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Designation: C119 − 16

Standard Terminology Relating to
Dimension Stone1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation C119; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.


Dimension stone, as used here, is natural stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific sizes
or shapes, with or without one or more mechanically dressed or finished surfaces, for use as building
facing, curbing, paving stone, monuments and memorials, and various industrial products. The term
dimension stone is in contradistinction to crushed and broken stone, such as is used for aggregate,
roadstone, fill, or chemical raw materials. Because all stone is a natural material, the definition
excludes all manmade materials that simulate stone. In common practice, some dimension stones are
reinforced, filled, or surface treated.
Terms used in definitions and nomenclature shall be interpreted in accordance with commonly
accepted scientific and technical terms of the geological sciences except as otherwise specifically
Examples of such exceptions are the broader commercial definitions of granite and marble, which
have become well established in the dimension stone industry and trade. Definitions and terms
included in these definitions have been formulated in accordance with common industrial usage where
this is not in conflict with current scientific usage.

GENERAL TERMS building stone—natural rock of adequate quality to be quar-
anchor—in general, a metal shape inserted into a slot or hole ried and cut as dimension stone as it exists in nature, as used
in the stone that provides for the transfer of loads from the in the construction industry.
stone to the building structure, either directly or through an chip—an irregularly shaped fragment dislodged from a stone
intermediate structure. surface.
anchorage—the system consisting of stone, anchor and pri-
cladding—nonload-bearing stone used as the facing material
mary structure, secondary structure or back-up preventing
in wall construction that contains other materials.
lateral movement of the stone.
arris—the junction of two planes of the same stone forming an coping—dimension stone used as the top course of a masonry
external edge. wall, often sloped to shed water.
ashlar—(1) a squared block of building stone; (2) a masonry crack—a partial break in the stone (see fracture, microcrack,
of such stones; (3) a thin-dressed rectangle of stone for seam).
facing of walls (often called ashlar veneer).
cubic stock—in general, a thick dimension stone unit which is
bearing check—a slot, generally not continuous, cut into the not precisely defined in terms of thickness for every kind of
back or bed of dimension stone to accommodate a support- stone, particularly for limestone and sandstone. For marble
ing angle or clip (see Fig. 1.) or granite, cubic stock is a unit that is greater than 50 mm in
thickness. For limestone, cubic stock is a unit that is greater
This terminology is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C18 on than 75 mm to 100 mm in thickness, and for sandstone, a
Dimension Stone and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C18.91 on
Nomenclature and Definitions.
unit that is greater than 150 mm to 200 mm in thickness. (In
Current edition approved May 1, 2016. Published May 2016. Originally contrast, see thin stone.)
approved in 1926. Last previous edition approved in 2014 as C119 – 14ɛ1. DOI:
10.1520/C0119-16. cut stone—stone fabricated to specific dimensions.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States


typically used for paving. as used in splitting. any of the eye. outdoor versus indoor use). (2) the width of a cut when sawing through stone blocks or or chemical raw materials. (2) a direction in a rock body along which it is more easily broken. or face-finishing. hysteresis—the residual strain in stone after the stress causing FIG. into natural voids in a stone during fabrication. flooring—stone used as in interior pedestrian wearing surface. often the result of chemical alteration of the iron minerals. or cut. and cut as dimension stone as it exists in nature. stone. finished stone—dimension stone with one or more mechani- cally exposed surfaces. and the finish of the (see Fig.) are reinforced. finished stone. adj—describes stone that is cut parallel to the natural veining. flagstone—nominally flat pieces of stone generally furnished in irregular shapes with broken edges. processes involved in changing a raw stone piece to its final monumental stone—rock of adequate quality to be quarried end use form. microcrack—a crack too small to be seen with the unaided eye dry seam—a natural separation that has not been filled or (see crack. typically with a saw blade. or stone to other materials. for insertion of anchors. either local or continuous. crushed and broken stone. lamination—when applied to the processing of dimension dressed stone—See cut stone. fill. the use. See rift. the monument and memorial industry. seam). the predominant particle distribution is less than 4 mm in size. such as is used for aggregate. a rock fragment (in sedimentary rocks). a mineral crystal. 