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# Introduction to Helicopter Aerodynamics and Dynamics

Prof. Dr. C. Venkatesan
Department of Aerospace Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Lecture No. # 26

(Refer Slide Time: 00:33)

Left last lecture, essentially, we got the expression for the thrust in forward flight, but the
rotor disk is in a state of climbing as well going forward. That is why, we put the V cos
alpha V sine alpha and the total inflow through the rotor disk, you will have the
component of this nu and this is due to the flight speed. So, this is the V sine alpha, as
well as, nu.

(Refer Slide Time: 01:03)

Now, usually the expression, that is the thrust, which is written as rho A nu v cos alpha
square plus identical to your similar to momentum theory. The only difference is, now let
us plot certain variation of the inflow because in hover it is supporting the same weight
of the helicopter. So, thrust is same even if it is climbing forward or moving forward.

So, in hover we write. So, please note, that I am putting a subscript H to denote the
difference between the hover inflow and the forward flight inflow. But since the rotor is
supporting the same weight, so what you have to do is you equate both of them and write
an expression, which is given their nu is nu H square or you can, because when you
equate both, you will get nu is nu H square over this. Ok, straight away.

2. which is 1. that is easy. it is. Alpha is the oncoming flow with respect to the horizontal.(Refer Slide Time: 02:47) And then. it is just an indication. .5. you can set alpha 0. only thing is. then this is. Now. Now.5 and 2 and here X-axis. this will be. may be 0. This curve for various values of V over nu H because alpha is 0. that means. this term will go of V over nu H square plus nu over nu H whole square. 1. because this curve is plotted. you can have V over nu H. because you know. if you just plot it. 3. 1. let us take alpha is 0. I will erase this part because you can plot like this. the curve will start and go like this. I am just (( )) for alpha 0. Suppose. it could be a little. it is a little sharper. this is the momentum theory in forward. how inflow varies with forward speed. how it is done is. This is nu over nu H and on the X-axis you have. you will write this expression. Now. the disk is flying forward straight. take it. hover the value is 1 nu over nu H. because please understand. I. that is the key. this is just a modified form of the same inflow expression in forward flight. No audio to 02:52 to 03:28 So. may be I am. So. it is non-dimensionalized with respect to the hover inflow. that is all. nothing else. means this is. what is the value of alpha. this curve can be plotted. this is plotted for. if we take alpha 0.

that is. at. that is. when the rotor will behave like a wing. nu into V is nu H square. you can write. you equate these two because thrust is. in which case. So. at high speed the rotor behaves like a wing.5. V is much larger than inflow velocity. if I plot this curve. that as V become 0. Assumption of high speed. that 1 over x type curve will come. that is. very simple. the high speed assumption is fine. this is like a 1 over x type of curve.Now. for V very large. this is. means. it is supporting the same weight of the helicopter. but in general. you will have…. you take 1 nu H this will lead to…. at. I do not bother about this complicated. how large? You will find out the thrust becomes (( )). at what speed.5. you will have nu nu H. this is the exact. because we mentioned last class. So. I am just saying very large. now your question is V over nu H. this is again. this term will become 1. I am making an assumption. this going to become asymptotically infinite. it will go. So. flying at high speed and if you plot this curve. So. you can make this assumption greater than 1. the disk is flying horizontally. this is. which we can have is. sorry. only this term V cos alpha. Now. my thrust is this expression. This is high speed. this curve because you know. the deviation will start V over nu H greater than 1. this is directly high speed assumption. you see. nu over nu H 1 over v. but this is only for very basic level. the another question. So. Therefore. (Refer Slide Time: 10:42) . because we were asking last class. but now when alpha is 0. whatever momentum theory says.

let us look at in terms of non-dimensional quantities. but mu is greater than 0. then you can use the high speed assumption for inflow. The wing. usually forward speed.05. for what non-dimensional value you can make the assumption of almost the wing.075. in non-dimensional. the rotor acts like a wing.1. 0. yeah. we took it the velocity in the disk divided by (( )). usually they say. non-dimensional quantity you will have. rather than specifying forward speed. mu greater than 0. Now.1. if you take 0. we know lambda H is C T by 2 and if C T is. basically the rotor behaves like a circular wing. Usually. you take it the V cos alpha. sorry. lambda H is a hover inflow. this is basically. advance ratio is V cos alpha over omega R. So. but in between 0 to 0. because V over omega R. greater than 0. usually it is called. this is nothing. nu over lambda hover.1 in the forward speed. rotor is called in transition. I am saying up 005.1. Now.05 into 5. in this range. (Refer Slide Time: 11:24) Because we defined last time. you put it in non-dimensional forward speed. Because this is forward speed advance ratio in the range 0 to 0. So. . but approximately. alpha is 0 we have taken. then lambda H is 0. which is in terms of advanced ratio. reasonable.Now. Now.

now if you look at this. you start the forward speed. the wake gets. it is in a skewed cylinder. wake in the sense. initially the rotor wake. which is coming out from the rotor blade. because one. the lifting theory or anything. (Refer Slide Time: 14:06) . what really happens is. But once you start moving forward. I will show.(Refer Slide Time: 13:35) The time the rotor wake. whatever is the disturbance. the wake comes below the rotor straight.

So. it is not straight below also. in this range of 0 to 0. that is straight. then there is another. Let us write this as a tan from this diagram. helicopter you do not fly in this.1. where it is 60. minimum power point is actually beyond this 0. but the . 0 to 60. in the range of 0 to 60. Normally. then that angle is close to around 60 degrees. but you do not try to operate fully flying. when nu is 0. tan chi. but it is very close to that and then. So. 0. usually you will have high vibration.15. you have to. If you take it. you find that this zone. that nu over lambda H. in the sense. that is why. etcetera in that transition zone. it is skew. somewhere around that. When the blade travels. When nu is very large. this is called the wake skew angle. But if you want good range.1. Later. And this really complicates the problem because the wake is close. that is the transition. Of course. And if we apply this rule. we said. this angle is going to keep on changing. approximately 1. when you increase the speed you will be going in that. tan chi is basically nu over lambda wake skew angle. when you go to the power curve.(Refer Slide Time: 14:32) When you go in a skewed cylinder. So. which is still further. it is around 0. the wake from the front blade will close to the rear blade.1. usually the angle of that becomes. the wake is swept and this angle is almost 90 degree. tan chi is 0. the wake is not completely swept behind the rotor disk.5. see. If you go around advance ratio 0. you have lot of variation in the vibration. as you increase the speed. if you want to fly at a minimum power.

(( )) This curve. Now. Please understand. it is the velocity defines the high speed. alpha does not define the high speed. I can fly horizontally. nu over omega R. you can take it because cosine alpha is almost. this is. that is. see alpha is small. Here you can write it as mu over lambda H. exactly this is the curve. but it is the high speed assumption and if I plot this curve. this curve.important thing is. And as a result.. Our assumption of uniform inflow over the entire disk is not really valid because you have done one homework. how. then only it starts deviating. is almost come close up to 1. (( )) Why. aspect ratio is only very small. you can divide by omega R. which you use it to get the. no. please understand. I wrote the high. we did the. both of them. This I wrote last time. this curve with alpha 0.5. see this curve is essentially. Of course. this is essentially the equation. how do we get the varying inflow in the rotor disk? But please remember. whether you are climbing and moving forward. they are used to get the. then it will become lambda I over lambda H.. this equation or the earlier expression. Here. I have plotted this with alpha 0. please understand. but please remember. I can have alpha 0 and the disk can go like this. there is a lot of variation in the inflow. this continuous line. when I plot this. This is induced flow. even in the hover case it is not. but in forward flight it is still never. high speed is when V is much larger than nu. this is not high speed break. tip speed. Alpha defines the. Please understand. which I showed you. the rotor behaves like a circular wing and I said. these are different ways of. Whereas. when we did. that is all. here it is non- dimensionalized with respect to omega R. this curve non-dimensionalized with respect to hover inflow. it is not nothing do with alpha. is it clear? . v over… high speed. (( )) This one. the high speed assumption. this relationship. that is not high speed. this. This is. So. Alpha is.

If you want to know if the velocity is non-dimensional. (Refer Slide Time: 22:42) 1 over x curve will just go like this. when it is 0 what happens? (( )) Yeah. no. But you have some question? (( )) No. this is the x. how this curve will be? (( )) . I am just plotting Y equals 1 over h 1 over x. this is y.That is. V is higher. I am plotting a curve Y equals 1 over x. you guys have a doubt? See. this is V. What. based on that assumption. high speed. then you can take it my inflow calculation is pretty quick. but later you realize that things are slightly different. This is nu. this is. This is just for understanding. that is why. no. this is nu over nu H. more than 0.1 mu. (( )) Yeah. V. it shoots. you draw this curve. your inflow quick calculation. when it becomes low.

the velocity at which you can make the high speed assumption. That is different thing. otherwise you just take this. this expression is same as this expression. is it clear. this is plotted. it is going… (( )) Yes. (( )) Dotted line. this curve is this. is it clear. you can do it. I have to do iterative. it is the momentum theory. make and then as a. another curve no assumption. Alpha equal to 0 because I have to assume them. you do a meaningful root. directly from here. this curve. . I took it. yes. When I make a high speed assumption. when v is higher. what it is. See. but then when you do. Because nu over nu H is on right hand side also. my inflow will be… But this I cannot directly solve because it is in both sides. is it clear or doubt? (( )) Wait. when alpha is 0. only thing is. otherwise what you will say. that is. when V tending to 0. I do not make an assumption that my nu is much smaller than v cos alpha or anything like that. Now. that 0 value and I am getting inflow purely from this equation. wait V should be… (( )) Higher. wait. as far as in a momentum theory. now at what point I can make the high speed assumption. V is higher means.Yeah. high speed assumption is only on this side I am saying that. alpha. they give almost same values. this is exact. it is greater than 1. same means. straightaway. that is. but is it still clear or not clear? I am plotting two curves. I will square it. V are definitely. v is higher means. I plot this curve. one curve with high speed assumption. become a 4th. at what velocity? That was the question. try to get the roots. 4th order and then. V is higher only.

how the wake. wake is close to the rotor and it is of course. I have just drawn for two blades. But during the time. what we are going do is we will follow it. It is greater than 0. So. that is transition. (Refer Slide Time: 28:21) Well.1. that region. that corresponds to. I will briefly give a. .5. V over nu H. if you take nu H as. we assume. how they keep moving behind because each blade will give out import x. alright. is it clear. as well as. There will be substantial variation in the inflow over the radial as well as Azimuthal location. getting skewed. rotor behaves like a circular disk.1 forward speed. this is how the wake. Now. now circular disk. you say. the question is. If it is in the range of 0 to 0. beyond that it is ok. which is the advance ratio. but this is. lambda H is root of C T by 2. I am going to show. that is why the assumption of (( )). that the inflow is constant everywhere. is it clear. you have to have a theory. you will have a (( )) x also. sorry. 0 to 0. the wake goes back. Then. we in this. I showed you.075 precisely.You are not making lot of error is when V over nu H is greater than 1. As you increase the speed. this is only history. you will have trailing as well as shed. forward speed divided by tip speed. so you get this. but which is not true.1. because if you want to get quick answer what is the inflow. So. you cannot make that assumption in this zone. you can non-dimensionalize as mu over lambda H. but you normally take greater than 0.

but some people use even this. then still it is the question of debate. this is very. alright. here psi represents the Azimuthal location in this disk r over R. what we will do? I will briefly mention what these are. wake skew angle. if they want. But these are research fields. I am talking about only inflow modeling. this is x-axis. which people have been working on. they may have some models. otherwise these are good. time consuming. that means. industry. free wake computationally. And basically. they will use this part if it is available. this is my rotor disk and this is my. in this course. where I go and then improve my model. that is all these. these are all even.given condition. prescribed wake is reasonably. this is the traction of flight. So. very interesting. more and more accurate determination of vibratory loads. it is going on. you know. this is infinite blades. some people use it. very. absolutely no problem. one is finite number of blades. you know. better than free wake. Here. people have developed models. This angle is psi and this is the radiant. this is y-axis. (Refer Slide Time: 38:07) Because you write your nu… k x. What is the only parameter is wake skew angle. please understand. These are all computationally more involved and of course. only thing is. inflow modeling in forward flight steady case. they got in the 50s. Yes. how all of them ultimately is represented. Now. all of them. k x…. r represents wherever in the . Now. nothing more. Now. what is this nu naught? So. please understand. We use this and these results have.

That means. k y represent essentially the variation with respect to r and psi and that is all. So. but I will give the other one. I obtain these two quantities: k x. is it clear? (Refer Slide Time: 28:21) Because you assume there is a uniform inflow. you have to understand clearly. So.distance. but this is in forward flight. now. I wrote one of them. there are different symbols which may be confusing. And what are these? This I will write it. what just for reference. that what we are using. though I write is nu because this assumes uniform inflow. But please. which you get it from momentum theory. you nu 0 is this quantity. that becomes nu naught. if it is a. mean inflow. . now I am using one more symbol. but the idea is. please understand. nu sub-zero. even though I put I. that is this value. you can use this expression lambda I if you know C T directly. So. it now I am changed to 0 lambda I into omega R. nu 0 or in other words. inflow is basically the value you obtain from the momentum theory. this is. nu naught is some kind of a mean value. Therefore. So.

