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MIMO-Diversity Switching Techniques for Digital

Transmission in Visible Light Communication
Lih Chieh Png∗ , Long Xiao† , Kiat Seng Yeo‡ , Thin Sek Wong§ and Yong Liang Guan¶
IC Design Centre of Excellence
Nanyang Technological University, Block S2.1, South Spine, 50 Nanyang Avenue, S2.1-B2-20, Singapore 639798.
Email:, Tel: (65) 6592 1844, Fax: (65) 6316 4416.
† A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research (I 2 R),

1 Fusionopolis Way, #10-51 Connexis (North Tower), Singapore 138632.
Email:, Tel: (65) 6408 2402, Fax: (65) 6776 1378.
¶ INFINITUS, Infocomm Centre of Excellence

Research TechnoPlaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Level 4, BorderX Block, Singapore 637553.
Email:, Tel: (65) 6791 7326, Fax: (65) 6791 7320.

Abstract—In this work, we propose two decision techniques emitters. This method has been proven to yield high data rates,
that interchange between MIMO and diversity schemes for but the disadvantage is that all the LEDs are critical since each
improving shadowing and alignment problems. In a visible-light of them carries a different portion of information.
communication (VLC) system, the transmission nature can be
of two types: (1) all LEDs transmit the same signal stream
simultaneously; or (2) each LED transmits different parts of
a signal stream independently. The MIMO-diversity technique
detects and computes the transmitted signal power during
reception and conditionally informs the transmitter to switch
between Type (1) and Type (2) transmission. Two experimental
models have been tested to show the feasibility of such a
technique. In the first model, we constructed a full transceiver
and uses a switch IC to switch between MIMO and diversity.
The second model uses a microcontroller and software decision
to switch between two COM ports, each of them dedicated to
MIMO and diversity output respectively. Results suggest that
shadowing and alignment problems commonly encountered in
visible-light communication systems can be readily solved using
these methods. A focusing equation has also been formulated
to predict signal intensity more accurately. The focusing gap
between the concentrator and the photodiode is taken into
consideration during channel computation.

MIMO (mutiple input, multiple output) refers to the use
of multiple, simultaneous signals (two or more radio or
optical waveforms) in a single frequency channel to exploit
multipath propagation and thereby multiply spectral efficiency
[1]. MIMO technology has been widely used in our Wi-Fi
(or 802.11n) systems to increase bandwidth efficiency and
speed. However, in recent years, researchers of visible light
communication (VLC) systems start to include MIMO into
the LED-photodiode link configuration [2][3][4].
Komine [5] proposed a distributed (or emitter diversity)
model to alleviate shadowing problems. Each LED emits the
same stream of data. In this method, multiple light sources Fig. 1. Initial constructions of the two systems for MIMO-diversity channel
that are properly distributed on the ceiling are able to reduce switching: (top) circuit switching; (bottom) COM port switching.
