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Designation: C29/C29M − 16 American Association of State

Highway and Transportation Officials Standard
AASHTO No.: T19/T19M

Standard Test Method for
Bulk Density (“Unit Weight”) and Voids in Aggregate1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation C29/C29M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.

1. Scope* C127 Test Method for Relative Density (Specific Gravity)
1.1 This test method covers the determination of bulk and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
density (“unit weight”) of aggregate in a compacted or loose C128 Test Method for Relative Density (Specific Gravity)
condition, and calculated voids between particles in fine, and Absorption of Fine Aggregate
coarse, or mixed aggregates based on the same determination. C138/C138M Test Method for Density (Unit Weight), Yield,
This test method is applicable to aggregates not exceeding 125 and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete
mm [5 in.] in nominal maximum size. C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements
for Test Methods for Construction Materials
NOTE 1—Unit weight is the traditional terminology used to describe the C702 Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing
property determined by this test method, which is weight per unit volume
(more correctly, mass per unit volume or density).
D75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates
1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
are to be regarded separately as standard, as appropriate for a E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test
specification with which this test method is used. An exception Sieves
is with regard to sieve sizes and nominal size of aggregate, in 2.2 AASHTO Standard:
which the SI values are the standard as stated in Specification T19/T19M Method of Test for Unit Weight and Voids in
E11. Within the text, inch-pound units are shown in brackets. Aggregate3
The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents;
therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. 3. Terminology
Combining values from the two systems may result in non- 3.1 Definitions—The terms used in this test method are
conformance with the standard. defined in Terminology C125.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the 3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the 3.2.1 voids, n—in unit volume of aggregate, the space
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- between particles in an aggregate mass not occupied by solid
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- mineral matter.
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. Discussion—Voids within particles, either perme-
able or impermeable, are not included in voids as determined
2. Referenced Documents by this test method.
2.1 ASTM Standards:2
C125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Ag- 4. Significance and Use
gregates 4.1 This test method is often used to determine bulk density
values that are necessary for use for many methods of selecting
proportions for concrete mixtures.
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on 4.2 The bulk density also may be used for determining
Concrete and Concrete Aggregatesand is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
mass/volume relationships for conversions in purchase agree-
C09.20 on Normal Weight Aggregates.
Current edition approved Feb. 1, 2016. Published March 2016. Originally ments. However, the relationship between degree of compac-
approved in 1920. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as C29/C29M – 09. DOI: tion of aggregates in a hauling unit or stockpile and that
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at For Annual Book of ASTM Available from American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on Officials (AASHTO), 444 N. Capitol St., NW, Suite 249, Washington, DC 20001,
the ASTM website.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard
Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States