3a and 3b in C1242). bonded. kerf—(1) a slot. grain—(1) a distinguishable rock constituent which itself has a distinct identity. or clast. (See Fig. This includes. stone in question (for example. microcrack. or surface treated. an oolith. fissure—a naturally occurring separation which may or may not affect the performance of the stone. fleuri-cut (cross-cut). resistance to decay. 2 Kerfs 2 . for example. freestone—a stone having little or no preferential direction of splitting which may be cut freely in any direction without fracture or splitting. fading (slate)—a slate that has a significant color change within the first year of exposure to weather. granular—composed of particles visible to the unaided eye. installation—the process of assembling dimension stone into a structure. filled. drilling. FIG. some dimension stones jointing slabs. This time will vary purpose of providing a concealed horizontal bearing surface depending on the environment. cut into the edge of DISCUSSION—The term dimension stone is in contradistinction to a stone. liner—a small block of stone secured to the rear face of a Durability is based on the length of time that a stone can dimension stone panel with pins and adhesive for the maintain its innate characteristics in use. and appearance. microfissure—a fissure that cannot be seen with the unaided fabrication—when applied to dimension stone. In common practice. 2. dimension stone—natural stone that has been selected and fabricated to specific sizes or shapes. grinding. 1 Bearing Check such strain is changed. C119 − 16 fracture—a complete break in the stone (see crack. split. but is not limited to cutting. roadstone. fracture. often cements or synthetic resins. seam). refers to the adhesive bonding of multiple layers of durability—the measure of the ability of dimension stone to stone. endure and to maintain its essential and distinctive charac- teristics of strength. For sedimentary stone. filling—the application of materials.

and all other operations neces. 4 Rustication 3 . sample—a small part or quantity of stone. showing more or less clearly how the stone was stone. panel. polished finish—a surface that has high luster and strong reflection of incident light. including sawing. anchor locations and orientations. or ashlar. cracks or other surface irregularities in which an adhesive resin of epoxy. originally bedded. narrow bands of contrasting color or snip—the area of a stone surface from which a chip has been appearance differing in some degree in chemical composi. or acrylic base has slab—a piece of stone produced by shaving or splitting in the been applied to the slab face and allowed to cure prior to the first milling or quarrying operation. grinding. into dimension stone. polishing. and with or without color or grain-size changes or voids. 4). particularly in sedimen- stone. tion from the main body. walkways. polyester. of the dimen- sion stone and the relationship with the other building resination—a cosmetic enhancement to stone slabs containing materials being used. or other means into specific nonplanar configurations. pits—small depressions. dimensions. especially on a finished surface. dislodged. and the like. microcrack). driveways. which the rock is most easily split or broken. usually a slab. spalls—(1) fragments or chips from a piece of dimension (2) The grain orientation in stone. joint ity at the stone joint (see Fig. ribbon—in some slate. FIG. a highly prevent the anchor from interfering with movement capabil. which may or may not adversely affect the processing—the work involved in transforming quarry blocks strength of a stone (see crack. that is cut from a larger block of stone. consolidated aggregation of one assembly. seam—a naturally filled or bonded feature in the stone. fracture. detailed drawing that shows the net dimensions. grinding. sawing. pits. drilling. surfaces. rebated kerf—A kerf that includes a second cut at 90 degrees to the kerf axis to accommodate the anchor configuration and shop drawings—when applied to dimension stone. sound stone—stone which is free of cracks. paving—stone used in an interior pedestrian wearing surface rustication (or reveal)—a continuous groove cut within the as in patios. or other rift—(1) a consistent direction or trend in a rock body along physical defects. carving. 3). fissures. panel—cut stone with face dimensions large in relation to its thickness. sary for installation. 3 Rebated Kerf FIG. such as a streak or a vein. C119 − 16 open seams—unfilled fissures or naturally occurring cracks in tary stones. usually flooring) for the purpose of visually imitating or accentuating a joint location (see Fig. honing. (See face or along the edge of a dimension stone panel. voids or pinholes in stone. for placement in a building structure or frame rock—a naturally occurring. fissures. (2) waste stone usually of small size from the quarrying and milling of dimension limestone. or more minerals constituting the crust of the Earth. shaped stone—dimension stone processed by carving. A slab has two parallel polishing of the slab.

] of surface variation) insulation. and so forth. a detailed definition of a specific with loss of strength. protection. or sample to be used for physical or mechanical testing. commercial granite types. determined by size. thus “sticking”. DISCUSSION—Wear is an artificial process. cements.) thick. interlocking and porphyritic textures are characteristic of or combinations of other methods of finishing stone are con- granites and marbles. see dimension stone if selected or fabricated). abrasion and buffing. veneered—See veneer. see Note 2). This section de- nent grains or crystals. (see Note 2 under Granite Group). generally done with dowels. atmosphere. veneer—a nonload-bearing facing of stone attached to a LEAST TEXTURED FINISHES backing for the purpose of ornamentation. melted shellac. The family or individual title “finish” will be used uni- tile—a thin modular stone unit. clastic (naturally cemented fragmental tinually being developed. C119 − 16 specifying authority—party requiring testing of dimension walls. streaks or irregular bodies of a contrasting color or Surface Variation appearance. al- though the term “surface” would be more accurate when no unfading (slate)—a slate that shows no significant color work has been done on it and no improvements made change within the first year of exposure. this texture overlap or are variations of other finishes. Textures related to dimension stone scribes common finishes and classifies them into a number include equigranular (grains of approximately the same size). Thus we have the Least Textured Finishes (family) and the Polished (finish)—a veining—the presence in an otherwise homogeneous stone of highly-reflective surface. and slate (see values do not denote acceptable tolerances or minimum or ribbon). “Sur- vein-cut. Stone finish names sometimes grains but without mosaic or interlocking relations. (It does not refer to the application of paste wax to make the surface shinier. weathering—natural alteration by either chemical or mechani- DISCUSSION—This term does not include any manufactured stone-like cal processes due to the action of constituents of the products or manmade materials that simulate stone. The rate of wear may be stone—a naturally-consolidated substance formed from affected by chemical action. stone material. or to temperature change. and mutual relations of the compo. stone finish is established between the producer and designer through dialogue. rather they may enhance the texture and color of the stone. is typical of sandstones and some limestones). category of the stone (whether igneous. In practice. through friction or impact. The finishes in each fam- inequigranular (grains of markedly unequal sizes). postquarry (as in certain rough finishes. appearance or face of the stone. or both. or reference sample(s). physical properties of the stone type. usually associated nearly overlap. STONE FINISHES—BY FAMILY (2) that aspect of the physical appearance of a rock that is Every material used in construction has a finish or surface. The individual definitions are sometimes nonspecific or of certain stones due to thermal cycling. dimension stone has a plethora of finishes. mosaic (closely Finish options for any kind of stone vary by the geologic packed grains with smooth to moderately irregular. The pieces are “stuck” together. “Veining” does not following definitions are for indicative purposes only. maximum values of surface variation for any given finish. porphyritic ily are also arranged from the least relief to the most relief. and frequently having a different mineralogical The dimensions of variation in surface profile given in the composition to the predominant material. or (less than 1 mm [1⁄32 in. sons. This means that any pacted and the minerals are dominantly equidimensional and particular finish cannot be put on every type of stone (see present irregular mutual boundaries. or wear—the removal of material or impairment of surface finish epoxies. waxing—the practice of filling minor surface voids in stone specimen—an individual piece of stone that is cut from a with certain polyester compounds. 4 . shape. produced by mechanical weight and possibly the vertical dead load of veneer above. DISCUSSION—Veneer shall support no vertical load other than its own polished—a highly-reflective surface. bands. Untreated stone surfaces have textural characteristics described under (2). metamorphic. or locking mutual boundaries). minerals. cabinetmaker’s wax. surface water or ground water. formly throughout this section for ease of reference. adj—describes stone that is cut perpendicular to the face” will be used uniformly in the sense of the outward natural veining. thin stone/thin veneer—a cladding under 50 mm (2-in. The apply to gneiss. Guide C1528 for Selection of Dimension Stone for Exterior thermal hysteresis—the permanent. geologically synonymous with rock (see rock. interlocking (in which Stone finishes are a complex matter for a number of rea- grains with irregular boundaries interlock by mutual penetra. mosaic and granoblastic Applicability of Finishes for Various Stone Types Table in textures are characteristic of metamorphic rocks). of families by relief or roughness. noninter. granoblastic (a megascopically sedimentary) and the unique combination of geological or granular mosaic texture in which the grains are tightly com. from one or several mechanical surface treatments. incremental deformation Use). texture— DISCUSSION—Changes by weathering are not necessarily undesirable (1) a modified appearance of dimension stone resulting or harmful. New manufacturing or finishing methods or variations tion).) sticking—a method of repairing the butt edge of a broken piece of stone.