dark areas or shadows. However, it is prone to intersymbol
interference (ISI). Zeng [2] proposed a MIMO technique To resolve the problems of shadowing or blocking, signals
whereby a data packet is broken into blocks. After that, must be available from more than one emitting source. The
each block is sent independently through different individual diversity model looks like a promising solution as it has high

978-1-4799-3755-4/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE 000576

two prototypes that are able to realize the MIMO- Test [2]: diversity model are discussed. The first half of the paper will present two practical methods to switch between MIMO and diversity channels. The MIMO-diversity switching technique is determined by the detected received power of one or more photodiodes.e. The ENABLE input D11 (bn ) D1j (bn ) Diversity: if Test − I > Q (3) of the 74LS139 (dual 2-to-4 line decoder/multiplexer) receives Di1 (bn ) Dij (bn ) data input from the USB-RS232 converter. if any one LED is blocked or damaged. C ONCEPT F ORMULATION Fig. In the open-loop method. Here. the nearest neighbor algorithm will identify any A. it requires a full-rank channel matrix: that is. This circuit can be where b is the frame or packet. the model operates in MIMO mode. the x and y axes). The proposed switching scheme is a negotiation technique (Fig. If transmission matrix H is known. M ETHOD 1: A 4 × 4 MIMO-D IVERSITY Test = H −1 R (1) AUTO -S WITCHABLE T RANSCEIVER The computed value of Test is an estimate of the transmitted We built a 4-by-4 (4 LEDs and 4 photodiodes) configuration power of an LED or a group of LEDs received by a photodiode transceiver that auto-switches between the MIMO circuit and or photodiode array.SNR. The received signal matrix R is multiplied by the inverted channel LED at position i. data into 4 sequential bits that exits through 4 corresponding LEDs (Fig. Once any receiver encounters a marked decrease in optical power. This makes it possible for the system to respond to changing circumstances [7]. If the difference is larger than a certain threshold Q. j (i. In the next half. In the closed-loop method. we feed in a data MIMO: if Test − I < Q (2) signal instead of a clock in order to divide the data into 4 Di1 (b3 ) Dij (bn ) separate bit-streams. 2) that combines Komine’s diversity scheme [6] and Zeng’s MIMO scheme [2] to incooperate their strengths. a set of equations that deals with the concentrator’s fo- cusing gap is formulated. The prototype transceiver circuit is shown in (2) and (3). Transmitter Description: MIMO Scheme Circuitry transmitter that is in close proximity to any problematic LED We made use of a four-phase clock generator to split RS232 and switches them to diversity mode. A flow chart of the diversity-MIMO switching technique. 978-1-4799-3755-4/13/$31. Generating multiple clock sources is a common [ ] D11 (b1 ) D1j (b2 ) requirement for digital circuit design. the cross-components can be calculated by the receiver. n is the frame or packet easily expanded to an 8 or 16-phase clock generator by adding number. the receiver reports the channel status to the transmitter via a feedback channel. but that does not improve the data rate and ISI problems. the system will switch the transmitter to parallel diversity mode so that all the LEDs contribute to the deficient signal strength.00 ©2013 IEEE 000577 . In the following gain H −1 to compute the signal strength matrix of the emitter sections. 4. 1). illuminance power I. This MIMO circuit is a 4-bit data splitter [ ] producing non-overlapping data pulses. the value Test is first subtracted by the standard in Fig. III. 3). In this work. Nevetheless. 3 and Fig. 2. Technically. the communication link is broken. II. this problem can be overcome by the diversity model. the authors propose a switchable MIMO- diversity system which can be achieved using either hardware in-circuit switching or COM port switching (Fig. In the MIMO-diversity decision algorithm the diversity circuit. and D is the datastream to be transmitted through the flip-flops and using a 74LS138 decoder. The focusing gap is critical because the standard channel model that deals with spatial transmission of light does not take the focusing length into consideration when a concentrator is used. the receiver performs a channel estimation. MIMO holds the key to remedy these problems. By default.

