight because of time varying. Let us consider only the flapping motion. so you have harmonic variation of lift. it neglected or we can take approximately some. advancing side more velocity. we will consider very simplistically. this side is more velocity. So. this is the hub and blade is I call it beta. oncoming flow. because this flow if I resolve it. because it is a square of the velocity. that flap motion is also periodic. but in the radial direction. flap. let us say. that this blade is going to experience load and it is going to. there is a flow over the surface not along the aerofoil card wise. the blade is going to go up and down. How it will vary because you know. out of blade motion. Now. sine psi. (Refer Slide Time: 54:28) Let us take a very simple case. That means. Radial flow means. something is sinusoidal or I would say not say periodic. this is along the span of the blade. I am neglecting radial flow. you got a. this is like a swept wing flying forward. retreating side less velocity.

Then. we are not (( )) teetering rotor. then I will be giving k. any periodic function you can represent by a Fourier series. So. which is.3. will have only one value. so forth. I am representing the flap motion also as a Fourier series and so on. this is 180. you see. only three term approximation. that each one is doing independently when it goes round and round. Now. So. But please. which has all the harmonics. at the back it will go up. you know. 1 c represents what? If beta 1 c is positive. there is a beta naught beta 1c cosine psi beta 1s sin psi. we got inflow. which is the number of the blades. This blade behaves. this is the blade beta naught means. that means. When it comes to a particular value of the azimuth. sorry. this is 90 degree. each blade is represented as Fourier series because we have to know each blade is independent. we are not going to be bothered about this 2nd harmonic onwards. I am talking about 0.3 non-dimensional mu. this is 180. write it as beta naught plus summation 1 to cosine n psi plus. Therefore. this will be. that is. this is where. we will say. all the blades execute identical motion. Please understand this is an approximation I am making for the motion of the blade. this is the psi k. you will find the 2nd harmonic content is more than the 1st harmonic content. this is 90. when the blade comes back to this point. so on. when it rotates. If what (( )) psi k becomes psi plus 2 pi. about 0. we will see how to represent the blade. let us say. Now. but this is omega t. psi 1 is nothing but psi 2. it is not. if this is the (( )). 2nd harmonics is important when you go to slightly high speed. So. not time varying. it has gone up. all the blades have gone up by the same amount and this is called the coning. physically we will look at it. but what we will do is in this course. Later. when you look at (( )) c. Now. it is an independent. if this is the 1st blade. you have flap motion which is represented like this. when it . So. that blade behaves. assume we neglect everything. That means. which is the time varying function. but if I want to look at all the blades and if I index them. So. the flap motion because it is excited by a periodic load. high speed means. but (( )) for the present. my flap motion is a fourier series. I would like to caution you. What it really means. this will be like this. what happens. Now. this is beta is for one blade. beta k. but all of them have the same expression that means. in the sense. how it really represent. azimuth varying. Now. when it comes to the front it will come. it will do like this. all of them have gone up same value.rotating. this is my psi 0 position.

here it is down. So. swash plate. you tilt that thrust vector in the other direction. you need flap because the flap is the one. How the circular disk is. tilt in the lateral direction. I took the disk up then I tilted in the forward. The cyclic variation of the pitch angle is responsible for tilting the disk because one side increases more lift. Now. it can tilt. that is. Now. you said. but 1s represent the tilt in the. So. the tip path plane of the rotor disk is like a circular disk. that collective pitch angle. you know. I will briefly tell you. disk in the sense. that motion. is basically tilting the swash plate. then you fly forward. The three quantities. you are looking at the tip path plane because all the blades are going round and round. but there is a dynamics involved because it is not just simple because the blade is (( )) go. the question is. what is that plane? Now. these are all like warping of the plane. you can define several reference axis and this will complicate the problem. pilot collective and two cyclic for one main rotor. circular disk. you see. thrust will go up. he can control these three technically. the disk is tilted in the forward direction. Now. you tilt the thrust vector this way. more lift. there are different types of frames of reference because when I said flap. more weight. all the blades experience the same change in pitch. without this you cannot fly the helicopter. this is the rotor disk line. as a result. I look at only the beam path. you know. whatever is there. tilt (( )). because here it is up. how do we achieve the flapping? Because pilot gives only pitch angle change. you see. flap is with respect to what plane? Is it with respect to… . that means. but when you do cyclic. your thrust vector. one is. but when you go to higher harmonics. we drew a line rotor disk. other side lifts. you are outside. cyclic plate because pilot sticks left side or front. Now. we put. that the complex representation of that plane. that means. Now. is giving a cyclic variation in the pitch angle. It is like. I do not look at the warping. the rotor disk. what this represents is these three quantities only. like this pilot is giving a pitch angle in one frame and you defined your lambda mu in some. what is that disk? Is it the tip path plane or is it the hub plane or is it some control plane. he gives. essentially. The tilting of the thrust vector is obtained by flapping. So. it kind of tilts. now please understand. you fly. how they will have it is. it can go up.rotates it will do like this. the orientation of the disk. corrugated sheet. So. which is tilted.

the hub can be. you can define one more axis. tip path plane means. you are not bothered about the root part. that is the tip path plane. tip path plane if you want to take that is another axis. it is going in that plane. Similarly. no feathering plane. do not bother about all these things. the blade. which is called the no feathering plane. This is the tip path plane. the shaft axis need not be perpendicular to the tip path plane because the shaft axis can be like this.(Refer Slide Time: 1:05:46) I will briefly show one diagram and just to indicate. Now. that very simplistically. Now. that is the hub plane. NFP. the tip path plane can be like this. that is why. all the blades will follow the same path because this is the same Fourier expression. That means. do not bother because the blade can flap up. The root. You are looking at the tip of the blade. the shaft axis and the hub. this is the shaft axis. how it goes round. then you have shaft. which actually. These are assumptions we are making because all blades perform the same motion. the blade is going only in that plane no matter where it is. shaft axis is another one. . you draw a plane.

but finally. is it clear. this we call it TPP. but the pitch angle of the blade can change as it goes around in that plane. one is tip path plane. old books if you see. oh this is what you see. So. what is the control? You have to know what each one of them is and you can choose any one of the planes for your problem. this is NFP. That is why. . you really do not know what they are using unless you are very clear about. What happens if you are in that plane? There is no flapping because the blade is only in that plane. blade will not come out of that plane. you can have one more plane. hub is perpendicular to the shaft and the shaft is attached to the helicopter. Then. Now. but it actually is. which is control plane. the. as a blade tip is going in that plane means what? There is no flapping with respect to that plane. you also define no feathering plane. Then. the helicopter tilt. So. this is what tip path plane you have agreed.(Refer Slide Time: 1:07:37) So. agreed. shaft also tilts. after more and more of understanding. Later. in the text book. four planes. everything has its own complexity. Then. you choose one. so there is no flapping in tip path plane. another one is shaft… This we call it hub plane because the shaft. some books. Because you have a plane. I will write here some three.

a very simplistic diagram. When it is 90 degree. . If you look here. this is what? The pitch angle. that means. which is plus theta 1s. When it is here. it will have a large pitch angle. the angle is theta naught plus theta 1s. it will have minus theta 1s. the theta 1s. maybe we can with computer. that means. you choose no feathering plane. In this plane the pitch angle of the blade is constant in that plane. but please understand. I mentioned control plane. I can briefly describe you with this diagram. So. That is what is shown here. then the. Now. this is same as. the pitch angle of the blade is a constant. This is. such that the pitch angle is same both sides. let us say this is 0. sketching is. three-dimensional we should be able to make it. But you want to get a plane in which the blade has theta naught only.Now. you take this. when you come here. less pitch angle. that the pitch angle here will reduce. just for simplicity. here will increase till you tilt it. our theta is what. just for indication. what will happen? That means. What is control plane? Control plane is basically the plane of the swash plate. you will find. it is theta naught. (Refer Slide Time: 1:10:30) That is. what you do? If you tilt this plane up like this. theta naught. swash plate I mentioned here because swash plate is there for these helicopters. the same aerofoil. this will go up. swash plate plane. here it will come down.

your blade will have both flapping as well as feathering. I have to get the aerodynamic load. change angle of attack of the blade. but the complexity in hub plane is. but if you do not have any additional mechanism to. what reference access I must choose for defining my motion of the blade defining because I have to get the aerodynamic load. here we have several. if you do not have any other additional mechanism to introduce pitch in the blade because sometime you can have some coupling. whether all of them can be same or all of them cannot be same? In certain specific situations. so what we choose in this class? Hub plane. . this is the hub. or you can put a trailing edge tab and that will twist the blade. I have to define my inflow. So. four planes. fathering. Feathering is basically pitch angle change. you will find two planes. you follow. Now. normal to the hub. whereas these are all not fixed with respect to the helicopter. On the other hand. otherwise each one is independent. you have to consider everything. You have so many planes your hanging around. but there is only flapping. twist. trailing edge tab may be twisting. Now. there is flapping only. you follow. you have to take both of them into account. this is the shaft. Your swash blade may be here. if you choose this plane. In the plane of the hub is your forward speed. And most of the research we use this plane because that is very systematically you can develop. So. there is no feathering. whole point is. we will use only hub plane. it will have both flapping as well as feathering. one of them can be made simpler. if you choose this plane. which you will learn later. Now. these two are same. what is my advance ratio? What is my inflow? Everything is referred with respect to hub plane. expressions become more complex. the whole point goes. that is all. it becomes. in the plane of the hub. normal to the hub is you say inflow. but his is more systematic and you will not make any mistake. Please understand. which is 90 degree. but here. you define what is the in the velocity. if you do not have any other additional mechanism. So. you understand. that is all.Now. please understand. because these planes are fixed with respect to the helicopter. that means. may be same. So.

it may be twisted. they do not give the systematic. they make lot of assumptions. what I thought. throw this. make approximation and then you will get a neat expression. but when you go and calculate aerodynamic load on the blade. If you follow the systematic development it is clear to you because if. books. they will give final expression. actually they make lot of approximations in getting those. we will define every point. unless you are sure what is being done you will say. the blade may be like this. They will say take this. we will follow pure. . but we will say throw this. So. we will get the velocity and then you we will get the acceleration. And then. which is to the what you see in some other publications.But in this plane. Then. which I am giving. please understand. material. most of the. we will define a coordinate system. we will define a position vector. in my course. you have to define proper coordinate system and this is where you have to have a very systematic development. like basic mechanics. at every stage it will become complex. does not matter. (( )). we will say. actually all books. in this notes also. like dynamics. why it is taken like this.