FIG. sometimes with sand or aggregate hydraulic stone splitters with straight or toothed blades or by stone. to 3⁄16 in. thus breaking or “pluck- ing” out small particles. sion. incidentally a high-pressure stream of water. have a thermal finish on the tread side. more massive appearance than split face. machine gauged—a process by which stone material is water jet—a roughly textured surface produced by exposure to removed (see Note 1) to a specified thickness. cave grooves 3-6 mm on center (or 4. or perpendicular to it. sometimes in combination with acid and/or wet/dry duced by splitting stone along its bedding plane. (3 mm [1⁄8 in.] of surface variation) ROUGH FINISHES acid-washed—a worn surface produced by applying acid. This finish provides a linear and/or curved grooves. and the remaining unexposed surfaces could be left with a sawn finish. produced by diamond saw bolder. depending on the stone type and the pressure and concentration of impacts.] or more in surface variation) antiqued—a worn surface produced by applying abrasive natural cleft—an irregularly textured low-relief surface. mer and carbide-tipped head having numerous points. hammer fitted with a carbide-tipped chisel of closely-spaced AGED FINISHES blades. 5. chat sawn—a surface with shallow linear grooves. or rift. among others. or gang). DISCUSSION—The resulting texture will vary. belt. 6. consisting of parallel con- pattern of random markings. stratification.] of surface variation) dressed by machine or by hand to produce a convex bold diamond sawn—a surface with a very low-relief pattern of projection along the face of the stone. pro- tools. stratification. produced by hand-applied abrasive pads or hand. This applies in particular to grooves produced by a wire saw. to 1⁄4 in. driving wedges into a stone without natural cleavage sur- faces. resulting in a finish. SAWN FINISHES rock face (or rock-pitched)—a split surface that has been (1 mm to 5 mm [1⁄32 in. C119 − 16 honed—a non-reflective to semi-reflective superfine satin-like bush-hammered—a uniformly textured surface with small surface with no surface pattern. NOTE 2—The above rough finishes and other less-common ones can wire sawn—a surface with a pattern of linear and/or curved have a different appearance when separated along the bedding. 5 Rock Face Diagram 5 . plucked—a machined surface with occasional pits. number of methods. and the nozzle speed and NOTE 1—The resulting coarsely ground surface can be produced by a position as it traverses the surface of the stone. produced DISCUSSION—A dimension stone finish selection and specification by gangsawing with coarse chat sand. produced by a hand or pneumatic held machines. depending on the stone type. A typical piece will be sawn to particular dimensions on six sides. smooth—a non-reflective surface with a barely-visible surface tooled—a linear patterned surface. or rift. blades (either circular. the pressure of the water jet stream. procedure will consider all surface finishes on a stone unit. depending on the grain structure of the stone.).] of surface variation) sandblasted—an irregular. or planer tool. thermal (or flamed)—a roughly textured surface produced by brief exposure to a high-temperature flame resulting in exfoliation of the stone surface. often specified for more than one side. DISCUSSION—The resulting texture will vary. For example. produced by mechanical evenly-spaced pits produced by a hand or pneumatic ham- abrasion. or 8 grooves per in. until the faces and edges become eroded. This process may change the natural color of the stone. a honed finish on the riser side. produced by mechanical abra. abrasive. produced by hand or pneumatic chisel. hand-rubbed—a non-reflective surface with a slight stipple consisting of short parallel concave grooves rotated 10 to 30 pattern. DISCUSSION—The resulting appearance will vary. TEXTURED FINISHES (1 mm to 6 mm [1⁄32 in. obtained by rough planing the stone surface. finishes sometimes called natural strata and bed face. A finish is shot sawn—a surface with random grooves and markings. 6/8 cut (or 6/8 point)—a herringbone patterned surface. degrees from each other. pitted surface produced by impact- ing sand particles at high velocity against a stone surface. The size and depths of the pits can range from nearly invisible to very pronounced. (less than 3 mm [1⁄8 in. tumbled—a worn surface produced by rotating stone objects split face—a slightly convex or concave surface. produced by (like tiles) in a drum. See Fig. a stair step may produced by gangsawing with chilled steel shot.