00 ©2013 IEEE 000578 . The op-amp described in the next section (Fig. 3). Blocking was done by putting input shifts data one place to the right and enters into outputs a finger between one of the light paths in the middle of a Q0 and so on. B. MIMO-diversity circuit-switching transceiver: receiver circuit. ICL7660S provides When the finger was removed. 3). Fig. the time taken for all the data to be serial data entry and an output from each of the eight stages. After that. resumed a HIGH state at the photoreceiver. has a higher (i. Data was entered serially through one of two inputs (A or B). The transmitter and receiver were placed 4 cm apart. LM6172 A simpler test method would be to use only one computer and LM7171 are good choices. using a serial-in parallel-out shift register 74HC164 (Fig. BS520. which is sufficient for experiment. The transfer time is the time recorded neously through all the LEDs. all the four LEDs will be switched to diversity scheme to send data in parallel mode. The MAX325 is a precision. When one of the LEDs was blocked. Any four of the eight output pins can be used transfer. Transmitter Description: Diversity Scheme Circuitry process at the same time by pressing F5 (the RUN command The diversity scheme outputs the same datastream simulta. The ways data were sent dual. SPST analog switch. transferred successfully without any blocking was recorded. channel receiving PC. (MATLAB) to send data to itself and mark the transfer time A simple microcontroller (e. MIMO-diversity circuit-switching transceiver: transmitter circuit. was alerted by the microcontroller (or AND gate). such that once any S OFTWARE -C ONTROLLED COM P ORT S WITCHING drop in voltage is detected. 4. It has one normally-open (NO) from the transmitting PC and received by the target PC are switch and one normally-closed (NC) switch. Either SFH213. Fig. PIC16F684. Fig. 3. The proposed 978-1-4799-3755-4/13/$31. causing MAX325 to switch on the transmitter’s diversity circuit com- C. PIC12F508. Both will start the transmitting and receiving transmission must be in its most basic form. The test data is a text string of ‘1’s in numbers multi-LED torchlight. First. PIC16F690. we misaligned one of the LEDs by 1 cm. together with their individual photodiodes. in MATLAB) together.e. Receiver Description ponents. the transfer time with blocking was recorded. the default MIMO microcontroller reverted to AND detection logic again. Test Setup and Experiment well as for the focusing gap experiment later. An scheme is automatically switched to the diversity scheme by oscilloscope was used to check if the LEDs had switched the MAX325 switch (Fig. However. 4) consists of 4 op-amps (CA3140) in the microcontroller. or BPV10 can be used as photodetectors. using ‘tic’ and ‘toc’. 8 and Fig. When the MAX325 to switch back to MIMO and subsequently the light channel to any photodiode is blocked. hundreds of megahertz) bandwidth. 5) has been designed and constructed for the COM port experiment as D. This triggered OSD50-E.g. A simple UART white-LED transceiver (Fig. In the second CA3140 has a bandwidth of 4. an optional OR logic was activated The receiver circuit (Fig. each The 74HC164 is an edge-triggered 8-bit shift register with connected to a PC. 120. we devised a simple circuit of 40. At the same time. thus ignoring any defective channel. and 160.) or a 4-input AND gate (HEF4082B/74HC21) IV. the channel that was blocked negative voltages to the op-amps. If you need an op-amp that is more sensitive and response of the system is similar to that due to blocking. The simplest way is to use a at the receiver. 80. between the desired channel modes. The RS232 use. The Either of these inputs can be used as an active High Enable for final switching results obtained were the values from the latter data entry. Each LOW-to-HIGH transition on the clock (CP) minus the values from the first. 6 shows Two people are needed to conduct this experiment: one the circuit of our transceiver. 9). M ETHOD 2: MIMO-D IVERSITY can be used together with the MAX325. etc.5 MHz. the low voltage to connect to the respective LEDs. standing at the transmitting PC and one standing at the To ensure accurate data from the experiment.

e. For the MIMO scheme.115200.’none’. 7. i. For the diversity scheme.’%s’. while the second functions as a comparator as well as %For diversity. MIMO-diversity COM port-switching technique: a 2-by-2 configura- tion.1. 6. the low power op-amp LF357. CA3140E is a BiMOS operational amplifier %transmitters at the same time. A. ’none’) standard packet. Alternatively. We set up the experimental circuit (Fig. Fig.’BaudRate’.’1’). 7) based on a simpler 2-by-2 matrix.5 MHz. buffer. Text were sent through the serial port by a MATLAB script on the respective transmitting PCs. we wanted to test both transmission schemes regarding their speeds to send M characters. between RS232 and TTL. Photo of the serial transceiver. The receiving PC used Microsoft’s HyperTerminal (ZModem protocol) to receive text. MATLAB codes for serial port transmission. set(serialport. transceiver has to be modulation free. The receiving script of the receiving terminal is shown in Fig. Clock signals are sequenced with data signals in the D flip- flop. performance up to 4.’DataBits’.00 ©2013 IEEE 000579 . without altering the PC’s EIA232 ’Parity’. x is iterated 20 times by each PC. Fig. The transfer time is the time recorded at the receiver. All the terminals operated at the baud rate of 115200 bps. Test Setup and Experiment Three people are needed during the experiment: one stand- ing at each transmitting PC and one standing at the receiving PC. The remaining PC (connected to a receiver circuit) was used only for receiving. 9. The MAX232CPE IC is used to convert signal levels Fig. using only a pair of white LEDs and a pair of PIN photodiodes. 978-1-4799-3755-4/13/$31. Blocking and misalignment cause the pair of transmitting PCs to switch to diversity COM ports simultaneously.8.’FlowControl’. %so that both PCs transmit 40 ’1’s together.’StopBits’. 8. Three PCs were used: two PCs (each connected to a transmitter circuit) were used for sending streams of text data through their corresponding LEDs. you may also use toc fclose(serialport). for x = 1:20 with MOSFET input and bipolar output. M number of characters were simultaneously sent out through both emitters. fopen(serialport). and receive data as they are. end. It has a good speed fprintf(serialport. Fig. Schematic diagram of the transceiver. 8 contains the codes for transmitting a Fig. The clock oscillator is only used delete(serialport) clear serialport to provide continuous light when there is no data transmission. All will start the transmitting and receiving process at the same time by pressing the RUN button together. we broke the string into two parts and used PC1 and PC2 to send M/2 number of characters each. stream of ‘1’s through the serial port of the transmitting terminal. The circuit consists of two operational am. The first functions as a preamplifer and %For MIMO. tic plifiers CA3140E. First. That means we send serialport = serial(’COM3’). 5. x is iterated 40 times so that %40 ’1’s are sent to the a low-pass filter.

the results are added by 150ns.. according to the covered an issue that has to do with the distance between the Microchip datasheet. toc taken after the last character was received.34s (Column clear serialport 4). by blocking and misalignment.34s while circuit switching was immediate. It detects voltages at the output of each op-amp and calculates the estimated transmitted power Test . we dis- be about 170ns. 9. For received optical power from all the photodiodes were weak. 20ns is negligible. (2) the MIMO-diversity negotiation program will decide between blocked receivers (by shadows or objects).. the switching the microcontroller did not activate the switch to change to speed of the MIMO and diversity COM ports is the same.115200. which is direct parallel %transmission through all the LEDs using a 74HC164. In the MIMO. In (Method 2) took a longer time to switch between MIMO and principle. OF CHARACTERS %Port 1 is diversity scheme.ZmodemTransmit(buffer.ZModem zm1 = new ZModem.0799s 0. In Column 5.3999s 0.1211s 120 0. A PIC microcontroller 18F4550 was connected to a third COM τN = τN/2 + τswitch + τN/2 (4) port.serialport = serial(’COM3’).ZModem zm2 = new ZModem. length). i.0809s 0.. the concentrated for pure MIMO transmission (Column 2) improve by twice intensity will render the photodiode unfunctionable. ZModem. a 4x4 configuration should be twice as fast as the diversity than hardware circuit switching (Method 1).4609s 0.1609s 0. delete(serialport) time for port switching. which pure diversity (Column 3) transfers. The calculated The reader should note that it is only during these circum- values are then sent back to the two transmitting PCs. C# codes for MIMO-diversity port switching. switching tests are similar to the hardware switching experi. scheme.5834s 0.ZModem(port2).1835s Fig. Finger blocking revealed that port switching needed about 0. switching time is usually negligible in low-speed systems. length). There can be several means the MIMO circuit takes a shorter time to switch to reasons: (a) the limits of the RS232 protocol.8.2429s 0.’DataBits’.e.. Since the LED 1 cm out of LOS with the corresponding photodiode. TABLE I .. (b) the spacing the diversity scheme.00 ©2013 IEEE 000580 . However. data transfer resumes. which is the time taken for the hardware circuit to switch. end. 2x2 version for MIMO transfers. 10).’StopBits’. Although hardware switching is faster. If VI. where stances where switching will occur: (1) damaged LEDs. both the shadowing and alignment experiments. (4): Next. If we include the fclose(serialport). set(serialport.ZModem(port1).. The MIMO-diversity problems (symmetry) between the LEDs and photodetectors. photodiode and the concentrator. a finger was used to block the lightpath of one of intentionally misaligned the line of sight by shifting all the the LEDs. a misalignment test was done by shifting an LEDs 1 cm out of symmetry with the photodiodes. the results are added by 0. The MIMO microcontroller program. (Data goes through of Char.2435s V. which will ensure that there will be channel resumed when the finger was removed. A NALYSES The port switching prototype is a 2x2 configuration. The total time taken to transmit and receive N characters is calculated by Eqn. If we place the photodiode Measured results in Table I indicate that the baud rates at the focal point of the concentrator lens. environments. Timing was out=fscanf(serialport). Number MIMO Diversity Port Circuit else %Port 2 is MIMO scheme. zm1.) ZModem.. O PTICS : F OCUSING G AP we include the response time of the microcontroller. diversity mode.3238s 0.’FlowControl’. it would During our experiments for text and file transfer. after which MIMO was made to switch to diversity ’none’) fopen(serialport).1238s 0. Next.5234s 0. In both the hardware and software switching methods. characters were sent using the diversity scheme. 10... 160 0. we sent N/2 characters using the MIMO away from the photodiode. MIMO scheme. both prototypes Hardware switching is done by the SPST switch MAX325. This led us to add a NOR function to the 0. If we shift the concentrator slightly further diversity technique. 40 0. but the 978-1-4799-3755-4/13/$31. if (detectedPD<ThresholdVolt) T IME TAKEN TO SENDN NO . ’Parity’. However.ZmodemTransmit(buffer. No data that of pure diversity scheme (Column 3).. give almost identical values for pure MIMO (Column 2) and This IC has a switching time of roughly 150ns. Thereafter.34s on the average (three readings were taken). First.’none’. Switching Switching %a 4-phase generating circuit using a 74HC109 and a 74HC139 before %going out through their respective LEDs.0399s 0. we ments. and (3) positional MIMO and diversity schemes (Fig. This fast Fig.1. and brightness of the LEDs. we tested the MIMO-diversity channel switching.’BaudRate’. whereas We discovered that software-controlled COM port switching the circuit switching prototype is a 4x4 configuration. the remaining N/2 tic %out is the received signal. 80 0. will be transmitted. .0601s zm2. A HIGH state a switch from MIMO to diversity when all the signals received at the photodiode triggers the microcontroller to turn on the are low. and (c) the sequencing of the software switching is easier to customize based on changing channel caused by the nature of the circuit. MATLAB codes for serial port reception.1629s 0.