1 Measures shall be recalibrated at least once a year or formed which protects the metal against further corrosion.4 ft3 to 1. 0.0028[2.0093 [9.070 [70] 21⁄2 8.] in diameter and approximately 600 mm [24 in. 0.0 mm 2.5 °C [1 °F] and determine its density from Table 3.5° (See Note 2).1. rounded to a hemispheri- cal tip.5 mm voids between the aggregate particles based on the bulk density 11 to 42 L.0 ft3.40 in.20 in. while this test Capacity of Measure Upper 38 mm method determines the bulk density on a dry basis.1 lb].] and shall be 6. 0.5 Determine the mass of the water. with the top and the measure to be calibrated.0 mm Less than 0.3] ⁄ 13 bubbles and excess water.3 Place a thin layer of grease on the rim of the measure to Nominal Maximum prevent leakage of water from the measure.10 in. 0.1 % of over 2. over 1. incl 13. for filling the measure with aggregate.].20 in.5 11⁄2 0.01-in. the measure shall be made of steel or other 110 6 5 °C [230 6 9 °F].] in length.25 in.15 in. having the tamping end. incl 10. measure shall be as described in Table 2. shall be made of steel for rigidity.1 Obtain the sample in accordance with Practice D75. incl 5.0 mm 7.10 in. and reduce to test sample size in accordance with Practice C702. The range of use shall be considered a reinforcing band around the top of the measure.05 kg [0.4 mm 3.4 Shovel or Scoop—A shovel or scoop of convenient size in. Remainder of wall of wallA 4.4 Balance—A balance as described in 5. interpolating if necessary.5 ⁄ 12 0.50 in. such as aluminum alloys are permitted.100 [100] 31⁄2 measure to the nearest 0. Test Sample [1⁄4-in. 5. 6.5 to 2. 8.] larger than the diameter of vided with handles. incl 0. The thickness of metal in the 5.3 A procedure is included for computing the percentage of Less than 11 L 5. mately equal to the diameter.014 [14] 1⁄ 2 overflowed onto the measure or plate glass.1 lb]. chassis. Calibration of Measure where as a consequence of an initial reaction. the test load at any point within the range of use. C29/C29M − 16 achieved in this test method is unknown. Further.5 °C [1 °F].2 Measures larger than nominal 28 L [1 ft3] capacity calibration. or similar under rough usage.2 Grease—A supply of water-pump.25-mm [0.1 Balance—A balance or scale accurate within 0. and 125 5 0. The actual volume of the measure shall be at least 95 % of the nominal volume listed. the diameter of which is 16 mm [5⁄8 in. 0. Apparatus 0.3 Measure—A cylindrical metal measure. TABLE 1 Capacity of Measures 8.6 mm 5. Reactive materials. graduated to A The added thickness in the upper portion of the wall may be obtained by placing at least 0. straight steel rod. 0. suitable metal not readily subject to attack by cement paste. NOTE 2—The top rim is satisfactorily plane if a 0.0 mm 6. min surface moisture (the latter affecting bulking). plate glass. Sampling parallel to the bottom within 0.5 mm 2. Remove any water that may have 37.1 lb]. Bottom or 11⁄2 in.] or thicker plate glass laid over the measure. The top and bottom are satisfactorily parallel if the slope between pieces of plate glass in 7.0 1 0. nearest 0.05 kg [0. 0.5 Calibration Equipment: 5.2 Tamping Rod—A round. The top rim shall be smooth and plane within 0.5. 2 . 75 3 0.0 mm 3.8 mm determined by this test method.1 If the measure is to also be used for testing for bulk handled in a manner to avoid segregation. 200 % of the quantity required to fill the measure.1 Plate Glass—A piece of plate glass.3. or both ends. 0. incl 0.] feeler gage cannot be inserted between the rim and a piece of 6-mm 7. 5. A The indicated size of measure shall be used to test aggregates of a nominal 8. or the minimum thicknesses 8. 16 mm [5⁄8 5.4 Fill the measure with water that is at room temperature mm in. to extend from the mass of the measure empty to the mass of the measure plus its contents at 1920 kg/m3 [120 lb ⁄ft3].87 % in any direction. at least 6 mm [1⁄4 5. 5. m3 [L] ft3 and cover with the plate glass in such a way as to eliminate 12.6 Measure the temperature of the water to the nearest maximum size equal to or smaller than that listed.2 Determine the mass of the plate glass and measure the of metal listed in Table 2 shall be suitably increased.05 kg [0. and shall be 5. for the aggregate size to be tested.3 Thermometer—A thermometer having a range of at less than 80 % nor more than 150 % of the diameter. and sufficiently rigid to retain its form 5. over 80 to 133 L.20 in. but in no case shall the height be 5.8 ft3. 5. preferably pro- in.01 in.8 to 4. preferably in an oven at C138/C138M.3.028 [28] 1 100 4 0.5 ft3.5.0 mm 5. The least 10 to 32 °C [50 to 90 °F] and that is readable to at least capacity of the measure shall conform to the limits in Table 1 0.12 in. aggregates in TABLE 2 Requirements for Measures hauling units and stockpiles usually contain absorbed and Thickness of Metal.1 The size of the sample shall be approximately 125 to contact with the top and bottom does not exceed 0. Dry the aggregate density of freshly-mixed concrete according to Test Method sample to essentially constant mass. 0.5. Capacity of MeasureA Size of Aggregate 8. It shall be watertight. The measure shall have a height approxi- grease. incl 0.30 in. a surface film is 8.5.20 in. whenever there is reason to question the accuracy of the 5.4 ft3 0.25 mm [0. The interior wall of the measure shall be a smooth and continuous surface.] thick and at least 25 mm [1 in. bottom true and even.8] ⁄ 1 10 25.0 mm over 42 to 80 L.