The new generation of interlocking crystalline texture but. if weakly foliated. or rarely aragonite. or other fossil debris. commonly as Alkali feldspar refers to a range of composition between KAlSi3O8 tiny fossils. blue pearl. interlocking texture. DISCUSSION—Black Granites—Dark-colored igneous rocks defined oolitic limestone—a limestone composed largely of the spheri- by geologists as basalt. etc. and 90 % An. coquina—a limestone composed predominantly of unaltered tially of silicate minerals with interlocking and visibly granular texture shells or shell fragments loosely cemented by calcite. They possess an fragments. quarried as building stone. then may be known as granite gneiss. that are distributed in or wholly of crystals that are so small as to be recognizable a distinctly finer-grained matrix. as much as several centimetres in maximum dimension. C119 − 16 GRANITE GROUP DISCUSSION—Iridescent Granite—A labradoritic granite character- ized by a play of colors.. or may be mutually intergrown on Special varieties of commercial limestone a megascopic to submicroscopic scale. Some dark granular igneous rocks. fossils or fossil some of the same purposes as commercial granite. The new crystals generally are larger than those of the hornblende. though commonly dark. Instead. diabase. having an essential composition of two feldspars (alkali feldspar plus DISCUSSION—Recrystallized limestone. of contrasting mineralogic composition. mafic. but not all calcarenites are oolitic 10 % of KAlSi3O8 in solid solution. are designated as ferromagnesian or be retained. The plagioclase of granite sensu stricto unless true oolites also are present. and emerald pearl. certain granites contain only one feldspar. 70. DISCUSSION—Gneiss—A foliated crystalline rock composed essen. is characterized by relatively thick layers as compared with a schist. and interstitial cement. According to their mineralogic compositions gneisses may correspond dolomite—a sedimentary carbonate rock (a variety of lime- to other crystalline rocks with visibly granular. monuments. Evidence of original textures may or may not content of iron and magnesium. feldspars may constitute about 35 to 100 % of total feldspars. In general. more rarely pyroxene. igneous play of colors is caused by the intergrowth of unmixed sodium and rock generally ranging in color from pink to light or dark calcium plagioclase into very fine lamellae. An exception is anorthosite which. Quartz may amount included in the category commercial marble and may be sold as either to 10 to 60 % of the felsic (light-colored) constituents. extends across boundaries between former crys- more common dark rock-forming minerals such as pyroxenes. DISCUSSION—Some calcarenites contain oolites (or ooliths). Feldspars may be present as individual grains. building facings. with 0 to 10 % of CaAl2Si2O8 (anorthite end member). because of their relatively high original rock. ranging from clearly visible to brilliant. See also marble (next section). and travertine that are capable of taking a polish are also quartz. Such rocks may be termed a nearly complete isomorphous series with the albite end member. and biotite. normally or some combination of these two minerals. 6 . by names such as black pearl. and gneissic granite. If it is capable of taking a polish. stone) that consists largely or entirely of the mineral dolo- such as those included under the definition of commercial granite. unlike granites. The chemical and mineralogical recrystallized limestone—a limestone in which a new pattern compositions of such rocks are quite different from those of true of crystallinity has pervasively replaced the crystal orienta- granites. and anorthosite are cal or subspherical particles called oolites or ooliths. Potassic small spherical or subspherical grains that are composed of concentric feldspar. talline rock with equigranular or inequigranular texture. a gneiss porosity. The shell fragments and small fossils of some calcarenites phous series known as plagioclase feldspars. forms layers of calcite and typically resemble roe. This is synonymous with the term dolostone as used in sedimentary distinction is subjective and not critical. compact microcrystalline sodic plagioclase or two alkali feldspars (see second paragraph)) and limestone. shell fragments. if DISCUSSION—The rock term dolomite. that is. as applied to dimension stone. typically of feldspar. commonly is oligoclase (An10−30). and speciality purposes and sold as black granite. while alkali limestone or marble. carbonate of calcium and magnesium (the mineral dolomite). these have been arbitrarily have concentric coatings of calcite that may cause them to resemble subdivided according to the ration of anorthite (An) to albite (Ab) at 10. black granites are composed crystals. The texture is LIMESTONE GROUP typically homogeneous but may be gneissic or porphyritic (Note 2). represents a continuous isomor- limestones. or both. regular or DISCUSSION—Coquina generally is very coarse-textured and has high irregular. and mite. consists mostly or entirely of calcic plagioclase. but black granites nevertheless may be satisfactorily used for tion in the original clastic particles. granite typically also contains varietal minerals. travertine—See travertine in OTHER GROUP.. albite-anorthite compositional range. gabbro. etc. The phenocrysts of porphyritic gran- ites generally are rectangular or partly rounded in outline. petrology. sand-size grains of calcite. DISCUSSION—Porphyritic Texture—A texture defined by relatively microcrystalline limestone—a limestone that consists largely large grains (phenocrysts). granodiorite gneiss. tals. crys. it is classified commercially as a marble. which may include as much as Oolitic limestones are calcarenites. oolites but the term oolitic is not appropriate for such calcarenites 30. and may be only under magnification. strongly foliated. Besides quartz and feldspars. they contain little or no quartz or alkali feldspar. are included in the definition (Note 3). diorite. less commonly albite (An0−10). (potassic feldspar end member) and NaAlSi3O8 (albite end member). in which the foliation is due primarily to alternating layers. or the double DISCUSSION—Granite (scientific definition)—A visibly granular. of calcium carbonate (the mineral calcite). though not limestone—a rock of sedimentary origin composed principally geologically granite. 50. encompassing both fragmental and matrix dominantly of intermediate to calcic plagioclase accompanied by one or materials. It is commonly referred to gray and consisting mostly of quartz and feldspars (Note 1). Such rocks. which in granites is typically orthoclase or microcline. accompanied by one or more dark minerals. The oolitic limestones if the oolites are present in substantial amounts. The granite (commercial definition)—a visibly granular. commonly micas or calcarenite—a limestone composed predominantly of clastic hornblende.

from 0. commonly feldspathic allows the latter to be split into thin but tough sheets. which may DISCUSSION—The term “onyx” to designate onyx marble is a misno. with iron oxides or clay sometimes conglomerate —a sedimentary rock consisting of rounded pebbles present. cemented or bonded to a greater or lesser degree by materials including brown. The term bluestone is applied a polish. range. 3 Designations I through III correspond to Specification D616. Most DISCUSSION—Varieties of sandstone are commonly designated by the marbles possess an interlocking texture and a range of grain kind of interstitial or bonding materials. hard. and green. The sandstone (commercial definition) (I)3—sedimentary rock term has been applied to stone quarried in the Jurassic-Triassic basins composed mostly of mineral and rock fragments within the in the northeastern United States (mainly Massachusetts. principally to stone with the above characteristics quarried in Stone in this category comprises a variety of composi. for Quartz-Based DISCUSSION—This detrital stone type is locally quarried but is Dimension Stone. countries.0 mm. silica and various carbonates with iron oxides or clay sometimes DISCUSSION—Onyx marble is formed by slow precipitation from present. or both). indurated rock which is over two-thirds clay-sized minerals. commercially unimportant. This term is also used in reference tional and textural types.08. II dolomite)2—carbonate rock that has (a sandstone with sufficient amounts of clay present to cause only acquired a distinctive crystalline texture by recrystallization. with a distinctive dark brown to red-brown color. 7 . cemented or bonded to a DISCUSSION—These detrital stone types are locally quarried but are greater or lesser degree by materials including silica and commerically unimportant: various carbonates. The micaceous minerals have a subparallel MPa (17 000 psi). singly or in combination. ing material largely silica). and which fractures around (not through) the constituent generally cold solutions of carbonated (carbon-dioxide saturated) grains. The more common commercial varieties of sandstone are limestone marble—compact. partial silica bonding of quartz grains. cryptocrystal. mercially as marble (for example. and having a and Pennsylvania). Siltstone may be sandstone containing at least 90 % free silica (quartz grains designated fine-grained sandstone. and having a minimum of 60 % free silica.06 to 2. for When put to slate-like uses these rocks must meet slate Marble Dimension Stone. SLATE GROUP quartzite (commercial definition) (III)3—highly indurated. argillaceous sandstone marble (I calcite. ranging from pure carbonate to to British dolerite and Australian basalt in their respective rocks containing very little carbonate that are classed com. line calcite with colors in pastel shades. as siliceous sandstone (bond- size from cryptocrystalline to 5 mm. The integrity of this stone is very sensitive to most commonly by heat and pressure during metamorphism.06 to 0. siltstone—a fine-grained. which has a compressive strength tween sandstone and shale. phosed sandstone containing at least 95 % free silica. ferruginous sandstone (a sandstone and is composed principally of the carbonate minerals calcite with prominent amounts of iron oxide minerals present. fracture around or through the constituent grains. Vol 04. medium-grained stone. chlorite.08. over 69 MPa (10 000 psi). minimum of 60 % free silica. but the geographic limitation is undesirable. calcareous sandstone (calcium carbonate as bonding material or as detrital grains. DISCUSSION—sandstone (scientific definition)—sedimentary rock composed mostly of mineral and rock fragments within the sand size onyx marble—translucent. sand size range.06 to 2. slate—microcrystalline metamorphic rock most commonly typically metamorphosed sandstone containing at least 95 % derived from shale and composed mostly of micas. cally imparting a red-brown or brown color to the stone [brownstone ]. mer. serpentine marble). which fractures conchoidally through the grains. and is texturally transitional be- plus siliceous cement). the eastern United States.0 mm. fine-grained. a semi-precious stone. orientation and thus impart strong cleavage to the rock which bluestone—a dense. (4. True onyx is a nearly pure crystalline silica (silicon dioxide) quartzite (scientific definition)highly indurated. see Note 3). moisture in exterior applications). dense limestone that will take a defined as follows: polish is classified as marble in trade practice. and which has a compressive strength over 28 MPa and cobbles in a sandstone matrix. typically strongly cemented. free silica. locally grading to conglomerate. Vol 04.005 mm. generally layered.000 psi). from 0. particularly yellow. specifications in Specification C629. C119 − 16 MARBLE GROUP color that may split readily along original bedding planes to All stone here defined as marble must be capable of taking form thin slabs (flagstone). sandstone of medium to dark greenish-gray or bluish-gray shale—a laminated. QUARTZ-BASED DIMENSION STONE GROUP Brownstone—a dense. Limestone marble may be sold as limestone or as marble. 2 Designations I through IV correspond to Table 1 in Specification C503. Shales progressively grade into slate. noncarbonated clastic rock composed mostly of detrital quartz and clay minerals in which the particles have quartzitic sandstone (commercial definition) (II) 3 — an approximate size range from 0. but still meet the criteria of sandstone definition. characteristi- and dolomite. spring water. Connecticut. quartzitic sandstone (scientific definition) –sandstone containing at least 90 % free silica (quartz grains plus siliceous cement). typically metamor- closely related to agate. which has a compressive strength of over 117 and quartz.

commonly veined with calcite. Pores and cavities commonly are concentrated minerals such as mica or (e-mail). MA 01923. ranging in color from travertine—a porous or cellularly layered partly crystalline medium green to yellowish green to almost black. They would most commonly be used as a DISCUSSION—The stone referred to here as serpentine is called contrast or accent in connection with other dimension stone. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. serpentinite in scientific usage to distinguish it from the mineral serpentine. and the risk of infringement of such rights. greenstone—a metamorphic rock of basic or ultrabasic composition. Schists split readily along in some of the layers. banded stalagmitic calcite is also called alabaster. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised. Danvers. A slippery feel. which you may dolomite. because of its refractory nature and resistance to acids. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards. of very fine grain size. http://www. C119 − 16 OTHER GROUP silicate). calcite rock of chemical 8 . 222 Rosewood Drive. such as fireplaces and laboratory counter tops. or other There are a number of stones that are infrequently used. often pleasingly blotched and stained. PO Box C700. 610-832-9555 (fax). Tel: (978) 646-2600. colors. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee. red. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone). DISCUSSION—Travertine is sometimes classified for commercial pur- poses as limestone because it is composed principally of calcium serpentine (commercial definition)—a rock consisting carbonate and is sometimes classified for commercial purposes as mostly or entirely of serpentine (hydrated magnesium marble if it is capable of taking a polish. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International. usually at the rock characterized by thin foliae of platy or prismatic bottom of shallow pools. are entirely their own responsibility. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. dimension stone. DISCUSSION—Travertine is formed by precipitation of calcite from schist—a foliated metamorphic quartz-feldspar-containing generally hot or warm solutions of carbonated water. or through the ASTM website (www. United States. West Conshohocken. commonly greenish but can be black. either reapproved or withdrawn. easily carved massive form of gypsum soapstone (steatite)—a talc-rich rock with a characteristic (calcium sulfate). Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the Copyright Clearance Center. at the address shown below. or service@astm. these planes of foliation. Soapstone is quarried for special purposes. or magne- Some semiprecious stones such as jade are cut and used as site (magnesium carbonate) or a combination.copyright. PA 19428-2959. some of them progressing into a gneiss. This rock exists in many graduations. Other stones include: alabaster—a soft. giving rise to an open texture.astm.