3V to calculate Pgap . dividing it by the responsivity 0. it was noticed white LED. viewing angle that the photodiode should not be placed directly at the focal 15◦ .7 VII. we propose Png’s focusing gap. It is necessary to find a way to determine the range of the optimum focusing gap. TABLE II F OCUSING G AP OF C ONCENTRATORS (C ALCULATED∗ AND M EASURED† ) ∗ † Magnification Focal Pgap (cm) Pgap (cm) Fig. Factor Length (cm) × 4. one-pound shops. filtering. 12). as the light would be too intense to deliver any signal.55 parameters can be found in the datasheet for the PIN photodi- A/W and a typical VF of 1. The LED used for the signal emitter is a normal 5mm cool. where f is the focal length of the lens. we need to make use of the popular lensmaker’s equation: [ ] 1 1 1 (n − 1)d = (n − 1) − + (5) f R1 R2 nR1 R2 Fig. The range of the gap was recorded when the received letter appeared correctly for three consec- utive lines (Table II).78 mm2 .95 area of 0. Received Power Measurement in Fig. 11 illustrates the focusing gap. The diagram in Fig. R2 is the radius of the curvature of the lens surface farthest from the light source. point. λ0.3 1. We experimented with 4 different types of concentrators at We recommend a small offset of about 2mm. Since the LED used has a viewing angle of 978-1-4799-3755-4/13/$31.0 receiver.55.4 The circuit is shown in Fig. A. datasheets. measuring the current at the photodiode output and then A DC voltage of 5V was supplied to each transceiver.6445 1.3V) at IF =50 mA. we used a Vishay BPV10 photodiode. is 1.55 and VF =1.00 ©2013 IEEE 000581 . With the focal length obtained in (5). Test setup for SISO communication. These are basically magnifying lenses note is that the glass/plastic covering the photodiode may also old folks use for reading and can be purchased cheaply at any have some magnifying. 13. and an angle of half sensitivity We used sr =0. 12. which is expressed as Pgap = f × sr × VF (6) where sr is the absolute spectral responsivity [A/W] and VF is the maximum recommended forward voltage for the photodiode. and refractive characteristics. The two parameters are usually specified in most Fig. Its luminous intensity is 32900 mcd.2880 2. At the front end of the × 10 2.0V (max. Diagram illustrating the focal length f and the focusing gap Pgap . n is the refractive index of the lens material. Both 20◦ . The variety of concentrators tested in our experiment. 11. The BP V 10 has an absolute spectral sensitivity of 0. (6). d is the thickness of the lens. T EST S ETUP AND E XPERIMENT ×6 3. suggesting the viability of Eqn.1 =380 to 1100 nm.5 2.2 2. bandwidth 250 MHz at VR =12V. In addition.6 1.shift distance cannot exceed a certain length.2V.8580 0. 13. The calculated and measured data are very close.2 0.8590 2. 6. The setup of our experiment is illustrated in the diagram B. IF =20 mA. ode BPV10. Mi. 12). Ira =70 mA. The transmitter lightstand crosoft XP’s HyperTerminal was used for text and file transfer. It has an active × 15 1. The transmitters were cross-connected with the The received power of the photodiode was obtained by transceivers. and VF =3. Another thing to the receiver (Fig. Range of the Focusing Gap We varied the Pgap as we keyed in the letter ‘a’ for each concentrator (Fig. To calculate the focusing length between the concentrator and the photodiode. 1. R1 is the radius of curvature of the lens surface closest to the light source.48m tall. This raised our curiosity to investigate the focusing gap. and each transceiver was connected to a desktop.

but not exceeding it. without taking ambient light into account. g(ψ) is the concentrator gain. we are able to compare the experimental and simulated communication channel model: that is. Nakagawa. D. 97-99. and (d) the rim of the cone. Pgap is the longest distance the equalization system for visible light wireless communication utilizing receiver (or the concentrator) can move without encountering multiple white LED lighting equipment”. where y is the distance MIMO system with an imaging receiver”. Jun 2009. Dissertation. Barry. ϕ is the angle of irradiance. S. The readings in Table III were recorded only by the distance d between the transmitter and receiver. Dambul. Jung. Wireless Infrared Communications. ‘gain is inversely proportional to d’ will no longer Photodiode Luminous Current∗ Current † be true. vol. KG. (c) 2/3 of the cone radius. vol. IEEE Trans. Komine. Y. the scheme to use by comparing the estimated transmitted signal power with the ideal threshold power.15◦ (which means its half angle ϕ=7. on Wireless Com- munications. Position Intensity IX. [2] L. A. active area.95 communication systems by the use of self-deciding channel- switching techniques. Haruyama. T. the cone radius on { n2 the surface of the table was calculated and measured to be sin2 Ψc 0 ≤ ψ ≤ Ψc g(ψ) = (9) approximately 20 cm.9 24. IEEE Photonics Technology moved by the LED (emitter). 2005. D. Lee.6 4. W. 1994. “Visible Light Wireless Communications and its Fundamental Study”. pp. and E. Datacomm Research Company. This is a straightforward and faster circuit. Assuming that d is the distance from the emitter to [6] T.9 9.9 solving alignment and shadowing problems in visible-light 2/3 of Cone Radius 14. Boston. “Indoor optical wireless (d − y)/d is Png’s focusing ratio. TABLE III The focal length and focal range of the concentrator. C ONCLUSION Center of Cone 21. are somehow for- C ONCENTRATOR ∗ AND W ITHOUT C ONCENTRATOR † gotten in the full picture. H.0). The estimated VIII.D. Ψc is multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white- the receiver’s half field of vision. no. “High data rate multiple input ally the value is 1. “Demonstration of high-speed transmitter’s semi-angle at half power. Minh. The concentrator gain g(ψ) [8] J. O’Brien. H. the channel DC gain [6] for visible-light will be even more efficient as it can be further customized communication can be expressed as to control the modulation techniques in LED clusters for   (m+1)A cosm (ϕ)Ts (ψ)g(ψ) cos(ψ) 0 ≤ ψ ≤ Ψc ill-conditioned light matrix. In the future. E.23 1. and D. The received power Co. Won. Zeng. pp. errors. Interpolation where n is the refractive index of the lens. D. Lee. function matrix. K. strength. IEEE Journal in Selected Areas in Communications. (8) may be used to deter. L. If the receiver must remain stationary. B. 9. no. A is the photodiode’s data transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible light communications”. C. Letters. Eqn. We took current and intensity readings 0 ψ > Ψc at (a) the center of the cone. 23. Komine. gain increases.88 0. [4] K. no. This is important because VLC mobile devices If the implementation also requires the light source to be require consumers to have knowledge of the optimal focusing moved y distance. When d decreases. R. By doing In short. 2892-2900. 1052-1056. 8. Tran.00 ©2013 IEEE 000582 . “Adaptive the surface of the photodiode. there is a problem with the current white-LED so. and G. is computed by [8] 978-1-4799-3755-4/13/$31.Pt . O’Brien. Ph.83 0. It assumes that the concen- trator always gives an ideal focal point at the photoreceiver. J. as  R EFERENCES  (m+1)A cosm (ϕ)Ts (ψ)g(ψ) cos(ψ) d−y 0 ≤ ψ ≤ Ψc H(0) = 2π(d±Pgap )2 d (8)  0 ψ > Ψc [1] “Research Alert: MIMO Technology”. 2010. T. pp. LED lighting”. (b) 1/3 of the cone radius. the concentrator [7] “Introduction to MIMO: Application Note”. [3] A. gain H(0) is influenced versions of the cone. C. Faulkner. ψ is the angle of incidence. The channel gain equation has H(0) = 2π(d±Pgap )2 (7)  0 ψ > Ψc also been improved by considering the focusing gap of the concentrator. 15 Jan 2011. Ts (ψ) is the signal transmission coefficient of the filter (usu. Azhar. The receiver decides channel gain H(0) is about 10. D. Kluwer Academic Press. Faulkner. 2005. W.46 circuit that switches between MIMO and diversity. smart MIMO systems like these trator to be moved. If we take these optical issues into account. H. M ODIFICATION OF THE C HANNEL G AIN E QUATION transmitted power is computed by the receiver by multiplying the received power with the inverse of an existing transfer If implementation of the transceiver requires the concen. Eqn. together L UMINOUS I NTENSITY ( CD ) AND C URRENT R EADINGS (µA) W ITH with its relationship with the photodiode. vol. 6. Pr is obtained by Pr = H(0). was done to find the power along the cone slope. MA. 1654-1662. The second method is a more The third and fourth columns in Table III indicate that the tightly-controlled but slower technique. C. O’Brien.5◦ ). Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & can move ±Pgap . and d is the distance between the transmitter and IEEE Globecom 2010 . 2.1st Workshop on Optical Wireless Communica- the receiver. m is the order related to the 27. J. The first method is an auto-switching 3/3 of cone Radius 6. pp.38 The authors have proposed two practical techniques for 1/3 of Cone Radius 20. G. mine the minimum channel gain to ensure good optical signal [5] T. the channel DC gain [6] can be expressed distance to perform an efficient information or file transfer.9 16.33 2. Oh. Dec 2009. tions (OWC’10). and M. (8) is therefore a more accurate formula.