segregation of the particle sizes of which the sample is composed.5 mm 12. Level the 15. or the factor as 1/m3. or Finally.4 997. but not more force than to 13. discharging the aggregate from a height not to exceed in SI units should be expressed in cubic metres. and not exceeding 125 mm [5 in. will arrange themselves in a densely compacted Temperature 3 3 condition. and where: allowing the measure to drop in such a manner as to hit with a sharp.59 62.54 62.32 62. Rodding Procedure 13. and record the values to the having a nominal maximum size greater than 37.5 mm [11⁄2 in. Otherwise.3 Determine the mass of the measure plus its contents.01 62.83 62.1 lb].].2 Determine the mass of the measure plus its contents. kg/m3 [lb ⁄ft3]. by this M = bulk density of the aggregate.301 23. Rod the layer of aggregate with 25 strokes of M 5 ~ G 2 T ! /V (1) the tamping rod evenly distributed over the surface.2 Void Content—Calculate the void content in the aggre- 11. 13. m−3 [ft−3].1. do not allow the rod to strike F = factor for measure. slapping blow. MSSD = bulk density in SSD condition. approximately balance the larger voids in the surface below the G = mass of the aggregate plus the measure.3 65 998. as follows: measure on a firm base.05 kg [0. top of the measure.] above the top of the measure. 26. or shoveling procedure as follows: with the fingers. especially with angular aggregates. The aggregate particles. Alternatively. Selection of Procedure aggregate with the fingers or a straightedge in such a way that 9.1 Bulk Density—Calculate the bulk density for the 10. 12.261 surface below the top of the measure. [11⁄2 in. or shoveling procedure.] or less.54 62.] nearest 0.216 29. for the measure. In rodding the second and third layers. it may not be SSD bulk density using the following formula: possible to penetrate the layer being consolidated. described in 10. compacting each layer by placing the jigging. use the exact procedure in this test method. and and the mass of the measure alone.274 coarse aggregate approximately balance the larger voids in the 23. C29/C29M − 16 TABLE 3 Density of Water procedure. Compact each layer by dropping the measure 50 kg/m lb/ft °C °F times in the manner described. prevent. Level the surface of the 9. the compact aggregate approximately balance the larger voids in the surface bulk density shall be determined by the rodding procedure for below the top of the measure. determined in accordance with Test nearest 0.7 Calculate the volume.1 Fill the measure one-third full and level the surface rodding. Fill the measure two-thirds full and again level and rod as above.1 Fill the measure to overflowing by means of a shovel NOTE 3—For the calculation of bulk density. 11. and the mass of the measure alone. kg [lb]. T = mass of the measure. jigging.166 11. where: 10. aggregates having a nominal maximum size of 37. % Voids 5 100@ ~ S 3 W ! 2 M # / ~ S 3 W ! (4) raising the opposite sides alternately about 50 mm [2 in.1 The bulk density determined by this test method is cause the tamping rod to penetrate to the previous layer of for aggregate in an oven-dry condition. and 10. terms of saturated-surface-dry (SSD) condition is desired.1 The shoveling procedure for loose bulk density shall be any slight projections of the larger pieces of the coarse used only when specifically stipulated. and record the values to the A = % absorption.7 80 996. Exercise care to However. the volume of the measure or scoop. 50 mm [2 in. and then calculate the NOTE 4—In rodding the larger sizes of coarse aggregate.1 lb]. The intent of the procedure will be accomplished if vigorous Mssd 5 M @ 11 ~ A/100! # (3) effort is used. m3 [ft3 ]. use vigorous effort.2 Determine the mass of the measure plus its contents. kg [lb]. 8. Shoveling Procedure calculate the factor.4 85 995. Jigging Procedure 13.336 such a way that any slight projections of the larger pieces of the 21.6 60 999. so far as possible. Calculation 10.1 lb]. for convenience the size of the measure may be expressed in litres. Method C127 or Test Method C128.1 Fill the measure in three approximately equal layers as gate using the bulk density determined by either the rodding. and record the values to the nearest 0. of the measure. 3 . Level the surface of the aggre- gate with the fingers or a straightedge in such a way that any where: slight projections of the larger pieces of the coarse aggregate M = bulk density of the aggregate. fill the measure to overflowing and rod again in the M 5 ~G 2 T! 3 F (2) manner previously mentioned.0 73.05 kg [0.366 surface of the aggregate with the fingers or a straightedge in 18.1 70 997. such as a cement-concrete floor. kg/m3 [lb/ft3]. V. 25 times on each side. kg/m3 [lb ⁄ft3]. or by the jigging procedure for aggregates and the mass of the measure alone.].05 kg [0.9 75 997. F.2 In rodding the first layer. the bottom of the measure forcibly. If the bulk density in aggregate.97 62.1. V = volume of the measure. 12.

