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**Straigh Run: Kerosene, Diesel
**

ADU

HT Cat.

Cracker

VDU

Coker

**Above is my simplified version of a refinery that illustrates the ‘bare-bones’ version
**

that I’m using for the trial calculations. There are formulas and equations for more

complex refinery set-ups, but this seemed the easiest to generalize. Specific cases

can be put through the more rigorous numbers if necessary.

**Outline of some simplifications/assumptions that are occurring in this assessment:
**

1. Gasoline blending is not taking into consideration. Because of this paraffins,

aromatics and naphthenes from the reforming process are not separated into

different percentages. Rather, they are all considered gasoline. Additionally,

RON is assumed to be 94 for all calculations (this is on the high side and will

give an estimate on the low side of gasoline output).

2. Numerous advanced processes are being ignored, most noteably, alkylation

and catalytic hydrocracking. The consequence of ignoring alkylation puts the

gasoline production estimate on the low side. Catalytic hydrocracking can

produce both gasoline and distillates (jet fuel, diesel). There are formulas to

determine the percentage of output, but requires additional linear logic to

decide what portion of the initial feed goes to the hydrocracker. This

information was not included in the initial set-up. It has the potential to be

considered later. The calculations are more complicated because the

hydrocracker has the capability of being set up to provide more gasoline,

diesel or jet fuel based on the needs of the refinery.

3. The calculations are done on broad specifications. Exact refinery production

calculations are considered as proprietary information.

with minimal purification in a hydrotreater. 5. Step 1: Initial Distillation: CDU output. 1. they can only be sent to the coker or produce what they will from the vacuum distillation unit (VDU). medium and heavy gas oils. This would cause a slight over-estimate in product. distillate. The lighter hydrocarbons in this fraction can be used in marine diesel. This calculation can be done on a case by case basis. 4. gasoline. Another important assumption is that the streams can only flow in a straight line. Calculations for CDU: TBP-true boiling point (correction for the simpler technique used to determine atmospheric distillation values in the lab): There are a couple methods of calculation TBP (°R)= {(2. as certain fractions of VDU can be sent to catalytic crackers and reformers as well. Further calculations will be performed on the coker.2ln(100/(100-LV%)))^2. Diesel comprises the majority. The residue heads to the coker. medium and heavy) along with vacuum residue. while 800+ heads to the vacuum distillation unit (VDU) is isolated via the vacuum distillation unit and produces vacuum gas oil (light. Corrections for sulfur content are also being ignored. but can be taken as a percentage of the initial input. This is going to give low estimates. b) 380-580 °F: These cuts are assumed to be used as straight run. c) 580-650 °F: This gas oil fraction goes through the hydrotreater. catalytic cracker and reformer (although the reformer calculations will only be necessary if gasoline blending is considered). For example. d) 650-1050 °F: This fraction comprises light. e) 1050+ °F: This is the residue fraction and after the VDU. gases and coke. where it will produce gasoline. it will head to the coker. gasoil (distillates?) and coke. but contain both diesel and jet fuel. 6. The catalytic cracker is assumed to operate at 75% efficiency to produce gases. especially for samples that are high in sulfur content. There is no exact amount to separate the two. on to the catalytic cracker. but this starts to get outside the scope of the simple programing we wanted. CDU unit (initial distillation): Important fractions to be considered for calculation data: a) 190-380 °F: Naptha fraction proceeds to a hydrotreater to remove sulfur and other impurities and onto the catalytic reformer to produce gasoline. but was too complicated for this simple first generation model. once fractions are sent to the vacuum distillation unit. Distillates are isolated as a single category.7 +1}490 .

0425 50 0. SCFB (standard cubic feet per barrel) Sf=%wt of sulfur for fraction…can be calculated. T10= TBP at 10%) % a B 0 0.98308 Wt%S can be determined if not given in the assay.e.78712SG+2.26007SG^4.05(LV%)^2-2.5/SG)-131.9167 1.0355 Additional values that may be of importance for subsequent calculations: VABP=volume average boiling point=(T10+T30+T50+T70+T90)/5 MeABP=mean average boiling point=VABP. Calculations: Naptha Hydrotreater and Catalytic Reformer BPD: This value will have been calculated in the CDU phase.0176 70 0. The higher boiling point fractions will have higher numbers.Δ Δ=-0.097X10^-4Tb- 7. but requires 3 other calculations. From the hydrotreater.8000 1.8920 1.0110 95 0.8705 1. API=(141. IBP=initial boiling point EBP=end boiling point SG=specific gravity (usually provided in the assay. Kf=Watson characterization factor of the feed Vol%P=12.99791(SL)^0.9490 1. need to calculate the paraffin (P).0900 30 0.667+2. but hopefully is given.335 SL=(T90-T10)/(90-10) Watson Characterization Factor (K): Unit used to distinguish a crude feed.0004(LV%)^3 +0.8 (Can add 273 to get the temperature in Kelvin if necessary…which it is to calculate K value) Cut Volume %: This can be determined from the initial percentages in the crude assay: %vol at EBP-%vol and IBP.965[exp(2. Cut Volume=% in decimal form(BPD feed)…this gives a BPD value.5) M=average molecular weight of the fraction=42. used in multiple further calculations: K=(Tb)^1/3/SG or K=(MeABP)^1/3/SG API= -0.8Kf^2-259. napthene (N) and aromatic (A)volumes to get a C5+ vol% which is the amount of gasoline produced.7429 1.08476X10^-3TbSG]Tb^1.5277 1. point volume for each fraction. this value can be used as the output value of that fraction. Subscript p=product. Tb=(((IBP+EBP)/2)-32)/1.4(LV%)+800…use mid.94402-0. Can also calculate the LV%=percent of accumulated liquid volume (this is total based on what boiling point the fractions are collected at. subscript f=feed.5Kf+1330 .0226 90 0. If the product is a straight run product.TBP=a(ASSAYBP)^b (%=% of sample distilled) reported as T% (i.00865(VABP-32)^0.0019 10 0.

6Kf-9993.11205(APIf)+5.4Kf^2-894.966975 Light cycle oil (distillates) LV%=0.597 Gasoline LV%=0.7 Δ APIp=0.01(SCFB H2) +0. but won’t do that in first generation example. give a range between 10-25% Gas(C4-)wt%=7.343X(wt%CCR) Coke wt%=1.7 Vol%A=38.5Kf^2+1776.144X(wt%CCR) Naptha wt%=11.18598XAPI+5.6 X(wt%CCR) Gas Oil wt%=100-wt% of other three Gas oil and naptha can be broken down further if necessary.00297(SCFB H2) -0.7754XCONV-0. For the purpose of this set up.3Kf+5219.8Sf+10. Calculations: Middle Distillate Hydrotreater and Catalytic Cracker: Hydrotreater: SCFB H2 =110.2(100)-659 (assumes 100% severity of hydrotreater) Δ APIp=0. should be provided in the assay data.Vol%N=-78.69 APIp=APIf+ Δ APIp C5+ vol%=142.4 Hydrotreater: SCFB H2 =191Sf-30.0552XCONV+0.8564XCONV+53. .29+0.7778 Calculations: Coker CCR-Conradson carbon residue: This is a physical property of the crude. If it isn’t.219122 X (N+2A)F The RON number is based on the blend of gasoline desired.5419 APIp=APIf+ Δ APIp Catalytic Cracker: Assumption 75% conversion (CONV) Coke wt%=0.7914-0. This number will be a percentage that will be multiplied by the BPD feed to give the BPD of gasoline produced by this process.0047XCONV^2-0.8+0.576 Gases wt%=0. assume that RON=94.05356XCONV-0.036(APIf)-2.77033 X RON +0.

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