he says k x is 0 for hover. it is a good model. which is written as 1 minus 1. How do you know. these are the two quantities. which is minus 2 nu. whether it is good or bad. you see. Of course. we can use a better approximation. he also gave k y. this is value only forward flight. But please understand. that. So. See. this term is there and this given directly in terms of chi by 2. in all these models if you want to use. That means.(Refer Slide Time: 41:37) He obtained is k x. which we use it in our thesis.8. we have option to use this. but please understand. this is not there. this term is (( )). this model is very good. this is tan chi by 2 and k y is 0. But please understand. this you can get it because tan chi is nu over lambda. that is enough. that is all you follow. Of course there are better models are now. please understand. you cannot apply it for hover because psi is 0. which have come. this is not only the nu V sine alpha you take. otherwise you will get infinity only for forward flight. But please understand. Drees model. Do not think. you know. that is only nu because this is the total lambda. you still . k y. these models. please understand. I define in terms of mu and lambda mu is in the plane of disk lambda. that we will come later. Now. you can say lambda over nu.8 nu square root of 1 plus lambda over nu whole square minus (( )). here. Drees model is a good model. that you have to take it. And then. he gave k x 4 over 3 minus 1. which is also given by this this (( )). k x. Now. when I define. in this the lambda includes V sine alpha plus nu. is normal to the disk.

Ultimately. which is a gross assumption. it does not vary with time. no. said it is pretty neat. I just gave a brief. which are resembling the flight test. no I would say the overview. because most of the expressions. I will give you.have to go and get this nu naught from momentum. purely depends on how would the results match with the experiments. 50. but need not be uniform. please understand. Now. if I use this model I will be able to get certain results. It is. but people were struggling to get expressions. that is all. we will go in this course. Just inflow calculation. we will just use this expression. you. those all started later and today it is at some stage. of course. but those . that this is the Drees model. But today. it is like a history because even the reviewer says. the most general is its time varying and it is not uniform and that is the much better approximation. that is the key. that relation you have to get that. you need to have that models. which would derive in the books. because this you have to know. I do not include this because it makes simpler. but some are good physical models and they are able to get results. basically algebra. whatever you get. But uniform. But if you want to get some closed form results in the reasonable length of mathematics. you know. this is. but this is 45. because there is this is not the end of it. it can be just constant. good. he has to develop his own computational tool to get an inflow. I would call it more refined results. it is old. the whole thing is. but Drees model is reasonable. but if one wants to use. When I say constant. but in all our formulation. is it clear. which are only after getting this you realize. computational capability has improved. So. it is uniform everywhere. but this not just sufficient. that is what this model is. If you want to get some more refined. but helicopters flew around 39 to 42. whether these are valid or not valid. but it can be time varying. how it all started. So. this is 49. So. that becomes. Please understand this is a constant. I leave at that part. please understand. So. then make an assumption. is it clear. now it is part of one of the my student’s PhD thesis. if I say Drees model. it can be uniform constant. that is one model. this is sometimes people use. my inflow is uniform over the whole disk even though it is not correct. where we can model the time variation also in an approximate version time variation of inflow. because if you want little bit more detail. But then. this is a good approximation for realistic problems. We need to take more time variation also into account here. it assume uniform inflow. when I say uniform.

take level flight. you know. Let us now go back. you say. for this course. equilibrium of forces and moments? Very simple. C T. Now. simple expression. let us go back to the rotor blade. which is called level flight or anything. you need to know C T and the C T was given here. Now. what should be the control because you need to fly? Whether you were able to achieve equilibrium. you will slowly realize. I want to fly at that speed. that is the first. you start analyzing only some narrow portion for a specific. forward flight we need to go and then analyze. that you include everything in your (( )) and then analyze it. What do we analyze in forward flight? First is. we learnt momentum theory. in forward flight things become much more complicated and then. how do we apply because you know. because we need to get the loads because hover we learnt. I will close this here. it is called a trim or equilibrium. that this is for you to get this nu naught. lambda I to C T expression is right there. Second one is. Please remember. is it stable? That is the stability part. that is the flight dynamics. It is not. Then. for the helicopter to fly at just. (Refer Slide Time: 51:59) . actually start. if there is a disturbance. C T is given here. but the trim equilibrium part itself is a aero-elastic problem. for the body. this is what happens. You cannot put it. but even the first part.models are time consuming. we got an expression for inflow in forward flight good. that is why. you have to do computationally.