or (1s). kg [lb] D = density of the water for the measured temperature.3 Volume of Measure—Calculate the volume of a mea- two different laboratories on similar material should not differ sure as follows: by more than 85 kg/m3 [5. using a 2. The precision estimates were obtained from the analysis of AMRL profi- where: ciency sample data for bulk density by rodding of normal V = volume of the measure. Therefore. standard deviation has been found to be 30 kg/m3 [1.3 Fine Aggregate (bulk density): kg/m3 [lb/ft3]. results of two properly conducted tests by the fine aggregate.3 of this test method and in Test with testing conducted using this test method and AASHTO Methods C127 and C128. and 15. and 15. and using a 14-L [1⁄2-ft3] measure.2.1 Report the results for the bulk density to the nearest 10 15. 15.2 Bulk density by jigging. kg [lb] of 25.2 Coarse Aggregate (bulk density): 15. and measure. The precision 14.1 The following estimates of precision for this test bulk density and bulk specific gravity. or estimates were obtained from the analysis of AMRL profi- 14. C29/C29M − 16 S = bulk specific gravity (dry basis) as determined in same operator on similar material should not differ by more accordance with Test Method C127 or Test Method than 40 kg/m3 [2. The data are based on the bulk density and void content has no bias because the values analyses of more than 100 paired test results from 40 to 100 for bulk density and void content can be defined only in terms laboratories. Precision and Bias However.2 and 15. by more than 125 kg/m3 [7. 998 kg/m3 [62. plate glass.3.3 These numbers represent.8 lb ⁄ft3] (d2s). density. eters given in 15.1 Single-Operator Precision—The single-operator F = factor for the measure. 14.2.1. results of two properly conducted tests from Multilaboratory Precision—The multilaboratory kg/m3 [1 lb/ft3] as follows: standard deviation has been found to be 44 kg/m3 [2.2. 15.1 Single-Operator Precision—The single-operator 16. as the void content in aggregate is calculated from 15.5 Bias—The procedure in this test method for measuring between the two test methods. the precision of the method are based on results from the AASHTO Materials voids content reflects the precision of these measured param- Reference Laboratory (AMRL) Proficiency Sample Program. bulk density. (1s). Therefore.3. C128.2 Voids in aggregate compacted by jigging. the (1s) and 1 % as follows: (d2s) limits as described in Practice C670.5 lb/ft3] (d2s).76 lb/ft3] 14.1 Bulk density by rodding.2. M = mass of the plate glass and measure.2 Report the results for the void content to the nearest 15. voids in aggregates 4 .2. There are no significant differences 15.1. coarse aggregate. respectively.3 Loose bulk density. results of two properly conducted tests by the 14. of a test method. Therefore.]. %. %. V 5 ~ W 2 M ! /D (5) 15. 14.1 aggregates. Report same operator on similar material should not differ by more than 40 kg/m3 [2.88 lb/ft3] 16. 1/m3 [1 ⁄ ft3] standard deviation has been found to be 14 kg/m3 [0.3 Voids in loose aggregate. Therefore.5 lb/ft3] (d2s). or two different laboratories on similar material should not differ 14.3. Keywords standard deviation has been found to be 14 kg/m3 [0.3 lb/ft3].4 No precision data on void content are available. unit weight.3 lb/ft3] (d2s). respectively. the (1s) and F 5 D/ ~ W 2 M ! (6) (d2s) limits as described in Practice C670.1 Voids in aggregate compacted by rodding.2 Multilaboratory Precision—The multilaboratory W = density of water.0 mm [1 in. Method T 19 ⁄T19M. %.88 lb/ft3] (1s).87 lb/ft3] (1s).8-L [1⁄10-ft3] measure. or ciency sample data for loose bulk density from laboratories 14. m3 [ft3] weight aggregates having a nominal maximum aggregate size W = mass of the water. 15.3 These numbers represent. results of two properly conducted tests from 14. 15.

222 Rosewood Drive. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. 1. Tel: (978) 646-2600. are entirely their own 5 .org (e-mail). PA 19428-2959.astm. MA 01923. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International. United States. 2016) (1) Revised Section 3. either reapproved or withdrawn. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards.copyright. 610-832-9555 (fax). Danvers. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone). and the risk of infringement of such rights. or service@astm. PO Box C700. (Approved Feb. West Conshohocken. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. which you may attend. C29/C29M − 16 SUMMARY OF CHANGES Committee C09 has identified the location of selected changes to this test method since the last issue. that may impact the use of this test method. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. or through the ASTM website (www. at the address shown below. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee. C29/C29M – 09. Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the Copyright Clearance Center. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised.