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I

11

AHrJl~IHCKHH
H3LIK BKAPTH 'KA
, *

&&Q
ENGLISH
THROUGH PICTURES

BOOKS 1,2

I. A. RICHARDS
and

CHRISTINE M. GIBSON

ws
00
WASHINGTON SQUARE PRESS, INC. NEW YORK
PREFACE

ENGLISH THROUGH PICTURES

This book will teach you the first steps of English.


It gives you about 500 important words in sentences,
with the meaning shown through pictures.
Read each page like this:

The sentences will take on meaning for you as you


compare them with the help of the accompanying
pictures, page by page. The load on your memory is
kept light. All your attention can be given to seeing
how changes in the sentences go along with changes in
the meaning. Learning English this way is more like
play than hard work.
If you have to work alone, it is best to work
through writing and wait for the pl'onunciaiion until
you have help. Study two or three pages together untii
you can give the sentences that go with the pictures.
When you are forming the sentences do not rely on
your memory alone: try to understand in English what
the piciures say. If you do this you wi!! be thinking ill
English from the very srart and thaI is the way to
a mastf'ry of the language.
xv
When you have worked through thirty pages of the
book in this manner, test your knowledge by answe-
ring in English the questions on pages 31,32 and 33.
Compare your answers with those given on page 34.
Further questions with answers are provided at inter-
vals throughout the book.
I
YOU
I
I

I
I

... ---_ .. _-------.------------------


YOU

I
I
I
I
I

I
,
I

,
I
HE

IT THEY

~
2
------------ -----+------
' ------------
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
THEY
I

~~
IT I
I
I

~
I
I
I
I
I
!
I
,
I

3
I am here. He is there.

She is here. She is there.

4
It is there.

It is here.

-----------------~------------------

They are here. They are there.

I
I
I
I

I


I

s
Yau ore there. You ore there.

---~--------------------------------~

Yau ore here.

6
It is there. They are there.

------------------ ------------------

7
This is a man. This is a woman.

------------------+------------------

That is a woman.

8
This man is here. That man is there.

-----------------~------------------

This woman ;s here. That woman is there.

9
That is a table.
This is a table. That table is there.
this table is here.
It is there.

It is here .

. -----------~--~--+---------~--------
This ;s a hot. This is a hand.
It;s a hot.

This is the thumb.


~ .......
)

These are the fingers.

10
This ~,my head. This is my hat.

My hat is in my hand. My hat is on my head.


It is in my hand. It is on my head.
------------------------------------
His hat is Her hat is
on his head. in her hand.

12
That Is your hat. Those are your hats.
It is on the table. They are on the table.

------------------+------------------
These are my hands. Those are your hands.
That is
your
right
hand.

,
I
I
I
This is This is : That is
my my your
right left left
hand. hand. hand.

13
He will take his hat
His hat is on the table. off the table.

-------------------------------------
He Is taking It off the He took it off the table.
table.

14
He is putting his hat on
He will put his hat on his hil head.
head

.-----------~------------------------
He put his hat on his It was on the table.
head. It il on hil head.
He put it on.

15
He will take his hat off He is taking his hat off
his head his head.

.~-----------------------------------
I
t
I
His hat is in his hand. I
I He took his hat off.
It was on his head. I
I

:









t
t
It ~ in his hand.

16
;rhis is a hat.
This Is a table.
~
These are hats.
c@:;,
This is a hand.

~ These are tables.

These are hands.

~V
---------------_
This is a mc;m.
... _----------------
I
I This is a woman.
I
I
I

I
I
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I
I
I
t
I
These are men. t These are women.
I
II
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2 3"",," 1633
I
I
This is a man. I This i. a woman.
,
t ~
I

I I

~
I

~
I
I
\ Thlsi. \ This I.
~ ~
I
I
hi. hand. I her hand.
I
I
I
It Is the man's hand. : It i. the woman's hand.
I
I
I
I

_._-----_._._-----------------_._._.-
I

I
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I

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I
Thl. is a man's hat, I This is a woman's hat.
It is on a man'. head. : It is on a woman's head.
I
I
I Now it is in the woman'.
Now It I. In the man', I

,
t hand
hend I It is In her hands.
If Is In hi. handa. I

~

~
18
He will give his hat to He'ls giving his hatlo
the man. the man.

--------.---------------------------
He gave it to the mono It Is in the mon's honds
He gove it to him. now.

2 19
The man will give his He is giving his hat
hat to the woman. to the woman .

.--------.-------.----~-------------
He gave it to the
woman.
He gave it to her. It is in the woman's
hands now,

20
I
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I

The woman wm put the : She is putting it on the


hat on the table. : table.
I
f
I
I
I
I

-----.------------_ ...---------------

It was In her hand.


It Is on the table.
This is a shlp. These are ships.

--J1l;:-- ---
--
'-

- --
-----------------------------~-------
These ships are on the
water.

This ship is in the bottle.

-
This is water.

22
This is water.
CrII This is a glass.
It is on the table.

The bottle
is in a
manshand.

------------------ .-----------------
The glass and the water
are on the floor.

23
Thi. is a beH'. A This is a glass

and thi' U and this is


agla...~
RaboHM~
~ These
e:!:, are glasses.

and
this are boHI.s.

.--.---.-~----------------.----------
o
)!
That man and that \
woman are there.
,
I
I
I
,
I

I
I
That Is a bird and I
that is a bird. I
I
Those are birds. I This man and this
I
They or. birds. I
I
woman are here.
I

24
I

This is a man. :

I
This is an arm.
These are his arms.:
~

These are his legs. This is a leg.

These are his feet.


foot~ This is a

----------------_._._--------------.-
This is a table. This is a seat.

-These are its legs.-


These are its legs. ==
Its feet are on the floor. Its feet are on the floor.

25
This is a room.

This is This a door.


a door.
[j
o is a pidure.
o

This is the floor of the room.


------------------------------------
These are the windows of the room.

This is a window and this is a window.

This window This window


is shut. is open.

26

,
This door is open. This door is shut.

This is a wall of the This is a picture of


a man and a woman.

This is the cord


of the picture.
This is
a wall.
A picture is
on this wall.

This is the floor of the


room.
rhis is the' frame of the
picture.
27
This is a house.

This is the door of the house.

------------------------------------~
These are houses.
The man
will go
to his house.

:


,
, ,

-~-----------------------------------
The man went II
to his house. Co
He is there. --.... ~ He is at his door.
He is at the door
of his house.

~h He was here.
@)
29
This is a question mark.

What is this?
?
It is a hat.
"What is this?" is a We put question marks
question. after questions.
"It is a hat," is an
answer.

_._----------------------------------

"'s this a hat?" "Is this a hat?"


That is a question. "No, it is nof a hat. It is
"Yes, it is." a hand."
That is an answer. That is an answer.

30
QUESTIONS

a What Is this?
ttt
";-s: ..... -z
- -::; -..: - - --
It is Q b What is this?
.-----------------"---~
c What is this?
---------------_._----
d What is this?

r=t11
~-~-~--~---------------------------.~
e What Is this? f What is this?

----- ...... _---_ .............. - _------------- -----------


...........
9 What is this? h What is this?

This page is page 31. The answers are on page 34-


31
QUESTIONS
o VVhatarethe~? b VVhatarethese?

tit t
hod what Is this?
u~~o
hod what Is this? ~
c VVhat or. these? d What are these?

EE8383
hod what Is f.J
e VVhatarethese?
hod what is thlstl

f What is this?

h What is this?
9' What Ore the~?

t1~
And what is t h i 0
What is in it?
---------- ---- --- -- -- ..... _... _--------- ------------_ ......
This page is page 32. The answers or. on page 34.
i'
QUESTIONS
a Is the hat on b Is the man in
the table? the room?

fFTI
c Is the picture on d Is the bird on
the wall? the seat?

e Is the glass in f Is the water in


~g9
the woman's hand?

&.
These are answers to questions on pages 31, 32, and
33. This page Is page 34.

Page 31

a It is a house. b It Is a ship.
c It is a table. d It is a boHte.
e It Is a leg. f It is an arm.
g Itisa leg of h It is an arm of a seat.
a table.

Page 32

a They are three b They are glasses.


men. That is a That is a glass.
woman. d They are windows.
c. They are fingers. That is a door.
That is the thumb. f It is a picture of a
e They are houses. man and a house.
That is a street. That is the frame of
the picture. (Its frame)
g They are feet. h That is a room
That is a foot. A table is in it.

Page 33

a Yes, It is. b Yes, he is.


e No, It is not. d No, it is not.
It is on the floor. It is on the floor.
e No. It is in the f No, it is not in the
man's hand. glass.
g No. It is on the h Yes, they are at the
water. door.
34
What is this? What is the time?
This is a dock. The time is two (2:00).
What is the time? It was one (1 :00).
The time is one (1 :00). It will be three (3:00).
One hand is at one.

What is the time? What is the time?


The time is four (4:00). Now the time is six
It was three (3:00). (6:00).
It will be five (5:00). It was five (5:00).
It will be seven (7:00).

35
What is the time? What is the time?
Now the time is eight Now the time is ten
(8:00). (10:00).
It was seven (7:00). It was:nine (9:00).
It will be nine (9:00). It will be eleven (11 :(0).

-------------------------------------

These are the numbers


from one to twelve.
What is the time?
The time ;s twelve One, two, three, four.
(12:00). five, six, seven, eight.
It was eleven (11 :00).
nine, ten, eleven,
It will be one (1 :(0). twelve.
The two hands are at
twelve now.

36
What are things?
This Is a man.
t

~
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I
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I
A house is a thing. I

Houses are things. ,


I

A hat is a
are things.
thing~
j ?& This Is a girl
'~ Men and women and
t
Doors and windows are boys and girls are not
things. things. They are
Tables and seats are persons.
things. You are a person.
Th;~-~;t;~p;;~~;--------------------
in this room.
They are a boy and a The girl will go to the
girl. window.

The girl is at the door. She will be Wi~


The boy is at the at the window.
window. She will be with him at
the window.
The girl is going to the She went to the window.
window. Where is she now?
Where was she? She is at the window
now.

She was at the door.

Of n((I[I If)
These books are together
on the shelf.
I

They are at the window


iJtCtJIL
together. These books are not
She is with him at the together. They are on
window. the shelf, but they are
He is with her at the not together.
window.
38
They ore going from the
The girl ond the boy will window.
go from the window. They were ot the
window.

-------------------iio~~;;~;;~t~;---
They went from the door together
.window. The boy is with the girl
She went with him ond at the door.
he went with her. She is at the door again.

39
This is my head. That is her head.

These are my eyes. Her eyes are apen.

This is Her eyes are shut.


This is the
one other
eye. eye.

40
My eyes are apen. Now her eye. are open.
I see. She sees.
Her eyes are shut. What does she ..e?
She does nat see. She sees me.

I see her. I see her.


She does not see 1M. Our eyes are open.

Her eyes are apen. Her eye. are ShUl.


~ ~

She sees.' They were open.


They were shut. She saw.
She did not see. What did she see?

"'.......
,...:".,..J
She did nat see me. She saw me.

41
A man has two eyes. A man has a mouth.
I have two eyes. I have a mouth.
<D> <II>
The.. are my eyes.

A man has a nose.


I have a nose.
42>1 r <D> 1
~Q :
,-? This is my nose. :
,
I

This man's mouth is


open.
H. is saying "mouth." His mouth is shut.
He will say "mouths." ~
!

, (mout~
His mouth is shut.

@
H. is not saying
He is saying "mouths."

He said "mouths."
He is not saying
"mouths" now.
t,.

His mouth is shut again.


"mouth."
42
Th... are three boob.

~They are on a shelf.

[]]] I have the book in my


hand now.
This~ ;s between the
It was on the shelf. It
was between the other
other two books. two books on the shelf.

-------------------------------------
, These are the fingers of
These or. the pages of
the book.
mYhOn~

~
ThiS
finge,
These are the covers of is
the book. between
ese other two
The pages are between fingers of my hand.
the covers of the book.

43
My nose Is between my My mouth Is under my
eyes. nose.

And it is between my My nose is over my


eyes and my mouth. mouth.
Our noses are over our
mouths.

------------------------------------
I
I

The light Is aver the


I This is a clock.
I
table. I ~
I
V
.:o-I~
I
I It is on the wall.
I

~A-
I
I
It is over the
I bookshelves.
'II" I
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I
11111111111111111111
I
I 11111111111111111111
I1111111111 !11I1I
I
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I
The dog is under the I The bookshelves are
table. I
I
under the clock.
I

I
I

CtltbmML
This is his hair.
i
I These are hi. ea....

I
I Where or. ears?
They are under her hair.

Her hair Is over her ears.

This is his head.

~
This is a c'ock.

~ It has a face.

... 0.
This is the face of the
to>
. /
clock. The clock has two
hands, a long hand and
This is his foe a short hand. The long
His eyes, his nose, and hand Is at 5. The short
his mouth or. parts of hand is between 7 and 8.
his face.

4S
A dock has a face. It .... noeo... G
'
It has no nose.
\[
c.:.;..
It has no hair
G
but it has a face. ~

It has no eyes. It has a face and two


4l> <10>

It has no mouth.
..
hands, the long hand

~ -.....
and the short hand.

i~
I
I
f
The long hand of the I
I
clock is between one I
and two. I
I I have this book in my
One is before two. Two I
hands.
I
is between one and I
It was on the sftelf with
I
three. Three is after two I the other books."
I
and two is after one. I It was between the
I
I other two books before
I
I I took it from the shelf.
J

46
I have it in my hand. Now it is on the shelf
I am putting it between again. It was in my
the other two books. hand. I had it in my
Then it will be with the hand. It is not in my
other books. hand. Where is it?

Do you see a door ano.


two windows?
Is one of the windows
open?
Is the other window
shut?
Do you see two seats
and the bookshelves
This is a room. between them?
What do you see in the Do you see the clock
room? over the bookshelves?
Do you see the floor Yes. I see them.
and three walls of the 'rhese things are in the
room? room. The room is in a
Do you see them? house.
47
These are my hands.
this Is a face. Which is my right hand?
Which is my left hand?
Eyes, nose, and mouth Which are my thumbs?
are parts of a face. Which are my fingers?
Which are the eyes?
Which is the nose?
Which is the mouth?

This is his head.


o

This is a man.
Which are his arms?
Which are his hands?
Which are his legs? What is this?
Which are his feet?
o~ ~~abodyr
V~bbody.
}~abody,

His head, M, arms,


his legs, and his body
~ All men and
women and boys and
girls have bodies.

Thisbaby ~
are parts of a man.
I
-'J.Ja:.
has a body.
-~---------------
This dog has a body.
.. -----------------.
This Is a dog's head.
This is his tail. I
I

~ ~j

m
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I
This is his body. ,
I
Which is his mouth?
He has four legs and 0 : Which are his eyes?
head and a tail. He b .. s : Which are his ears?
no arms or hands. but : Which is his nose?
he has feet. His head, his I
body, his legs, and his '
tail are parts of a dog.

3 3an. 1633 49
This is a foot. This is a leg

111
\ This is a knee.
i. pari of a leg,

,
(Th~'
These are ,
toes. :
They are parts of a foot. : pari 01 a leg i. its
knee.
These parts of a foot are :
Its toes. I
I
Our legs are parts of us.
This is a toe. :.:.'S'
,
---_.------------------------------.-
,
I

.Q.
I
This is a man's head .
Thi. i. a ned<,

It is a part of a man. It is
between his head and
his body.
~
This is his chin.
It is under his mouth.
The part which is
It is a part of his face.
between his head and
The part which is under
his body is his neck.
his mouth is his chin.

so
This is a man's body. This is his body.

o The part
which is
between
his head,
his arms,
and his
legs is
his body.
'c2
"-
This is d chest of drawers.

~ -
~
...

This man has his finger This baby is on his


on his chin. I hands and knees. ~

~
This baby is on his
hands and feet.

This baby is on ~
This man has his his knees. ~
hand on his chest.
'8-'This baby is on
J( his feet.
51
QUESTIONS Where is the dog?
a

---~
~
----- -- --- --------------!..- --- - - - -- - - ------ ----
c _ _.................
d

~------------------------i-----------------------
I
h

Al~1 I

52
QUESTIONS What do you see?

-----
a b

@
---------._--------------------------------
c I

d~
-------------------------------------

... -- ---- ----_ . --------- ------ -------------- -- ---

-----An;~;r; i; the;iq;';;'~; -;;,.; -;n- ~-56~- -_.


53
QUESTIONS What is he saying?

!4'Y!
I

-- --- ----- -------- . ---, _... --- -- -- ---- -----


h

-----A~;w;;;;; t1_ I

q~;siio;;; a~; i,~ Pog.-57.---


S4
QUESTIONS What do you see?

a b

c d

I
, I

- ....4~H.........-:
I
I

Answers to these questions are on page 57.


55
Answers to questions on pages 52-53.

Page 52

a The dog is in a roam. b He is at the door.


c He is at the window. d He is under the seat.
e He is under the table. f He is on the table.
9 He is between the h He is on the seat.
table and the seat.

Page 53

a I see a clock. b I see a man's face.


The time is four. d I see 0 baby. He is on
c I see a woman's face. his hands and knees.
e I see two books. One f I see two girls. One
of them is open. The of them is giving a
other is shut. book to the other.
g I see two babies. One h I see a chest of
of them is on his drawers.
hands and knees. The
other is on his feet.

56
A.nswers to questions on pages 54-55.

Page 54

a He is saying, "These b He is saying, "This is


are my ears." my mouth."
c He is soylng, "'These d He is soying, "This is
are my eyes." my thumb."
e He is soying, "'This f He is saying, "'This is
finger is between my nase."
these fingers." h He is saying, "This is
g He is soying, "This is my head."
my hair."

Page 55

a I see a boy and a b I see a clock on a


girl. They are at a table. The time is four.
window. d I see a man. He has
c I see a room. It has his finger on his chin.
twa seats in it. It has One of his eyes is
twa windows and 0 open. The other eye
door. One of the is shut. His mouth is
windows is open. The shut. He has no hair
other window is shut. on his head.
The door of the room
is open. A. picture is
on the wall.

Sl
Who is this?
He is John Smith.
His name is John Smith.
Where is John Smith? He has his hand In
He is at the door of his packet.

------
his house.

-------------------------------------
I
He is taking a key from I
his pocket. :
I
I
I
I
I
I
These are other keys.
I
I
I lIIJ @
~ ~
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

58
rie will put the key in He is putting the key
the lock of the door. in the lock.

He is giving a push to the


He is giving a turn to door.
the key. The door is open now.

59
John took the key
from the lock.
He is going into the
He is putting it in
house.
his pocket.
He will go into his house.

This is a room in the


He went into the house. house.
He is in the house. Is John in the room?
The door is shut. No, he is not.

A
He will come into the
room.
He is coming into the Mr. Smith came into
room. the room.
He will go to the table. He went to the table.

I
I
She is in the house but
Is Mrs. Smith in the I she is not in the room.
I
room? I She is in another room
I
I in the house.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
No, she is not. I
I
Who is this?
I This is Mary Smith. She
: is Mrs. Smith.
: Her name is Mary Smith
61
This is one of the
This is one of the doors windows of the room.
of the room.

And this is another


....... window. ..............
../ One window is open.
This is the other door.
The other windows are
shut.

This is one of my fingers.

this is one of my hands. /


It is my left hand.

~
This is my other hand. This is my left thumb.
It is my right hand. These are the other
fingers of my left hand.

62
Mrs. Smith is not in the Mr. Smith is in the room.
room. He came into the room.
She went out of the
room .

.,.
She went through ..(:-
this door. He came through
this door.

I
I
Mr. Smith is putting his I He put his hat on the
I
hat on the table. I table.
I
I
It is on the table now.
I
I
I
I
I
I

i~
I

He went out of the room


He will go out of the
room through this door. through this door.

63
Mary is coming into the She is going ta the table.
room.

------------------+------------------

She will see-the hat. She sees it.

I
---@ I
I
I
I
I
64
She saw it.
When did she see it?
She saw it after she went
to the table.

~-----------~-----+---.--------------
,,-........ _---- ....
,
I
I What is that? :
\. John's hatf l
~"'" ,...-_."
'
.
''-.

I
,
I

I
I
I
I
I

I

I
65
She will take the hat In She is taking it.
her hand.

She went out of the


room with John's hat.
room.

She has the hat in her


hand.
She is in another roam :
now. :
She came into this room I
through this door. : What are these?
I J}X 1
They are hooks.

:_I_j-jfr
I
I

That is another hat.


She It is on a hook.
has the hat with her.
------------------+------------------
I
I


She will put John's hat: She put it on the hoole.
on a hook. :
I
I

~ ~i~ s ~ J
She will put it on a hook : Now it is with the other
with the other hat. : hot.
, The other hat is one of
J Mary's hats.

67
~John is coming into the
room again.
He;s there now.

-.---------------+--~.-------------
He is soying,
The hat is not on the
table.
Where is my hat?
I
I put it on the table.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
~

68
~=n
,,
I

I
I
'Where is my hat? It Is I
.not on my head. It isn"t : "It isn"t (is not) here.
here." I
I
,,
I

I
I
I
I

t
I
I
,
t
I
I
I
I
I
---------... ------+---_...-----------
Here is Mary. She is
"Where is it? Mary, coming into the room.
where is my hat? Where She says, "Here lam."
are you, Mary?"

, .,
t
I

69
I
t
t
t
t
t "You put it on the table.
-Where is your hatr : It was on the table."


I




I

I
I
I
I

---..--~--.-------+------------------
A
". took it. I putit in the
"It is on a hook there.
You will see it there."
other room."

t
I

t







70
John says, "I will get my He Is getting it.
hat."

------------------+------------------

Did he get it? Yes. He

: He went out of the room.
has it. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1

-----1. I

I

I
e
71
I He came into the room

: again with the hat in his


hands.
When he saw the hat he He got it.
took it off the hook.

J'

------------------+------------------
He is giving the hat to
Mary.

n
What is in the hat? What Is she taking from
Ml:Jry will see the hot?

.-----------------+-----~------------
What is that in her
hand?'
It is money.

She .....


73
Where was the hat?
It was on the table.
What does she see?
One thousand dollars.

~--o What did she see?


The money is in her She sow the hat.
hand. She did not see the
It was in the hat. money.

._---------- ....... -----._- ......-...


I

I
I
I Does she see the money
She put the hat in the now?
other room. Yes, she sees it.
John went there and
got it.

Who got it? John did.

74
I was In the street. The wind came. It took
I was coming her my hat off.

.-~---------~~----+-----~.-----------

I went after my hat.


When rtook it up, there
was this money.

75

f
The, money was under
the hot. :

UP
The hot was over the
money.

~-~--~~ .. ----~-.--

... -~- ..----.-
The hot come down I It was over the morHt)'o
again. The money was undet
the hot.
,' ...... ~

,/ \
I ..
10 \
i
I UP DOWN:
t

i Vi t

cbl
76
What is Mary doing? They are knives,
forks and spoons.

She is taking things


from a drawer.
What are those things The drawer has knives,
in the drawer? forks and spoons in it.
I

------------------+------------------
Mary has a knife, She took them from
a fork and a spoon the drawer.
in her right hand. She will put them on
the table.

,
I
These are drawers.
I
I One of them is open.
I

I
The other two drawers
are shut
77
Mary is getting the soup.. John Is taking the seats
These are plates of soup.'I to the table.
I

... _-_ ... --- ....,-....... _------- ..


John is in his seat.
Mary is in her seat at They ore in their seats
the table. at the toble.

78
B"P. olo' o6
Now they are taking John is saying to Mary,
heh

~-e~f
---.....:;; . : Mary is saying to John,
: "Where did the money
<::::> <::::> come from?"
They have their spoons
in their hands.


------------------+-_._--------------
John said, "I saw it John said. "Nobody
there under the hat." put it there. The money
was there and the
wind came and put the
:' hat down over the
: money."

Nobody_no man or
Mary said, "But who woman or boy or girl
put it there?" or baby.

I

..I
~
79
What will
we do
with our
money?
This dress is new


This dress is aiel

:2 1>
------------------+----------------.-
I

This pipe is new.

e
f
: This pipe is old

.: ~.
~ ,=-

80
Mary is getting the new
dress. She is in a store. This is the store.
The other woman has
two dresses in her
hands. CLOTHING STORE

~ f T
~~ - b-
19~

Dresses and hots and


shoes are in the window
of the store

.-----.. ----~-----+------------------
I

d:/OdAJ !
These are shoes. :
They are women's shoes. !

These are gloves.


Dl'esses and Itodd.
and shoes and gIoet
are clothing.

These are stoddags.


4 3U33 1633 81
__ c~~ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- " " - - - -

I
I
This is a tree. : She put her
This is a
branch ~
~': hand up.
: She took the
of the tree. V: apple. It is in
An apple~ )J I
her hand.
She took the
is on this
branch.
~ : apple which is
:
. I in her hand.
I -
t IS over I
I She has it in her
the girl/$
is puHing it ~
I

head. hand.
She
She will take the apple in her basket. "
from the branch. I

She will put her hand up. :


--_ ... _-----------+------------------
I
I
I
I
I
She put it In her basket. I After she took the apple
She hod it in her hand II she put it in the basket.
before she put it in her II Then she put her basket
basket. ,
I down. The apple was

It was on the branch I up on the tree.


before she put her hand : Now it is down in the
up and took it. ' basket.

82
I

I
I
I
I

~
I
I
I
lJ~ I
I
I
I
When was the apple an I
the branch? :
When was it over her : When did she take It?
head? : She took it after she put
It was on the branch I
her hand up.
before she took it. It was: She took it then.
on the branch then. :

I

------------------t-----------------
I

When did she put It In When did she have the


the basket? apple in her hand?

She had it in her hand


after she took it from
: the branch and before
: she put it In the basket.
She put It in the basket :
after she took it from I
the branch. :
4
83
This Is a box. This is a house.

This is the front of the This is the front of the


box. house.
is is the front door.

------------------+------------------
This is the back of the This is a coat.
box.

This is the front of the


coat.
84
These are the arms of
the coat.

These are the sides of And this is the back of


the coat. the coat.

----~~--~~~---~.--+I
I
I
.. -----~-----~---.
I

These are a man's arms. :


I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
These are his sides. I
I And this Is his back.
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

85
What is that? What is
Who is this? in her hands?
This is Mrs. Smith. It Is a tray.
She Is Mary Smith. : She has a tray in her
"Mary Smith" is her I hands.
name. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
,
I
I
I
t
_--_ --. __ _+

She will put the tray on I She is putting the tray


the table. I
t
on the table.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

...-----: I
I
I
,,
I


I
I
I
86 t
c "

Sh. put the tray on the


toble. Here is the tray.

What are these things


on the tray?
It was In her hands.
It Is on the table now

.----~---~--~-----+------
These are glasses.
..----------
What are these? PP
EJEJ They are spoons. / I
What are these? ~jP
They are forks. ' /I What Is this?
It Is another spoon.
I
,
What is thiS?/ : What Is this? <"-9)
It is a knife. : It Is a plate.
,
What are these? : These are three other
Th~y are two othe~? : plates. ~
knives. I

C~~.;:>
87
Mrs. Smith is taking a
knife and fork off the She is putting them an
tray. the table.
She has them in her
hands

. -----------------+----------------_.
She put the knives and
Now she is putting the
forks and spoons and
plates on the table.
plates and glasses on
the table.
She put these things on
the table.

t
I

t

88
Mary Smith will go from She is going to the door.
the table to the door. The door is shut.

She went out of the Mary Smith is not in the


room. room.
The door is open now. She was In the room.
It was shut. She went out of the
room.

,
I

1 (Oln~~\
89
What Is this? I
It Is a knife.
I
I
What Is this?

~
I
I

.
I

-
What Is this?

What, Is this?

t
,I
,
I
~ .
What Is this?

What Is this?

==-
- CIt
What Is this?
I
I
c; ;> I

I What Is this?

~
What are these? I
I
I
I
I

---------.-.-----t------------------
I
I

What are these?


I
What Is this?

OOi fJ
c :> -" -
-
What are these things?
...,;

What Is this?

& ~
90
Mory Is making saup. :
These are potatoes..

AJ
c::::. c:::;III

This Is a plate af saup.


:
I
I
I
000
This Is a bottte of mUk.
It Is cow's milk. T(.
~r
U
I

~ in'" I
I
I this Is a cow.
I

~
I
I
I
She will make the saup I
fram milk and potatoes.:
--_ ... --_._._-_._ .. --------_._-------
I
I

I
Cows are animals. ,
I
We get milk from cows.
These are some other I
I
Mory is putting some
animals. I milk in a cup.

aPlgQ 1~
t

i ~
4\-.-.. :
ahono Q-7fl . . - I
The milk Is going Into

91
Mary has a potato in We get potatoes from
her hand. the roots of a plant.

Here they are in the


earth.
She is taking its skin off
with a knife.
We get them up with a
fork.
{f
------------------+--------
This is a plant. I ----------

This is its flower. :I


: These are roots of other
I plants.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I

This is its :
I
-f-il--_"..-_These are its :
~~::~~r~o~ots~. l
I

92
This is the pot.

c~~J
Mary is making the
soup.

This is the cover


of the pot.

She will make the soup


in this pot

. -----------------+---------~------.-
She put the potatoes In
the pot.
The water In the pot Is
boiling. This is a flame.

This is steam. The pot is over the


flame.

~)J
The flame is under the
pot.

93
Ice is solid.

Ttils is ice.

This water is boiling.


It is giving off steam.
The heat of the flame Is Water is a liquid.
making it give off steam. This is water.
------------------+------------------
The room is warm.
This is a tray. The heat of the flame Is
It Is a tray of Ice.. making the room warm.
The things in the room
are warm.
Ice is not warm. It I.
cold.
80

Ice
Is 0
cold.

94
this Ita bird.
It Is on a tree.

This is a plane.
It Is In the olr.
It It going thtouoh the
air.

------------------.--_...._----------
W. take In air through
our mouths and through
our nGIeI.
The air IscominoJ;:
out. It It warm.
When It comes
Out It Is worm.

The air comes In. Theft


It goes out. That II a Put JOUI' 'hand
breath. , ....yaurbreath
Iswann.
In out one breath
In out two breotht
Iftout
9S
I
t
t
t
t The air over the flame
The room is warm. I
is very warm.
The water in the pot is : It goes up.
very warm. II

It Is balling. ! j n'. ~ j;
~ ft~~!
~j-:; ..., t
;::01 The ....
t t , ""
undw .... _
: is not very warm. It goes
U up to the flame.
212" III
100" !
I

I __________ _

------------------+------- I

,
I
I 1
This is the fridge I
I
It has ice in it. I
I
The air in the fridge is I
cold. t
I
I

I
This is the fridge
I
I Mary keeps the milk in
I
I the fridge
I
I She keeps It In the cold

~~l
This is 'These are
I
I
air.
cold.
.
The air in the fridge IS

I The cold air keeps the


....1k. eggs. I
milk cold.
96
This is an instrument for
measuring heat.
This is a clock.

} Very warm

} Warm

A dock is an instrument } Cold


for measuring time.
1 Verycofd

~-~---------~---.-+-----------------~
This is a measure. This is ' . \..
Mary's foot.~
It is a yard measure.

The,. are three feet in These are her feet.


a yard.

There are twelve inches C~ ,


~
."""""
This is John's foot.
It is ten inches long.
97
n
Thewa sand ft OOtvr t
the fridge are thick.
..1:
:
1m
Warm


air
Cold
air
Warm
air

The thick wolls keep the


heat of the room out of
11____J1 the fridge.
They keep 'the heat from
the milk.
The cold air In the
This Ia a thin line. : fridge keeps the milk
I
I
good.
This Ia a thick line. :
I

------------------+------------------
I

John Is havIng 0 drink.


He Is having 0 drink of
milk from 0 glau. this milk Ia not good.
.t Ia bod.

The mIlk Is good.


John Is hoppy. John Ia not happy.

98
This is meat. This Is bread.

Mary does not keep the


bread in the fridge.
She keeps it in a
Mary keeps the meat In I bread-box.
the fridge.

-----------~-----+-----------------~
This is butter.
This is chee...

We make butter from


milk.
We make cheese from Mary keeps the butter
milk. with the milk in the
W. get milk from cows. fridge.
She keeps the cheese
there.
99
I
I
I
These are apples. I
I What is the time?

0
I

\) I

These are oranges.
@ @ G>
Apples and oranges are :
'.
-:t.
I
t

I
I
I
t
I
I
I

CD
The time is flve (5;()().
It is five.
I
Mary wilt make the
fruit. I soup.
Does Mary keep the fruit :
in the fridge~ I
I
I
--_ .'-------------+-----------------.
, I

It is five-forty (5:40).
What is the time?
,
I

Q
I
I
I
,
I

,
I
Q
I
I Mary has a fork In fter
It Is five-thirty (5:30). ,
I
hand.
Mary is making the I
I
soup. I

The potatoes are In the :


pot. The water In the pat:
is boiling. ~
0
She is puttfng the fork
Into the potatoes.

100
The potatoes are hard. It Is five-fifty (S:5O).
The fork does not go Mary is putting the fork
into them. In again.
She is doing It again.

l
I
I
t
I


I

-----------------~+-~~---------
, ..---
I
I
The potatoes ore soft. :
The fork goes Into thom. I



I
t

She Is talcing them out
of the pot and putting
them on a plate.

101
I
I
I
I
The polatoes are on the , Mary is crushing theIR
plate. ,
: with a fork.
,
I

I
I

c~
t
I
I

t
f

,
They were in the pot. I
They were horde ,
They ar. soft naw. t They are not hard now.
I
I They are soft.

I
I

-----------------.----~~--------~-
I
I
,
I

I
Glass Is hard.
,
I

,,
l

,,
I
,
I
I
I
I

,: Butter is soft.

!a~
I
!.
102
John has a bit of He is putting the bit of
cheese in his tingers. cheese in his mouth.

------------------+------------------
I
I
I
I The cheese is not soft.
Now it is between his I
teeth. I
I
I
I
I
c: ;-..,~ I
r h .,

I
It is hard.

'(his is his mouth. C :~ ]


This is a tooth. ij I
I
I
I
John's teeth do not go
into the cheese.
I
These are teeth. I
H , I f~ I
I

103
I
I
I
Mary put the potatoes : She put the pot over
and the milk and other a lowftame.
I
things into the pot. I
She put the cover on
This is solt. : the pot.
(See page 242)

f"Y
e:::r:z!'
The low flame Is under
the pot.


---------------- ..-- -.~------------
I
I
I This building is high.
I
I
This flame Is low. I
I




J
This flame is high.
This building is low.

<i to c c c orO
104
t Now she is putting the
What is the time? t
t
h is six (6000~ ( ] ) soup in the plates.


I
I
~
"4
I
I
I It was in the pot.
t
t
I
Mary Is tasting the soup.
~ ~
I
I
It has a good taste. t
The soup is ready. Now It is In the plates.
I


---------------_.-.-._._._----_._._--
t
t
I
I

She made the soup. :
She put it in the plates. :
She took them to The plates are on
the table. : the table.

I
The soup is ready.

I
It is good soup.
Mary made it.

~f~l I
I

105
Soup ,6 1\ i Anapple(j'
potatoestt::9 milk'LJ 1

meatb brea<i31 An orange 0


butter,c&:!> Cheese~ l 600
apples,
0:':
t>.5 oranges: 000
I
I
ore food. I
Apples and oranges
I
I
are different sorts of
They are different I fruit.
sorts of food. :
I
------------------+-_._--_
a
... ----.---
I

I


I
: Glasses and boxes and
: fingers and dresses
These are different : and flames are things.
sorts of boxes. : They are different
sorts of things.

~~
I
I
I
I
I
I

6~b1
I
I
I
I

I

106
.
I

cows~ ! These are different


sorts of plants.
andsheep~ :
and pigs ~ :

andho_~i
This Is the leaf of .r'X""
I

andgoats~ 1 one sort of plant. ~


I
This is the leaf of
are animals. I
I
I
~er sort of plant.
They are different I
sorts of animals. :
------------------+------------------
I.
I
I
These are the same. I
These plates are the
000000 : I
same.
I
I
These are different. I

6*0 ,
I
I
I
These plates are
,
I different.
These are the same.
, GCi5>
I
c::=::>
o 0
I

I
I
I
These glasses are the
same.
The.. are different.
I
I 00
00 I

:The.. are different.\J 0


I 107

1
1
Here are a woman
1

a~at1
t
1
t
t
1
t

1
1
t

The boy is the 1
The girl is the
woman's son.
She is his mother.

I
woman's daughter.
The woman is her
t
I
H. is her son. I mother.
1
1

---~--------~~----+---------------~--
.1
1

Here are a man and



1
Here are a man
his son.
I and his daughter.

N
I
I,
f
,
1
I
I
I
f
The man is the father I
I
He is the father
afthe boy. I of the girl.
He is the boy's father. : He is the girl's father.
: She is his daughter.
t
f

108
The boy is the brother
of the girl.

The girl is the sister


of the boy.
She is the boy's sister.
She is his sister.
He is the girl's brother.
He is her brot~er.

------------------+------------------
I
ti
-t :
I
This man and woman I


:

have
two sons
Mt ThIS boy has one
: brother and three
: sisters.

m
..)rThis girl has two
I brothers and two
: sisters.
: They are a fomily of
and : seven (7).
three daughters.

109
Here are Mrs. Smith,
her daughter Jane,
and her son Tom.

Potato soup is a thick


soup. It is not clear.
Thick soup and clear
They are at the table. soup are two different
They are having their sorts of soup.
potato soup.

~-----~-.-------.+-.----~-----------
I

T
. Ih i s w
IScear. _ a t . :II
When a ;;;;;;; ,
liquid is ;;;; :
clear we :
see I
through it. : The air is dear. I see
the mountains.

O. :
When the air is not
t
I clear I do not see them.
Milk isnof
a clear __ . :
liquid. We _ ,
do not see :
through it. :
110

Who is this?

This soup is cleor. We


see the spoon through it.

Pototo soup is a thick


soup. We do not see This is Mary Smith.
the spoon through it. She made the soup.
This is Mary who made
the soup.

------------------i-----------------~

This is the
This is the soup. Mary milk. Mary
made it. put it in the
This is the soup which soup.
Mary made. This is the milk which
Mary put in the soup.

111
ij-----==--
-

This is a spoon. It is in t

my hand. That is a
This is a spoon which glass of
is in my hand. water. It is
on the table.
That is a glass of water
which is on the table.

-----._---------_ .. ------------------
I

This is a dog. He had


the bone.

This is a bone. It was in


the dog's mouth.
This is a bone which
was in the dog's mouth.

This is the dog who


had it.

112
QUESTIONS

a What is the time?


.. -----------------~--------------------

c What is this? d What are these?


-----------------+------------------
1

~!
e What are these?: f What is this?
_------------------T-------------------
I

pi
g What is this? :
0
03
h What is this?
-------------------~------------
Answers are on page 116. --
.. _---
3.0""3 1633 113
QUESTIONS
,

a What is the time?


... -----.----------~~------------------.-

c What is this?
~
d What are these?
------------------+------------------
I

~I
e What are these?: f What is this?
--------------------T-------------------
I
I

/CPl 0
03
9 What is this? : h What is this?
--.-----------------~----------------.-.--
Answers are on page 116.
5 &"". 1633 113
QUESTIONS

a What is this? b What is this?

G
. . . . . . __ _____ . _ . ___ .t.. ................................ .
I

~~:
d What is this?

c_ad_?~ :
----------_.------+-----------------.

~i,
9 What is this? : h What is this?
__ .. ___________ .L_.
I ____________ ... ___
Answers are on page 116.
114
QUESTIONS
I
a This is 0 family. I b This isa plant.
I

~
I

htt-
I
I
I
I
I
:
Which parts of the
What do you see? IL ___________
_____________________ plant do you ___
see? __
c This is a fridge. d This is a dog.

lln~
What do you see in it? :
,~ Which parts of the
I dog do you see?
-------------~----~------------------
e What do you see?
I
f What do you see?

--=-I#_--~---_Q_-~--
g What do you see?
hW~

!l
---.----------~--.~.-~----P-----
Answers are on page l16.
.. -~---~-.
itS
Answers to questions on pages 113115.

Page 113
a 'rhe time is b They are apples.
four-forty-two (4:42). d They are leaves.
c It is a pot. f It is a bottle of milk.
e They are roots. h It is bread.
g It is butter.

Page 114
a It is cheese. b It is a cup.
c They are flames. d It is a horse. _
e It is a high building. f They are a box and
g It is a pig. its cover.
h It is a sheep.

Page 115
a I see a father and b I see its roots and its
mother and their son stem and its leaves
and daughter. and its flower.
c I see a bottle of ,"ilk d I see its head
and four eggs and and ears and n058,
two roots. its body its legs, and
I

e I see a bone. It is on. its tail.


the floor. And I see f I see two glasses.
the leg of a table. One of them has
g I see a woman. She liquid in it.
has a spoon in her h I see a man. He has a
hand. She is tasting glass in his hand. He
the soup. is having a drink
from the glass.
116
QUESTIONS
a Where are the : b What are these?

t~1
What has one woman
in her hands?
I
I
I
I

c d Where will she put


the gpple?
What is the girl Where was it before
doing? she took it?
(See pages 82-83)
Where is the apple?
f
I
What are some I f What aresom.
different sorts of : different sorts of
food? : animals?

I
I
I

9 What are some h What are some


different sorts of different sorts of
fruits? persons?
Answers are on page 120
117
QUESTIONS

~
--
a This is
a glass
of milk. Oi ~ ~.-.-:

~...
i>
t"~,
.... . ......~;'.
Is it dear? 00 you see : b Is the glass in this
through it? window dear?
\.

What do you see


through the window?
c Is glass hard? d Is meat soft?
e Is ice warm? f Are flames cold?
------------------.------------------

p
E.....--.;...~r~
9 What is he doing? , h What is she doino?
_____________________ A ___________________ _

Answers are on page 121.

118
QUESTIONS
I
a What do you see? : b What is he doing?
I
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~-------------------~------------------.
I ,.
I d What are these?
c What are they doing? :
I

l 1
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~I I
- - - - - - - - - -:.. - - - - - - - -I- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --
e What do we keep
in the f What are some
fridgel different sorts of
things? Give the
I names of ten different
things which you see
t in a house.
I
I

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ___ IL ____________________ _

Answers are on page 121.


119
Answers to questions on page 117.

a They are in'a store. It b These are shoes


is a clothing.store. She (women's shoes) and
has two dresses in her stockings and gloves.
hands.

c The girl is putting her d She will put it in her


hand up to the apple. basket. Before she
It is on a branch of an took the apple it was
apple tree. on the tree.

Bread, butter, milk, f Cows, pigs, sheep,


cheese, meat, eggs, goats, and horses are
and fruit are different different sorts of
sortsof food. animals.

g Apples and oranges h Men, women, boys,


are different sorts of girls, and babies are
fruit. different sorts of
persons.

120
Answers to questions on pages 118119.

Page 118
a No, it is not clear. b Yes. The glass in the
No, I do not see window is clear. I see
through it. some mountains and
a house.
c Yes. Glass is hard. d Yes. Some meat is
soft. But some meat
is hard.
e No. Ice is cold. f No. Flames are not
cold:
g He is taking potatoes h She is putting some
out of the earth salt in the potato
with a fork. soup.

Page 119
a I see a man. He is in b'-'He is putting his hat
a street. His hat is in on his head.
the air. The wind is
d One of them is a
taking it up. The wind
clock. The other is
took it off his head.
c They are in their seats an instrument for"
measuring heat.
at the table. They
have their spoons in f Rooms and doors"
their hands. They are and windows and
taking their soup. tables and Seats and
e We keep the milk, boxes and knives
butter, cheese, eggs, and spoons and forb
meat, and fruit in the and shelves are
fridge. different sorts of
things.
121
This is a bedroom.
There are two beds in it. This se~t is by the bed.

------------------+------------------
What is on the seat? A woman is by the bed.
A bag is on the seat. Who is she?
She is Mrs. Smith.

122
What is she doing? What is she putting into
She is putting things the bag? She is putting
into the bog Mr. Smith's things into it.

.-----------------+-----------------.
Mr. Smith is going to
California. Mr. and Mrs. I
I
Smith are in New York I
I
State. : ...... l ., \.'.,-

:!jlljj-~
I
I

,,
I
He will go by train. This
, is a train. From New
,
I
York State to California
I
I
is a long journey.
I
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I

123
I

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t
He will toke some socks.

~~~
I
I
I

What will he toke with


him to California?
He will toke some shim.
L
He will not"take old
socks. Old socks have
I holes in them
.-----------------+-----------------~
He will take new socks. These trousers have a
New socks have no hole in them.
holes in them. They are old trousers.

124
I
I
I

He will take some shoes.


I
I
The shoe bag will keep
the other things clean.
~l I
I
I
He will put them In a :
shoe bag.
The bag is between the
shoes and the shirt. The
shoes will not make the
shirt dirty.

------------------+----------------_.
My hands are dirty. This cloth is dirty.

1M!~ lfZl
~
y:.'
'.lff
','" fI ,.

This cloth is clean.

o 115
I
I His face is dirty.


I
o


, I

t~~ is dirty.
Th@)i$0P,a._ His face is clean.

:.-y
.;' "
,.
,


@

._----------------+-..............
I
---
The plate is dirty' but : Now the cfoth is dirty
the doth is deon. but the plate is clean.
I

I

t









o
This is a basin.
This is saap.

this is warm water in it

.---------~-------+-----.------------
What is she doing?

~~
... .'
,
~a
Her hands are wet now
but they are clean. They
She is washing her were dirty.
hands with soap
and warm water.

127
Her hands were wet.
I

f\ ~
I
I
I

~~
I
I
I
I
I 'II
I
t
I
I

~~
I
I
What is she doing? :
She is drying her hands : Now they are dry.
on a cloth. I
I They were dirty.
I
I Now they are clean.
I
.-----------------+---_._------------

I
I
I
I
I
I
4!
I
What is this?
It is a brush. : She is putting some
It is a toothbrush. : toothpaste on the brush.
I
I
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I
I
I
,
I
What is this? I
It is toothpaste. I

,
I

126
Now she is brushing her What is this?
teeth. It is a comb.
l...IItUU......... ,

And this?
,!IWIIQiUt ~
It is a brush.
Her teeth will be dean. It is a hairbrush.
They will be dean and
white.

-----------~-----+------------------
I
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t
I
I
She is brushing her hair.: Now she is combing her
I
:
t
I
.---......
hair.

I
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,
I

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t
I
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,
I
I
I
,
129
What are these? This pin ~
~
is like this pin.
They are pins.

But they are two pins.


They are not the same
pin. They are different
One pin is very like pins.
another pin.~

-----------~------~---.---------.----
She has a hairpin in
her hand.
She is putting it in her
hair.
=:::: )
::::: :::>
=x-::>
These are three hairpins~
They are different
hairpins.

130
j
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,
I
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I
I
!
I
,
I

Now it is in her hair. II He is bru$hlng his hair.


It was in her hand. I
I He does not put pins in
It is in her hair now. I his hair
But it is the same
I
,
hairpin. :
.--.---------~----~----~-~-----------
I

: She pYt all these things


:, in his bag.
I
Mrs. Smith put some
shirts and some socks
lMWllliWgu
SlImmlllllllll,
and shoes (in a shoe
bag) and a comb and 1 ...1---)1,... _
brushes and toothpaste II
and soap and a wash I
I
cloth in Mr. Smith's bag. I
I
I

131
I
I
I

Mr. Smith will go to the :


station in a taxi. :
I

1"'"'_-----......,.,
I

I
I
I
I

:~--
I
I
I This is the station.
This is a taxi. : The taxi is in front of
Mr. Smith is getting I the station.
I
Into It. I The time is 8:00.
He has his bag with him.: The train will go at 8:30.
I
I

-----.-----------~------------------
Mr. Smith is getting out Now he is going into
of the taxi. the station.

JDDDD[
VS:J

132
I

This is the waiting room: Here is a train.


In the station. jt -QUB-:--QUB-
~
~"~I
ra:j Thl~ is the engine of a
tram.

Those men and women


on the seats in the
waiting room are
i~
,
,
I

waiting. They are I


I
waiting for their trains. I
I
I
1

------------------+------------------
These are rails. The train
goes on these rails.
It is a rail rood train.

Here is the ticket office


in the station.
Mr. Smith got his ticket
here.

133
Here is his ticket.
He gave $132.35 for his
ticket. How much was his ticket
for the journey to Los
Angeles?
It was one hundred
I and thirty-two dollars
I
I and thirty-five cents
I
I ($132.35).
I
I
These are tickets. I

t


I
I
------_._---------+------------------
I
I
I

How long is the lourney? :


Four days. : How much money did
Which days will he be : he take with him for hi.
on the train? I journey?
He will be on the train : He took five hundred
Sunday, Monday, and nineteen dollars
Tuesday, Wednesday. ($519.00).
The other days of the Much money: $5000
week are Thursday, Little money:$S
friday, Saturday_

134
,
I
Mr. Smith has friends in I
' His friends were W'Qiting
Califarnia. : for him at the station.
I .

Mr. Smith His friends


Here are his friends.
1~11
I

He and his friends are


shaking hands,
(See page 254.)

---------------..
you
They soy, "Did
+.~~--
have :
..---....--
a good journey?" I His friend says, "Let me
He says, uy8S, but it have your bag, please.
was a long journey." He will go with hit
friends to their houte}
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t
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,
I

135
This is a letter: a.
These are letters: a, h, c.
This is a word: man.
Three letters make
the word man.
The man is writing a
letter.
~~iSawriti~g
on paper

.... ...,
,--::' This is the letter:
It is in Mr. Roe's writing.
Mr. Roe will send the
letter to Mr. Doe.
------------------+------------------
Here is the letter ready This is the back of the
for the post. letter.
Mr. Roe's name, and the
Here is the stamp. town where he is living

"... !f.e/t""" 8. b...


~-s.,.~
0
11t...~nr-.

Mr. Doe's name and are on the back of the


street and town are on letter.
the letter. Me. is short for Maine.
Mass. is short for Bar Harbor is in Maine.
Massachusetts. Massachusetts and
Middlefield is in Maine are two states
Massachusetts. of the United States
of America.
136
Mr. Smith is writing a :
Here is the other side of
card to Mrs. Smith. He is : the card.
in San Francisco. On one I
Mr. Smith is putting
side of the card is a :
Mrs. Smith's name on it.
picture of the harbor. :
Here is the picture.
This is a picture post
I
o
card.

He will put her street


under the name.
He will put her town
under the street.
Then he will put the
state where her town is.
---------------._-+------------------
Now the card is ready Mr. Smith is taking the
for the post. card to the Post Office.
He iJ going up the steps.
o I PO$T I
...... >'-~ OFFIC E
.,,).....t.'i.f,
't-' f ........ :N
- - 'f-rl''>104

There is a stamp on the


card.
Mrs. Smith's name and
street and town are on
the right hand side of He will put the card in
the card. the letter box on the wall
Mrs. Smith's town Is in of the Post Office.
New York State. He is sending the card
to Mrs. Smith.
137
This morning Mrs. Smith Reading and writing al'e
got the card which Mr. parts of our education.
Smith sent to her from We get a great part of
Son Francisco. our education at school.
She is reading it now. These boys and girls are
She is reading~ .... had a at school. The teacher is
good journey : teaching them.

------------------+------------------
Atschool, Tom and
Jane are learning. They
were reading and now
they are writing.

Mrs. Smith is sending


Jane and Tom to school.
They will t,. at school
(q
Tam is writing the word
before nine. learning an the boord.
They get good The teacher is teaching
teaching at school. him the word 'earning.

138
Now Tom and Jane are
back from school. Jane Tom and Jane are
is reading a story. getting a good

It is eight-thirty. Q education. They get


some of it at school, and
they get some of it from
Tcbn
is writing at the table. their mother and father.
Mrs. Smith is taking a
Tom's dog is at his feet. look at Tom's work.

~1I
I It is good work.

Mrs. Smith is reading


the newspaper.
~fty1.. Jil~
--------_ ....---- .... +..... -._---_ .. _--_
Now Mrs. Smith is I
writing a letter to Mr. : She will send the letter
Smith. She sends love : to Mr. Smith.
from Tom and Jone to I

~ en
their father. I

1l.....~.
-u~ ....... ..J,t
-.L.T_a...t She has the letter in her
~"t .....(.Dot o hand.

(X~
::::;::;~. Nowshels
sending the LlJ
letter.

She sent the ~


letter. 1]\
139
QUESTIONS
, I

a What are these? ,: b What are these?


,,
I

~ ,,
I

I
I
I
What is this boy I

dOing~? :
:
What i~
the man

... :,
: doing?

.1 ___________ ____ _
,

------------.--- ;,
c What are these? ,
I

V
I d What is this?
,
I

~
I
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I
I
I
,
I

,
I

I
What is the woman
doing?
I
,
I
I
I
,
I
I
I __________ _

----------A~s:;;;~~-~r;t~-p~g; 148.
140
QUESTIONS
a On page 133, where
did Mr. Smith get his
b How much was the
tick"" ~ ticket?

.------------------~-------------------
I
c How long was the
: d Did he go in an
iourney to Los : airplane?
Angeles? I

I
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._----------------+----------------_.
I
I
I
e What did his friends I f What did he say on
soy to him when they : the card which he
saw him? : sent to Mrs. Smith?

,
... ------------_._._ ...... ,- .... - ......... -.-_ .... __ ... -
I
I
I
g What are Tom and I h What did Mn. Smith
t
Jane learning at I send to Mr. Smith
school? I from Tom and Jane?
I
I

: Answe" are on page 148
.. -------------.----~---------.-.-.-- .. -.-
141
This is a plate.
The plate is round.
This is the earth.
C~
'\,
,
,
This is an orange. I

The orange is round.


I
, I

A
'\. ,
\;y "
The face of . The earth is round.
the clock is "," t~.
t L-1' .1
round. i4
The hands of '.
the clock go round.
--~---------------+----"-------------
I

1*
: This is the sun.
I
T.his is the moon. I This is
I
1 the sky.
1

~'~
: This is a cloud in the sky.

The moon is round.


~~--------~~-~
This is the earth.

142
I
The sun comes up in the : It comes up every
East. / : morning.
%
~
t-~ ....: ~
yJ)/t~--------
I

I
I
I

The sun goes down in It goes down every


the West. \ I / night. I \ I/
yY~

I
~'Cy'
-
._--------.. ------+---.... -----------
I
I
I
I
What is the time?
What is the time? I It is five-twenty
I
It is five-eight A.M. I (5:20) P.M.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

;t!:<t
of five-eight (5:08) A.M.
-! __l. .~
.
The sun is coming up now : Thesun is going down.
: now at five-twenty
I (5:20) P.M.
I
I

143
Yesterday the sun came
up at five-seven (5:07) This is night.
A.M. and went down
at eight-nineteen
.. :
(8: 19) P.M.
Today the sun came up This IS the earth.
at five-six (5:06) A.M- That is a star.
and will go down at
eight-twenty (8:20) '.M.
Tomorrow it will come This is morning.

t - Y-S./
up at five-five (5:05)
A.M. and will go down at :
eight twenty-one (8:21). II --- --
The sun is coming up.

------------------+--------~---------
North
I
I

: There are twenty-four

WO,,+Eas. I hours in one day.


I
I Twenty-four hours make
: one day.
: Two and two make four.
South I Three and five make
I h
I e.g t.
North

wes8Ea.South
: What do five and six
: make?
: Do they make ten, or
I eleven, or twelve?

: That is a question.
: The answer is "Eleven."
North, South, East, West I
I
are four directions. I
I
144
I I
I
I

I
Say these numbers: 1, 2, I
3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 10, 11,: What numbers come
12. : after 15?
VVhatnumberco~ Sixteen 16
after 12? Seventeen 17
Thirteen. Eighteen 18
VVhat co~ after 131 Nineteen 19
fourteen. Twenty 20
VVhat comes atter 141
fifteen.

-----------------+------------------
I
I
I

Twenty 20 Twenty-one 21: Eighty 80 Ninety 90
Thirty 30 Thirty-one 31 : A hundred 100 .
forty 40 forty-one 41 : A hundred and one 101
Fifty 50 Fifty-one 51 I A thousand 1000
Sixty 60 Seventy 70 : A minion 1,000,000
1

6 3 ...83 1633 145


WHAT A~R~E==------
a THESE THINGS?

q
4'71 [I i\'i ~
"~

~.
___ Ii

'v

~ w~'J
%~
Answers ore on page 149.
146
QUESTIONS I

a What do seven and b Where does the iun


eleven make? come up and where
What do twenty and does It go down?
forty make? Does day come after
What do thirteen and night? Ooes night
thirty make? come after day?
What do two hundred
and three an~ three
hundred and four
make?

-~--------.------+-------.--.---.-.-
I
I
I
{
I
I
I
IIIr. ,;,.. 9. ~ I
20 &&.l"
In.~
s,.,..... I d Tom's work atschool
OHIO : is learning. He is a
: learner. What is the
e This is a letter. Where I teacher's work?
do we put Mr. Green's:
street and town and :
state on the letter? :
I
I
I
I r
I""

Answers are on page 149.


6 147
Answers to questions on poges 140-141.

Page 140
a They are shoes. b They are shirts.
He is putting his He is putting his
shoes on his feet. things in his bag.
c They are toothpaste d It is soap.
and a toothbrush. She is washing her
She is brushing her hands.
teeth

.. ----------------+--~---------------
Page 141
a He got his ticket at b The ticket was
the ticket office in the $132.35.
station. d No. He did not go in
c The journey was four an airplane. He wenl
doys long. in a train.
e They said, "Did you I f He said, '" had a
have a good good journey and
journey?" will send you a long
g They are learning 'etter tomorrow.
reading and writing Love. John."
at school. h She sent love from
Tom and Jane.
148

Answers to questions on pages 146-141.

Page 146
a abed b a bog c a sock
d a stocking e a shoe f a hairbrush
g a toothbrush h a comb 1 a key
j a lock k a hairpin I a fork
m an engine n a plate o twopins
p 0 pen q rails r a card
s a stamp t a flame u a frome
v a hook w 0 book x a bell
y a bottle z a glove
Page 147
a Eighteen. Sixty. b The sun comes up in
Forty-three. Five the East and goes
hundred and seven. down ill the West.
Yes. dayGOmeS after
c We put his street night. Yes, night
under his name and comes after day.
we put the name of
the town under the d The teacher's work
name of the street. is teaching.
And under that we
put the name of the
state.

149
This boy's name is Tom This girl's nome is Jane.

.------------~~---+---.-.-.-- .. --.---
I
I

: Jane is saying, "What


Tom is making : are you making, Tom?"
I
something. I

I
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I
I
I
I
t
I
t



ISO
I
I

: ThIs Is a box.
Tom Is saying, ., am
making a house."
!~

-----------------+---~--------------

This Is one side of the This is the opposite side


box. of the box.

,I
1
1
1

151
,
I
This is the front of the I
I
And. this is the bock of
box. I
I
the box.
I
I
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I
I
I
I

..--~--------- .. -+-------.......... -
I
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I
This is the floor of the I
I
- And this Is the cover of
box. I the box.
,
I
I
I


I
I




152
I
,,
t

Now this side will be : This will be the opposite


one wall of the house. II wall of the house.
I
I
I
,
I
I

,
I

I will put another


I will put a window 'In window in this opposite
here. wall.

------------------+---------------~--
I
I
t
I
I This is a step.
The front of the box will :
be the front of the house. I
I
I
I

~
I
I
I
I
I
I
I These are steps.
I will put a step under I
the door. I
I
I
I
, I
, I
I
I
153
I
t
t
Jone said, A OJ
I
house hos 0 roof.
Will -you put 0
roof on the house?
How will you
make the roof?"
OJ I
I will moke the roof from
the cover of the box.

,/.:;,:-........
~.. "'..
-. --.....p:;/
"..

( )-1
.--.~-------------+------------------
.. I
I
r The cover is not long
No. There is not enough : enough.
wood in the cover. : It is not wide enough.
I
I
I

How long is the cover? l The roof is ..,


lilte thoIS. ....','.
I

i,
t
"iI'
How wide is the cover? :I

The roof.
t
t
I am measuring it. t

154
I
Here is a wider bit of I
wood. ,I
I
I
I
I
I will make the roof front
I
I
this other bit of wood.
I
I
I
I
I

1 ,
I

Longer I
,
I

I
I

It is wider and it is longer. :


I
I
I

------------------+------------------
, will make a cut in this This is an angle.
wood. /\

I will make a cut at this


angle. "
,_
This is an angle.
....\

,.. ..... This is a This is another


right ~""J.~right
A cut. angle. i
t
..angle.

I Ibd
155
,
I
'What are you doing, I
Tom?" : w. get woad fram trees.
"I am measuring the
woad."
These are trees.

It is good woad.

This is a measur

... ,~,,'
I I Some woad is hard.

. -~~------------~-+------------------
I
Som. wood is soft

: W. get hard woad


This is a tree. I from some trees.
I
I
I

: They giv. hard woad
'taus.

Other trees give soft


woad to us

156
~
I
Now I am making a cut I
at this angle in this bit of I This is my knife.
wood.

~
~IW----""
The blade is going
d
Thl. I. the
kn1fe.
bl~ 01 ""I

through the wood.

-~-------------.-+------ ..-----.---~
I am making a line on the
, wood.
10m making a line with
a pencil. This is the pencil.
-<, I J

/



157
: Ohf You are- going off
"Keep on the line when :. the linel
you are cutting. Don't go: The cut is not on the line.
offit."

._----------------.------------------
I

That is bad! The cut is You did that! You gave a


off the line. push to the table.

158
I
I

r-----------------~:,---------------,
No, I did notl Your knife
went off the line.
I
---

,
--~--~-----------+----
, . ..------------
It's not very bad. Tam is making another,
attempt.

Herte.s
o

the And here


line .: ---is the cut.

That is better. The cut is


a straight Une straight. The blade of the
knife went straight.
a bent line Goodl

159
Now I hove these two
bits of wood.

There is the roof of the


I will put them together house.
Uke this,

._-------_._._----+----.. --._._------
I
I
I
I
t

Iwill make a hole through


Now I will put the two this port of the roof into
ports of the roof together the other port of the roof.
with noils.

These ore noils

160
TJ i
Now he is putting the
nails in with his hammer.

Tom is making the holes


for the nails.

I
1
I
Now the two parts of the 1
roof are toqether. !
I
I
I
I
Oh yes,
it is very
strong.

The roof is ready.

161
Don't do tha-tl
Oh, now it
if brokenl

Is this line long?

This line is longer.

Is this bit of wood strong?

~
This bit of wood is
stronger.

162

I
I
I Where?
Here are the supports for :
the roof. I
I

~i
Will you put another In the middle.
support for it in the
middle?
Yes, that is better.

-~-~-------------+------------------

This is a straight line.

Thi}iS one
end of it.
1 This iJ the
other end.
This That will be better.
is the middle That will make the roof
of it. stronger.

This is a bent line. I


163
Jane is making What are you doing,
something. Jane?

.-----------------~-----.------------
I
I
I Here are the
: trousers.
I
I am making a coat and ,
trousers. :
I
I
I
I
I
Here is the coat.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

o 0

164
I
I
I
I This is the front of the
"Has your coat a collar?" : coat.

v1 Here is the collar of the


It""

~
coat.

"Yes, it has. Here is the


collar."

------------------+------------------
I
I
I
I
I
I
This is the back of the I This is one side of it.
coat. ,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

This is one pocket of it.

165
Here is the other side.

Thi! L-__............. \hiS


is the is the
right left
side. side

.. ----------------.-----------------~

These are the arms of the These are the buttons of


coat. the coat.

The The
right CJ Cleft
arm. arm.

166
This is a button.

~ -
This is a needle.

This is a button.hole.
This 1s thread.

I
-----------~-----+-.---------------.
I

What are you doing with


your needle now? And I am making the
button-holes.

, am putting this button


on the coat.

167
I
I
I
I

The girl will put the end :


of the thread through l This is the end of the
the needle.. : threa~~
I

;f~j
She has the needle in the
I
I
This is the hole in the
n"dl ~

fingers of one hand and :


the thread in the fingers : It is the eye of the
of the other hand. needle .
,
. -----------------+~-----------------
, I


I
I
The end of the thread is I
not going straight. It is
not going through the
hole in the n"dle.

The thread did not go


through the needle. U is
not through the hole in
the needle now.

168
It is on one side of the
needle.

~
It is on this side of the
needle.
Now the girl is doing it
again.
Is the end of the thread
through the hole?
No, it is not. If is on the
other side of the needle.

------------------.------------------
I
I
The girl is making I It went through. The
I
another attempt. I girl is taking the end of
This time the thread will : the thread in her fingers.
go through the hole. The I The thread is through
end of the thread is I the needle.

i~~
straight.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I

169
Where are your Narrow?
scissors? This is a narrow street.
Here they are.

This blade This blade


is narrow. is wide.

I
I
'rhis is a wide street. I
,
I
,
,,
1

,
I
I
1
1
I
I
1
I
1
I-
: These trousers
,,arewl'de. ~

l' These trousers are


,,-
, narrow.

170
QUESTIONS
b These are two cuts.
n /J

~
Which of them is Which of them is
thicker? Is wall A or wider? Is cut A or
wall B thicker?
__ 4 _______________ .L ___________________
cut B wider? ,
I
c These are two nails. I
I
d Which of
Which of them : thesetwo ~

1I
men is
is longer? :
stronger?
a/):
I
I
I
I

.-----------------+-----------------~
I
e Which of these two I f Which of these two
I
pencils is shorter? I cards is longer?
I
I
.-;tC==:::.==:JIDJ :
a .........
I
6 -"'C:==JDD. I
I
I
Which is wider?
I
- - - - - - --- -- - -- - .. -- --r- -- ------- - - - ----- - ---
g Which of these three I h Which of these things
angles is a right : are broken?
angle? i 4
~ '-z- ~ 1 e..DcQ,~ I
I
------------Ans~erjareLon-page174:--------
171
QUESTONS
a What is he doing? b What is she doing?

d What is he doing
now?

e What is he doing? f What is she doing?

""~"'i
<' i~
I I
---------------------T--------------------
g What is she doing : h And what is she

~ldO~
,
- - - - - - - - ____________ L ____________________ _

Answers are on page 174.


172
QUESTIONS

A What are these B Which of them go


things? through the air?
C Which of them go on D Which of them go on
their feet? the water?
Answers are on page 174.
173
Answers to questIoN on pages 171.173.
Page 171
CIWall B Is thlcbr. b Cut B Is wider.
c Nail It. Is longer. d The man who is on his feet
is stronger.
Pencil 8 Is shorter. f Cord 8 is longer.
Cord It. Is wider.
g Angle C is a right angle. h The cup, the hammer, and
the plate or. broken..
Page 172
a He is going up the steps. b She Is going down
the steps.
e He is putting a nail in with d He is taking a noll out
a hammer. wi'" a hammer.
.HeismeasuringaboJc. f She Is putting a thread
through the hole In CI
needle.
She Is taking the end of h She Is putting a button on
the thnIad between her wlth a needle and thread.
finger and thumb.

Page 173
It. a atrain b its engln. c a plone d a seat
a ship f a flower g mountains h trees
i a star I a cloud k the sun I the moon
mapig n a sheep o a horse p a cow
q a dog , a goat I a coat t a bird
V trauIerI " acup w a knife x a spoon
J sdssors
B Airplanes and birds go through the air.
C Pigl, sheep. horses, cows, dogs, birds, and goats go on
thelrf. .t.
D Ships and some blrdl go on the water,
174
The earth goes round In The earth goes round
twenty-four hours. the lun In a year.
,,1/ ...........
->;" / ..~
,.
( -0'
"',......... "... ".
.:
There are twenty.four There are three hundred
hours In every day. and sixty-five days in a
The lun comes up and year.
goel down. every day Thr.. hundred and
because the earth is slxty-flve days make a
turnin; round. year.

...------
I

.-----.-~---------.---------
There are seven days in a week. Seven days make a week.
Here are the names of the days of the week: Monday, Tuesday,
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Monday
is before Tuesday. Tuesday is after Monday.
There are thirty-one June (30)
or thirty or July (31)
twenty.e/;hf days in Q August (31)
month. September (30)
Here are the names of October (3l)
the months: November (30)
January (31) December (31).
February (28) January is before
March (31) February ...
April (30) February is after
May (31) ~ January .

175
I
I
In the North, the earth
, is cold in the winter.
These are the winter : The wind is cold.
manths: December, : Snow comes down from
January, February. the sky.
These are the summer There are no leaves on
months: June, July, the trees.
August. There is ice over the
These are the spring
months: March, April,
May.
These are the fall
months: September,
October, November.
,
I

I
,
I

I
I

,
------------------+------------------
I
I
I
In the North, the earth I
I
and the air are warm in I
the summer. There are I
leaves on the trees. I
The days are long.
There is no ice or snow.
,
I

I
I
I
I
I In the spring the leaves
I
I cOIne out on the trees.
I
I Plants come up out of
I the earth, and flowers
I
I
I
come out on the plants.

176
I
I
: In the spring the days.
: get longer.
: Every day is longer than
I the day before it.
; In the 'spring today is
: longer than yesterday.
In the fall, the leaves I
come down from the : In the fall the days get
branches of the trees. ! shorter.
Fall is the time of the I Every day is shorter
fall of the leaves. : than the day before it.
They are coming down. I In the fall tomorrow will
They are falling,
,
: be shorter than today.
I

------------------+------------------
Fifteen minutes make a
This line quarter of an hour.

~
is longer than
this line.
Thirty minutes make
The time between three half an hour.
and four is shorter than
the time between three
and five. I
$
Forty-five minutes make
$
One hour is a shorter I
time than two hours. three-quarters of an
h~r.
I

I

7 3a1Ul3 1633 177
,
I

I
I
Which is shorter-o
quarter of on hour or , A This is on inch. B
I

I I
half on hour? : The distance from A to B
, is one in'ch.
Which is shorter-the :
minute hand or the hour '
hand of a clock? ' : Half on inch is a shorter
: distance than on inch.


I
L

I It.. quarter Thr';'-quorters


I
I of on inch of on inch
I

._-'........ .. _-_...-.... ----.... .. _----------


I
I
_-.' -

Three feet make a yard.


Twelve inches make a
foot. This is a yard measure.
I , t , J ',,,,11 "."",,,, 1t,1 tr I
lie f t, 'fit,'
there are thirty-six
inches in a yard.

)l ~afoot. These are feet.

V~
it t t , , , , , , , t i

How long is it?


It is ten inches long.
They are not twelve
inches long,

178
I

t:
I
I
I
Seventeen hundred and !
sixty yards (1760) make :
a mile. I
In half a mile there are :
eight hundred and :
eighty yards. :
Miles, yards, feet, and I

inches are measures of : What are this man,and


distance. : this girl doing?
: They are taking a walk.
,
I

I
I

.-------.. _--_. _.. _-+--...... _------'---.-


I

I
I
I
: This is a Ira~

In one hour he will go


:"Ei)f ~
: Trains are quidcer than
two miles, and she will
10 four miles. : horses or men.
,
He is slow. She is quick. :
She is quicker than he is. I

He is slower than she is. ~


,
I
I
I
I Planes are quicker
, than trains or hor$es or
: men .
I
7 t79
I
This baby is one year
i
I

old. ~

. .
ThIs boy IS ten
years old.
~ : The baby is very young.
: How old is he? He is
: one year old.

f
; : The old man is very old.
This man is thirty years I Howald is he? He is
old. ,
: ninety years old.
I
This
old man i~ II
ninety years I
old. :
That is a stick :
in his hand. I
------------------+------------------
This room is twenty feet
long and sixteen feet
I
This box is four inches wide Iand twelve feet
long and three inches : high.,
wide and two inches I
I
high. I
I
I
I
I
,
I

I
I
I
I
How high is the
,, high.
How long is it? I room? It is twelve feet
It is four inches long. ,
I
I
I
I
180
Thisisa ~ This is a thin ~
short coat. U1..l..1\) beak. "JJ
This is a [fiI\. This is a thicker ~
longer coat.~ t book. \{J
This is the
longest coat
of the three.
ill This is the thickest
book of the three..
~
'tJ
---.--.-----------+-.-----.-~---~--~
I
I

o
I This is a dirt)' face.
This is a narrow street. I
I
I
t

This is a deaner face.
,a Wid~:. street.
ThiS}i:
i.:\.
\:Y
" U '"
This is the deanest face
This is the widest street
of the three.
of the three

,dtl'~~_ .@
Which is the dirtiest
street of the three? face?
181
This man is

Glass \J
-is harder than
B3 : older than
this boy.

~
I

wood~_ -: -)1: The boy is


I
I
older than
Wood is harder than I this baby.
~reod. e>f:E3 I
I
I
I
Which of 0t:T\
Bread is harder than them is the /'~
butter. C~? ordest?
The baby is the
Which is the softest of youngest. He is very
these?- young.
Which is the hardest?
"',--_._---------..-.-+---------------.-...
This man
This line
fsstronger

h
than thil is as long as this
boy. line.
The boy The two lines are
is not as
strong as equal (==).
I
I
the man. I
I This line _ _ __
He is not as old as the I
I
man. I
I is not as long as
The baby is ,not as old I:
this line.
as the boy or as strong I
as the boy. : They are not equal

I

f82
I
I
I
I
What are some other
A train may .go eighty : sorts of tra'lsport?
(80) miles in an hour. I
I

An airplane may go
three hundred (300)
miles in an hour. ShiJ's are anoti\er sort
of transport. . .
. H~w far may d q~,;ck
Trains end oirplaftB ship go in an hour?
are different sorts <_ A quick ship may go
poge 106} of transport. thi~ mil~s in an hovt.

I ..

AitplaneS'Jtroins. sftlps, .
~uto~obiles

are an other : !ok. us fro~ One place


sort of transport. :I fp ~:lftother. .
I
)
~I
,
I
,I
I
I
I
I
I

'ID
We may go on our feet
fram one pJace to
another..
Or we may go in a train
or in a ship or in an
automobile or in a
plan..

When we -go on our


fat, we are walking.
I

.~-~~~------------+------------------
Same places are near Places in Washington
to one another. are near to one
o 0 another.

The distance from one


place to another is not
Some places are for for.
from one another.
o 0
But some places in the
United States are for
from one another.

184
This is a map of North Americo.

Miulul~
Mexico City~

---.. -------------~-----------------.
These are mountains.
I
I
I

it
~ : Men go up mountains.
~
: Mountains are high.
~ I
I
: Trains go on railroads.
These are 111111111111: ..c:--...~
railroads. : .Jill t t
n a n ft I A road ~
___ DO!
C'
II II II II II _~...~~~....._ _
9Q~

These are roads. " " : .........._:~ - ....:. _ ~


~! Ariv; - ....
These are.rivers. I

185
.t t

I
I

Ottawa, Washington, : The government of


Mexico City, New York,: Canada is in Ottawa.
~nd Los Angeles are :
towns. ~
I

I
,
I The government of the
United States is in
I
I
Washington.
I
I
I
I
This is a town. : The government of
: Mexico is in Mexico City.
I
I
I

* --'----- --_ .. _-+----------------_.


I

is
How fa, Oitawt.
from Mexico City?

the.J
The distance from
Ottowa to MeXico City
is abdut twenty-three
hundred miles. How fa< Is
How for is New YOIl: of the Mackenzie River
from Los Angel"? from the mouth of the
The distance between MifoSissiPPl*?
New York and Los The distance is about
Angeles i$ about 3300 miles.
twenty-five hundted The mouth of a river is
miles. the place where it goes
into the sea.

186
This is the earth. We This is the earth. We
are seeing it from the are seeing it from the
south...~
north.
~.--'b'~,

~
\

\ ,I:
:'f
\ 1
\<~, j
I
I
I
~
'''........
-.. _....-:.,,"
~ '

There is more land than : There Is more water


water on this side of the II than land on this lide.
earth. I

.. ......
I
I
I
I
I
---_._-----------
This is the moon.
_ I
_-----.--

0""
I
I Do we ever see the
I
.. i I other side of the moon?
c I
No.
I
I
I
I

The moon goes round :
the eorth in 0 month.

I
k
,
, ...... , III:'
\



I ,
I

, 0
I
,,~
I
: We see the same side
I of the moon at all times.
: Why?
I-
"', ,11 I
' ..... - - ' I

187
We see the same side at The moon .... ~
all times because the
moon is turning round.
,
\

The earth 0 I

It is going round the


earth and it is turning
round itself.
It keeps the same side
to the earth.

------------------t------------------
We see the same side of
the moon at all times. Sometimes we see the
Sometimes we see it moon like this.
like this.

This part
of it
is is
dark. bright.

This is a half moon. This is a quarter moon.

'88
I
Sometimes we see it like I And sometimes we see
this. : it like this.
This is a new moon. : This is a full moon.
I
I
I
I
,
I

I
I
o
This is a new h a g This gl... i. full. 'fi1
fhis is an old h~ This glass is
not full.
e\21
.-----.-.-.--~-
These are the cha"ges
of the moon.
..-.-.---------------.
Change? What is that?

Full, 0 Here is a change in the


three.quarters,O direction of this line.

half,()
a quarter, I>
new And here is another
change.
But at all times we see
the same side of the
moon.

189
I

,! "
,,
~.
~. ~~1'
~:
~
pot~toeswere
.
er\. I
The hard.
After a time they were
: soft. There was a
Here are two trains. / : chan,ge ir;- tile POcS:-~~
The man was in this :
train. : . ..if
He is going to the other I
I
train. I
He is making 0 change. :
He is changing trains. :
....... _-_ ..... -- ................., ........ -
I

I
I
I
f
this wafer was cold. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Now it is boiling. : In the summer the leaves
is c:JICha~ge.
Thf!i3at I
I
I
are on the trees. .
I

.- ..
I
. ':
c :
I

.,~ I
I
I
I
In the fall the leaves
There was a change in I come down off the trees.
I
the water. I That is Q change.
190
I

~i
He took the dollar and
he gave
I a half dollarc;=::;.

I
and a quarter ~
I
I
I (dollar) ---
I
and twenty C!:) C!D

I
I cents
I
I
'c I
, took a .l'Iewspaper and I
gave a dollar ($1) to : This is the money
the men. which he gave to me
with the paper.

".-..-.. -.-'--.--..--.'".+'. . . ..-.------,---..-,'-


I
~

The price of the paper : That money was my


was five cents. I got the: change.
paper and ninety.five I I had a dollar.
cents from him. : After I got the paper I
: had the paper and
$1.00 - 100 cents : ninety-five cents. I did
Paper - 5 cents II not have the dollar.
95 cents II That was a change.
I
I
f

191
QUESTIONS

a Is the boy nearer to b Which of these two


the woman than the is farther from the
girl is? tree?

Is the girl nearer to Is the bay farther


the bay than to the from the tree than
woman? from the girl?

,--------------.--+~-----------------
,I
I
I
c Which of these two I
glasses is full of I
I
water, the glass to I
I
the right or the glass I d Is there more land
to the left? ,
I
than water on the
I south side of the
I
, earth?
,,
l

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
----------Answej.; are. .on-page 194.- --- ------
.,
QUESTIONS
I

: b I got a boak. I gave


A B c o three dollars to the
man in the bookstore.
He gave me the book
a Which of these is a and fifty cents. What
half moan, which is a was the price of the
full moon, which is a book? How much was
quarter moan, and , the boak? How much
which is a new maon?: change did he give
me?

------------------.------------------
,
,
I

c How far may a quick : d What are some


.rain go in an hour? : different sarts of
How far may you go I transport? Which is
on your feet in an ' the quickest sort
hour, four miles or of transport?
forty?

,
I
I
I
I
---Answersor:on-page 1~4.-- - - -- -. - -
193
Answers to questio~s on pog"es 192193.
I
I
I
I
Page 192 I b The girl is farther "
I
t from the tree. Yes,
a No, the girl is nearer I
I
the boy is farther
to the woman. Yes, I from the tree than
I
the girl is nearer to I from the girl.
I
the boy thon to the I
woman. I
I
d No. 'rhere is more
I
I
water them, land on
c The glass to the left I the south side of the
Is full of water. : earth.
I
I
I
,
I

" ......._------- .......... _------------_.'.


I
.t

Page 193 : b The price of the book


: was $2.50. It was
a C is a half moon, : $2.50. He gave me
B is. a full moon; I
I
50 cents change.
O IS a quarter moon, I
and A is a n,w moon. I d Ships, trains, horses
and carriages, and
c A quick train may go airplanes are
a hundred /niles in different sorts of
on hour. I may go transport. The
four miles but nof airplane is the
forty. quickest of these.

194
.t
I
I
The distance through : How far is the moon
the earth from North to I from th-. earth?

miles. CDi
South is seven thousand 1 It is tw; hundred and
nine hundred (7900)
l
: forty ftIousa?d
I (240,000) mIles from the

i o--------~
I earth.

,
I HoW' far is the sun from
The distanee ~nd the : the +earth?
earth is twenty-four : The distance of the sun
thousand nine hundred : frorj1 the earth is
(24,900) miles. I nin~ty.three million
: (93,000,000) miles.
I

----------.. -~--.-+---~--------------
. Whatis that"- , I
t
inyour ~ I
hand? : \VJ1at is the size of the
It is abo!. . : sur?
The ball is , It Is 864,000 miles
small. : throUgh from one sid.
~ to the other.

What is tha~~
in the sky?
It is the stln.
The sun is great.
The sun is a great ball
of fire.

195
What is the size of The mQOft is near the
the moon? earth. The earth is far
It is two thousand one from the sun.
hundred and sixty New York ~s near
(2T6O) miles through WashingtOn. San
from one side to the francisco is far from
other. Washington.
Is the moon smon., I
than the earth? I NewYork~
Washington
Is the earth smaller than :
the sun?
Is the sun greater than :
: ,..----
the moon? I
I

: San francisco
-----~------~~~---+------------------
*. ~ I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Are the stars smaller I
I
than the sun? I
No. Some of the stars : How far from the earth
are much greater than : is the nearest star?
the sun. I It is over four light-years

Are they nearer than : from the earth.


the sun? : What is a light-year?
No, they are much : h is the distance which
farther than the sun. light goes in a year.
I
I
I
I
I
I

196
; J

~~I/
This is a ftame. Light goes 186,300 miles
It sends out light. in a second.
How for does it go in a
year?
The sun sends out light.
The light goes out from " goes about
the sun in every 6,000,000,000,000
direction. miles in a year.

I "': .
. _----------------+------------------
I
A light-year is The nearest star Is
I
I
6,000,000,000,000 25,000,000,000,000
I
I
miles. I miles from the earth.
I
I The nearest stars are
I very for from us.
I
The nearest star Is over: Some of the stars are
four light-years from : very much farther.
the earth. I The farthest stars are
I thousands of light-years
I
I from us.
I
,
I
I
I
I

197
_c

The sun sends its light Up and down are two


out in every diredion. other directions.
North Up
I North East
I
I
West East:

South
Down
These are four
.-_illt._________. . .,..... ______ ______ _.....
directions. ~ _~ ~

I
This boy has six apples I
He sent one apple
in his hands. I
I north, another apple
He is on a branch of a I
south, another east,
I
tree. I
I and another west.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

He will send the six He sent another apple


apples in different down.
directions. He sent five apples
in five directions.
198
-, ,-----------~---------

: ,".
..t
The first apple went
north and then it came
down. The other apples

--BU .
went south and east and
west and then they all

11
came down to the earth.
... .........
.....
+~ . . . . . . . ". . . (fI. ~
.,.,. .......... .,."' ... "':-t ................ \

He sent the last apple ... t


up. But then it came They all came down
down. , to the earth?
Why did it come down? : Why did they come

.--..-'---..-..--...
The first apple
I down?
----.~---,--------------

The last apple . I


I
What is "the first" . ? I
I
What is "the last" ..1 Here are three dogs.
I
I
Which is the first dog?
I

These men are in a line. : Which is the last dog?


\hiS is the fint man. The other dog is the
dog in th,e middle.

~t~~~ ,
He is between the first
dog and the last dog.
Two of the dogs are
white.
This is the last man. : The other dog is black.
I
The dog in the middle
is black.

I"
I 1

d It is coming down
.,)-------- because there is an
attraction between the
two bodies.
H are two bodies. The ottt.Gction between
~ is a great body. themmcskas the appl.
h it the earth. comedown.
The other Is a small
body. It is an apple.
The apple is coming
down to the earth.
Why?

------------~-----+-----------~------
All bodies which have Her. are two men.
weight have an
attraction for on.
another.

t
This man
Is thin.
(J
This man
is fat.
His body w.. body
is thin. is fat.

Which body has the Which man's weight if


greater weight? greater?

200
..
.
I Which man's weight
,
I
is greater?
,

1
I
They are on the sca'e.
, I
I
I
I The weight of
I
1 the thin man is .'
I
I 100 pounds.
This is a scale. I
I
I
I

A scale is an instrument : The weight of


the fat man is
~
for measuring weight. :
I
200 pounds.
,
I

1
I
I

-----~------------+-------------.----
This is an
I instrument for
Clocks are instrumenb I measuring
I
for measuring time. ,
I
I
heat.
A yard
I
, measure is an
instrument for
This is a watch.
,,,
I
measuring

~ ,
I
distance.
""""::"1'"11,11'''1' ;
I
I
I
Watches and clocks I I , , , I , , , I , , , I
are instruments for I
I
measuring time. I
Inches, feet, yards,
I
,
I
metres, and miles are
I measures of distance.
101
If the bodies go farther
Atl bodies have an from one another the
attraction for one attraction gets smaller.
another. 0++0
-0
Or+ ~O
If the bodies are great Distance Attraction
the attraction between 1 1
them is great. 2 114
0-+ +-0 3 119
If the bodies are small 4 1116
the attraction is small. 5 1125
---------------~--.-.~-----------~--~
1Here is a light.
:::~.,.~ 4 - Here is a square.

" I '-It send~s~ou;;;t_.lI~g~h;;tiiin,-J~L-----_ __

= . ~n'g 11
I put the squQre at different distances from the
light. At distance 1. it gets all the light which Is
going out between the lines. At distance 2, it
gets one-fourth of the light. At distance 5,
it gets one twenty-fifth. It is the same with the
attraction between bodies.
I
I
,
I

I The moon is a great


1)1, body. Its weight fs
great.
The earth is a great
~:, body. Its weight is
eighty-one times the
I
weight of the moon. '
What keeps the moon Two times three is six.
up in the sky? 2X3=6
Why does not the
moon come down?

--_ ....... ---- _."--.-- --'. ----------.-- -------.


I
I
I
The moon and the :
earth are not very far : Because they are great
from one another. I
I
bodies and near one
The distance between I another, the attraction
them is about two : betwee" the moon and
hundred and thirty-nine : the earth is very great.
thousand (239,OOO) : Why does the moon not
miles. I come down to the
I
I earth?

........
I
I That is a question.
I
I
..,.........
~
I
I
O 0"

I
I
I

203
,
I
The answer is: "Because :
it is go;ng round the I
I
eorth I This is a cord in my
I
I hand. The cord has a
.f/I',.. --.............
Themoan I
I weight at its end.

I
/' ""'",
\

,I
\
Theeorth
0
\
:
:
11!e weight
is hanging
\ : down on the
\ I cord which
'. /
" ' ........ __ .......'*'" is in my
hand.

--..--.-..-----.-+-----------------~ I
I
I Now I let the end of
I
I make the weight go t the cord in my hand
round on the cord. . : go.
t
I
I
I
,
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I keep the end of-the The weight goes oft
cord in my hand. in a straight line. It
takes the cord with it.
..
"

The pun of lbe cord In The aftraction between


my hand kept the the earth and the moon
weight from going off fc.teP$ the moon from
in a straight line. elbing off in a straight
line.

.--~-------------+-
I
I
...---...--------
I
I
I

I It does not get farther

I
I
from the earth

0:-..:--&+0
I
I
I
I
I or flearer to the earth.
I
I
I
I
0:---.-..:--....04)
I
The moon goes round I
and round the earth : It keeps about the same
month after month I distance from the earth.
I
I
I

205
- 9 ' ,.

Here is 'Sir Isaac :


Newton, the great : He Is under on apple
man of science. Newton ,
hod a great mind.
, tree.
I
,
, It is the year 1666.

I
I Those are apples which
I
ore over his head.

'I

,I The seat has three legs.





fi1
----------------.-+---.-.. ~---.------
I
I
Here is an apple which I
The apple came off the
I
was over his head. branch.
I
The apple was on Q I It came down.
branch of the tree. ,,
.
I
I I
.t!
",
4"
:1. :
I

I

,

!



.
\'
It,
'(
,I',
~

t


I
~

It came down on
Newton's head.

206

That is the story.


True?
The story may be true
or it may not be true. 2 + 2 == 4. That is true.
2 + 2 = S. That is not

~
. true.
It is a false statement.
N Apples are fruit."
That statement is true.
"Apples are animals."
That statement is false.
But that is the story. =
False not true
It comes from the great Short = not long
writer, Voltaire. Shut == not open

...,.......... . .
~ ---.-.~-~,.+----~~-,~----~~*1111!~-.-

The blow which the


apple gave to Newton's
head gave an idea to
Newton. It made a
question come into
Newton's mind.

In this story the fall of


the apple on Newton's
i f)
This was the question:
head was the cause of "Have the fall of the
the idea. apple and the motion
of the moon the same
cause?"

207
<1
Here Is a ball. his
hanging on a

I gave the blow.


Now the ball is in
I will give a blow to motion.
the 6011 with this stick. What was the cause

~l
of the motion?
The blow of the stick
was the cause of the
motion.

-~--~-----------i------------------
I
The ball was not in :
motion before the blow. :
It was at rest. It was I
hanging on the end of :
the cord. :

The blow was the


1!
cause of the motion.
I
I
I
,
I
After the blow the ball
was in motion.
I The motion came from
I
I the blow.
I
The motion was the

effect of the blow.
Which of the statements on this page are true and
which are false? Put a T before the true statements
and on F before the false.

a 1. The earth is In b 1. The moon fs


motion. greoter than the
2. The earth is sun.
turning round. 2. The sun is colder
3. The earth goes than the moon.
round the moon. 3. The moon goes
round the earth.

C 1. The attraction d 1. When a blow


between two puts a boll in
bodies gets motion, the blow
greater as they is the couse of
go farther from the motion.
one another. 2. When a blow
2. The attraction puts a boll in
between two motion, the
bodies is greater motion is the
when they are effect of the
nearer. blow.
3. When two great 3. When a body
bodies are near is in motion it Is
one another the at rest.
attraction
between them is
small.

Answers are on page 212.

8 3uaa 1633 209


QUESTIONS

Milk (omes from a (ow. Heat (omes from thewn. or


a fire. Where do these things (ome from?

a potatoes b cheese c light


d letters e flowers f snow
g oranges h meat i eggs

Which of these things have a face?

a man a dog a bone a fridge


a clock a tree a goat a bird
an airplane a river a table
Which of them have a mouth?
Which of them have hands?
Which of them have a door?

Answers are on page 212.

210
QUESTIONS

a We put a bottle on b We put potatoes in


a shelf. a pot.
Which of these Which of these things
things may we put may we put in a pot:
on a shelf: water, windows,
a book, a mountain, food, streets, tables,
a cup, a box, a star, milk, soup, trains,
a clock, a horse, salt, colors, eggs.
a distance, a plate, wood, ideas?
a carriage,' a river,
a house, a spoon,
a garden?

c We put money in d We put our hats on.


our pockets. Which of these things
Which of these things may we put on: feet,
may we put in our boots, seats, gloves,
pockets: pipes, shirts, walls, directions,
education, letters, coats, buildings, soop,
pencils, offices, scissors, collars, locks,
islands, maps, hands, socks, trousers,
governments, buttons, branches, trays, shoes,
watches, distance, apples?
balls, roofs, knives?

Answers are on page 212.

211
Answers to questions on pages 209-211.

Page 209
a 1. T b 1. F c 1. F
2. T 2. f 2. T
3. f 3. T 3. f
d 1. T
2. T
3. F
Page 210
a from the roots b from milk c from the sun or
of a plant flames
d from persons e from plants or f from the sky or
from seeds clouds
g from orange h from animals from birds
trees

A man, a dog, a clock, a goat, a bird may have a face.


A man, a dog, a goat, a bird, a river may have a
mouth.
A man and a clock.may have hands.
A fridge and a plan. may have a door.

Page 211
a' a book,.a cup, a box, a clock, a plat., a spoon.
b water, food, milk, soup, sal., eggs.
c pipes, letters, pencils, maps, hands, buttons,
watches, b1JUs, knives.
d boots, gloves, shirts, coats. collars, soc:b, trousers,
shoes.
212
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I,' , ,
I
I JI )~ ..
I
I
I
I
I
I Because it Is raining.
What Is this? : Water is coming down
The man has an : from the sky.
umbrella in his hand. I
I
The water il roln.
It is open. I Rain is coming down.
He has it over his head. : Rain is falling.
Why? : It is raining.
I
I

.---~-----------~~-----------------.-
The rain made the Today the,e are daIt
man put up his . clouds in the sky.
umbrella. That was the They come betweeft_
effect of the rain.W and the sun.
Today is Monda~ The dark clouds keep
Yesterday (Sunday) tile light of the sun from
the sun was bright.
There were no clouds
In the sky.

J5JJ 213
The rain comes down
from the clouds on me.
It comes down on my
head.

aW

..Why
-.--------------+-----------------~ I
is if raining today? : Today the weather is
Yesterday the weather : bod. Th. rain is coming
was good. Th. sun was I down. The wind is
bright.
The airwas war* : : blowing. It is cold and
the rain makes U$ wet
.,.

, v
.,
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
)~}.\.'': ~"li
1 "
"', I
I
I

214

Tomorrow the weather may be worse.
It may be very <:old. All the water may be Ice.
Snow may be coming down making everything
white.
Will tomorrow be like
this?
Is this winter or summer?

Or tomorrow the weather may be better.


The sun may be bright again. The air may be
warm again and the streets may be dry again. /
Will tomorrow be lik. " 1/ .
this? '::.:0<
" '"

215
What are the causes This bird ~
of these changes in the was wet.... ,.
weather? Change? Itwos in
What is thot?CSee page the rain.

+
190.)

"
Here Is
a line....

~ t
II

Her.. is a change In the :


2:
:
:
change.
Itwas
;r
Now .it Is dry.
Thatisa

wet. It is
direction of the line.
dry.
--~--------------.-------~~---~~--~~

What fA the couse of There is nat one cause


these changes In the only. The,. are numbers
weather? of caUteS. Changes in
the heat which comes to
us from the sun are one

-. *
Good 80d cause of changes of
Dry Wet
Warm Cold
Weather

Why are ....... these


changes of weather?

216
If you take a look of
the sun through a bit
The amount of heat of dark glass you may
which the earth gets
from the sun is different see smalt marks on
the face of the sun.
from time to time.
There are changes in
thewn. fo

.-----------~~----+-----------------~
I
Amount? One dollar is I
I
a small amount of I
money. A million dollars :
is a great amount of :
money.
A drop of rain
Is a very small ,
amount of
water, : There is a great amount
r of water in the sea.
There is a
amount of
sma" n : This is the sea.
: Those are ships which.
water in this
810&
ID

: are on the sea.
I

I
217
I
I
I
I
Changes In the heat : He made it by measuring
which comes to the I the heat which comes
earth from the sun are : to the earth every day
one cause of changes : from the sun.
in the weather. This The amount of heat is
discovery Is new. A different from day to
man of science made day.
the discovery in 1944.

.~-----------~~---+----.-
I
I
..----------
: Men are making new
On some days the sun I discoveries every day.
sends more heat to the : Columbus made the
earth. On other days it : discovery of America
sends Ltsa heat to the : in 1492. Columbus came
earth. to America in his ship
: in 1492"
I
I

-~-
There is more water In :
this gl~ than in that. ,: .. t;,. ... _ .. - .
.. .... .. w



I
I
,
218
What were some other Another great discovery
great discoveries? was the wheel.
One of them wal Are.
Wheel. are
round.

, i Theygo
round.

Fire is of very great


\Wi "=Acart
use to men. It gives UI
heat.
They are 01 very
use to man
,reat
..Another
------------------
greot discovery
.. --~------------
was clothing. The making of croth
wal a great discovery.
Thll II how we make
doth.

What are these? I


These or. some other :
sorts of clothing. :
I
These are threads. (See

9 liFl
A skirt A shirt
page 167.)
They goocrou from on.
lid. to fhe other of 0
: frame.
I

219
These are other threads. :

I'I'
~II . :
This is cloth.

III :
I I
I, t
They go across the first
::
threads.
This is a roll of doth.
----1+1-'- We make clothing of
_ _ _1111- cloth. We make cloth of
----.;-,!1+1-
threads.
They 00 under and over
them.

--------~---------------------------~
I
We make threads from I Wool is the thick warm
wool and cotton and
silk. Men
hair of sheep.
take the wool off
I
the sheep's back with
I scissors.





I

We get wool from sheep

.,~:

220
We make threads from
the wool by twisting the
hairs round and rOtlnd. We get catton from the
catton plant. <.
That wheel is going
round.
It is giving a twist
to the th read .
It is twisting the
thread.
Cotton is the soft white
hair round the seeds of
the plant.

-----------------.~-----------------~
I

These are different sorts : We get silk from the


of seeds. I silkworm.

Plants come up from


seeds which come from I
other plants of the same : This worm makes a soft
sort. : strong thread of silk and
: puts it round itself like a
: coat.
I
I
I

---"IF--~-H=- : Af!t1J.{(.~(;IC'(f~{t(ll

221

Wool, cotton, ond silk :
are different IOrts of :
doth. W. make clothing ,: When the weather I.
of all these sorts of doth cold we put on thick
(See page 81.) :
J warm wool clothing,

~nijJ] \
When the weather i.
warm we put on thin
cotton cloth1ng. Cotton
clothing is not as Warm
I
I os wool dothing.
I
I
t
t
t
I

...-----.-._.- ..... _._._--_._ ..... _-


I
I

Thick dothlng keeps VI


worm. It keeps us warmer
than thin clothing.
Thick doth keeps air In
tt, between the threads.
The air does not let heat A thick roof keeps the
go through it. heat of the house in.
A thin roof lets the heat
go through it.

I
I
i~
: A thick roof keeps the
I heat of the sun out.
222
I
I
Here is a pend!. I
I
I put the pencil In the
It is straight. It I, not I water.
I
bent. I
I
p I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Here I, a glass of water. '


The pencil seems bent
where it goes inta the
water.

_.. _._.----_._----+--------------_.--
I
I
The pencil is straight : It seems like this.
but it seems bent. t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I

I
I
t
It is straight, not bent.
I
I It seems bent, not
I straight.
I
I
I

223
: After I put it in the water
DeTore , put th
Il_L , , : it seemed b~nt,
. e pencld III It wasn 't b ent
i n t he water .t seeme
straight, It was straight. :
,,
: When It is in the water it
l seems bent.

When it is out of the


water we see that it is

"
straight.
-wE
.
.-..._-_._._------+-.---------------.
I
I
Why did it seelT! bent :
when it was in the water? :
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
This is a light. : Here is a bit of glass.
A light sends out light. I A ray of light is going
The light which it sends : through the glass.
out goes in straight lines. I
.., 1
I
I
I
I

224
,

Where the light goes : Here Is your eye. t.tt!f
into the gloss; it is bent. :
I
I
I
I
I

I
I

I
It is bent agaIn wf'tere it
f
comes out of the gloss I You are rooking at t~.
Into the air. l
I pencil in the gloJS of
I
I water.
I
I
-+_ --
I
I
1
I
The light from the pencil : The pened is not ben
is bent where it comes : But the light from it is
out of the woter into the I ben.. ~ .
air.




,

S
It is bent here.
225
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
, I
,/ The light comes :

~
. from here.) I The part of the pencil
if- =""" : which is under the water
: seems to be where it is
But it seems to come from: not.
here. I
,
I
,

----------------
The light from the
.... __ ..... _---------
I

pencil is bent
here.

,
The light is bent
where it comes out
of the water. .

226
I
I
I
I
This is a looking glass. I
I
: She is looking at herself
: in the glass.
: What does she see In the
: rooking glass?
, She sees herlelf In
: the glass.
I

What do you see In the


looking glass?
I see a girl's face in
the glass.

------------------+--_._._-----------
She seems to be here.
:
I
I
I
Why? Because the glass

r1'---)
(";1
I \U : I
She 'is here.'I
sends the light back.

I
)
\
J.
J I
I

_-tf.
I
She is on this side of
the glass. There seem to be two
She seems to be on the girls in this- picture. There
other side of the glass. is only one.

227
What is this woman
doing?

She is working with her


needle. That is her work.
What is this man doing?
He is working with a
spade. That is his work.

------------------+------------------

c s-=,
These,are shoes.

These are boots.


What is this mgn doing?
He is making moes. He is
a shoemaker. That is his He makes boots and
work. shoes. That is his work.

228
This is his paint.

, ~.
,
I
I
This is his brush.
What is this man doing? ~
He is putting paint on the:
door. He is pointing the 1
door. He is a painter. f: 1Ie puts the paint on with
That is his work. I his point brush.
I
I
I
---------------_.-.-----------_._._--
I
I
2 3 .11 I This is a bonk.
2. , 26 I
I
'1fiT1o I
I
I
This Is addition, I
I

!~6L~~~~~;;:

I
I
I
I
I
I This Is a check.
I
The boy is doing I
I
addition. That is his I
work. I
I
I

229
I
I
I
,,
I This Is an account.

We keep money in : I.t<> ...


banks. I
/1:)
5 S,
I'"
Banking is an Important :
sort of business. :
Men and women in :
banks and business ~
houses keep accounts. I
,
I
I
J555

I
I Keeping accounts Is an
I
I important part of
I
I
business. .
I

------------------+-------_.---------
I
, Farming is another sort
: of work.
Keeping accounts Is one :
JOrt of work. :

These are Qccount books. :



I this. as a farm.
I

230

I
I

This is a cart. This is a ~eld.


I

p:;;;= 55ai'ii'i!l':
'"....
'r
, 5......."'; :
t
... t .... . .-
t Ie


I
" r

t
,
I The farmer is plowing
: the field.
: That is part of his work
The plow is turning up ,,
I as a farmer.

the earth. I
I

------------------+-----------------.
I


I
I
The farmer has an I

account with his bank. , The


I
account says how
much money he has in
He puts his money in the ,
I
the bank.
bank. ,
I

I
Farming and keepinQ
He keeps money in the I accounts are two
bank. I
I
different sorts of work.
He gets money from I
I
the bank. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

231
What sort of work is this :
man doing? :
He is cutting wood. :
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

t
I
I
I
I
I
I
j What sort of work Is this.
: woman doing?
: She Is washing stockings
: and dresses.
---------_._.-----+---------------_.-
t
What sort of work does What sort of work does
this man do? this woman do?
He keeps a store. She keeps a house.

'AUIT .TO".

It is a fruit store. It is her house.


He is a storekeeper. She Is a housekeeper.

232
Put YQur fingers across Across? ><.'
one another like this. I
These two lines go acrost
I one another.
I
I
I
t .~
I
I My secand finger is cmw
: and across my first
: finger.
I

I
I have my first and
second fingers across
one another.

~-----------------+---.- ..-----------
Did you put your fingers: Now take a pencil and
across one another? : give a touch to one
Thot is right. : finger, and then a touch
You have your flngers I to the other and then put
across one another. : the pencil between them.
: Do this with your eyes
: shut.
,
I


I
I
I





233
I
I

You will have a strange


I

feeling. : 00 you have the strange


Are two pencils touching : feeling that two pencils
your fingers, or is only : are there? When you are
one pencil touching I touching one finger only,
them? : you seem to be touching

.i
: the other?

~.............,

a:.. ~:."::;( !
..----.---------.
.-----------------+~
Why is that? Here is the :

answer.

Afl \VV\\.\ !!{


:: Butwhenth.yareac......
one another they do not
: do their work together.
When the fingers are like I Then a touch to one
this, or like this, they do : sometimes seems to beo
their work together. : touch to the other.


234
,

What Is theIr work? : Those fingers are
What do the ends of our 1 touching the cover of a
fingers do? : book.
Their chief work Is I Touching gives us
touching. : knowledge. .
: When our eyes are shut~



: Ihrrf( ~
r

..----....--...--- ...
I ---- ... -----~--
fJr when we ore looking : or when we are not able
In anather direction, I to see, we get knowledge
(She is touching the : through touching and
book) : feeUng with our fingers.

!

@

235
I
I
I

The chief work of the : Thot Is a Braille book


e"cIs of our fingers is : which he has before him.
touching. : He is reading the book
Here is a man who is not : with the ends of his
able to see. : fingers.
I
t
I
I
I
I

t
I
I

I
I
I

------------------+------------------
I
I
I This other man is reading
I WIth h'IS eyes.
: He is not reading with
o 0 00' : his fingers.
o o. I

:~III. I.~
are like this,
and _d.
I

He is touching them with :


! ri gJ .
the ends of his fingers. : What are those things an
I his nose?
: They are his glaSS8$.
li-
I
I

236
What is the work of the What Is the work of the

'h
eyes?
<C> <C>
Seeing. Their work is
seeing.
Working. Working f.
What is the work of the their chief work.

ewse~ What is the work of the

Hearing. Their work is


hearing ~
.-------.----~~-+-.-.--
Is tarklng or taking in
...---......
I
I
food the chief work of
the mouth?
What is the work of the
L This is hands?
Q: say this.>-? talk. Taldng things up, putting
them down, gelling
things, giving thin~
making things.
We do things with our
hands.



1
237
QUESTIONS

a Is there more water In b Give the ncimes of


the sea than In a river? three gre('ft
discoveries.
c What Is wool? What Is d Why is thick clothing
cotton? Where do we war..,... than thin
get silk from?' doth in;?

Whot Is the chief work f What sorts of


of the eyes, the ears, transport go On
the mouth, and the wheels?
fingers?
g Where does smoke h Where do we get
come from? Where wood from?
does steam come
from?

Answers are on page 240.

238'
WHAT ARE THESE THINGS?
a ,I b

-_\~*" j _ .....,.c:;;~~=~:.~-
I
~.: : : :._~_
-------------------r-------------------
I
I

C~!d ~
-------------------T------------------

on ij] if
.---------.---------~--.----.-----.----~
g h

.-------------.-----~----.--------~--.-- .

. _-----------------_._-------------------
Answer. Gre on page 240.
239
Answers to qUestions on pages 238-239.

Page 238
a There is more water b Fire, the wheel, and
in the sea than in a clothing were three
river. great discoveries.
c Wool is the hair of d Because thick
sheep. Cotton is the ,Iothing keeps
hair round the see<ls heat from going
of the catton plant. throu~h it.
We get silk from the
silkworm.
e The chief work of the f Carts, automobiles,
eyes is seeing, of and trains go on
the ears is hearing, wheels.
of the mouth Is tak.
ing in food, and of
the fingers is
touching,
g Smoke comes from h We get wood from
fire. trees.
Steam comes from
boiling water.

Page 239
a a cart baplow
c a boot d a looIUng-glass
e a skirt and a shirt f a wheel
g a fir. h a spade
i a roJl of cloth I an umbrella

240
Another sense is
taste.
Seeing and hearing
and touch are three of
our senses.
"We get knowledge
. ~
---"-,
These are his lips .-::.
>,,
\0'"
I

ttvough oor eyes(see- This is his chin.


irig), through our ears
(hearing), and through
our fingers (touching).
These are three of our The chief work of the
chief senses. tongue l~ tasting

....._--_ .._-----+_.........--------..-
I

Here is some white


~D~~~
powder.
She has same of it on
powder on a prate. her finger.
It "Jay be salt or it ma1 She is putting some
be sugar. Which is it-' of the powder on
salt or sugar? her tongue. She is tast-
ing it.

9 3n 1633 241
t

I

I
t
I

I
,
I

I

I
I
======!Ir
I
We get sah from the I We get salt from salt
I
sea. I mines.
I
The water in the sea I 50me mines are deep_
has salt in it. They go far down into
,
t

I
the earth.

.. -------------~-+------------------
I
: We get sugar from the
We get sugar from I roots of some plants.
plants. We get it from
the stems of some
plants.


The salt or sugar whiCh

tl
we put in our food b a
white powder.

I'


242
This Is on orange.
The taste of sugar Is
sweet.
(ffi~

~~
This is its skin.
It has white sugar on
thetop. Some oranges are
Cokes with sugar on sweet. But the taste of
them are very sweet. their skin is bitter

..----------------+------------------
I
But to the tongue they
I
I
are very difterent.

I
Salt has a salt taste. ,
I

Sugar has a sweet


taste. I

To the eye salt and Their taste is


I
I very different.
sugar seem the some. I



~

I Sugar
9* 243
I
I
What is the work of : Some flowers have
the nose? I
I
a sweet smell.
What do we do with I Some flowers have no
our noses? : smell.
I
She has a flower in I
I
her hand. I
She is smelling I

the flower.

This is grass.
These flowers are Tn
a garden.
They have a sweet
smell

. --------~--------+------------------

aArT
This is smoke.
This is ...~

These are pigs. Some smoke has a good


Some pigs are dirty. smell. The smell may
Some pigs are dean. not be sweet, but it '.
. ($eo page 125.) may be a good smell.
The smell of dirty pigs He is smoking a pipe.
is not sweet. Is the smell of the smoke
~
It is a bad smelL
good?

244
,

~
I
We see things with our :

eyes and wesee their f'" , ..... '.'
f.,
What is the color of . ,',
<I

colors.
Here are some names grass and leaves in
of colors& spring?
green red Grass and leaves in
spring are green.
blue yel~ow
white gray What Is the color tJf this
girl's lips? ~
Her lips are red.. ..
f
I
I
I
--------_._._----+------------------
I

The sky is blue.
The sun is yellow.
.-c;=,*


: Sometimes when it is
going down
- o!...
: or coming up
it is red. . / 't
It is blue when it Is I -----~~~--
I


clear.
The color of some This flame
clouds is white. ia yellow.
Other clouds are
gray.

245
this mon Is tall.~
We see things with our
eyes. We see the sizes
and colors of things.
Sometimes things seem
f "A"
This man is short.

to our eyes greater or : ~


smaller than they are.
They are not what they : This is a tall woman.
seem. :-

It
: This is a short woman.
------------------+------~-----------
Here are two men.
Do they seem the,some
size? Which of them seems
taller?
Does the man who is
farther'seem taller
than the man who is
nearer?
The pictures of them
ore the same size.
The lines in the picture
make the man who is
nearer seem shorter.
i
i
I
I

246

Our sense of how warm
or how cold things are
Seeing, hearing, touch, is another.
taste, and smell are Here is some cold water
"the five senses." But with ice in it,
we have more than five It is very cold.
senses. Which are some
of the other senses?
\/
\@)--t:/)-~7
.. - - ...
.:;::

--.--..-----.. ..----.----------
---~~
I

, ,
I I~'
\i:.;;;;J ~ J
Very Very
cold warm

Here are three basins.


The basin to the right
'has very warm water
Here is some water in a : in it. The basin to the
kettle. Th. water is : left has cold water in
boiling. : it. The basin in the
Steam is coming out of I middle has water which
the kettle. :is not cold and not warm
:1" it..
247
~q
Now I am putting them
together into the middle
basin where the water
I
is not cold and not
, warm.
I put my hands in the
I
basins at the sides. I
One of my honds is in
the cold water; the
,

!3\~ItJ F
other is in the warm
water.
f keep them there for Q
time. I
----'-.... ---~-- .. - .. +I .. --.. -------------,.
I
I
I

What is this? I
This water seems warm : Why is this?
to one hand and it : It is because one hond
seems cold to the I was in warm water
I
other! I and the other in cold
I
It is the some water. I water before I put them
I
But it seems cold and in this middle basin.
warm at the some
t1mel

248
Another sense is our A man is in the seat.
sense of motion. H'e is going round anel
Here is a seat which round
goes round and round


.~ ~
I
I
,
------------------+-----... ----------
t
I
At first he has a feeling After a time the man
that he is in motion. has a feefing that he Is
He has the- feeling thclt not in motion. But there
he is going round. is no change in the rate
The seat.with the man at which the seat is
in it. keeps on turning turn~ng. It is going round
round at the same rate. the same number of
It does not go quicker. times a minute.
It does not go slowet.

249
He is like all the men
and women on the
earth. We are all turning
round all the time with
the earth, but we seem
to ourselves to be at rest.


I
After a time, if the
rate of turning is the
:
191M, the man seems to :
himself to be at rest I
(nat in matian). :
.......--.......----+---_._-------...

I

I
--

t
11

~~~
We have no feeling
that we are in motion.

~
This is because the rate
of turning is the same.
The man is In motion. Here are three boys
He seems to himself to and a dog.
beat rest. Two of the boys are
taking a rest.
They are resting on
their beds.
: The other boy and the
dog are in tQOtian.

250
Now, put a stop to the
motion of the seat. But he has a feeling
When you do that the that he is turning
seat is at rest. The man round and round.
is not in motion. This is a picture of
his feelings.

0 _________________ +_______________
I
I
I
I
I
I It is because change in
He is not turning round. , our
I
I motion is the cause
But he seems to himself
to be turning round.
, motion.
I
of our feelings of

And everything round I


I
Through our sense of
him seems to be turning I
I
mahan we get
round. I knowledge of changes
Why is this?
I in the rate and
I
I direction of our motion_
I
I
I
,,
I

,
251
~What is he doing?
He is hammering.
_--~.;.;w\~

-- ,
(}:ThiS is his hammer.
He is putting the cover
on a box.

~
He is nailing down the

91 These are nails of


U different sizes.
cover of the box.
The cover is on the
top of the box.
------------------+------------------

Mary has her hands


over her ears.
"'What a noise!"
The blows of the She is saying, "'What a
hammer make a noise. noise you are making."
He is making a very
loud noise.
252

~~ What is this?

~~
" ~ "' :
i ~~I?::::::~!e.
whittle. It I.
Sorne noises are loud. : making a loud
These are guns. . noile.
Guns make loud noises. 1 'rhls boy has a
Those guns make mor. : pocket whistle.
noise tRan this gun.: He is making

~
: some noise
t ~ith it but not
: 1/ much noise.
,
I
. I

.-~.-------~------+-----.
------~---.--
4'
t
This is music. :
i
This is a very high
mountain.

t
This ;s ,

~
.s a song. : These are high
., These are I mountains.
notes. :


i
.0I".t"A This Is a high building.
tid It is a church,
Th is IS a
:high note. . __ of : Tho. ISlsa
this is a -==: lo~ buildjng.
lownote. ~ ".t ,"
.

253
Noises and songi
are sounds.
What are sounds?
l~
I
I
I
They are the effects of I

waves in the air.


I
I
These are waves in a
I
t
cord. One end. of the
cord is fixed to a tree
and the boy hos the
other end. He is shaking
it up and down .

!l.- ..... 'W ............ "-'

These .,...,:..." ......, .. ....


are waves in the sea
. -----------------+------------~----
As the wave goes down
I

the cord this port,


which was up, .

~
:

I
.
1-
:

With every shake he goe~ down. And,


.
sends a wave down the thiS part, . '
cord to the tree!! which was down,
$loesup.


I



t
These are waves in the I Rere is a brain.
air. They come to our : The part of the brain
ears. : which does the most
They have effects in our : work in hearing has the
ears and brains. Those word HEARING on it.
effecfl are sounds. :

I
I

.---~-------~---.-+-------------.-
"The most"? I
I
..-
Some thing' I

animal~
I
have water

in them.
This cup has
some water
01 I
I
Some
n
have brainst l
a horse has
In it. I some brains;
I
This bucket I a monkey has
I
has more I more brainsl
I
water in it. I and a man
has the mos~t
I
I
The 580 has I brains of
I
the most ~:r7" I the three.

~
wat~in it. ~ I
W' _
_
.., ..........
W'..... .....-..,;
...
I

. . .

255
,
I
I
I

I
I have less money than
he has.
I have two dollars. I
I I have less than you
You have twenty I
dollars. I
I
have.
He has a thousand I
f I have the least money.
dollars. I
I
He has more money I
I The most $1000
than we have. I
You have more
than' have.
: More $20 less
I
H. has the most money. II $2 The least
I
I
I
I
I
----------_.------+------------------
i
I
'
I

9. : ~:.
I
This is the :
highest note.
------ I
This is a
low.rnot., =q= Farming is an important
sort of work.

but it is " Is itmor. important than


Wgherthan
this,note. 9 banking? '

Which.s the towest note


oftheth....?
This plate has some salt
on It.

Thi.~n.
This plate has more salt
on it.
[ [
is deep. I
this plate has the most
This mine Is deeper.
,.. salt on it.

This mine is the deepest I ~


of the three. : It has more salt on If
than the other plates.
,
I

------------------+---------_ ..------'
I

~LAJO
I
This is a bad fire.

&.
I
This is a
good book. I

These \'Ire
two other
good books. .
I:
fl~
:
I
I
: This is the worst fire of
One of them is better : the three.
than the others. :
It is the best book of the :
three. ~

257
I
I
,
I

I
: Whenever she sees a
: looking glass she goes to
I it and takes a look at

: herself.
I
,,
I

She is looking at herself :


in a !ooking glass. :
Again and again, every :
day, she takes a look at I
herself in a glass. :
I

----~~------------~,------------------
looking at himself in the
Because looking at : glass gives him no
herself in the glass gives ; pleasure.
her pleasure. : It gives him pain. Why?
She is beautiful. She sees : He sees himself. Is he
that she is beautiful. I
I beautiful?
I

~~l ,
I
I
I
I
t
~

258
"Pleasure',? What is
that? "Pain"? What is I
I
that? I
: He~e is a

Put y.our finger


I nod. You put

: your finger
: noil over this
~ nail, and I
(
in the flo me. 6 will give it a
No, I will nat. : blow with ~
Why not?
8ecauseofthe
i this hammer; T
.

pain. I
I
.
I

------_ ..... _----.. _._ ....----------


I
I

I
I

I

r
I
t
: That is pain. Pleasure is
: the opposite of pain.
t "Opposi"~''? Good is the
I
I OPPOSite of bad.
No, you will nat. I see t ,

what pain is now. I see I


what the sense of the I
word ..pain
....IS now. I
This is another use of the :
word "sense". :
I
I
I

259
,'/
-c-"
..'.I

Good weather. The day Bad weather. The wind is


is bright. The air is warm. blowing. The rain is
The sky is blue . They are falling. It is cold. It is wet
happy. They are unhappy.

------------------+------------------
White is the opposite
Bright is the opposite
of black.
~ of
~dark.
D'
Warm is the opposite
Cl
~ of
cold: What is the opposite of

~
-------
dry? (See page 128.)
What is the opposite of
"-
happy?

260
I
: What Is the opposite of
I narrow?
: Is this street narrow?
I
I
I
Which of these I
is a high
building? What I

is the other?
t


fn ... n- .d-' I


I

1
I
------------------+_ .. _--------------
~~he ! FRO~TOFROM
opposite of ! TO 4-TO

,n:i l
down.
FROM TO FROM ' ,
oe MM

To is the opposite of from.
. ~OUT

Pleasure is the opposite


OUT of pain.
OUTOUT

261

I

Beautiful things give VI :


pleasure.
,
:
,
I
I
I

I
,I
I
I
I
I There Is a smOe on her
When she sees herself in ~ facenQw. ~
the gloss, she sees that :
she is beautiful. :
That gives her pleasure. : Why Is the smile there?
-
'It'.f

I
I

.---... -... -------+.-.-------------~-


i
I
: She is saying to herself

~I::.,f...... that .... lsboaulilvl.~


Her pleasure Is the cause: A smile does not make a
of her smile. : sound. A laugh makes a
She Is saying to herself, I sound.
, om beautifuL: ~

262
I !..":t 10 a ..... wltho .
This is a great painting
by Leonardo. The picture Is beautiful.
That is certain.

Was the woman


beautiful? Was Lisa
Its name is the herself beautiful?
Mona Lisa. That is not certain.

------------------+------------------
I have my idea of that.

She had her idea. We


may have different ideaJ
of how beautiful that
He has his idea. woman was.
There is no measure of
the beautiful.

263
2 + 2- 4
She mayor may not be 2 + 2 =4. Two and two
beautiful. are equal to four. That is
But it is certain that she certain.
has a,smile on her lips.
That is certain.
2+2.\.$
2 + 2 = S. Two and two
are not equal taftve.
That is certain.
It is not certain that she is
beautiful. It is certain that
2+2=4.

------------------+------------------
~-~ I

I!]-I!]-E)-E) ! Things which are lik.


I
I
one aDQther may be
I
I
equal or they may not.
I
a is equal to h, and h is :
equal to c, and c is equal :
tod. I
d.:
So a is equal to .
Things which are equal : These two are lake one
to the same things are I another but they are not
equal to one another. : equal.
I
I
> )
I
I
I :;.
264

I



If ~ 'e'

t
A smile is like a laugh. I

But a laugh makes a ,


I
I
sound. I

.
~i :
!h,s girl is laughing. She:
She has a fall. She gives
a cry. Now she is crying.
IS happy. I She is not laughing now.
: She is crying. Why?
I

------------------+------------------
Because she gave her : The fall was the cause of
knee a blow in her fall. : the blow to her knee.
I

~
Thisis ~
h.r~~ !
I
I The blow was the cause
: of the pain in her knee.
I

She wason
her feet.
1ft
"i i
:
And the pain
in her knee
~
Then she was : was ~he cause
on her face. I of her crying.
I
Shehada ~ I
fall. ~ I
I

265
Pleasure and pain are
"",- - . . =_........ . _--
............
""'".....,........,.................
W" ....... _ - - -
~...........-...

feelings.
We have feelings of
pleasure and pain.
Here are some
pleasures. He is on the sond at the
seaside, looking at and
hearing the sound of the
waves and warming
himself in the sun.
These are pleasures.

------------------+------------------
I

Noy/he is taking a swim: Now he is resting in the


in the sea. sun again after his swim.

He Is swimming through
the waves. He is a good
......... - ---.--
~ ........
*
.................................... """

swimmer. After the water


To a good swimmer,
I the sun on his skin is
I
swimming is a pleasure. : a pleasure to him.
I

266
The man is feeling the bit
Pleasure and pain are of wood with his fingers.
feelings. Is it rough or is it smooth?

~
~
When we put our fingers ~ThiS is rough.
'on things we have _
feeUngs-feelings of I H!;P 11 f ;
tOuch or of. heat and :
cold. I ~his iSlsmooth.
But this is another use of: ~ i
the word "feeling." :
._----------------+------------------
I
I
Things which give us : Our feeling of this
pleasure have an I attraction is named
"desire,"
attractio[l for us. :
But it is not the same sort :
of attraction as the :
When w. have pleasure
we have a desire for the
attraction between the I pleasure to go on and
earth and the moon. : goon
(See pages 202-203.) : Time goes on. The hands
I of the clock go' on. Our
I

I>~.- ....-..-.. . .,
I
I
I

i
goon.
feeUngs mayor may not

I
I
I
,
267
,
Some desires or. : His ball has an attraction
stronger than others. , for him.
This baby sees the cat : He has a desire for the
and he sees his ball. : ball.
I
,
I

I
I
I
o
I
I

: Which will he go to? .


The cat has an attraction : If his desire for the cat is
for him. : stronger than his desire
He has a desire for the : for the ball, he will go
cat. I to the cat.
I
I
I

------------------+------------------
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
0: things
All our desires are for
which seem good
I
to us. They may not be
t '.
good.
I

may
Our ideas of them
be wrong.
He went to the cat. :
His desire for the cat was :
stronger. :
t
t
t
t

t

268
We get knowfedge by When the answers or.
putting questions. right, they give us
That is one way of knowledge.
getting knowledge. : When they are wrong
The answers may give us I they do not give us
knowfedge or they may : knowledge. .
not. : 2 + 2 =4 Right
I
I 2 +2=5 Wrong
I
t
I
I
I
I
I

_.---------------+------------------
"!I
Which is~his
right ~and'l
-
How for is the sun from : .
the earth? : t-=.
Which is the right : Which is his left hand?
answer: I He is fadng you.
t
"It is two miles away.- I h h h de

~hi;hil:t~:::~g i you~
or "It is much more than I Now e

answer to the question? :


isbao tos

, ~
.

. I
I Which is his left hand
I
I now, and which is his
I right?
t

269
This is a doorway.

Our senses-seeing,
hearing, touching,
tasting, and smelling-
are ways through which
w. get knowledge.
Our ideas come to us
through aur senses.
,----
The way into the room is
through the door.
I The way out of the room
: is through the door.
I
I
I
I

.-----------~-----.------------------
-Which is the way to the
'<C-
"-
station?" ,
"Take the first street to
the right."

This man had no


knowledge of the way to
the station.
Now he has the
knowledge.

270

I
We get knowledge in : through the work we do
different ways-through I with our hands and our
our senses, ~ : heads, and through
: books.

4t{'PJ t

through talk
with other men,
- mq
li.U
l j~ ..dt,~'"1
rJ. These are. all ways of
getting knowledge

.-----------~-~---+---.~-----..--.--.
I
I
I
I
I
Knowledge is very : Is the word '!Iura-'part of
important. It is important: your knowledge of
in itself. And it is I English?
important as a way to : (See page 219.)
other things. A man who : Knowledge gives us
has no knowledge is of : light. It makes things
no use to other men. : dearer to UL
,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

271
I
I
This is a boy.

t *
I
I Every night he has a long
I
I
sleep in his bed.

He will bea
man.
I
I
,
I

I
tEt.--1
I
I

Hewas.a~ I
I He g08S to bed at eight
boby. I
every night.
I
,
I 0
~ ~.
I
I
H....m.tobe I
I
abOut twelve year I
old now. I
I

.-----------------+~----------------.
I
I
Q) , He puts his clothing on.
,
I

$(
He gets up I
every morning ~ I
I
at_. . . ~ I
I
I
I
I
I
I

He gets out of
I
bed and gives
him"lfa~ I
wash. ct:: : He says "Good morning"
=it!
~
I to his mother and father

: and takes his place at


: the table.
272
I
I
I
I

: He keeps his thoughts on


At school he sees his : his work.
friends and does his : He does not let his
work. : thoughts go off to other
: things.

------------------+._---------------- I
At play after school he I Then he comes back
I
sends the ball a long I from school.
I

~
way. I
I
I

,.
"".,.,
_
,
I

I
" I
I
I
: Here he is with the family
I' again.
I
I
I
I
I
I
He makes it go a long
way.

10 3aJ<a3 1633 273


Men are persons. They : They'," and "~...
have their work.~\ : ......",
They put r" :
and takethings~ ~, :
say things, /'t.
V""'"r=-: keep things. ~
~.A
r2 ~_ ~c
and give :
and let them (go).
~
0
r-.=.~and get themj
I

~
makeand ~
They come ' \ : ~

~
andgo. : ~ ~
sendthem~~
-+ c.::::> :
------------~~----.-----------------

Some seem happier than others.


All these sorts of things are done by men and women.
'rhings are put and taken by them.
Things are given and got by them.
Things are seen and said by them.
Things are kept and let go by them.
Things are made and sent by them.

274
t
Eve saw the appl~:

til; ..,e: The apple was seen


by her.
It was taken by her.

Sh.~
It was given by her to
Adam.
These things were dane
by Eve.
She gave it to Adam.
~ve did these things

,,
. -~---------------+------------------
,I
I
,
We may say this in two : This may be said in two
ways. ~ ways.
She saw the apple and , The apple was seen by
took it and gave it to I Eve, and taken and
Adam. -given by her to Adam.

10 * 275
I
I
I
I
I
I will do It. : It will be done by me.
I am doing it. I It is being done by me.
I
I did it. I It was done by me.
They will see it. : It will be seen by them.
They are taking it. : It is being taken by them.
They gave it. I It was given by them.

DO TAKE : DONE TAKEN


SEE GIVE : SEEN GIVEN

.-----------------+--------------.~-.
I will say it. It will be said by me.
I said it. It was said by me.
I made it. It was made by me.
I kept it. It was kept by'me.
I let it go. It was let go by me.
I put it there. It was put there by me.
I got it. It was got by me.
I sent it. It was sent by me.
SAY ~KE KEEP SAID ~DE KEPT
LET PUT LET PUT
GET SEND GOT SENT

276
Every statement or question In thisboek hat OM or
more of these sixteen words in its

be come give malee


have go get send
do put leeep see
seem talee Jet say

277
Here are the other fifteen words. They go like this.

Past Present Future

had have will have


did do will do
seemed seem will seem
came come will come
went go will go
put put will put
We
took take will take
gave give will give
got get will get
You kept keep will keep
let let will let
made make will make
sent send will send
They saw will see
see
said say will say

278
Past Pr...nt Fulur.

had has will have


did does will do
seemed seems will seem
came comes will come
H. went goes will go
put puts will put
took takes will take
She gave gives will give
got gets will get
kept keeps will keep
It let lets wililet
mad. makes will make
sent sends will send
saw sees will see
said says will5aY

279
In English we do not make statements like thi.
She gave you money to I. That Is wrong.
We make statements like thi.
She gave your money to me. That Is right.
I
e u
my
tour
me
you
we
you
our
your you

she t!. ~~~ } they thef, them


It Its It
In English we make COMPARISONS like thl.
g09d better best
bad worse worst
much more most
little less least
beautltul more beautiful most beautiful
small smaller smalleSt
bright brighter brightest
short shorter shortest
thin thinner thinnest
In English we make changes In names Ilu thlsl
cat (dog, boot, day, 2 or more cats (dogs, boots.
nose, face ) clays, noses, faces )
glass (watch, brush ) 2 glasses (watches,
brushes ..)
1 body (cry, baby .) 2 bodies (cries; babies .)
1 knife (leaf, shelf ) 2 knives (leaves, shelves )
1 tooth, foot 2 teeth, feet
1 man.woman 2 men, women
1 or more sheep, tclllOr~ frou..,.

280
KHHrA 2
BOOK 2
PREFACE

This is a second book in a series English Through


Pictures. It keeps in mind that its readers will have
many different needs. Some will want more English to
help them to find work, some as a step on the way to
higher education. some for business, travel or better
living - and some because English opens for them
a window with a wider outlook on the world.
We have tried in designing English Through
Pictures, Book 2 to serve all this needs. However, our
first care has been the ordering of the teaching itself.
It is tbe purpose of this book to supply starting
points from which people can go out in different
directions as their different interests take them. We
hope it will be a book of beginnings.
"I am here."

Where is "here''?
Where are you? Where do you live?
Who are you? What is your name?

Dye. Ih. place wh.r. you are 1I.,lnll or hcrt. your house II where
yOu Ii.,.,.

FUTURE PRESENT PAST


wlnnye DYe'.) llYN

285
"I am here"
is the first statement in English Through
Q Pictures, Book 1 (EP 1).

That book uses about five hundred


words of English in a great number of
different ways.

Using those same words, together with


about the same number of new words
and more pictures, this book (EP 2)
goes farther into the language.

--
---
_._----
...................
::!":t\..:~::-:=

This new book uses about a thousand words of English.

UM: when you malte lise of so_thing yau lise it.


laIIa-ae, all the WOI'd. used by persanl talking or writing to one
QlIOther
...IUM

286
Are you a man or a woman 01' a girl CJI' a boy? What is
your country? Is the country where you Jive !lOW tho
country of your birth?

8 pWNI
... J
{L

PHIUfPlHP

Do you see on this page a map of the country where you


live? Is it Germany, the Philippines, Brazil. Australia"
Kenya, or some other country?

There are millions of readers of EP 1. The boot is used


in almost every country.

land und.r on. gOMmm.nt.


""""1 caming Into being
_try:

aImoah Ih. shari., II". h.r. is almost as long CIa


lhe ath.r.
"'aIaINt .very -W', IIIOIf _"ttl...

287
"What is your name?" the man ~
1,
on the right ask,. The otb~r ;>.

man answers: "My name IS


Jean Schmidt."

"Where do you come from? ~


What is the country of your "';{'~~
birth? Where were you born?"
(These are different ways of
asking the same question.)

"Geneva, SWitzerland." answers Jean Schmidt.

"Have you any relations in this country'l"

"Yes. I have one. My uncle, my father's brother, lives


in Boston. Massachusetts. U.S.A."

allla: putl 0 que.tion.


_ _ give. on on._,.
borN given birth or given being.
CIIIJ't OM or more, some. In onlwerlng the question "H_ you GIl,
_1'1..,1" _ soy "Ve., I hove lO",e" (not "V.I. I hove CNly"). If _
hove no money. we lOY "No,1 hoven't ony.H
...1atIon: ,.rson of lOme folftily.
_ _ Iother'. or .other'. brotller.

win
wlU .
_ ._
"When were you born? Give me
the date of your birth. What is
your age?"
"I was bom on January 10.1920.
1 am tbirty~ven (years old)."

"When were you at school? How


long were you there? How many
years were you at school?"
"I was at school eight years."

"What work do you do? What is


your occupation?"
o 00
"1 am a cook." ~

date: day of the month and year. If you gi". the dat. matllh and year
of your birth. that I. a Wflf'/ of giving your
you ar..
ag..
IQ'(ing how old

agel your age I. the numlMr of r-- JOV bave IiYecI.


how -ftY1 what number 01.
~ a gNat nu.1Mr of.
occupatl_1 W'CIIt.
coolu penon who . . . . food hIOd1 by IIeaII.g

289
Here are some people of
different countries.

This is a
Japanese girl.
She lives in
, Japan. Japan
~ is her country.
She is
Japanese.

This is an
Indian boy. . . .
He Uves in
India. India
is his country.

peopl. ""'" Gnd _ _ n Gnd boys Gnd glm or. p-opJ..

290
Here are some people who live in the United States of
America, the U.S.A. The fathers and mothers of these
people went to the U.S.A. from England, France, Italy,
Switzerland, Poland, Russia and other countries. Some
of them sailed there in sailing ships before the days of
steamships.

Now the sons and daughters live in the U.S.A. and most
of them are Americans. Some of them were born in the
U.S.A. They got their start in America, but they have
many relations in the old country.

lall: soiling ships haye soils and sail by


using !he push of the wind
tart: if a person goes for a walk, the start
of his walk is the YfUY first step. Being
born is the start or starting point of a
pfUson, and his age at" a giYen date is the time he has been living
from the start (frOID his birth).
will .011 lalled

291
Japan and India and China are parts of Asia. Germany,
Italy and France are in Europe. In all these countries
there are many people. In some countries there is very
little land for the size of the population. Europe has less
land than Canada and not much more than the U.S.A
but it has a population more than thirty times as great as
Canada's. And the numbers keep going up. Between
1850 and 1950, more than thirty million people went
from Europe to live in the U.S.A.,
but the population of Europe in
1954 was greater than the popu-
lations of North and South Amer-
ica together.

tIMet as .,..ah In thl. picture


I. four tilll.' the .Ize 0'
four tllll as great 01 A.
A. It ts

popu,IItI_. the popvlatlon of a plac.


in It.
Is the IIvlllb. 0' people Hylllg

292
There are 50,000,000 more people in Europe today than
there were twenty-five years ago. The increase in pop-
ulation in twenty-five years is 50,000,000. Europe has
increased her population by 50,000,000 in the last
twenty-five years.

This map gives a picture of the number of people in


each country of Europe today .

.... lIoon 1.1111....

16 ... l1l1ono

11-36 .. IlIIon.

36.70 ..III ion.

ago: before now, before the pre.ent.


Incr_HI amount by which something geb greater.
to Incr_: to get grealer in .ize.
_cIu every, all, one by one.
'willlncr_

293
This is a picture of the increasing
population of the United States in
1850
the last hundred years. One man
in the picture represents ten
1860 million (10,000,000) people.
This picture is a graph.
1870 'Ibis graph lets us see
relations between
1880
times and numbers
of people.

1890 JJJJJJ\
1900 jJJJJJJJ
1910

1920
""J\MM
AA'
..... AmN .f
MJ.\AA
...... . '**M
J\J\J\MJ\N\
~
19~~

1
950",,=

..........nt.: tok.. the place of, puts before the mind.


gr..ph: picture which represents chonges in amounts In relation to other
chonges.
r.llItfon: there is the some relation between 2 Gnd .. os th..e is between
3 Gnd 6.

294
This map gives a picture of the population in the dif-
ferent states of the United States of America today. The
scale of the map is the same as that used for Europe on
page 9.

H you look at the two you wI1l see that the U.S.A. is not
much smaller than all of Europe.

4,000,000.10,000,000

1,000,000. '-,000,000

sca'e: one inch on .his line r.pre n', a 11111 Th<:0'. used il on .. lnm

I
O
to a mile.
II
.. lies .-----_~--_---.....
'ook: talt. a root.
-L------.. . .
2,
1'1100 _Ie I, Oft. Inch to a
3,

wrlliook looked

295
Which are the countries with the most people in them'!
China. India. the U.S.S;R. and the U.S.A. all have pop-
ulations of over a hundred million. Some countries have
less room in them than these four. but these have the
greatest populations.

Chiao .... _ than 600.000.000 . _

IndIo hOI .. 0,," Ih.... 300.000,000

U.S.S.R. hOI OIont Ih .... 200.000.000 ~

U.s.A. .... _ th ... uo.ooo.ooo _

It is not good for a country if it does not have enough


room for all its people. A person who does not have
enough room to live in may not be able to keep well.

ov...: more thon.


room: wh.n th.... il no mor. room In 0 room. in 0 building. in 0 counlry,
it I. full.
well: 0 p....08 b _tt If th.... b nothing wrong with hi. body or hi. mind.

296
The population of the earth bas increased more than the
amount of food. There is a great need for more food.
More than a billion people on the earth today need more
food than they can get. They cannot get enough food to
keep them well and strong. The relation between amount
of food and size of population has been changing.

1650

1750

lm~

\.\.\\\\\.~\.\.~~
1950

.. WInO"1 In AIII.ican numben, a lhovsond million. 11SJ1J1SJIJ#YJ,.


....ell IOIIIethlng important which I, not present.
elllll are able to.
e_noh are not able to.
wln....el
(wiU be .... to)
-
....eI(.)

297
There were more than twice as
many people in the world in the
year 1850 as in 1650. There were
more than twice as many in 1950
as in 1850.

Will the population of


the world go on in-
creasing'! Look at the
curve in this picture.

a
I
L
L
I
o
H
$
1650 1750 la50

twtce: twic. a thillg I, two tim It.


world: the earth olld all that (which) i, 01'1 It-peopl., OIh.r rIVing thing.
and the thing. that 111011 has iliad..
curvet line thOl goes OIl chcmglng It. dlrectioD.

298
There wel'e over two billion si:&: hundred million
(2,600,000,000) people in the world in 1954. Less than
half of them could get as much food as they needed.
Many of them because of this are not healthy.

000 0 0 0

There are some people everywhere who take more food


than is good fO them, but many more get less than
they need.

People are asking one another what the world popula-


tion will be in 2050 if it goes on increasing like this. It
will be very great. It will be much greater in some parts
of the world than in others.

Some people say it will be between five and ten billion


and some that it may be as much as thirty billion.

healthy; well, right in body lind .IAd.


_,.w"- iA ....ery pille-.

299
More than a hundred million people on earth today live
in cities. Some cities have more people in them than some
countries have.

There are nineteen or more cities in the world which


have over two million people in them.

Cities have been increasing in size in our time. Before


the twentieth century it was hard for the people in a
great city to get enough food.

On the next page you will see a map of the world on


which are marked ten cities with more than three million
people in ~ch.

cltyllo_ of great sl
.....'1.... -tur)n the hundred yean. nu~ fro. 1900 IhlVUgh
1999.

300
1. Berlin

2. Calcutto

3. l ... lngracl

"- lOlldon

5. Mulca Oly

6.~

7. NewYoric

8 .....rI.

9. Shanghai

10. Ta~

301
This city bas great bwldings, some of which have ma-
chines in them for doing many sorts of work by steam
or electric power. These are factories. One of them is
a factory where furniture is made. In it men make tables
and chairs in great numbers.

.JJ.J.J

machI"IN Inlfnl_nt which does work for _".


powerl G thlllg's power II the work It Is obi. to do.
eledrk , 0 - ' power which gives u. elKlric light, heat, telophOll."
factoryl building wh.... men Gild _chilies Mak. thing~
fwD ......: bedl, lables, ch.sts of cIrawVJ, I
bookshelves, etc. "
"-
chain MOt for GIl. per-.

302
We are living at a time when machines do work which
men used to do. Now materiaJs and things of all sorts
can be transported long distances quickly. Its transport
lines are very important to any great city.
IlION MINI

~
~ !OQsz.

TIAHSIOUIHO MAtWA&I

MateriaJs such as iron, which Is mined from the earth in


some places, and steel, which is made from iron, are
used to make machines. Iron and steel are metaJs.

MGt_lal! Ihol from which thlngl can be mode. Wood il a ",alerlal from
which much of our furniture II made. Glall I. Ihe malerial uled in
window .. Much of our clothing I. ",ode of wool or cotlon or .1Ik
moleriol Machine. are mode of meloL
any: in Ihi en.e, every.
plantl in this .en.e, factory.
metal! any moleriol of a cettoln sort, auch oa Iroa and IIMI. Metala are
hard and are got from the earth.

303
It is only in the last century that great numbers of people
have been able to live far from their food supply, with
thousands of men in cae placo doing the same sort of
work.

High buildings like those pictured on the next page are


being put up in more and more great cities today in
greater and greater numbers. They are apartment houses,
which sometimes have hundreds of different families
living under one roof. There may be as many as twenty
or thirty floors in one apartment house, with homes for
fifteen or twenty families on a 8.oor

....' " a ..ollnt of 1O....hlng few fvtv,. ....


food .....,. amovnl of food needed.
apaI"hIHIftt houMa building fat a lIumber of fa_Illes to live Ia.
~ 1M. . pIac4t far a family.

304
Hundreds of families may make their homes inono apart-
ment house.

LLl lLLL
LlL LllL
LII LllL
~ ~ ~ llll
In these stores people who live in the city can buy food,
clothing and supplies of everything they need.

Some stores sell food, some sell clothing and some sell
furniture. In most cities there are great stores which sell
almost everything. They supply these families with what
they need.
buya g.t IOm.hillg by giving mon.y for it
Ib avpply for ..on.y. If buy 1O. . . thing fro .. you. you HI. It to ....
aupplya gift Q .... pply of.
wllllMry buy(s)
wlll ..11 ..11(.)
wlllaupply ...,ply(lu)

11 3a""3 1633 305


People in apartment houses have no
place to keep a supply of food. They
may have enough food in an icebox
to take them through a day or two.

but on most days they buy meat


and milk and fruit and other
things they need from a store
near their home.

Many families have supplies of milk and other foods


sent to their houses every day. People with children in
the family may buy four or five quarts of milk at a time.

Here isa family with five persons in it: a husband. a wife


and their three children.

The man is the woman's husband


and she is his wife. They have been
married ten years.

chlich a baby or a rail'" boy or ~ gitl. Voting boya and gitl, _


children.
quam ... n.xl pag
morrlltlh husband. aad wi... are ...n and _ ..... who are marri.d.

306
A milkman puts the milk outside their door in the early
morning. Milkmen start their work in a great city before
it is light.

In some parts of the world milk


is measured in gallons. Milk is
put up in pint and quart bottles
or in cartons. In other parts of
the world milk is measured in
liters. A liter is a little more
than a quart.

pint: aboul two cupfuls.


gallonl four quarts make one gallon, Iwo pin" make one quarl, Iher.
or. Iwo cups in a pinl.
arly: Ih. finl hours of Ihe morning are Ihe early morning.
cartonl boltle Or box made of slrong paper maleriol.
wlll.tart .tart(., .tarted

11 307
In some factories food is
put into cans. It is canned.
These are machines in a
canning factory.

Most foods today can be bought in cans.


Food stores sell c8llDed soups, meats.
fruit and vegetables.

Food is canned to keep it from the air. When air can get
at it, it quickly goes bad-if it is not kept very cold.

Canned food that has gone bad is a poison. Bad food is


very bad for people; it poisons them. If they take much
of it they may die. After a person dies, he is dead.

Caftl ,,"01 box. A can can Ie...,


foad good for Y--' I....itol.. a ca .. I.
a lin. Tin it a ..elal which Is used a. a
_Ii .. g lor cant.

i~
...1_.
y ......bl ., planl. v.ed at load
anythlRg which Is 'Ie,.., bod I.. '" .ffed
if taleen by _ulh.
dl,. cOllie 10 the end of living.
d ..... no longer I!viRgo ~
308
People can have 0DIy a
few cans of meat and fruit
and other things "on
hand," as we say, on their
shelves. 'They may have
a cupboatd with two or
three shelves of canned
food, but most people have --~=.;;::-r~-"-T--
no room for more than
!haL It supplies do not I I
come into the city day by
day their supply of canned food is quickly used up.

-",tt cannot.
teWI a Imoll nv_ber of, !lOt rac:my.
cupboank walled-in .h...... with door. In front of th ....

309
Some people working
in cities have no time or
place to cook: for them-
selves. Many ot: them
go out to restaurants
for aU of their meals.
There are many restau-
rants in a great city, all
needing supplies of
food every day and
some of them cooking
for great Dumbers of
people.

A good restaurant keeps its food clean and does Dot let
Oies get at it. If flies get on food they may poison it.

_In do cooking. A cook cooks.


........... hl....1f and h_lf
...... food tak.n at an. II.... In the IIIOrIIIIIg (breakfast). In the ..Iddle
of the cloy punch_. IuIlCll Of dlnn.J Of at night (dlnn., Of IUP,...).
....... _II place w .... you can kiln _II at dill..... prices.

fIyt thl. II a housefly.


wlll~ _keel

310
Here is a supply of meat. vege-
tables, milk, butter, cheese,
bread, fruit and eggs, enough
for a family of four persons for
one day in the U.S.A. If a per-
son does not get enough food of
the right 80.."18, he will not keep
well. He will not be able to work
or play weD.

Fresh food must be supplied to


a city day by day. It will not keep good very long if it is
open to the air. If uncovered, it may get flies on iL Flies
get on dirty things. Their dirty feet make food dirty.
Canned food will keep good for a long time. It can be
stored..

.......: new, no! kept for a long tim


_m has to. A man mUIt have ai,_ wal., and food to II.,
...~ ...,. covered.

wlll _ _
wlilwork
wlDpIaJ

311
Grain and meat and milk
and fruit and vegetables
must be transported into
the cities of the world day
and night all through the
year to feed itS city popu-,
latioas. Much d. this food
mmes great distances in
ships, trains, or trucks,
and must be kept c:old and
cleau all the way.

This is a bag of grain.


o
gndm leeds of some grcss plonts used for molting bread and some
other coobd food
.....1 wto..
_ give people food. _ f.ed th....

wid ..... fed

311
T.bc milk must bie.bpI
clean and cold and put into bottles and taken to tho _ _
and houses in the city. aty governments see that
kept clean and has enough butterfat in it.
milk.

Some city-born children have never seeD a caw and ba:vo


to be taught where milk comes from.

_err: off, from 'hot ploce


fah , ... port of ..lilk fro. which butter \a _ _ \a buHwfat. n- -
",any IOI'tI of tot..
....... nol_r.

313
Milk is the best food there is for babies. It is good for
children and for older people too. It has in it fat, which
gives energy, and it has the most important of the ma-
terials needed for building up our bodies. MUk makes
strong bones and strong teeth too. It is good for a child
to drink two or three glasses of it every day.

In addition. miJk bas in it most of the vitamins which are


needed to keep us healthy. Vitamins are a discovery of
this century. A hundred years ago no one knew anything
aboutthem.

. . . In addltloa. Aftw the addition of _ till"" 10 DAOther _ hcmt the

.
Oft. and the other loa.
......,.~
...... puttI"" up a building Is bulldt"" It. w. can buDd havses with
wood and badl.. with faad.
. . .10 take In by __ h. Iote a drink.
limo.. hcmt knowledge of.

.......
win build

will bow
WId(.)
.we(.)
bow e.)

314
A

Vitamin B cannot be stored. It must be


supplied all the time by some of the food
we eat. The skins of grain of all sorts have
Vitamin B in them.

alphabet' all the letters used in writing ~ pog.a "t.


eat: toke food by the mouth.
will Mf Mf(.)

315
Vitamin C is very impor-
tant to the body. Without
it men's teeth become
loose and their arms and
legs weak. Lemons, or-
anges and tomatoes have
Vitamin C in them.

Vitamin D Is the sun vita-


min. We get it in milk and
eggs and from sunli&ht on
our skin. There are other
vitamins. but these, A. B.
C and D, are the most
important.

wIttaeuh not haYing


....... co IoM.
..... not strongly root.cb not lupporfttd or lI~t In plac..
. . . . . opposlh of 1!fo1lS!.
-.om

--
yellow fruit 1111. on orang. but not - '
. . . . . . . . 0 ntd or y.11ow Itvlt und as 0 ftg.lob ...

--fa)

316
Every person must baveair and water and food to keep
him alive and he mUst have these vitamins to keep him
well.

How do we know this? How do we know what food keeps


a man well and healthy? We know from the effects on men.
and animals of going without one sort of food or another.
That is how we see which foods give us energy, which
make us fat and which make us able to keep healthy.

Men of science are putting together more and more


knowledge about the sorts and amounts of food that our
bodies need. Too little food or too much of the wrong
food is bad for a person. The right amount of the right
food (the food best for him) will keep him feeling well
and strong.

Some people need a little more or a little less of one or


another sort of food than others.

all_ rIVing.
IIOII11f1 wlthoutz not g.nlng.
too IIttIet te.. than el\ough, not .!'IOUgh.
too IftUcIh OY....uch. 1IIOr. than .nough.

311
Where do we get our food? We get much of it from the
earth. We use some sorts of animals and birds to give
us food.

Great parts of the earth are covered with grass, a plant


which grows with narrow green leaves and puts down
roots quickly. There are more than three thousand dif-
ferent sorts of grasses growing.

Grass has very small seeds which are used as food by


birds and smaIl animals. Man has discovered how to grow
grasses with larger seeds.

Wheat, rice, com, and other grains come from grass. The
grain larids of the world have been planted by men. From
grain man gets an important part of the food that gives
him energy.

cIIlCOYlIn ...oke the diacovery of. gel to bow.


~ g..at In ,I.e (lorge. Icwger, kiIr'gfll).
",Wl collie up fI"OtII aMd. in the ftltth. get lorgei'.
wllld_o_
wlll ...w

318
TIle grasslands of the earth supply
food to many different animals.
~da!~~~~ From some of them we get meat
and milk. From milk we make but-
ter and cheese and other foods.

From birds living on grain we get


eggs and meat.

Seeds planted in good earth sup-


ply grains and fruits and vege-
tables of many sort:s.

The seas and rivers supply fish


and some sea plants foe food.

319
When he started growing grain. he had time to do other
things than get the family food day by day, He could keep
a supply of grain on hand through the winter until the
next spring. He couldmalte a
home for himself and keep ani-
mals for his usc.

..... (tW). up to the tlille that.

320
Bread, which is made
from ftour. supplies us
with energy and is the
chief food of many
people.

A small amount of seed


planted in the earth can
grow great amounts of
good grain.

In eastern countries more rice is eaten

than wheaL

.,.... .aIV'. of _i,ht. O.e pound (1 lb., I. a IInle I... than half a
kilogralll. 0". kllogra. (1000 ,rallll, I. a rl-Itr-. Z-ILA
IIn'e lIIore thon two pounds (2.20-C6 IbJ. I:::::::::;::' ~
publk 11_ vs. by anyone. 1fte public at.
the people.
-.tem: In or of th .alt (em may be put on the d of 1IOI'th, lOutli
01' _at I. the sa wayt.

32t
If there were enough good food ill every ClOUDtry every
day for every person, would the world be a better place
than it is?

, We say, MIf there WR4f enough food," not, "If there is


enough food," because there is not enough. and we
know it.

We say, "If there were .something in


this hand you would see it," because
we know that there is nothing in the
band.

But with this band. which is shut, we


say, "If there is something in this
hand you will see it."

Now the hand is open. There is some-


thing in it and you do see it.

322
If we asked the question, "If there were enough good
food for everybody, would the world be a better place?"
some men would answer: "Yes, the world would be a
better place." Others would say, "No, nobody would do
any workl The world would be a worse place."

And some others would say something like this: "That is


a strange question to ask when balf the people of the
world today do not get enough food. There will be time
to answer your question when we have grown enough
food for everybody."

What would your answer be?

.Y~ 011 personl, everyone.


noboclys no penon, no one, not anyone.
-'tis If Ihis II.. fro. A to. I __ lllalt.... lhen h _ld be the
short..1 distance belwMn A and L
aut lhe line II not lllaighl. That II A ~ !.
why _ ..., __ GIld W'OfIId Ia .l1li
ua.,.l..

323
Why do men work:?

Do they work only


for their private
needs - because of
their need for homes
and food and cloth-
ing for themselves
and their families?

Why do some men work when they have enough of all


these things? Do they work for pleasure, because making
things, for example, gives them pleasure? Do some men
work for the public good? Why are some men happier
when they are working? Isn't work one of their needs?

Why do you work:? Do you need to work to be happy?

Do we know one another's needs? Aren't we in the dark


about some of them?

private ....... n~dl of _ pwwn or of a.lmall number.


public go"
I.'ts II not.
good of all.

aren'tt _ Il0l. When ,.,,', Of' _n', atartl a qlHlltlan In place of is or


are, _ are IaoklQg for the anlw" ..Y.....
In .... darla people - " aIM to _ I. tbe dark.

324
If al1 the people alive on the
earth today were hand in
hand like this, the line they
would make would go more
than fifty times round the
earth.
The line of people would
go out to the moon and
back three times. It would
be long enough to do that.

But there isn't a line of people which goes out


to the moon and back.

t'4~~flf
And the people of the earth aren't hand in hand; far
from it!

That is why we said "were" (not "are") and ''They would


go" (not "they go"),

We say: If the angles in this triangle


are equal, then the sides will be equal. 0A
But we say: If the angles in this triangl~
were equal. the sides would be equal. ~

tria.... thll II alKlther triangle.

325
Men are not hand in band. but their minds today are being
put increasingly into touch with one another through
reading and writing and in many other ways.
We are in touch wilb other people everywhere through
pictures of them. Newspapers give us photographs of
almost everything. The faces of important people can be
seen by the public everywhere.
Before 1800 nobody could take photographs. Nobody
had had the idea of using the knowledge of how light is

--
bentby.g1ass to~

~
Here is a camera which is taking a picture of a man.

----
--
------- ----
"..-

- ...

You will see that the picture inside the camera is upside
down.

"'0".
Increaslnglr. lIIor. and
ph.........' pictu.. rak.n with a co_va.
c_ _ inalrvnt for laking photagnlphs.

326
Another way in which people
are getting to know more
about one another is through
the radio. Man's words were
first sent from one place to
another by telephone less
than a hundred years ago. A
word can now go by tele-
phone from the Atlantic to
the Pacific in one-twelfth
(1 / 12) of a second. A tele-
phone needs wires, but the
radio, which came into use less than fifty years ago, can
send sounds any distance without wires.

Television, which is one of the great new powers-for


good or bad-of this century, lets a public man talk to
millions while they sit
in their private homes Q~.~.I
seeing him as if he were --'===--~;.,,;:;;;.....z:;:s:.....4':~
there in front of them.

w .... thread of ...taL


talk: soy things.
IIh 1M MGt.d. Wh.n you tak. a seat an something, you "' 011 It.
telepho_, radio, teleYllIOilI _ pictur an ,hi, pag..
will talk
wlllilt
talk h)
IIttl) ...
talked

327
But people can't know what any man is saying if they
don't know his language-

Up to a hundred years ago few people needed to learn


foreign languages because not many people went into
foreign countries.

Now, the need to learn other people's languages is be>-


comihg greater every day.

for.... _,-,_1
learnl Sel k_ledge of, be I_"ing.
fOIllIIy
a language differ."t fro. the Ia"guage of ywr

......811 cOUfttrJl a COUlltry which I, not yovn.


will ....... .......(.,
328
Today millions of people, young and old, go into for-
eign countries every year on business or forpleasme.

That is a quicker way to get about than on


one's mother's back. Here is a woman who
is carrying her baby on her back. She car-
ries the child with her' wherever she goes.
In the last hundred years men have Ieamt
to go over land and sea through the air as
almost all birds and many insects can. Men
are carried through the air in airplanes.
Jill
U

_Iapenoll
a pel'Mft'..
.....1II
canyinF faltll'l9 fro. ploR to place.

329
Some birds have eyes which
can see great distances, and
they have good hearing.
Some of them can hear
sounds which we cannot
hear.

But man has made himself new ears and new eyes.

Today he can talk with a person at the other side of the


earth by telephone. Through the radio he can hear sounds
which come to him through space from thousands of
miles away.

He can see through a telescope the mountains on the


moon, and, through a microscope, thousands of living
things in a drop of water.

....a take III _lids. _ lhe MIIM 0' IMaring


. . . . distance INIwMA thlll", that III which aU thl... _
w1U .....

330
Hundreds of millions of people today can hear on the
radio important statements by public men. statements
which in earlier times could have been heard by few.
It is a question whether at any time in history a man
has been able to make his voice heard by as many as
a hundred thousand people at the same time. Without
the telephone and the radio a man can be heard only
as far as his voice can carry.

New instruments are making men's


homes less private and public men
more public.

wh......, If or not.
hi_tory: ",an', past as _ Itn_ it, the account or sfofy of It.
voice: sound ",ode through the ",aulh, the power to make such sounds.

331
Birds and many insects have wings. It is their wings
which take them up into the air. The wings of birds
have long feathers on them. Their bones and the stems
of their wing feathers are hollow. This keeps them light.

Here is a bee. ~
Here is a beetle.
~
Here is a 6y.

ADd hmo Is a buttedIy.


-W
Bees, beetles and flies are insects. ~

There are very many different sorts


of insects.

hollo_ with ipGCe 1",1. as In a pipe or In 0 boll which Is not solid.


IIghb of Iittl. _Ight.

332
...en have been attempting
for thousands of years to
make wings that will let them
.y like tho birds.

Here is the picture of the first


flying machine to take men into
the sky, made in 1903. It did
not fly very fast or very far.

Now planes can fly farther and faster than the fastest
bird and can carry heavy weights through the air. Man
can go faster than sound in the newest planes.

heoYJll of great _Ight, oppollte of light.


fast ( .............st)1 qvicllly.
fI1t go like Q fly througb tile olr.
We can sec why distances between people are not as
important now as they were. They may be bridged in
so many ways.

What is a bridge? Here is a wide river with a bridge over


it. The bridge is more than a mile long and is made of
steel It can carry very heavy weights. It is so strong that
not only automobiles but trains go across it. It is so high
that great ships go under it.

Language is a bridge between minds, a bridge so strong


that trains of thought can go across.l..anguage can bridgo
distances.

101 In this sen.. "err.


110 atrofte thatl strong enough to let.
110 111gb them hlgb _-..b to let.

..I......... 1IrW. . (a)

334
Language can bridge time as wen
as space. Ideas can
go fiom. mind to mind across tho language bridge, and
they can come from the past to the presenL We can
read what men before us wrote and keep their books for
others to read in the future.

Here are some of the great books of an timo.

Books are the most important records we have of men's


thoughts and feelings, their ideas and desires.

reacb do reading.
wrI... do writing.
pam what ho. been before now
.....-.: ...... and now
. . . . . what will be.
~ .tore of knowledg.. Fro. recorda .en COD '-a what WGI cion.
Ia earll ... II....
will ...... read(.,
will write wrIte(.,

335
All men have more in common with all other men on
earth than most of them know. What do the words
"in common" mean? What is their meaning? What do
the people in this family havo in common? They have
their family name in common.
They are the Smiths, or the
Wangs. They have a house in
common; it is their home. Tho
husband and wife have their
children in common. In some
parts of the world a man may
have a number of wives. In
other parts a woman may have
.. " a number of husbands. In these
countries the wives have their
husband in common or the
husbands have their wife in common.

People of the same country have that


country in common. It is their country.
Every country has a lIag. What is the Bag
rq I
of your country?

_ I n e t ..n... What ward ay to .... i. th.ir meaning, what th.y ... ean.
flat: pidur. Oft Ihl. pag Your flag repr ntt your ,ounl,.,..
o

wlU_

336
People who talk the same lan-
guage have that language in
common. It is their language,
the language of each and all of
them. They have the ideas and
feelings abOut things which that
language carries.

People who do not talk a lan-


guage do not know what those
who use it are saying. Tbey do
not know what its words can
mean. They have less in com-
mon with those who talk it than
those people have with ono
another.

Sometimes, as in India. in one


country under one Bag people
talk many languages. They
have their country and their Bag in common. bot some
of them have to learn the language of others if they are
to have a language in common.

12 3&"". 1633 337


Talking with someone is saying things to him. hearing
what he says and taking in his meaning. People can
talk together on1y when they
have a language in common.
When you were very young
your parents talked to you and
after a time you saw what they
meant and learned to talk to
them. A baby's first words are
commonly names for its par-
ents. Some children learn to
talk earlier than others.

We go on learning our language


all our lives.

Some people talk more than


they think, and some people
think more than they talk. Most of our thinking is done
through language.

parent: falher or mother.


commonly: mosl limes. II is common for bobles 10 soy nome. for their
porents finl. Babies hoye this ill common.
Ittln"l ho.... Ih0!D~ts. v.! t~e IIIInd. ho.... Id_
will Ittl.k Ittl (_)

338
There are more than 2600 million people on the earth
and about 2500 languages. Of these languages only
about twelve are used by more than 50 million people.

Here are the names of some languages which have very


wide use: Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese), English,
French, German, Hindi, Japanese, Russian and Spanish.
All these languages have more people talking them today
than ever before. A hundred and fifty years ago there
were only about twenty million people who talked Eng-
lish, for example. Now there are at least two hundred
and fifty million, and there may be many, many more.

- - 250,000,000

200,000,000
~

~~ 150,000,000

!-- 100,000,000

!-- 50,000,000

1800 1900 1950

at l - n that number or _ ,',

339
More people will learn more languages as better ways
of teaching them are worked out.
-
This book, English Through
Pictures 2, is itself part of an
attempt to teach English better.

We need better books to learn ~


from and better records of good cb
voices to teach us how to listen to 0 0
the sentences of a language and
say them.

Recordings 01 IIOIIJI<I. arc made


on 'disks and,on tapes.
~

IIstent att.mpt to h_r.


attempb malt..... att .... pl.
recorell record., Wh.n pla~ on a !luKhlne, Jel us hear again Ihe lOunds
recorded on the.
......._ a Iholl\lht put In word .. A written _ntence stam with a large
(capital' letter and ends wilh 0 full stop (period) ar lO.. ell",e. a
question _ ....
, sound r.cording play.d with a n dl ..
tapIN long narrow roll of thin cloth. paper or ather .alerlaL

will u.t_
will ttttempt
..... (.)
atteIIIIpt(. )

340
We need good pictures to teach us meaDin&:s in tbc new
laDguage and good motion pictUres to help muiy mom
people to learn languages quickly and weD. The learDeD
will then be able to wOI'k in groups with the help of
teachers 01' by themselves, using boob, records. radio,
sound motion pictures and television.

A teacher can help a learner to learn. Readingand writinc


can help us to think.

w'" It. a goad way.


ItIIIp1 ....thlng which doe, part 0' our work for us. A dick ..,. be 0
help to an aid. _ , It -.ay help hi.. ~

. . . . . . . tot.ther with ath_


..............1II .....hl...
1IS
tot..heror ................ fa _ _
will...... ......(.) .......
341
Writing is a very much newer invention than talking.
Nobody knows when men first began to talk. but they
did not begin to write, so far as we know, until seven or
eight thousand years ago.

IN EGYpt IN MESOf'OTAMIA. IN CHINA.

ro
t
~~
I OJ)
....
.tl.B OJ>
In Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China, and later in Pales-
tine and Greece, men began to make marks and pictures
with sticks and sharp stones from which others, or they
themselves, later, could see what they had thought.

......tIonl 10m. n_ thing or a n.w way of doing 1O.... hing worlt.d


out by _no
. . . . . .1 stort.d.
.......1 cutting.
......1 a hard _I.rlal, or a bit of It. Much of Ih .arth Is iliad. of ,Ion
Som. ston or. round and slIIooth frolll Mlng roll.d obout by wa'".
Oth." ON ,harp and early lII.n mad. 111... into Itniy...
...... (IaN, ....., IatHt): appoai'. of earli., (_b'. _1It).
will b..... ....... (.) ................

342
1beso early records were the beglmdng fA writing. 'Ibc
first wri.tiDg was picture writing. Here are some early
C1inese picture words. Can you see what they represent?

-
Later Chinese writing is less Uko pictures than the earlier
writing was but we can see the pictures in some of its
words. For example:

(:ffi'
I I
I I

Here are some Egyptian ~ords in picture writing.

.......... startlllg pollll.

343
In picture writing. each picture represents a word; you
need a different pi<:toro or mart for each word.
In presenl..cJay 01inese writing most of the marks are
notpictuJ:es of anything. and a reader has to learn how
the Chinese write about two thousand of these words
before he can read a newspaper.
With some of these marks you may be able to see what
the idea is. For example:

The sun and moon.

Two of its meanings are: "brigbt~ and "open.....

A man and tWo marks. ~


One. of the meanings is "what men have in common."

Learning to read Chinese is much harder than learning


to read English; But in word-writing like Chinese the
same marks can be read as having the same meaning in
different languages; for example, in Mandarin, in Can-
tonese and in Japanese.
Irttime some mea. disc:oVCRd how to represent the sounds
ill words by marb. In any language there are oaly a
small number of different sounds. By writing down marb
to represent sounds, not ideas, men can speD any of
the words in a language with only a small number of
marb. Every written language today has its spelling
system. The hardest languages to speD are those in
which-as with English-many of the letters may repro-
lent more than one sound.

ABCDEFGHI
Here is the complete Roman
alphabet in which English JKLM NOPOR
and many othec languages
are written. STUVWXYZ
Something written in English has a meaning only if It
is read as English. because the letters in English represent
English sounds. What is written in Italian must be read
as ItaIian.

..... put Ien.n toget..... to .at. -u.


......- way part. ar. put tag.,...... Here lett.... ar. put tog....... to

....,.,
tep...Mtlt ... _IIIds of a 1a1ltJ1ICI9e.
l I ..p"" ....hI'" .. co.plet. when all of It .. " ' -

345
Here is the name of tho book English Through PictllTU
written in a number of different languages. The names
of the languages are given in Eng1ish.

Arabic J.,.n .n..,l'y' ~"'ft


Bengali "fill tft fimt ~~ ~
Bunnese

Cbinese

Greek
g.oC\r{ 'lnA3Sa.~te.
~
ArrAlKA ME EIKONE};
...
Hebrew ~ rnpt::)aQ mlJM
Hindi "Ef'U m.T .>i\i{ft

... f " ., *4
Japanese
Korean ..1, .....'tJ. t
6 16f-t-"'"IH:- lfl"W
~ t$J.J .31 ~I .J~J ~,.I
Russian AHrJlHACKHA Sl3b1K B KAPTHHKAX

Sinhalese a..J* &a.Id 9-0f3 tI>~() ~_

Tamil ........,.,(9*'U4..c:fIIUiJ~~--Q)

Telugu ~p ~ ~~
Thai
.. c:.
~ 111tJ1l"lW'ltl-JrlO
..
Hfl 1UIl"lW
I

Urdu '~'u;JJ:i1 ~...,.s .['J..Jl...i

346
Here are the twenty-six letters used in English with the
F.nglish names for them spelled out after them.

a ay j jay 8 ess
bbee k kay t tee
c see I ell uyou
d dee m emm v vee
eee neon w double-U
f eft o oh x eks
g jee ppec ywy
h aich q kyou z zeeor
i eye r are zed (British)

Some of these letters are used not for one sound onlY.
but for any of two or three or more different sounds. The
letter a may have the sound of a in bag, part, again, say.
was, any, or fall.

The letter e may have the sound of e in ben. week. older,


earth, or hear, or it may have no sound but only an effect
upon other sounds which come before it The a and the
g in bag have different sounds from the a and the g in
age, for example.

Reading English is not as hard as reading Chinese. but it


is harder than reading a language in which each letter
has only one sound. The hook. First Steps in Reading
English, can be a great help to a beginner.

347
Are some of the sounds used in ono IaDguago very unlike
any of those used in anothet'I

Yes. You may have felt in leaming B:ng1ish that some


of the sounds it uses are strange. Bot if you do not have
a weD-trained ear, you wD1 not hear English words as
they are heard by an Englishman or an American. You
wD1 hear the nearest sounds in your mother language.

A IPOd way of ~ to make the sounds of a new


langoage is to use recordings which have spaces after
each sentence giving you time to say what you have
beard before the next sentence comes.

..,. ...... feIh _y hoM had .......11-.


......... taUlhllo do lO. . .blng "L
wlU,...
wID......
.... ,.)
......,., ........
felt
There are machines which will play back to you again
and again, one after the other, the sounds you have
made and the sounds you were attempting to make. When
yeu hear what you are doing wrong you can try to do
better next time.

For most cJiildren, new sounds are easy to make when


they hear them, and children seem to hear new sounds
better and more easily than grownups do. If a family
goes to China, or France or Fmland (to take three coun-
tries whose languages are very unlike one another) the
children will learn to talk Chinese or French or Finnish
much more quickly than their parents will.

Iryt _kit 11ftaIIe.pt


. . . 1IO_'hlnl I, easy for you wheR you con quldttr Ieam to do It _IL
It I, hard w..... you conllClt
. . . . . penon who II 110 longer a child, who llal 1 _ up I11III a

.... ..,.
_ora_A.

349
Why is this? Why is it easy for YOUDI cb.ildren to learn
languages?

Part of the answer is that cb.ildren have so many needs.


They need to be helped by grownups at every tum. 1bey
have to make their needs known and they are always

VJ
watching the effect of what they say and trying new
waY' of ....... what they wanL

Children are learning new things all the time.

watch. . . looking at. Ow _Iehe, _ thing, _ watdI (k..., looking


at) 10 _ the tI
alwayll at an tI ,. all th. tl...
. . . . . hcmt a . ,.... 'or.
wUlwaM .am(a)
will watch watch( ....

350
Another part of the answer is that children are not, as
older people sometimes are, fixed in their ways of Jiving.
When they are taken about from one country to an-
other they change easily from one language to another.
from one bed to another, from one food to another.
Older people are more fixed in their ways. They haw
been hearing and taDcing one language for a long time.
Their ways of hearing and malcing sounds and of putting
words together are like the rails a train goes on. They
have been up and down their lines of talk and thought too
many times to change them easily.

--..----
A child is freer in his ways. He is more like an airplane
or, better, like a bird; he is free to go in any direction be
wants. He is free to hear sounds as they areand make
them as be hears them. He is free to put new words to-
gether in new ways in taDcing a new language.

...... opposite of flqd.


dian. ., make a cha mak. chait'.' I...

351
The more laDguages you hear and get to know, the more
you will see how any language is made up of a small num-
ber of. sounds put together in different ways. For example.
in English, Ught and right are different words with only
one sound in them differenL The same is true of. long
and wrong.
I~

\
WlleNII........... : ......
Q ......., . : ~:==~:...:~
Q

~ j
........ ".~I. 0 : . -{' . All ............
at ... ,lgW.

----- ----. --- - -:. -.........


-- -,-~
11110
' ' ' ' way.

If a learner does not hear these different sounds as dif-


ferent, he may not get the meaning of. what is said to him.

352
The more laDguages you hear and get to know, the more
you will see how any language is made up of a small num-
ber of. sounds put together in different ways. For example.
in English, Ught and right are different words with only
one sound in them differenL The same is true of. long
and wrong.
I~

\
WlleNII........... : ......
Q ......., . : ~:==~:...:~
Q

~ j
........ ".~I. 0 : . -{' . All ............
at ... ,lgW.

----- ----. --- - -:. -.........


-- -,-~
11110
' ' ' ' way.

If a learner does not hear these different sounds as dif-


ferent, he may not get the meaning of. what is said to him.

352
There are many ways of helping a learner into a languagey
but not enough people know them.

Most people learn their mother language without being


able to give any account at all of how it works. They learn
to talk as they learn to walk. without any idea of how
they do it.

People who learn to use a language well do so through


talking with others who use it well, through reading good
writers and through watching the effects on others of what
they say and how they say it. The world needs more
people who can use language well. Language is as neces-
sary to men's minds as the air they breathe is to their
bodies

....., tOt IIMded by.


to breath.: Ioke air ill and gin It avl.
r... _nd or _ ill ~ '- Uke _In _ , .
rhe _nd or _ in breat" II like _ In "_d.
walle's} woIk. .
1weoIII.'s) tar......

353
AU men need . . we breathe in air from outside out
bodies in every breath.

When you put your


face under water you
cannot keep it there
long.

A swimmer can't swim under water very long. He needs


air.

A good swimmer may swim with his face in the water;


if so, he keeps turning his head to take a breath through
his mouth.

He docs not take in air through his nose under the water
because water would get in through his nose with the air
and go to his lungs. With water in his lungs a man can't
go on living.

IwI_ be ,wllnll
kip of nut pas-.
wta....
.... -
....C.)

354
Here is a picture of a man's
lungs. They are soft like
sponges with thousands of
little pipes going through
them. The pipes keep
branching like the branches
of a tree so that they go
through every part of each
lung.

Our lungs are in the upper part of our chest. We have


two of them. The air we breathe goes right in to every
part of the lungs through these
branching pipes. They take it to
the blood which is moving all
the time through the lungs and
round to every part of our bod-
ies. The blood makes a journey
round the body and back to the
lungs in a very short time.

IpOnee: fram_k bllill lip by on. __ of wat...


animal as its hom., $Oft in WON' and IIs.d
by me far washing.
upper: high.r lip thon the .. Idd...
right In: all the way In.
blood: 'd liquid in bodi.. of high., ani_I..
moyln. in ..otion.
wlHmove MOved

355
What is blood?

It is the red liquid which


comes out of your finger
when you cut iL

1bere are about thirteen pints of blood


in a man's body. He can give a pint of
blood at a time to a blood bank for the
use of other men who may need it. A
healthy body makes up the pint of blood
quickly.

~ ~-2J-)
-~r-..JL./
What does our blood do for us? It takes food to all
parts of our bodies and takes waste away from them.
All the parts of our bodies are made up of cells. These
cells, which are very small, all need fOOd all the time.

nb _Clke CI cut In.


Wood ....111 plac. wfI.... blood Is kept CIS IIIOn.y I. t4!p' in a bonk.
w ......hal wfllch I. of no __ v .., ......10.. nat ....d.d.
_II 011... IIThl, thin,. or 011... living part of rlYllllt thing.
wID cut cut

356
Here are some cells, thousands of times ~ size they are
in the body.

Each difterent sort of cell bas its own work to do, dif-
ferent from the work other sorts of cells do.

No one had seen cells before the


invention of the microscope and its
development in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries. Before then
no one could make pictures of cells
because no one could see them.

Your 0_
a cell', OWl! work I, if. _II, nat that of any other sort of cell.
Wltl
hat I. yaws. not any other penon'. hat.
deYeJepIn..... chong. by which so .....hlng plYIng thing, idea. In...
tion) beco.... better. _ . able to do thlngl. All the ani_II Gttd
pion" _ ... about ... hove ".Ioped fro.. earn.,. JlYlng ,hlng.
which _re of tint .ad. up of only 0'" ceiL
de.,.....(.)

357
Cells are like little Bames. A ftame needs food. We get
a quick Hame-for a fire or a cigarette-by lighting a
match or using a lighter. The Hame of the match bums
the match and the Hame of the lighter bums the liquid
in the lighter, if there is air for them to burn in.

All fires burn something. What they burn is their fuel


Fuel is food for fire.

da-ttel .hin roll of cut tobocco in b


paper fO<' omoklng.

_m be chonged by fI,
IIICIIch: .moll otick of wood or paper which
gi.... flo",
fu.II mat.riol fO<' fir Fuel moy be IOlid. liquid 0<' goo.
wUlbum burn (a) burned. burnt

358
The blood is like a stream. The ceDs take wbat they need,
their fuel, out of the blood stream. as plants and fishes
take their food out of water.

--- - _. . . . ----
- - -----~----
- -
--
OIl --- _
~ - '1. _-:

~w~ap
The blood stream carries food and the oxygen which it
has taken up in our lungs to aU the cells In the body.
Old ceDs die and give place to new cells in the body as
plants and fish and other living things in the world about
us die and give place to others. Three miUion of your red
blood ceDs die every second and other cells take their
place. The red cell population of your body changes
completely in about three months.

~rlv4lf'. t
.xy....1 OU of to ga_ In air. Our lung. toke It out of tile air _
~ .... fire tok oxyvon out of .h air .. It 1IunI..

359
What makes tho blood go OIl moviDg round tho body .in a
stNam?

The heart sends it


round.

The heart is between


the lungs. A man's
heart is the size of his
shut hand.

-The heart is a pump. If you put your hand under water


like this. and keep letting a little water into it

and sending it out again, you are pumping the


water. The heart pumps blood in a way a little like this.

puIIIpI .achllMl for puOllIfJ liquid or air or ...... or out of lO...hl"lI.


will..... ........ ......
The heart has four rooms in it with doors (valves) be-
tween them. It pumps blood in and out through these
doors by changing the size of the rooms so that the doors
open and shut. It can do this because it is made of muscle.
\.

The heart keeps a stream of blood going all round the


body and back again to itself. The pipes which take blood
from the heart are named arteries; the pipes through
which it comes back to the heart are named veins.

v".
::q
:

_IYeS opening which .... liquid or go. go

----
through one way but not the other way. _

_ _ cord. of thr_d. which can ~e ~


longer or .harter to _ _ part. of the body.

will .....
win . . .

361
A solid line represents an ar,t.ery and a broken Jino
Vein. .

362
The first man to discover that
the blood goes to aD parts of.
the body, out through the
valves of. the heart through
one system of. pipes and back
again through another, was
the seventeenth-century d0c:-
tor William Harvey.

The journey of. our blood all round the body is the circu-
lation of. the blood. As you see in the picture opposite,
the branches of. the arteries are Ute the branches of. a tree
which get smaller and smaller the farther they are from
the roots. The small branches go to aD parts of the body.
They go to the ends of your fingers and toes, to all the
muscles-those parts by which you move your arms and
legs and bead and other parts of the body.

docton _II wittl trallI"", which helps hi. to _ke and keep people
h..,lhy.
cIrcuIaIIo-. .-Ion .-lid and .-nd.
pIchiIN ......... plcm. which II 011 . . . oppoaIt. page, pIcm. 011
... opposIh pag<L

363
Everywhere the blood stream does two things; supplies
the cells with food and oxygen and takes away waste. It is
as if the blood kept the little fires in the cells burning and
took away the ashes.

The fuel for the fires in the c:eDs is given us by the food
we eat. It cannot burn without oxygen. This gas is as
necessary to all living things as it is necessary to the burn-
ing of fires made. of wood or coal.

Burning is the change which takes place when oxygen


and fuel unite. Coal, wood and other fuels (cooking gas,
for example) burn by taking oxygen from the air

."....,wh ...., in all plae, In all part,. 01 011 POinl


a_I powd you con ... In Ih. plae. wh.,. a wood
burning.
fi,.hOi ""n

_Stet b1tco... _ n.w thing. 'n thl...n,. 0' .. nit


coal: cool i. mind ',om th .arth. T,... liing million. of yean ago

-....
hav. b..n slowly chonfij.d into th. hard. bloc" cool In .... 01 , ...l
win .....

364
When you see someone
opening a window in a room
full of people, you know that
he is letting in air from out~
side. As good air comes in
through the window. bad,
used air. with more carbon
dioxide and water in it and
less oxygen, goes out.

We say good air is fresh air. Fresh air is clean and good
to breathe and has enough oxygen in it for OW' needs.

c. . . . . .oxldet one of the I _ i ,..ent In the air. It II _ade up


corban (p...."t In coal! and O"yoen unit.d
a.
......, h.ere .,. lo.e ath _ _ fre.h _t.. Is - ' _ whkll II IIOt
IGIt like ... -,*r. fr..h. bread Is lIew bread. fr..h. paillt II paint
wItIch hal ......_Iy put _

36S
These boys are outside in the fresh air, breathing deeply
while their teacher is saying:

for every breath which they take. If you could watch


them you would see their chests becoming first larger,
then smaller in size, as their lungs breathed air in and out.

Breathing goes on when we are awake and when we are


sleeping. Most of the time we are not conscious of our
breathing.

The motion of our lungs as we breathe is automatic. It


goes on by itself. the lungs taking fresh air in and letting
used. air out about eighteen times a minute. This is the
common rate of breathing.

We become conscious of our breathing if anything shuts


the air off from us, so that we do not get enough oxygen
for our needs.
_ket not ,1",lng.
_1CIOn oft toting noht of, ' ...Ing, .....ing In ..Ind.
avtomatIa -"Ing by ItHIf. wit. . GnJOne haying to do anything
about It consdovsly. Q

366
Keepiog your mouth shut.
take your nose between
your thumb and one fin.
pr. so that you shut tho
lG
air out and shut your 1
fp:"">Q
J.
breath in. How long can
you hold your breath?
You will be wise if you f? L"
do not try to hold it more
than a minute. H oxygen
is kept'from a person for
long he will become un-
c::onsci.ous.

When a person becomes unconscious through getting


water or smoke in his lungs it is very important to start
him breathing again. This is done by turning him face
down (putting something between his teeth to keep his
mouth open) and then working his lungs to start his
breathing.

hold: k. .p froM changing. kHp in one place. kHp from Moving.


wl. .1 haYing knowledge and s..ing what 10 do 'or the best,
IIftcOftaclo_ not aNIKIova, haYi.g no sense 01' ....1118 or knowledge,
~~ ~W ~

367
The higher up we 80 the less is the pRISl1l'e of
the air, because the weight of
the air above us iJ less. As
the pressure becomes les8 ~A
t
(air gets thinner) the amount ACONCAOUA:t: / "::t: 28.000

of oxygen we get: in ODe breath be- {I. ~ :t: 24.000


comes less. We must tate in ~ :t:
more air to get tho same A~ :t: :10.000
amount of oxygen. lIUMAIUMO/ (H. ........,+
&AMaoJ ~ ::::t: 16.GOO
AIM)Kr ILAHC:a;:

~,
/ " ct......,
a: 12,GOO

:E1.GOO

:t:".ooo
lEA uva
The instrument we use to measure the pIeS-
sure of the air is the barometer.

the ........... ____.... tto. p\llh 01'1 h. The air .. ,v.hlng on tllla
ball. pulling p " _ on II. fro. aD .... aD " J
hd_. ~~~
. . . . . O....
_
higher up.
lak. the _ _ 01.
J"""\
..... _,s) .IM lid

368
Men have been able (1953) to get to the top of the high-
est mountain in the world, Mount Everest. They had to
use oxygen when they got up
high. They had to keep con-
trol over the amount of oxy-
gen they used. They could
get no more supplies from.
those below.

This man, who is going up a high mountain, is using a


supply of oxygen which is stored in those cans he is car-
rying on his back. By opening and shutting a valve. he
controls the amount of oxygen he breathes in. The gas
has been pumped into the small space inside the cans. It
is under pressure in there and comes out when the valve
is opened.

control: powe, o..er.


below: lower dow", opposite to obove.
will control control(.) controlled

13 SaQ31633
It was more than a century after Harvey bad discovered
the circulation of the blood that two other scientists, one
English and the other French, discovered oxygen. These
men saw that when a ftame bums it takes something out
of the air. That is wby a candle goes out when it has been
burning for: a little time in a small amount of air. It has
taken all the oxygen out of the air. You may see this by
putting a lighted candle under a glass cover, so:

When the candle has used up the oxygen from the air it
cannot go on burning. It cannot bum without oxygen.
Its light goes out.

So with the burning that goes on inside the mnlions of


cells of our bodies. H the blood stops carrying oxygen to
the cells, they go out. They die.

IClentIstt IIICIn of lel.nc


101 lik. thll' It II Ilk. this.
'.,.1
candle! cotton core! with 101Ie! roune! It. n.. Mot of th. fla_ toml
the fuel to liqule! one! th.n to gal 01 It bums. n.. fIa_ II th.
bumlll9 gal.
!dopl do IlOl: 00 - . ..Ol. a Itop. put Oft Me! to.

wid Itop

370
When a man is runnin&
. ....
his heart is working
much harder than
when he is sitting
down. His blood is be-
ing pumped mol'O
quickly through his
body. The blood must
carry a greater $Upply
of oxygen to the mu&-
cles an over the bOdy.
Out hearts work for us
automaticaRy. A man's
heart can pump as
much as threethousaad
gallons of blood a day.
The amount pumped at
any time is controlled automatically. After running hard
a man breathes very quickly because while rUnning he
couldn't take in enough air for his oxygen needs. He is
"out of breath," as we say.

........ going faster Oft foot than woIlbtll


.........kallyJ In an automatic way.
win f'VIII run'.) raft. run

13 371
Our bodies control themselves in many other ways. For
example, the temperature of our bodies (and those of
all warm-blooded animals) is controlled; our blood tem-
perature is kept at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, or near iL

I
37
20

o
20

c
When a person is very ill (sick) some of the automatic
controls of his body stop working. His temperature, meas-
ured by a Fahrenheit thermometer, may go as high as
103F or l04P but if it goes much higher. or keeps as
high as that for very long. be cannot go on living. He
will die.
tem........ th. mea.ure of body heat on a 1CCI1e.
_ . haYing a mlddl. d.g .... of t.m~ not very dlU_nt fro.
the temperatv... of our bodl...
. . . . . . t.mperolv.... are _.ured In deg_ fah ... nh.it (F) or de-
gr_ Centlgrad. (C). W. change a temperatu ... from Centlgrad.
to fahrenh.lt by the addition of 32 to nine fifth. of the number.
For .xampl., 100C I. the boiling point of wotv. Thl. I. 100 tI_
9/5 plUl32= +180 =
32 2121'.
Ilk not well, u_II, In _ . parts of the - ' d the _d lIlelf I. uet.
th..---ten Indrum.nt fOf lDea.urfng ...peratvre-GftOtber of Gall-
teo'. Inventloftll. "

372
The body has many different ways of keeping itse1f warm
enough and not too warm. It uses up more food, mcxe
fuel for the cells, in cold weather. It shivers-that is, 'its
muscles go on making quick little motions to keep it
WanD. We cannot stop ourselves from shivering. lbe
body's heating system is not under a man's conscious
control; it is automatic. To stop shivering he has to
WanD himse1f some other way: he may run or walt
quickly, or take hot drinks, or cover himself up W8.EIllly,.
or use a hot water bottle to warm his bed.

_
. . . ._
. . . .ke_-.
lhaklng all oyer CD an ."-ct of cold.

hob .,."., _ . at a high ".peraIvN.


"-tt _k.loottw. W. _ _ hemds at ..... W_ ...............
will...."..
wIII_
will ....

313
Our bodies give off some d their heat aD tho time by
sendinl a littlo liquid out through the skin. Sometimes tho
amount JetS JrCatcl' and our Ikin becomes wet. This cools
the body quickly.

Here the man 011 the left Is sbiverlnJ because he has been
waitinl in line for a lonl time in the cold wind. The man
OR the ript is wet. all over because he got too hot in the
sun. He is drinkiD& water because he feels the need of
it. He is thirsty.

_h lIIak. 11 war
.... _ . thall _ _ he
~"'U.. tM __ Io"'"
wille'" .... l.'
374
r?:-,\
r-iV(~J
<rL.!-
.L11Il5 man m _
IS _;_ _
..; ..... H. .
e IS aom& ~,,..,,1J ~
to run a distance of one mile in the ". __
shortest p()ssible time. The fastest - \: - "
runners before him have taken a little ,
undcrfour minutes and he wants to
make a new record. rr /

When a man runs a mile in four min-


utes he is going at a rate of fifteen
miles an hour, but it is not possible
to keep running at this rate very long.

The runner is standing now in front of his dOctor ~


has an instrument in his hand. Through this the doctor
can hoar the sounds made by the runner's heart.

potIIIItIM obi. 10 be . ...


....... I. Ibl, , .......... than
..-.Is "'I, I, QftOIher ...... of "'-d!' WIlett a ,...... doH _
thing bett........ It .......... ,doH IIlefoft _ "'" he lias .-de
~
. . . . . . . Oft hili , .... ItOI _1"1.
will ...... itaHc)

37S
Now tho docIor Is taJdng the man'.
pulse. He has his finger on the man's
wrist and is counting the times his
heart pumps the blood in
0110 minute. The doctor
caa feel the motion. or
pulsing of the blood every
timet the man's heart
pumps.

fa fIlOIt IDeD the pulse rate is betwecIl seventy and eighty


times a mhmtc. fa cbildren it is bigher.

"'l'ba. raDIIIIr'. palso rate is 72. It wi11 be higher when ho


k,gm"

.......... of the blood Ifnugh t _ _ _ _ a& It ~ be hit at poIatI


lit the 1aocIy. for --..... th. wriat
. . . . . . . . . . . 11_..... 01 puI_ I" CI .1". .

........... 01 .... _-..1_"-41. ~


~

..... ...(a,
........ ..tag au...... to di_1Iow _yo
......
374
There is a good story about the uae
the great Italian scientist Galileo
once made of his knowJed&e of the
puJserate.

Gameo Dved three hundRci


years ago before men had
watches fO{ measuring time.
In the sixteenth century
there were very few clocks in
the world and no watches.

One day when Gatileo


was a young man of eight- I
een. he was in the great JJJJ
church of the city of Pisa
where he Jived. Watching .4....J..................oILU.u.w.IIII.II.1JJ..W.I.U..I1l.II..W1L.
the motion of a light hanging down on a long chain from
the roof high above his he~ he saw that as the light
moved forward and back on its chain, it seemed to tate
the same time between turns, however far it wenL
..... at _ II_III the past,
. . .- - to the frMt. a
. . . . . IVppoIt _de of .efoI . . . gainer ....... - 0II0IfI.... a
_ _ ........ It _ t 0IIIy 0 Mort . . . . . aad whe. It -a 0
_Ioag
_ ... Ia~
wIaaIeYer WCI'/.
To see if he was right about
tbC motion of the light, GaJi~
leo put his fingers on his
wrist. He timed the motion
of the light as it went fOfWard
and bact on its chain, mea&-
uriD& it by his pulse rate.

He was right. He had the proof. He could prove that tho


time was the .same, however short or long the journey of
the light through the air was. GaJiIeo had made a great
discovery about the motion of a pendu-
lum. Among other things this discovery
made posiible a better instrument for
measurlDa tbne-the pendulum clock.

.,....fc that which Malt.. dMrr that ......... Is ...


,..._-,he
,.. . . . M"I""ed the 11M. taUIl by.
,....' -t proof.
'I'M
wil,,...,,.
win ....
hall,,,,, _lfIht to _ . 'roM ,I. ta ....
.......
......
378
Measuring how fast somothing Is maring gives us tho
rate of motioa.

This plane has goDO 300


miles in half an hour. Its rate
was 600 m.p.b.

t
This man has walked two mfies in
half an hour. He was walking at a
rate of four miles an hour. Now
bo is standing. He is.not moving.

This man is working slowly.


His pay will be small if he is
paid by the amount of wort
he does in a day.

This other man is working


quickly. His pay will be high
if he is paid by the amount
of wort done in a day.

1be two commonest ways of paying a worker are by tho


hour and by tho amount of work done. Piecework is work
paid by the amount done. For different sorts of wort
rates of pay may be different. Sometimes rates for tho
same sort of work are different in different places.

..... bit. a_nt. part of . . . .hlng 1OI1d.


-.p.II.a .11.. per hour 11e. III _ hour. _ - . of rate of IIOIIM

payI _ l i t of _ . , ,Ina for ....


wla~

379
When we move about from ono country to another we
sometimes have to Change our
money. we sometimes have
to change our watches and sometimes we change both.
When we change our watches we move the hands forward
or bact: forward jf we ~ going east and bact jf we are
goingwest. "

Here is a map giving time


lines acro~s the Pacific
Ocean.

fa the days when GaUleo used his pulse as a timet~.


most men did not eV'eD. know that the earth was round.
They knew no more about the journey of the earth
around the sun than they did about the journey of their
blood stream through their bodies.

bothl Ih. two. on. and lhe oth... of ~


"'''110 Much CII. EnNl gl., Ih.1deo lhol ._.thlat u.uch __ tfIaD
_ - ' d thlnk_ .ucllJ!ua.-----
But for another two thousand years most men went on
thinking that the earth was fiat like a large plate with the
SWl and stars journeying round it.

How was the idea that the earth is not fiat but round like
a ball proved true in the end?

Sailing men went out in their ships to find a way by water


from Europe to India and C)lina. Though some ships
from the north of Europe had sailed west to parts of
America in the
tenth century,
most of Eu-
rope had no
knowledge of
the land across
the Atlantic.

Men like Marco Polo had gone east to India and China,
much of the way by land, long before Columbus, in 1492,
went sailing west with the idea that he could get round to
the Far East by water.

to fI. . to look lot and dl _ _ or COllI. upon.


thou..., ..."If.
wiD fIIMI

382
amstopber Columbus has po down in histary as the
man who discovered Amorica. He was looking for a way
of getting to the East by sailing weaL It was hard for him
to get help for tbJs journey. He was Iau,gbed at by most
people when he said he could ao this way to India be-
cause the earth was round.

This is the sart of. ship


Columbus sailed in.

He made use of a haH-hoar sand .....


for measuring tUne at sea. Throop an
the long months the glasses OIl Colum-
bus's three shipa had to be turned ever:y
balf-hour as the sand ran out.

. . . . _wns beM 0"' WlI."


a plac I.
a pa.....', 110 e- c:tow.
hillWy 1G .,hiao ha ha, don. I, recardacl III hl,tory books.
coulda I. thl'H.", woulel 1M able ~ uMcl oa .... oppolit. pao..

383
continent. He knew
nothing of the life that had
been going on in North
and South America for thousands of years or of the two
great peoples, the Aztec8 and the Incas. who had been
livilll there-the One in Mexico, the other in Peru-for
centuries. It is now thought that in 1SOO the population
of the Americas was about 30 million, and that the first
of these "Indians" had come from Asia themselves. There
may have been a land bridge between Asia and Alaska
across which they could have come.

....... e-p.. AlIa, Afrko. North AIHrka.. South A..lea, ~


trolla and Alttarctlea are the contln.... of the -w.
It I, _ ............ldI _ think.
Thirty years after Columbus discovered America, the
ship of Magellan, a sailor of Portugal. was the first to
make its way south of Sooth America and on round the
world through the Indian Ocean and past the Cape of
Good Hope back to Europe.

Magenan himself died on one of the Philippine Islands


on April 27 (in) 1521.

When a ship sailed out to the west and came back home
from the east three years later men could see that the
earth must be round. This proved that the earth was
round. It was proof enough for most men.

MIllon _ who WOfks Oft ship. at _


..... pl_ of land poI""ng out 1Il10 ... water.

385
But it was harder to tate in the idea that tho earth might
be moving round the SUD, as Copernicus of Poland, 1473-
1543, said it was. Very few men had made any sense of
the writings of Copernicus by the time he died in 1543,
twenty-one years before Galileo and Sbatespeare were
born. Few people could read or write in those days.

It was GaIileo who mado the first telescope, through


which he could watch tho stars and look into the ideas
that Copemicua ancl othen had been working upon.
Through his tele8copo the stan aeemed DlOIe than thirty
times as near, and he could o
see not only the mountains
of the moon but spots on the
o
face of the SUD, and the mo-
tion of the moons moving o
round the planet Jupiter.

.,1MtY"- ~I" of..,., .any


.....Il0l1 ....
........, Jupl.... Is 1M _ _ of OIIe of 1M pl. . . . . . . . bodies whlda
... .oviav 1OUIId ... _ CIS the eorth Is.
---
Galileo could let men loot through his telescope bot be
could not m.ab most of them see the picture cI. the UBi-
verse that was bec:ontiDB clear in bi&miDd.

,'",."
/ , I ,

~. -0-
,. ,"
..
He could not do that allY more than Copemk:ushad been
able to do it. Men's ideas we.ro c:banging. bot not as
quickly as his.

Galileo was put in prison for saying that the ideas written
down by Ptolemy fifteen hundred years before did not
mab sense to him.

_ _ ..,."..,1. th_l..
....... plan ....... _gdoera 01' t ..... aald to han doll. WI'OIIIJ 0..-
Iocbd up.
Newton, who was bom
the year that Galileo died
(1642), took the new line
of thought much farther.

Like Galileo he became a


great watcher and record-
er, asking the question
"how," more than "why,"
and answering by meas-
uring and recording and
comparing and proving.

Even more than Galileo, he saw the universe as part of a


great maclrlne. and he was able to put into words great
natura1laws:::.accounts of. its workings.

comparInF finding wh.... and how things or. the 10m. or diff....nt.
kiwi laws which are mad. by man or. 1Iatnt backed by gov_
m.1It power. contrallin, what n .ay or may lICIt do. WIlen _ _
laws are broken. the persan who breaks th.m. If It I. pf'Oftd that h.
did 10, may be put In prison.
IICdurah nat made by _no
IICduraI lawa atattom.,.t of cause. and .ffect. at wart everywh_
wlllcOlDpCa'tl
will""'"

188
He was able to do this 0Dly becauso be was carried for-
ward on the shoulders ~ such mea 88 0aJile0, Kepler and
Copernicus. With their wort before him be could think
out now ideas about tho weights ~ thiDsa and their'mo-
tions. His Law ~ Gravitation says that all thiDsa in tho
universe have 8D. attraction f01' ODO another.

It was only by standing on Newton's and


other men's shoulders that Einstein
(1879~19SS) was able to get his picture
of the universe and work out new ideas
about time and space and energy.

Their work made it possible


for him to see farther into tho
laws ~ the universe than
they could. Younger men in
their tum are developing new
ideas made possible by
Einstein.

abouIt In thl. ..n,0'. .


IhouI6In part of bodr .,...... at., neck and chest.

389
Tho tlIinkina of aden.tists has become clearer and truer u
their instruments have become better. GaJi1eo made one
of tho first microscopes u weU as the first telescope, and
by the middle of tho seventeenth century this new iDstru-
ment had opened up to man another world, a world of
things too small fOl' our eyes by themselves to see.

The mia:oscopo made possible tho disc:overy of tho cell


structure of aU liviq things.

--
PI..., ....

1'Il10_- __ II
..t-...

Even the body of man himself could be pictured DOW U


a great macbine with miI1ioo.s upon miI1ions of working
puts, eadl part a ceIL

.......... how a thing II ..od. vp, the way Ita partl are pvt'tog........
Th. 11rvdur. of the plant .... I. the plChIN aboft, right, II _ _
deafer by ' '1IkroHope.
390
Together with all this new knowledge c:I. the cen structure
of plants and animals, the microscope opened up a world
of UviDg beings so small that men had had no idea such
things were possible..

It was a surprise to the


scientist to see that in a
drop of water theJ:e might
be thousands of living
things of many dilierent
sorts moving about and
taking in food.

With the invention of such instruments as the microscope


and telescope man found himself walking between two
strange new worlds: one too far off and great, the other
too near and small for anyone but the scieiltist to know
much about or do much about. As science developed,
thinking men came to feel less and less at home in the
universe. They had enough knowledge to become con-
scious of the need for more.

IUClaI lik. th....


IUCh thin. . thing. Ilk. th....
-..n- a , ..ling _ have wh.n _ ....o....thlng straftg..

391
Our bodies can be loob:d upoD as machines which are
kept goiDg by fuel. As food is bUnted up in the body ceDs
it gives us heat and other sorts fA. ener&Y. An through a
mans life-from birth to death-he must be suppUed with
energy.

Even when we are sleeping we are using up some food


to keep our bodies warm. Our tUlIp and heart keep on
working. Some animals sleep through the cold winter
weather: snakes, for example.
When they are asleep their rate fA.
breathing and pulse rate and tem-
peratum go down, and less food is
needed.

Only animals that can store enough fat in their bodies to


keep them alive through the winter can sleep through the
months when food is hard to get.

..,.. tl of IMn,.
deaIIu end of 1M...

. . . . . a long _bodied anlt.aI


with no ..... So.. --. of anok..
hcmt pallOn In their lolita. need'"
aIaotp front teeth. If th1& pol_ ....
Into your blood strea. It _ _
death In a few .lnutes.

win ......

392
While our bodies are at rest tho
large muscles are not in use. It Is
these large muscles which pull on
our bones and let us movo as we
want to.

Hard work with our large muscles


uses up energy quickly so that wo
come to feel hungiy and want to
eat.

1he more we know about the parts


of our bodies and their work, tho
more new questions come to our
minds, questions such as:

How is it possible for all the different parts of us to grow


from one cen?

How is it possible for all the millions of cells in our grow-


ing bodies to go on doing what they do without our being
conscious of their workings?

whll., through th. tim. that,ln th. tim. wh.n.


huftgl'Yl f..ling n..d and d lre for food.
will puR pull(.)

393
Through about two billion (2,000,000,000) years. sci-
entists say, the developlnent of plants and animals on our
earth has been going OIL At first both were very smaU,
much less than a pin point in size. We might say that the
first plants 01' animals were bodies living in one-roomed
houses, too small fOl' man's eye to seo. All the house-
keeping went on in

~
'J::~~
.....
ODe room. Snch ceDs
tate food in and let : .:.:'
waste out. 1bey do
not give birth to new
ceDs but divide to

become two daup..
terc:cUs.

1bese three pictures show the division of a ceO into


two separate ceDs each of which may in tum divide into
twomOJ:e.

_ _ ..... og"" _ I l l .....


...._ _II_ c'-.Iet be _n
....... a..co.lng two lot _11ft place o f _
........... together
...... _ .. a dhIaioa, ....._ two o t _

wi. . . . . .
.......w

394
~ earth itself is thought to be more than twice as old as
Ufo on iL Our picture of what it was lite two biDion
(2.000.000.000) years ago is of a great ball about as hot
on its surface as boiling water.

In ~ u'the earth', surface became leu hot. the tbict


clouds rOund it, from which water went OIl raining down.
got tbiJme:r. 1bea. man IIIIDJigbt could set tbrouab to the
surface of the earth. Su:nlight is necessary for 6fe on
earth, as air and water are

. . . 'n th,......., that which only 1M.. thing. 110ft.


- ' - ovbIde part. Thl. page has two large oppcMIte ......... _
thIIde oed the ........... lut whkII ,.. wID _
when you IuI'1I \'MIt.

395
Life began. men think, in the salt sea. Near the land,
where the waters were not deep, very small one--celled
organisms came into being.

The cells in our bodies are of many different sorts but


they all have water in them. Our bodies are seventy per
cent water.

This water has in it about the same amount of salt, com-


mon table salt, as there was in the water of the sea in
which the earliest organisms swam. That water was a
little less salt than sea water is today. In billions of years
the rivers have washed down more and more salt from
the land into the sea. The sea has become.more salt. The
water in our bodies does not become more salt. Even if
we eat a great amount of salt in our food the body auto-
matically controls how much it will keep in the blood
stream. And the same is true if we let very much salt out
through the skin when we get overheated. (See page 91.)
Then we have to eat something that will give us new
supplies of salt.

0f'8CIII11IIIIU IIvin. body


.... cenf1 in a hundred. Seventy per cent (70%1. a_nly parts in 0
hundred. (Latin, per ce""'",'

396
The first living things. though they were too amaD to be
seen, were eating, growing organisms which divided to
become others like them.

Under a microscope, a
cell looks like a bit of
clear jelly with a thin wall
round it. Very small open-
ings in the walls of the cell
let food in and waste out.
In every cell there is a part like a little balL This is tho
nucleus, which organizes the work of the cell. Though
cells were discovered two and a half centuries ago. it is
only in the last hundred years that knowledge of the work
of the nucleus has developed. It is this nucleus which
keeps the cell working at what has to be done. It is to
the cell what London is to Britain, New Delhi to India,
Peking to China. It is the seat of government.

.eI", a 10ft material, not IOlid Qftd /lOt liquid.


aud _ _ abcmt On thl. page.
..........- ,Iv. ..,.., part Its wari: 10 do Qftd coatroIlL
wll....... .........,.) . . . . 111 . . . .
An Jlving thiDgs are developments from these one-celled
organisms. They have developed step by step through
change upon change from these
first, simple, living things. Our
bodies and the bodies of tho
plants and animaJs we see about
us are bighly complex in their
structure. They have in them
millions of millions of cells,
some doing one sort of work.
some another. Every different
cell has its own sort of work
to do.

What do tho words simple and complez mean?

coI _ lIot "_pie


...... not comple
C- II.... pdgtI),

398
The p:ater tho number of parts a thiDa has, the JD(lI'fI
complex it is.

The smaller the numberof parts a thiDa has, the simpler


it is.

08EB
Which of these is. the m-. CODlplex?
"
The more different the parts of a thing are from one an
other, the.more complex it is.

Tho less different the parts of a thing are from one an-
other, the less complex it is.

Which of these is more complex?

399
The more the parts of a thing need one another, the more
complex it is.

Take one little wheel out of a watch, for example, and


see if the other parts can do their work without it.

Which is more complex-a stone or a plant?

The leaves, the flower, stem and roots of the plant work
together to keep it alive. But each does a different sort
of work and each is dependent upon all the others. The
work of each part is different.

The parts of a stone do Dot work in this way for one


another. A stone is a much simpler thing than a plant.

Any living thing, however small or simple it may seem,


is far more complex than anything which has DO life.
People are the most IONI!

complex of all or ~
ganisms, far more s
complex than any
plant. A man would
not go on living, he J'<
1tA1'
would die, if the mil- ~ ~
lions of millions of W) ~
ceDs in his body did IICIH '~~E ~ooo
not work together in ~ ~
their different ways.
each doing its own sort of work. The ceDs are depondent
upon one another and the man is dependent upon his
ceDs.
The picture below shows what the word depend4mt can
mean.

~
The girl in the middle is dependent on both men to keep
her from falling. The man who has been holding her feet
is letting go as the other man takes hold of. her hands. She
has been dependent on the first man. She will be de-
pendent on the second. Their act depends on timing.

their am what they do. A _n', acb . . wiled .......


depeaclil I, de,.ndeAt on.
...... 101 leHi"" the. go.
will..... . . . . . , ..........
14 3aKa3 1633 401
There are about fi:ve miDion red ceDs in one cubic miDi-
meter of our blood. One millimeter is a thousandth part
of a meter and a tenth of a centimeter.

One cubic centimeter-how much space does that tab


up?

Here is a ptcture of a cube which is one centimeter long.


one centimeter wide and one centimeter high. It takes up
one cubic centimeter of space. A centimeter is a little less
than half an inch.

III IIIIJ i
r
llllnil 1111111111111
IIIIIIIIII~~
r
_ leM 2 3 If 5 7

..1111.......1 111111. = .001 of a ...Ier.


c.,.tl.......1 CIII. == .01 of 0 lIIet.r, or .3937 of aft Inch.
c..... a "lid Ih. ,Ix ,Id of which are equal squares.
~ a square hal four .Id which aN equal and ___
aN right ant_
ang'" which

402
You can put a paper cube this size together for your-
self, or cut one out of soap or cheese.

To make a paper cube. take a pencil and make six one-


centimeter squares like this:

Now take your scissors and cut


round the outer lines. Do not .....- - f
cut the broken lines but make
folds there. Put the edges to-
gether to make a hollow paper
cube. as in the picture. Your
cube will be a cubic centimeter
in size.

A cube bas six sides; its sides are equal squares. The

In one cubic centimeter of our blood there


... about five biIli... n:d c:eIIs.
A
surface of a one-centimeter cube is six square centimeters.

lJ,)
fold, thll il Q page falded do_
...... thl, I, the edge of Ihe pop.

14 * 403
But trees can grow to be many
thousands of times the size they
were as seeds. The tallest tree
known is 364 feet high. One great
tree in California is as much as
II S feet round its trunk at the
thickest point.

How doeS such growth take place if cells do not grow to


be more than twice as large as they were at first?

It all takes place through division. The cells which make


up the organism are able to divide into two and this divi-
sion goes on and OD. When you were born you had as
many as 200 billioD cells in your body all coming, in nine
months, from the division of one cell 1/17Sth of an inch
across.

tnMIn ,t.... of a tree


...wttu llrowlnll, becoalnll IIr",... hi nu.1Mr or .Ia., the MCO .... of
llrawlng.
All organisms which you sec in the world about you"have
grown by cell division.

You and I have become what we are through biDions:of


divisions in the cells whose outcome is our cen SUUdUre
at this minute.

In cen division the two halves of the cell (as you see,in
picture four) become ready to separate. In picture five
you see that they have separated. The cen in pictureooe.
by division, has become two separate ceUs. Tbedaupter
ceUs do in every way the same as their mother.cell did.
One of the greatest questions scientists are WOIkingon is:
What keeps the daughter cells doing wbat they have
10007

wlll p . . . . .........
Even the simplest living organism is far more complex
than any machines that men have made. Organisms are
built up of parts which are themselves more complex than
any machine. And these parts in turn are the most com-
plex things the science of chemistry knows. It is because
they are so complex that they can work together in an
organism in so many different ways.

Chemistry is about the different ways in which different


materials are built up. For example:

Water is made up of oxygen and hydro-


gen united in a way which may be repre-
sented like this.

c
Carbon dioxIde is made up of carbon
and oxygen in a way which may be rep- o
resented like this.

Chemists make use of the formula H.O for water in their


writing. They use formulas to represent the structure of
all mate~al things.

fornIuIcu ch.ml.t.' woy of ,.-li,.. .trvcfUtft.


The most important of the materials in our bodies are
the proteins (from Greek proreios. meaning "having first
place"). Among them are materials with the most com-
plex structures known to the chemist. We can get some
idea of how complex proteins are by comparing the
formula for one of them with the formula for water (ItO)
or for carbon dioxide (co.).

Compare this formula for a protein from mOt:

with the simple formulas for water:

or carbon dioxide:

CO~
The letter N in this formula represents nitrogen and the
letter S represents sulpbur.

amonIP in. in the ..n.. of being pari of a group.


nitrogen, a go. which ..ake. up about four filth' of air. Nitrogen's
breathed in ond out unchanged. OUf bodle. have to gel the nitro-
gen they need in other ways
..lphun a light-yellow .aterlol found III lO.e parts of Ihe earth In
great a_unt..
'Ibe.re may be as many as 100,000 different sorts of pr0-
teins in a man's body. at work in as maoy different ways.

It is a protein in our blood which tabs


up oxygen from the air we breathe into
our lungs and carries it to the ceUs which
ODed it. It is another protein which
maies our bones strong, and another
which makes our muscles able to pull on
and move our bones. It is other pro-
teins in our hair and skin and nails
which make them what they arc.

Othen spin do very important


wort in tho digestion of food. in
COIltI:oDiDg other changes in the
body, in beping it healthy and in
making children become so sur-
prisingly like their parents.

ell.......
noIh fine- _I, toe MIL Our nalla _ D.,lng pam of us.
tile chane1nll of food I. ,... __II CIIICI IIoaach
. . . . . ha ... food '"Y be uMCIIty ... body.
10 Ihat
How do these very complex materials come into being?
The answer is, through the work of plants.

Plants need sunlight. This is common knowledge within


the experience of most of us, but you can show how true
it is if you make this little experimenL

Grow two bean seeds over glasses of water, starting them


in a dark cupboard. After a few days take one glass out
into the daylight and keep the other in the dark. Compare
the two from time to time. You will find that it is the plant
in the light which grows a strong stem and green leaves.

1111
~
within: in; inside. Not on opposite of without 01 commonly used (see
page 32).
experience: knawledge we get as we ga an living, seeing what gaes an,
and thinking abaut it.
experiment: gelling knawledge by daing lamething 10 that yau are
able ta watch what takes place and find what in the outcame is
dependent upan what .
..... n: cammon plant whase leeds. and sametimes seed coverings. are
used far foad.

409
In 1772 tho EngIisbman Joseph Priestley. the discoverer
of oxygen. made a most important experiment. He knew
from experience that air is necessary to plants and aJJi...
mats. He knew that if you put a live mouse, for example,
under a glass so that no fresh air can come to it, the mouse
in a short time win die. It will have taken an the oxygen
out of the air and without oxygen it cannot 80 00 living.

Priestley put a gRen plant under a large glass cover


standing in water so that no fresh air could get in. He
thought that in a little while be would find the plant dead
like the mouse.

II". 1I1i.., U"III9.


_ _ Ilftcd' dotltbrOWtl or gray 0111_1 with 0 _,taiL
whUe: III thil . .II... 0 lpeKe of .....

410
But no. Here is wbathe said:

"Wh.en it bad go.oc en growiDg there for some months,


I fOUDd that the air would ueither put out a candle nor
was it badfor a mouse wbid1 I put into it.

In other words, tho green plant had not used up aU tho


oxygen in the air.

'The next step was taken. when a Dutch aci.entist found


that Priestley"s experiment would not wort without light.
In the light a plant gives out oxygen and builds up sugars
and other complex materials in itself. In the dart (with-
out light) it gives out carbon dioxide and water.

had . . . . . . .-0...... hod bun gl'QWlng, had grown. W. IJQ 00


gl'QWlng until _ bon. grown up and l1li'. grownup..
0"
........ on ortM OIW of ' -
...th.....on not on. and not th<I otiMr of ' -

4ft
The material which makes plants green (chlorophyll) is
necessary if they are to use energy from light for healthy
growth. Unlike animals, plants can take what they need
straight from the air and earth and water in which they
live. Through their green. leaves and stems they separate
H from ILO and unite it with co. to make carbohydrates.
.. ..
....f-OII H-f-OII
Structure of part
1/1-"
'j OII .. C ,/1-"
c,OII .. c of a carbohy
00 "i-i/L.,J "f-~/l
.. 011 cl.t II
drate. a sugar.

This power of plants is named photosynthesis (from the


Greek words for arht and putting together). Men and
animals depend upon photosynthesis in plants to supply
their food and energy. We and the animals either eat
plants or eat plant~ting animals or both.

'........"..at., ony of a nUMber of _ter;ol. made by g .....n plant.


from carban, hyilk'ag... and OIIY1Jeft ond UHd for growth or atcncI
for fulu~ UN.

412
When we thiD.t it
out we can see that ~ _ ~O

IDOIt of the energy


man ules comes ~
/l~..
-... ...
-~~
~ ::r'"
fromtheSU1lbyway ~.
~ .. ~ ,_ ...... 1
1
/",.
of the materials
which plants build .
,t ' '-' \'("'"
..
up in photosyn-
thesis.

Scientists mow only a Dtt1e, so far, about photosynthesis.


It is oaly a JittIe more than a hundred ,an 8inc:e the
first account of it was given by the Ocrman ldentist
YOD Mayer. But with more experimentina beiDa dono
fIVfJr:'1 year, much moro will certainly be tnowa befoce
veryloDg.

The rate at which scientific


IatowJedae is increasing is going
up all the time.

In time (but we may have to wait a 1008 time before this)


it may even be possible to use the energy of Usbt itself in
industry to do in our factories something like what plants
do in their green cells.

11M.. frota tlMo tI wheA.


....."'" .alt1nt thlag. 011 a large acole. th40 autoaoblle ladvllly, ship-
building Industry. cJothl..g Indualry, fOl' _pie.
.....tlfIa of. to do wltlt. uMld la 1C"nee.
waIh be _itlag.
wII walt waIt(.)

40
Before long. we may learn from working on photosyn-
thesis how to make or grow more food. AB we have seen
(Paae 13 above) more than half the population of tho
planet is short of food. AB more and more people are
born, the need for new food suppUes will increase. It may
be that we can find what we want in the sea. It is thought
that as much as 90 per cent of the photosynthesis which
takes place in the world goes on in mi<:roscopic water
plants in the sea. Maybe much of the food people are
going to need in the future will come out of the oceans.

Or making food straight from complexes of carbon,


hydrogen and oxygen may become a great new industry.

At present we have to get most of the energy used in


industry by buming coal and oil and other fuels.

mlcl'OKopk; 10 Imall Ihat we have to u.. a microscope 10 ..e Ihem.


maybe: il may be lhat possibly.
oIb the oils are a large group of liquids of many IOrtl. Some we gel frolll
plants (the oli .. e Iree, for exalllple), lOme 'rolll onilllal, (fish oils"
lO.. e from deep down in the earth. Oil, are lighter than waler, burn
_lIy and have many ule'. One of their chief usel il os fuel for
galoline engine.. GasOline lor pelrol..,m) ;, "go," ill Ihe U.s.A.
but "peh'Ol" III Britain.

4'4
This energy is the sun's energy stored
up long ago by plants. Coal comes
from the dead bodies of plants stored,
away from the air and under pres-
sure, through millions of yean in
great beds in the earth. The amount
of coal and oil in the earth is, it is true,
very great, but the amount we are
usin& today is great too. A time may
come before long when men will have
used up all the coal and oil that is
easy to get aL

Men have been taking oil out of tho


earth only since about 1860. With-
out oil there would be no cars and no
airplanes. It is strange to think that
planes depend on what plants were
doing millions of yean ago.

415
Plants and animals all need air. Only about
one fifth (1/S) of the air is oxygen. The other
four fifths is another gas, without taste, smen
or color, named nitrogen. Both plants and ani-
mals need nitrogen as wenas oxygen but they
cannot take it from the air themselves.. How
do they get their supply of nitrogen?

There are very small organisms in soil and water which


can take nitrogen out of the air and fix it in complex
materials which plants and animals can use. These ma-
terials are taken up by plants through their roots in water
from the soil. Animals get their nitrogen by eating plants.
Some of this nitrogen comes away in animal waste and
men have for many thousands of years known enough to
put animal waste back into the soil to help plants grow.

IIOIb ecmh la which ploa" COlt grow.


fbu _II. 'lad, II.., lO_thiag fro. choaglag.
will ... flxe_)
Nitrogen, like carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, is used
over and over again in support of life. Plants build nitr0-
gen up into complex structures. Animals eat the plants.
Then animal waste and dead plants and fallen leaves are
broken down into simpler forms again.

So tho peat round goes on without end, an made possible


only by energy coming from the sun.

Scientists say that an the oxygen and an the carbon


dioxide DOW in the air have been put there after use by
pJants through photosynthesis.

fair- ...... Iecmn _ Iecmn which fell fnt.......


TIle foil of ... ' - takes pIaca 1ft ... foil of ... .,.. ...... ...,
foIlfnt. . . . . . . . . .
will fall WCa)

417
All organisms, it is clear, have a number of need& in com-
mon, of which air, watetffood and tho sun's light and
heat are the chief.

But men have many other. needs, though we may not


think of them as needs. One of them. our need for other
people, is very important. First of all, we need other
people to do thinglI for us when we are very young or
very oJd, or wilen we are ill.

We need Others to take care of us. We need their help.


We need them to do things for us which we cannot do f
ourselves. We need their love.

_ when people look after UI, do rhlnt_ for UI whld _ need .. h_


....... _
lowe. ,...... _
De_
dolle, lIMy "U __ of UI, they help UI.
....Ing for.
~
'
ta tale __ of a _ _ Is OIIe . . . 01
101ft of . . .

418
Every hour d. our Jives
we do things that are
possible ooly because of
work which is done for us
by other people.

Who grew the cotton? Who made the sheets? Who


watched the sheep? Who washed the wool? Who made
the blankets for the bed you sleep in?

Whose work are you using


when you tum on the
light?

Who mined the coal


which gives the power to
heat and light your room?

But equally men need to do things for other people. Most


men are not happy if they are not in some way helping
others-doing things for others. They need someone to
love.

tlIeet: cotton COY., v.ed 011 bed for .leeplllg Oft or Ullder.
blankets _ wool bed COY.,.

wI"waIIa
win ......
wID light
wlDloYtt

419
AU our lives we need other people..

In many parts of the world families do everything for


themselves.

Until the nineteenth century this was true almost every-


where outside the cities. Families were self-supporting.

They grew the food they needed,

built their own houses, and

made their own clothing andfumiture,

the candles for lighting the rooms


at night,

.pnd the plows and carts for work


on the farm by day

In every way they took care of them-


selves. Uving like this, a family is
very like a simple organism.
But a man living in a city today is more 6k:e a ceU in a
complex organism. Other peopJo whom he does not know
do almost everything for him. Workers in factoriea make
the things he needs and send them to the stores, which
seU them to him.

Other people teach his children


in schools and take care of them
in hospitals when they are ill.
Police and fire stations keep
watch over his city. Lighting
and water supplies, the clearing
away of waste. the upkeep of
streets and roads are an public
services.

In exchange for an this, each of us does his own sort


of work, his daily round, whatever it is. This is true for
most of us, if not an.

poIlccn ..... whoM _ l it i. to ... that low. car. l.pt.


....... l...,lrag 10 that Itt.y onay be IIMCI.
public; doll. for tM good of oiL
. . " . . . _ l doM toroth_
cIaIlyt day after day, .-..y day.

421
People need play. weD. as wort, though, if your interest
is deep enough. wOrk and play can be the same thing. To
some people all their best work is a sort of play. They get
so much pleasure from it and are so interested in it
that they work when they don't need to. They are doing
what they want most to do.

It was the philosopher Plato who said. "All leaming is


best done as play. Nothing learned under pressure takes
root righdy in the mind. So let children's work be a sort
of play."

I........ attraction of the _11Id to -.thIng. p I _ In bowMcIge


of 10. . . . . . . 01' In dol.., 10......1....
pIIIl,.en ,,"nu... Iow of kMwIodgo , " - two ONeil wwda. pili. .
1ovI.." ...... wIMJ. OM wIlD .. , ......... I. all 1111.....

422
People need work and play for the body and for the
mind.

They need music

and dancing.

rest and change.

They need books and talk with other men: *~~


with old friends as well as with new people. ~
They need new knowledge to keep their old lA .I'j
knowledge clear and living.

A friend is someone you know and love and with whom


you have much in common. People you know only a little
are not your friends in this sense though they may become
your friends if you get to know them better.

d_clng: moving In time to music.


will dance danced

423
Men need. to see beautiful things and to have beautiful
things about them.

Drawing goes back very far in man's past. The drawings


of animals copied on this page may have been made as
early as 25,000 B.C.

drawing: making picture, with line,_


cOpied: a lapy of IOmething i. another thing made a, .... uch like it
a'possible.
will draw draw(s) drew,dra_
wlilcopy copy("" copied

424
Drawing can help to make ideas easier-the pictures
drawn in this book. for example.

But the greatest drawing and painting and sculpture can


make our highest powers come into play. The drawings
below are of two pieces of sculpture, one from India and
the other from Africa.

aculpture: making beautiful thing, from ,lone, wood, melol or olher


moledors;lhe works $0 mode.
for greol drawing', lee The Pocket Boole of Great Dl'Owingl by
Paul J. Sachs.

42S
Men need to hear beautiful things.

Music may go back still farther in time than the other arts,
but unhappily we have no records of music before the
discovery of writing. As with language the writing of
music may havo started with pictures.

.......
'" \

I -'f
NNWI, .,.;
, , III ",

Today not only do we have ways of writing down music,


but we can make copies of the sound of music as it is
played.

art; work don. to feed th. mind ond heart through th. ,en, and feel-
ing" pointing. Iculpture, music. elc.

426
Men need to malee beautiful things.

Today the great cities of the world have public art gal-
leries and museums where anyone may see the paintings
and drawings and sculpture _=______ """"==
of artists through the cen-
turies.

- ------
.-tim worker at on. of Ih. arts.
art gallery: building where _rks of art or. kepI for peopl. 10 look 01.
museum: building where Important _rb of art, sci.nce, history. etc..
are housed.

427
Great cities have theaters
where plays of the past
and the present are acted. -t~~
They have music build-
ings where great works of ........._
music are played. They
have libraries where the
best that has been thought "'~"'IIIIIii1ZIn::;::
and written can be found.

Art and music and poetry


come out of man's great-
est hours with himself,
and give oth~r men some
of their greatest hours.

theater: building where plays are given.


acted; when a play is given, it is oded by actors (players).
'Ibrary: building or roam far k. .ping baak" the baab kept there.
poetry: wards put together In the best way 10 that others can Me and
feel what they mean.
wll' act act(., acted

428
We need to be alone sometimes to get to know ourselves
better, though we need to be with other people too, to get
to know them better and ourselves through them.

The more men know one another, the better able they
will be to liv~ together in the world. The nations on the
earth-the Chinese, the Indians. the British, the Russians,
the Germans, the Americans. the French and the others
-know very little about one another. They look in dif-
ferent directions and have different ideas of themselves
and of the world. They live in different worlds.

This is good only if they have bridges between their


separate worlds and get to know enough about each other.

ai_I by one', ,elf (one,elfh not with olben .


.....___ covnt,ie, and people, under independent go_n.em.
Indlp d.n" not dependent.

429
But we can't turn the clock back to yesterday when
nations could keep to themselves and live without any
knowledge of or help fromother countries.

The thing to do now is to get more knowledge about


other peoples. And knowledge of other languages is nec-
essary for this. We need many more people with a deep
Imowlodge of other languages than their own.

We have to know a language wen if we are to know what


people who use it mean and think.

haY. tol muat


. . . tolare to becOIli. obi. to.

430
In English-as in any other 1anguagc-we do not always
say what we mean or mean what we say. This is true of
some of the things we say every day. For
example: "How do you do?" "How are
you?" This is what people say on meel-
1)1
0 0

ing. Sometimes they SlOp and shake


hands. "How are you?" looks like a question. It is writ-
ten with a question mark after it. And sometimes "How
are you?" is a question. One person may want to know
if another is well or ill-how his health is-and so on.

......... coming tog ..h....


...... hand .. wh.n two peopl. ahak. hands _h tokes the right hand
of the oth., In his for a _nd
....1tIu 0 .GII wha has good health Is healthy. A ...n In bad health Is
ill or sick .Rh of tho time. Taking car. of the health of the public

health of_ryoa.
Is on Important part of the work of good 9OMm....nt. Care of lho
In tho world Is boca.lng IflCr_lngly nec.gory
to 01 nations. Th. World Health Orgonl&Gt1on (WHO) was lfarted
III 19.7.
will ......

431
When these are questions they
are almost always said as if the
peIBOll who says them means them
as questions and wants an answer.

But most of the time they are said


in a way which does not ask for
any answer. When these words are
said so. we do not answer: "I am
tired,.. or "'I have a bad cold," or
"I am not wen." We say the same
thing back to the other person: "How are you?" or
"Hullot" Such words are like a smile or a wave of the
band.

/ / // IIi
I
In the same way. when we meet ~ 'j / I
someone in the morning, we
may say "Good morning!" The
r/ /
weather may be very bad but we
say"Goodmomingl" and the other \ '"
LI~
I
person will say "Good morning!" ~t,.
back to us. We are not talking about the weather or about
how good or bad the morning is.
,..... in nHd of a relt.
meet: COllIe together with.
win ...... .... e)

432
Again, when people are parting, they may say: "Good
morning'" or "Good aftt:moon'" or "Good evening!" QI'
"Good night!" to one another in place of. "Good-by'"
They are not talking about the weather but saying "May
an be wen with you at this time!"
You wil1 find few people today who know that "Good-
byl" is a short way of saying '~God be with 100'" But
in times past, when religion had more place than it now
has in education. a child could' be taught this very youog
as part of his knowledge of English.

.........eparating.going away frolll one another.


aft_no om pari of Ihe day whl.:h come. ofI.. noon (12.001 ond before

n_ night.
_ _.... !ale aflernoon ond early night.
{12m, paint of tillle between morning and afternooll.
Goch In Christian teaching. Ihat Being Oil Wham all olher be!nflls ....ncL
rell,. . . though" 'eellng. de.I,e for, inl....' In mon'. deepelt . . . .

IS 3U8. 1633 433


There was a teacher who tried to teach an this. Her stu-
dents seemed to take in what she taught them. They said
back to her an together: "When you say 'Good morning!'
to us, we say 'Good morningl' to you."

Next morning on her way to school, she saw one of them


coming. She said to herself, "Now I will see if he has
learned that point about 'Good morning!' "

So she said to the young man:

She had said "Good morning" to him with a question in


her mind: "WiD he say 'Good morningl'?" She had asked
a question and he had answered it.

The teacher said to herself: "I must have seemed to be


asking a question, so he gave me an answer. Next time I
will do better."

At that minute she saw another student coming. She said


to herself. "Let me try again."
So she gave the young man a friendly smile and said,

tp~_Good_"__ ~I I"'-=1

...... UC_hl----tl---~
1 _T_h...._"-_.._,.,_
..

"What .was wrong then?" the teacher asked herself. '.1


must have said it as if 1 were giving him something. That
was why he thanked me. Next time I must keep that out
of my voice. '

She saw a third student coming. This time she wanted


the answer "Good moming!" so much that her voice be-
came hard and sharp.

Q..--1__Good___I.~'1~I
~--IL...--'_"""_I. . . .
You see how littJe one person may know what is in an-
other's mind even when the other is trying to show him.

thank: $Oy it was good of a p.nan to hoy. don. what h. did, gift hit.
thanks, say "Thank you'"
pl_. . " may it b. your pl.asur.; may it pl.as. you.
will thank thank (I) thanked
wUlpl_ pl.ol.(I) pi.....

15 435
When people are from very different countries with very
different ways, it can be hard for them to understand one
another. Not very long ago the number of people who
knew anything about people in other countries was very
small. Few people went far from home or took much
interest in other countries.

Today all this is changed. Every day, men hear more and
more about other countries and about how bad their gov-
ernments are. They hear about the strange and wrong
ideas other countries have of them.

If we knew them better, we wou1d see that people every-


where are very much like ourselves: not very good or very
bad, but in between and able to become better or worse
than they are. Men's minds are as like one another as
their bodies are.

to vnd...stond a p.raan: to see what his idec3I and feelings may be.
will und....tand und.rstand. ) Uftd....tood

436
We say: "The earth is getting smaller:' It is the samo
size as it was, but we can go about it more and Il'lOIe
easily. Many more people travel outside their OWB
countries every year.

We can get news today from any part of the world in a


few sec:onds, though we may not always under:stand it.

Many more ideas, right ()[' wrong, about ~ ~


are in people's minds.

Most of this interest in other nations and places is good


if it goes deep enough. We need to know more. If we can
keep our heads on our shoulders, the wider knowledge
and experience which are coming will help the world to
better days.

_d....taM ao ....thlng: hav. Q clear; Iru. Idea of it.


tralteh make Q journey, go.
will traltel travella)

437
The earth seems to be getting smaller because mea's eX-
perience is getting wider. All sorts of new ways of living
and new ways of doing things have come to us in tho last
fifty years.
+
Stranger thinp are coming.
+

Men can today travel through


spac:o to the moon.

What is Space? That is hard to say. It is equally hard


to say what Time is. We and the sun and the moon and
the stars are aU in Space and Time. But no one under-
stands what Space and Time are. Not even the best phi-
losophers are clear about them.
! These two men know that they have a space
between them without being able to say
what Space is.
,--...
1\
~ p'S-
There is not enough spa<:e in this car for an these travel-
ers. They know that this is so. though they cannot say
what Space is.

'Ibere is more space free on this page than on some other


pages of the book which take loDger to read.

439
h is equally" hard to
say what Time is.

This man has time


on his hands.

'Ibis ather' man has not enough time for his reading.

The same amount of time may seem very short to one


pel'SOIl and w::ry long
to another. A man's sense of time
changes as biB feelings change. Some days go by much
m~ quict:ly than others. Some hours seem as if they
would never end.. Some arc past before they seem to have
~

Most people find that time goes by more quickly the


older they get.
_not..,.,.
.... co_ to em . . . opposite of ".,,11.
wDI'" ...,.) ...ded
Oar ldeas about Space
and TllDo aro changing..
... Today wo can fty round
the world in twenty-four
hours.

The earth tums round on itself in tweD.ty..four hours.

A man in a plane Hying west at 1000 miles an hour


(m.p.b.) would see the earth. turning. The sun would
seem to be in the same place in the sky for him.. The earth
would tum under him..

A hundred yean ago men of learning thought that the


world was oo1y about 6000 years old.. Now scientists say
that it is nearer six billion years old and that Man himself
is at least five hundred thousand..
Air travel would have seemed very strange two or three
thousand years ago, to men keeping their sheep on the
mountainsides. All these changes are the outCome of tho
great step taken in the invention of numbers.

Before men could count,


how did anyone know
which were his sheep and
which were another
man's?

He put his mark on bis sheep. He was their owner. They


were his own sheep. He owned them.

Sometimes he gave bis sheep names, and then he would


go through all the names-with his sheep-to see if they
were all there.

wiD owe owe(_)

442
Before the invention of writing how did men keep rec~
ords? They made pictures on soft earth or sand. But rain
and wind and waves quickly washed away such records.
Smooth stone or wood was better, and best of all, the
smooth stone walls of caves whose roofs kept the rain
and wind away.

It may be that the drawings copied on page


142, or others like them, were
records made by early men.
(Some man recording
animals on his
cave wall may
have taken
pleasure in
the drawing
for itself and
become the
first artist.)

cave: deep hole or ho"o~ in side of mountain. Men lived in cove. long
before they knew how ta build themselve. houses.
_sh GWCII)'J toke away by the ..otiOD of woter ov_ .amething.

443
How did a man bow how maDY sheep
ho .owned? Sometimes ho used smaB
atones or sticks, puttiDg ODe 01. them
__ into a bag or pocket for
~ each Ibeep 100 had.

'Whieallil came to tho end of his sheep,


tho number of
stones in tho bag was tho same as the number of his
sheeP. The stoaes and tho sheep were equal in number.
Tho stones gave him a record of how many sheep he
owned. When a sheep died be could take a stone out of
the bag. And when lambs were bam he could put in
another stOne for e8f".h lamb.
Sometimes a n:cord was made by taking a sharp, hard
stone and making cuts on a stick. The number of cuts in
the stick equaled the number of things to be recorded.

~~ ~~~
ufl ~ ~JL,
)~ -- (' (} )~1r'"
~I~~~

Then the stick was cut in half down


the middle so that each half ha4 half 1
of every cut on it. The two half sticks I

i,"
were tallies. If they were put side by
side, the halves of the cuts came to-
gether. They tallied. One man took
one tally and another the other. and
both then had the n:cord. ,,
r

tally: one sort of re_d.


""lIIequoi equal(s)
""III tal., tally'lu)

445
Tallies are some of the earliest and simplest :records of
the numbers of t1JiD&s. They ten how many things have
been counted.

Even today In a bank a


man who takes monoy
in and gives it out is
sometimes named a
teller.

The shelf or table at which he works is a counter. On it


he does his counting of the money coming in and going
out. He keeps a r:ec:ord of an
this in his acoount book.

A man who makes a statement tells something. Most


banb make a statement every month to each person
banking with them to teU him what his ac:couJ1t is. The
statement tells him how much money he has in the bank
at that date. Then both he and the bank have the r:ec:ord
straight.

To get this statement ready, the banker has to take the


amount of money given out (for any one person) from
the amount of money put in.

..III 9i.,. an account of.glYe 0 IIOry 10 _ _


.........h In this _ . rlglIL
wID... W,.)
A bank teller must keep a complete record of the money
he takes in and gives out. This is his way of making cer-
tain that his accounts are in order. Banking is a very
important sort of business. A bank must keep all its
accounts in good order and the statements which tho
bank makes must be true statements.

/' STATEMENT Of ACCOUNT-TOWN ......It


Mr....... S.ltII. 11 fint ~
,
OUT IN DATE NO. IALAHCI

5/3/54 160.83
10.00 5/5/54 1 UO.U
62.55 5/7/54 913."
10.00 5/1"/54 963.38
80.00 5/15/54 2 883.38
42.'" 5/15/54 3 .........
15.00 825.""
30.00
5/18/54
5/21/54 " 1155.....
20.00 5/24/54 5 1135.....
"1.95 5/26/'" 6 793.49

fa orden with nothing wrong. things are In order when In thel, right
places. When a _ I t II lit good health, hi. body Is ''In orde,," When
he Is 10. It Is "aut of CII'deI'.H Th. woR of the poUot 10 a coultby II
to help to keep law and CII'deI'
....... _ _ _ provIag to bl ....f and toothen.
~Q Howclo _ _ _
a man is telling the troth?
C If a man tens another that

~
he will give him tbrec bags
of. grain lot one sheep, tho
other will know whether
/""\\ he told the troth wheDbo
I "gets tho grain ot doesn't.

'Ibo man may, ot may not, ba~ meant to give the gndn
when he said he would. He may not have meant to say
anything but the truth. But if he did not give the grain
later. he was not true to his word.

We sometimes know whether a man is telling the truth


(and wiD be true to his word) by the loot in his eye. ot
the SOUDd of. his voice.

....... th'ngs _1cII . . .",.. It. _ ......... IrutIJ wIMe wIKII ... ICI)'I
.........
In early times. before men
invented money. they did all
their business by exchange of
goods. Men traded with
other men by exchanging
goods they were willing to
give up for goods they want-
ed more. Exchange of thfugs
stiU goes on in some parts of
the world today.

After the invention of money. trade increased.. It is man"J


experience that money can be a sreat help in making
trade easier and in keeping business in better order. If
you want something and have the money for it, you can
buy it. You do not have to keep asking yourself whether
you have something which the other man will be willing
to take in exchange for what you want.

4WtChan.-: giving one Ihlng for onother.


willing: if you are willing to do IOmething you will do It if }'OU have to.
IIIIIIt up to the present ti_
...... e",chonge of things for other things or money.
will trade trade(s)
will Invent laventls)

449
Early man did things with his hands which we do with
instruments or by machine.

F'mgers were mado before forb.

Among their early uses, fingers made good counters. We


still use the number ten as the key to our number system
because we have ten fingers.

~{~u~~
\~) ~
450
The most important number in the number system used
commonly today is zero (0). Zero is so easy to use that it
is hard to understand why it was not invented loDg ago.
It is thought to be not much more than a thousand yean
old and no one mows who invented it.

We use zeroes to change Dumbers to others. Zero to tho


right of a Dumber makes it ten times its size. Two zeroes
make it a hundred times its size. Six zeroes after one make
It mean one mlllion.

Schools today teach a child to add, subtract, multiply and


divide numbers. Hero are examples.

addition:
subtraction: .
5 + 5 10;
5-5= 0;
= 6+3
6-3=
= 93
multiplication: 5 X 5 = 25; 6X 3 = 18
division: 5 + 5 = 1: 6+ 3 = 2

will adel adel(.)


wllllUbtract IIUIdract (.)
will _Itfply -"'Ply (I..)

451
Men made their way about OIl
the earth, over mountains,
down rivers and across seas
long before they had a number
system or could make 01' use a '
compass. Nobody knows who
invented the compass. The Chi-
nese, Arabs, Greeks and Ital-
ians, among others, say they
did.

When men became able to work out the relations of lines


and spaces to one another, and could measure distances
and ang1~ the science of geometry. earth measuring,
began.

Men went on then from measuring fields and bits of land,


to measure the size of the earth itself.

compa : instrument showing the direction of somelhing In relation to


Ihe north.
geometry: science which 10gb into the relalions of lines and spaces 10
one anoth.... from two Greelt worda, se-eo.rth, and melroll_
III_U'..
452
The Omet scientkt Eratcsthenes (276-194 B.C.) was
the fint man to wort out tho size of tho earth.
He beard that there was a deep wen Into which on one
day of the year the lUll', light went aD. the way down to
the bottom. He toot the anglo 01. the 8lm at the same hour
from another place 500 miles from tho wen and worked
out by geometry that the earth was ~ 29.000 miles
round.

...-- ~17~
.......-~

Tho size of tho earth, scientists now tell us, Is about


25,000 miles round.

453
Geometry starts with ideas about lines and spaces.

Here are two circles and two squares.

The circle on the left is inside a square. 'Ihat is tho ret..


!ion 01. that circlo to that square.

The square on the right is inside a circle. 'Ihat is ita


relation to the circle.

These are facts about the circles and squares on this page.

Statements which tally with facts are true. Statements


which don't tally with facts are not true. It is untrue that
the square on the right is outside the circle. To say it .is
would be to make afalse statcm.CDt.

_..... "'Irv..
tach It I, 0 foct lhol th. 'word fatt:I hcui '-r .......... II.
f~

454
Wbat is a circle?

It is easy to see what it is, but not


equally easy to say what it
is. Here is a straight line
half an inch long. If you
could tum the line right round Uke the
band of a watch. it would have cov-
ered a circle. One end of the line
would have to keep in the same place / .
while the rest of the line wu turning. I ~

Here is another line the same length;


it is half an inch long. If you could
pull it down like a map on a roller
a distance equal to its
own length (~ inch)
then it would make a
square with sides half
an inch long. 1
'Ibis is not a square though ita
sides are equal. Why not? Because
its angles are not right angles.

'Ibis is not a square though


its angles are right angles.
Why not? Because its sides
are not all equal.
Natt In thln.., the oth., part..
........ dlatanCllIong.

"55
Six thousand yean ago In Egypt there were men who
laW how to mea.sm:e their ]and through their knowledge
aboutsquarea and triangles.

How hqe Is this


square? What is ita
IizD?

Becauso the square Is OIl squared paper, it is easy to


leO what its _ is. We count the number of small squares
In thD large square. 'Ibis DDmbcr is tho axea of tho squam

If the small squares were an inch square, the area of tho


largo aquaro would be sixteen square inches. If they wero
one foot square, tho area of the large square would be
.sIm:en 4ICJD8ID feet. If they were one yard square, the
axea of tho large sqwu;e would be sixteen square yards.
Wbabm=r tho unit of mcasuro used tho relation of side
to area is tI aamo.

. . . . _ above oa thIJ pao..


ImIb dMIIoa of 0 _ute UHd ell on..

456
Men took tho first units of long measure
from their bodies. Tho end of a man',
thumb is about one inch loug. A taD. man's
foot is about twelvo inches or ono foot long.

!il)"
~~
f0
~{r

A long step Is about three feet


or one yard long. The simplest
way of measuring a short di&-
tance is to step it.

~
~
These units of long measure havo been a great help to
man. They have made it possible for him to measure
and compare lengths and areas and volumes. Measur-
ing lets us build a rObm the size and shape we want it, for
example, twenty feet loog, &ixteeo. feet wide and twelvo
feet high.

yolumei cubic ipCIce. lbe WIIu ..e of the cube on page 121 II one cubic
centlme,er.
....... outline. All aqu _ _ the so..e shape but Ibey con be dll-
f_nI IIua. All cIrdu en the solDe Ibape but lICIt all lrIangl...
wWatep ..... ,.) .......

457
Sometimes a man'. fields were not square. Somo or
them were lib this:

or like this.

Men walked across their fields;"they planted them and


took in the grain. They knew how much land they bad
from working them befm:e they could measure them..

They saw that a field like this

I
was the same size, though
not the same shape, as a
field lib this

before they knew that they could measure how long


and how wide a field was, and then get the area by tak-
ing one measure times the other.

wIIlpIaat ...... l)

458
They saw that they could get . . - - - - - - - - . . . .
half a field in this way
t------~------ .
or in this way. I

II
Can you see whether these two fields ba'ge the same uea.7

Put in lines to prove that they are or are not equal in


area. The answer is at the bottom of page 178.

459
Here is a right angled triaDg1e. Tho two
shorter sides are three and four units
loDg. How many units long is the
longest side?

Can you teU without measuring7 How?

About 2500 years ago (500 B.C.) a great Greet, Py-


thagoras, proved that the square on the longest side of
any right angled triangle is equal to the squares on the
other two sides added together. We can use his discovery
to get our answer. We multiply the length of each of the
two shorter sides by itself. We add the answers together.
Then we find a number which. multiplied by itself, gies
us this number.
Hen is tho a:bs'M:It:

5X 5 = 2S

3X3=9

4 X 4 = 16

9 + 16 = 2S = 5 X 5

When we multiply a nnmber by itself we "square" it.


Any nnmber is the square root of its square.
S is the square root of 25.

to . . . . . to _Itlply a au.bet by Itself.

wln..- ...... (.)

461
It was not until many centuries later that men put this
knowledge of geometry to wide usc. The development of
sclenco had to wait untO the days of Galileo and Newton.
In the last three centunes men's ways of IiviDg have been
and are being deeply changed by science. These changes
can be compared only with three or four great earlier
steps in the history of man's development. These are the
birth of language, the use of fire and farming. and the
invention of writing.

He is pulling on a strong stick of wood which


is kept turning by his motion. This moves a
chain with buckets on it. The motion of the
chain carries buckets full of water up and
takes empty buckets down.

The horse bas a cloth over his eyes to keep


him from seeing that he is walking all the time
in a circle. Would he stop if he knew he was
going round in circles?

empty! with nothing Inside.


Today machines are the work horses. They are doing
what men gave all their days to doing in the past. Men's
muscles get less tired in the machine ~ but they often
get more tired in other ways. We are finding that we
need more and more time to work out the direction that
our lives may best tab. We need a new design for living.

Men carried water from springs and


rivers, and pulled it up by hand from
wellS, long before they learned even
how to turn a chain round a wheeL
They put a cord round a wheel and
turned the wheel round because that
was less hard work than pulling full
buckets up the well by hand. The
steps have come slowly because each
has to be taken before the next. A
next step was to put another bucket
on the other end of the cord so that
an empty bucket went down as the
full one came up

....., tl ... after tl ....


....... picture of what COlI be do..... hfore 0 bOUM or a complex
moehlne is buill. 1M bullden ..u.d ha'I'e 0 design 10 "blueprinl'1
before thea.

463
In one of the weB-known Unclo
Remus stories, Br'er Rabbit, a
little animal who always gets
the better of the other animo
living near him, gets into a weB-
bucket ...

and down he goes to the


bottom of the well. As
his bucket goes down, the
other bucket comes up
empty.
"How am I ever going to get back up?" be says to himself.

After a while, Br'er Fox comes along. look-


ing for Br'er Rabbit. "What are you
doing down there, Br'er Rabbit?" he
says, looking down
I
J into the well-hole.

464
"rro doing a little fishing. There are hundreds of fish
down here:'

"How can I get down there?" says Br'er Fox.

"Just get in the bucket, Br'er FOL It'll bring you down
in no time," says Br'er Rabbit.

And as the
fox goes
down ...

up comes Br'er Rabbit to the top


in his bucket, as he wanted to do.

The two buckets go by one another


on the way. "Good day, Br'er Fox,
some go up and some go down. A
happy landing to you," says Br'er
Rabbit with a smile and a wave of
the hand.

Such stories about animals are as


old as any of man's inventions.

Just: in this sense, only.


bring: make comel come with.
landing: coming 10 land, 10 earth, 10 horbol'.
will bring brlng(.) brought

16 3aKa3 1633 465


Here is a water wheel
being turned by water
power.

The weight althe water


faD.ing into the buckets
turns the wheel. and
the wheel, in turn,
turns great round
stones (mmstoaes) for
crushing (miDinglgrain
and making It into
Bour.

Men toot their grain to the mDler to be made into 8our.


Then they toot the Bour away and their wives made it
into bread.

Men did an this everywhere in the o1d days before tho


invention of steam engines and electric power.

_WI factory for making flow


. . . . , __ wbo_b la a aUL
Here is a windmill which does tho
same sort of work.

The wind pushes the sails


of the windmill round.
The work of the windmDl
is dependent upon wind.
When there is no wind tho
miller cannot make his
flour because there is no
power to tum tho lD.ill-
stones round.

There is an old song about a miller who lived by himseJf


and could be heard singing a song all day long.

"I care for nobody, no not I


And nobody cares for mo.It
sang the miller.

What he meant was that he did not love anyone and that
nobody loved him. He had no hopes or fears. He did not
hope for anything or fear anyone..

push. IIMt a pu.h to.


....... _ 'Hling when _ loot ' _ d 10 and de.l,.. sam.thing.
'-a . , . 1.. of hope, 'HOng about thing. which we thint IIICIY lot.
place, the thought of which .at us tum will.. aad shate all over.
wfllpush
wfllhope
will ....
.....(.,
JMIIh( ..,
'-I')

467
x../~ ,,'
, ,
I '
In many parts of the earth the
I , ' I ,
climate is either too hot or too
I " ,
'/',' cold for man most of the year.

...
, "I
" But it is now possible to put
automatic controls over tem-
perature into houses, offices,

~,
V- and work plants.
it

:...
Here is a thermostat which keeps the eo
temperature of the air as high or low
'0
as we want. We put the pointer at
700 P. then the thermostat will keep
the temperature of the room near so
700 p. the point on the scale to 1.

which the pointer points.


~~

en......w8Oth ... through the year, temperoture, o_unt of rolnfoll,


_ a t of waf... In the olr and 10 on.
~'''I Instrument fOf' keepiAg GUfomotlc control oyer temperoture.
poIatwn penon Of' thing polnting.
will point point (.) pOinted
A thermostat is designed for this purpose. Its design
makes use of our knowledge of what metals do when
heated.
lOW HIGH
TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE

This is the way it works.

Different metals get larger by different amounts as they


are heated.

Two long
such thin pieces
different of
metals
are bent together like
81 ~ 110
this inside the thermo-
stat.

When the temperature in a room goes above 70F the


metal on the outside gets longer than the metal on the
inside. This moves the arm to the right and shuts off the
fuel in the heating system of the house .

.... thI ........- to do thl._1I.


purpo_ Q thing" purpose I. what It I. de.lgned to do.
When the room gets too cold, the piece of metal on the
outside gets shorter and moves the arm to the left. This
turns on the heating system and more fuel is burned to
warm the house. The purpose of putting a thermostat
into a heating system is to control temperature.

,
-

In hot climates what is important is to cool houses by


sending fresh cold air through them. We can control the
temperature of the rooms and in addition dry the air and
have a climate of our own making indoors. Every ice
chest has a climate of its own inside it. It is strange and
surprising, but true, that ice chests are kept cold by using
heat. The heat is supplied by electric power or by burn-
ing gas. Scientists tell us that before long men will be
using the sun's heat to cool buildings. This will make
life in hot climates much easier.

will.,.

470
1bere are many other sorts J-..
of automatic controls. /"

In this hotel a door is automatically opening to let a man


go through. His body has shut oft the Ught from an
"electric eye" as he walked past it.

I ~ /1
-.~,====+~
In this bank: a bell is ringing loudly because someone has
touched a window. The man was hoping to break into
the safe.

Many offices, banks, stores and work plants are kept


safe at all times by such automatic watchers.

ringlngl sound _de by a bell. We lay Ihal a bell ring ..


aaflN sl..1 box where money and importanl pape.. are kept. They are
safe when locked in iI, if no one breaks It open.
hoM!; building whe.. people can get roaml for money.
will ring rlng(.)
will touch IGuch( . . )
will br_k br_k(.)

471
Here is a night watchman in a motion picture studio
(plant) keeping it safe from danger of fire at nigbL

-....... -...
~ ~ . 1-
~
.....
.......... 5
:........ 2 6
:". ..... "
........ . ............................" -.
'
1
He bas his time clock with him. He walks all night long
through the plant from one station to another. At each
station he pushes his time clock against a key which is
fixed in the wall.
This key prints a number on a long narrow roU of paper
which is moving all ~ time through the lock of the

n~ ~
In this way the time clock makes a full record of whether
and when the watchman went to each station in the studio
in tum. The time at which he was at each one of them is
recorded. If a number is not
recorded, that is proof that
IDANGER OF OEATHI the watchman did not go to
___~~~____
th_a_t_st_att_o_n_._________

......., IKEEP oufl

472
I: 1 I
3 I: I Z This record is necessary before
1:13 the insurance company will pay
for damage done to the plant
I: 14 by fire. The insurance company
I: 15 needs to know where the watch-
man was all through the night.
I: 16
I: 17

The motion picture company pays insurance money


overy year to the insurance company. In exchange the
insurance company will pay for any damage to the
building done by fire. But the motion picture company
is responsible for keeping the studio as safe as possible
from fire. The night watchman with his time clock is part
of the system of keeping the studio safe from tire

......,&1;: if You Qr. relponlibl.' for aolng lothing. you han. to do


it. If you gi". }'OIIr wwd tltat you'wlU do something. you become
responsible for doing it.
Ins_o: making laf. from danger, making good when som.thlng
goes wrong.
company: business group.
damage: if a thing is burned, broken, or put OI/t of _lIlng order It
is damaged. Damage il dane to II.
wIIl~

473
Here is a more fuUy auto--
matic part of a system of
controls against fire. Some
metals melt at low tem-
peratures for metals. Thin
lengths of such metal are
placed at many points in
the plant. A fire starting
near one of these points
will quickly melt the
metaL

This starts an electric system working. It opens outlets


through which water comes down from the ceiling to put
out the fire.

The price of such a system may be high~ but if is muab


lower than the price of a new building. Such insurance is
cheap at the price.

lIIelt: become liquid. a. Ice beco_. water.


''''''fIIlnll. of Ih. roof of a room.
cheap' low In price for what you get.

474
Much of the work in present..<Jay factories has to be auto-
matically controlled. The much-talked-of Assembly Line
was a first step in this direction. It let men make auto-
mobiles and many other things much more cheaply than
they could be made before.

An Assembly Line is a moving line of parts of whatever


is being made. Each worker (man or machine) does
one thing (adds or changes some part) to each automo-
bile (or whatever is being put together) as it goes by. 'I'he
work of each is dependent on what has been done before.
1bey are parts in an over-all design with an over-all
purpose.

If you make men into machines for short working hours


you can free the rest of their time. What for? To what
purpose? What is man designed to do? This new free time
has been given man by. the workers and thinkers of the
past. He has to think about what he will do with it, and
about the best possible use of it.

will ...... ......,.)


415
It ...... sometimes as ifmen
want very much to put an
~I ,I--\.-"~.JIA"''''''~
end to waiting on one an-
other. There are many ways.
for example. of making the _-,""'-';UI1
serving of food in restaurants
more or less automatic. One
of the causes of the high
price of food in restaurants
is the use of waiters and wait-
resses. One waitress can
serve only a small number of
people. if she has to go to and
from the tables with trays. And fewer people than before
are interested in doing this sort of work even when the
hours are short, the pay is good and the work not too
hard.

In present-day living more people than ever before eat at


restaurants. Many housewives who used to have servants
now do all their own housework.

..."e: give out, put before, do thlngl for.


wafMn man who serves at table or In a restaurant.
_ I t r _ woman who doe, the lOme
..."anh on8 who aerv.. other" for example. a penon who Is paid fa
doh_ _ to

win..". ...,,-r)
476
There are ways of making restaurants self-serving. that
is, of getting the public to do more of the work so that
fewer waitresses are needed and less time is wasted in
waiting to be served.

The nearest thing to complete self-.serving is the AUTO-


MAT. Food' and drink are put into boxes with glass
doors in front.

You look at the food.

If you want what you see.


you put in the right amount
of money and the door is
unlocked so that you can
open it.

You take the food out and


shut the door again.

Fresh supplies of food are put in the boxes as they are


emptied.

477
More and more use is being
made, in public places, of
automatic machines which
sell food, cigarettes, drinks,
stamps, or even books.

To make buying and selling simpler and more auto-


matic is important. Too many housewives have to give
up too much of their time to shopping for their families.
Some of them use up a large part of their lives going from
shop to shop to get what they want and waiting in tine
for people to serve them. Serving themselves frees them
fromtbis.

Ihopa " - . III lhe U1l114Hl1CI1Igdo. ,hop II uHd and In Ihe Unlled Slo'"
Ifwe, b.. you 110 IItopplng In botfI couetrlu-Ihat II, you go 10
"-110 _ what you can buy.

wlDlhop Ihop(.)

411
There are great food stores today where every sort of
food: meat, bread, butter, milk. vegetables. Bour, sugar,
salt, fruit-whatever it may be-is put out, each in its
place, on shelves for everyone to help himself. You take
what you want, put it in a little cart if there is much of it,
and take it to a control counter where you pay for it.
An automatic adding machine is used to give the amount
you will have to pay and to make a record of the things
you have bought.

The adding machine prints the price of each thing on a


roll of paper. You see how much you are paying for each
thing you are buying IP1d how much what you have
bought adds up to. Then you get a list of the amounts
recorded and the store keeps a copy. These records of
everything sold help to keep the business of the store
in onJcr.

479
In many businesses accounts are kept by machines and
the records are photographed. When there are millions
of different facts to be taken into account, and records of
them to be made, machines can work far more quickly
thanmen.

The newest and greatest accounting machines can do


far more work in a minute than the quickest man could
do in a year. But the machines and the questions put to
them come out of men's minds and are controlled by
men.

photoaIGIfIIt,,}
It was James Watt who in 1788 invented the Flyball
Governor for steam engines as a way of making the
engine able to keep control over its own rate of motion.
This was the invention which made the steam engine a
safe machine.

The two balls are kept flying round and round by the
motion of the engine. As it goes more quickly they fly
farther out and this shuts down the supply of steam
coming to the engine from the boiler. When the engine
goes more slowly the balls fly lower and this opens up
the shut-off (valve) and lets more steam through the
pipe to the engine.

17 3aKa3 1633 481


The governor of a steam
engine took its name from
the fact that it governs the
engine as a government
governs a country. A gov-
ernment in a free country
is a group of men to whom
the people give the power
to govern them. In free ~
~tries there is government of the people, by the pe0-
ple, for the.good of the people. 1he government is the
instrument by which the country controls itse1f. In a free
country the people can change the government: they can
take the power away from one group of men and give it
to another. And there is a limit to the powers that any
government is given or can take.

.."..... be 1ft COIItroI of.


IInIIh tM poiftt, Ilfte or .... wh_ lO_thl,. co.... to aft ead. To 1I.It
I_ to put a 1I.It to.

482

In a free country the men in the government are depend-
ent upon the people and responsible to them for the use
made of the power which has been given them. In any
good system of government, there must be ways of con-
trolling and limiting the amount of power anyone has, as
tho flybaU governor controls and limits the output of the
steam. engine.

One of the chief controls over the power of a govern-


ment is the law of a country. Tho law is a body of state-
ments about what may be done to or by any person. In
free countries aD men are equal under the law which they
are responsible for keeping. To help them to keep it there
are police andjudges.

....... ...n train" In the law wile _


_D
the law I. and wiled ,_ to be daM to
rupoMlbie for . , .... wtIot
who I:nc:alt It.
Our bodies govern themselves in many ways (pp. 87-91,
115) but we have to control them consciously too. We
have to be their judges and police, when necessary. But
in a well governed country there is little work for police
and judges. A good education develops the power of a
person to govern himself in more and more complex
ways.

As population increases and as men become more re-


sponsible for meeting people's needs on a larger and
larger scale, machines become more important. As the
facts become more complex, machines are being used
more and more to do all sorts of measuring, counting
and controlling.

ELECTRIC BRAIN

Can machines think? In a sense, yes. In another sense, no.


They can answer a question if we have built into them
the power to answer that sort of question.

educatlOfiI In CI wider lenle, ways III which _


learn 10 become more Clble Cllld responsible.

484
We can make machines wort for: us. but macbina can-
not tell us what that wort should be. It is men who 8ftl
responsible for: the directioo of the work.

Men have to know not only how to do things but whether


to do them and when. A macbino has only to do what it
is made to do.

Free men have to mate up their own minds about all


important questions.

How does a man learn to do this? By being with. taIJdng


to and watching others who are able to think for them-
selves he may see how to think for himself. He gets bet-
ter at it by trying. Education in this cannot start too early.

aIloulels would IMIt be..... wed aItould be what would 1M belt for - .
dlActl_t _Ing what ,hovId be cIon_. gMno
Ih_ ont.,. (dIMdIon.) and befng NSpo.ww. for the out--.

48S
How do men come by their
ideas about what is better
and what is worse, about
what things are important in
life. what unimportant? How
do they judge between
things?

Man has grown to what he is


out of the past. He bas come
a very long way through
change and growth from the
first living cells.

All living things, however simple,


control themselves to some degree.
Many cannot be said to have ideas
but they have direction. Within
limits they have self-control.

_ by! get, 1ft the JenJe of develop.


I...... co... to a de Idea of what I, beat.
willi..... lud. . ,s)

486
Thinking is the most complex sort of self-control; and
our brains, with which we think, are the most complex
systems of feed-back. The thermostat and the ftyball gov-
ernor are about the simplest of them. In feed-back sys-
tems, effects control their causes.

In the thermostat feed-


back circle the effect of in-
creased input of fuel is
increased output of heat.
This effect feeds back,
through the thermostat,
and cuts down the input
of fuel when the increase
becomes too great.

In 'the ftyball governor


circle the effect of more
steam is more output of
work from the engine.
This effect feeds back,
through the governor, and
cuts down the steam when
the engine goes too fast.

In the brain millions of feed-back circles are always con-


trolling one another.

487
Man'. past is a very small part of all time, but it is a very
important part.

How old are the stars? How old are the Sun and the
Earth and the Moon? Nobody knows for certain. It is not
possible at pl'e.'lent. to be certain about such great ques-
tions as the.~. but two things seem probable.

'The universe is about five billion (5,000.000.000) years


old.

It bas been becoming more and more complex from the


start.

c........ two cIIff...- ._Ings of "certain",


I . V_ _ certalta about ......Int w.......... Is no question in JOVI'
.JncUflat It is so.
2. So .w.g I. certain (I. a fact) If It It _"-.."ported by 011 til...... of
~ w. . . soa.tl_ certain (In _ .. 11 about till.
which ... not certain Cin _ .. 21-

.............ore them paallb....... than certain.


" tIMt,.. .... _ b!ack bolla and t ...... while
Wa In a ... GII4 ~ 10k. _ of th WI
wItIoeut 1aott1ng. It I, pt'ObabI. that ~ wiD
o black OlIO.

488
However we try to think of time, it seems certain that the
earth is oldertban 0\11' minds can take in.

Things have been going on for a longer time than we can


think of and they will go on and on through a longer
time in the future dlan we can think of.

Seventy years seems a long life-time if compared with


the present minute. But if compared with the age of a
stone it seems no time at all.

There is a Chinese poem which says:


Quickly the years fly past forever,
Here forever is this spring morning.

poem: something Mlid for the compl.te _n (his thoughts, feelings,


de.ires, .hop, feo,. . ' in th. best ponibl. way.
We have to think of Time and
Space together: here and now,
there and then. We cannot see
with our eyes how far off in
Time and Space the stars are,
but astronomers can measure
their distances. Their unit of
measure is the light-year-the
distance light travels through
Space in a year.

The greatest telescopes of


today let us look two bil-
lion light-years out into
Space. The stars we see
there are two billion light-
years away. We see them
as they were two billion
years ago. We are looking
into the past.

aatro_mer. Ki.ntilt working in ostronOIDY.


aatronolftY. Ki.nc;. of Ih. Itan.

490
Let this curving line represent growth from simple to
complex in the world.

.J
,
.,...J
V
~ ~
PAST SIMPLE

In this picture the past is to the left and we men of today


are at the top of the curve.

Long. long ago, the only sorts of changes that took place
were-so men of science say-very simple in comparison
with the changes which are taking place in you now as
you read this.

The curve represents the change from simple to com-


plex. The higher it goes the more complex are the sorts
of changes which arc taking place.
491
In the beginning-as long ago, as far back in the past, as
we can talk about-the only sorts of changes which took
place, scientists say, were physical changes. They were
the sorts of changes which the science of physics is abouL

Here is a wheel turning


round. Its motion is a
physical change. - _ - . I I
?-
Here is water boiling.

These are physical changes.

physIcab In the narrow n used her within the fi.ld of the science
of phyllu. In a wiele .._ . material having to do with bodies nor
.lneII.

492
Much later. other sorts of
changes, more complex than
these, began to take place.

Here is a lighted candle. As it bums the


heat melts the candle and the liquid goes
up into the flame where it is turned into
gas.

So far all is physicaL

But in the flame chemical changes take place.

Carbon from the candle and oxygen from


the air come together to make carbon di-
oxide. At the same time water is given off.
as you may see if you hold a glass cover
over the flame. The cover quickly becomes
clouded with little drops of water. This
water was not in the wax and the can.dle
flame gives it off however dry tho air is. The water and
carbon dioxide come into being through the chemical
exchanges, between the lighted candJo and the air, which
make the flame.

At the same time there are physical changes taking place.


The top of the candJe is melting and the liquid fuel is
moving up into the flame and being turned into gas, air
is coming into tho flame, carbon dioxide and water are
moving up from it and heat and light are being given out.

chemical chan.,.., chong.. that tok. plow III the Itrvctw. of cliff.......
IOI'b of 1aClMlia1. tumlng the. lilto other .aterlob.

493
When you step on a scale, tho
scale goes down and the springs
inside it are pulled out, and the
pointer moves to a mark. These
changes are physical

I~P":I
When you look at the pointer ~
to see what your weight is, rays
,,/
of light come from it to your eye ,
and go through the lens in your
eye to a point on the retina. I ,
,,
III

..... len_ In cam_ are made of glaN. The lena Ia an eye I, bulh
of clear 1I.,lng eelIL
rett_ coal of celli at .... back of .... eyabaJL

494
In a camera, rays of light from whatever you are photo-
graphing make an upside down picture on the film.

So it is inside your eye. The pictures made on the retina


are upside down.

Everything going on so far has been physicaL But in


your retina more complex sorts of changes now take
place. Some of these are chemicaL Complex materials in
the retina go through chemical changes not very unlike
those that make photographs on films and these changes
cause other much more complex sorts of changes in the
living cells of the retina.

flln h.,.. I, II roll of fII_ r.ady to 1M put


lnlo G 1:0 _ _

_ _ 1M th. 1:0_ of.

wln_

495
These nerves, which make us able to see. are an out-
growth from the brain to the retina. From the eye im-
pulses travel to the brain through the living 'cells of the
nerves. There are as many as a million separate telepbone
lines in these Detve$ alone.

A !rain of changes goes up


these nerves to the back part
of the brain. The cells there
let us see the things that our
eyes are looking at. No one,
at present. has any idea of
bow they do this.

The distance from the eye to the back of the brain is not
great. but some distances from some parts of the body
to the brain are long. The rate at which impulses travel
through the nerves is about the same for all of them

.........1, _"e of change which gMS throvgh Q ne"'e


. . . . . choin of cells through which illlpulses troyel frolll OIIe port of
the body 10 onolher, the impul.es the.elv... cs.. pog<t 181,IIne 3.
It Is _ ' s ....... thol g_ tlntel tocIay.)

496
The distance from a man's toe to his brain and
back may be as much as twelve feet. When
you are feeling with your toe for a step to put
your weight on, the impulses have to go
up your nerves from your toe to your brain
and back down again to the muscles which
move your foot.

When you are


walking, almost
all the muscles in
your body are at
work keeping
you from falling
down. Your mus-
cles and nerves
work together to
keep you on your
feet.

These changes in the nerve and muscle cells are depend-


ent on what is going on in other cells in the body in many
different ways.

497
Life on earth began. it is thought, about two billion years
ago. No one knows for certain whether there are living
things on other planets-on the red planet, Mars. for
example, or on any of the ten million, million planets
like the earth which are now thought to be traveling round
other stars which are like our sun. It seems possible-
even probable-that there are living beings (not unlike
men maybe) on many of them.

Changes of color on Mars are seen


at different times of the Martian
year. These changes may be
caused by the growth of plants.

The newest and highest development of living things on


earth is Man. About a million years ago, early men were
beginning something new in the long story of the earth.

498
Let us change our time scale and make this line:

represent one million years, the time since Man began.

I I
SPEECH ,.j
"I\.. ~
rIIIfIII' ~

PAST PIIESENT

Then this curve may represent the next great steps for-
wardinto more complex ways of living.

No one knows when speech began. Probably speech de-


veloped slowly and in different ways and at different
times with different sorts of men. But certainly it was
through being able to speak to one another that men be-
came human. With the growth of language a great de\"Cl-
opment of the parts of the brain which are used in talking
took place. Speech gave Man greater and greater control
over the world, over other men and over himself. With-
out language. Man would not have become what we
mean by the word human..

lip"" talking, word langvag. of the YOk..


_ _ Ilk. a ilion. dlff_nt frolll ani_I.. as _n should 1Mt.
wllllpeGle

499
Let us change our time scale again and make our line
represent 10,000 years.
. "

700 100 ,.J


~
1\ ...~
"",.

8.000 6.000 ".000 2.000 0 2.000


The next great upward turn of our curve came some
twenty-five hundred years ago. In many different parts
of the earth, Man was discovering then his first full and
clear ideas ofhimse1f and of his world. ,
In Greece, the great ~ the Iliad, and
Socrates and Plato.
In Palestine. Amos, Hosea and Isaiah.
V \ "You may not make for
YOU MAY NOT yourselves an image of
MAKE for yourMIvea I anything in the sky or on
_ IMAGE or any
THING in the SK.Y earth or m th~, waters un-
O!" ON EARTH der the earth.
or In tile WATERS \ (Deuteronomy, 5:8.)
under the EARTH {I

1_... pldwe or sculptvre ...,....nllng IOlIIethlng.


In India, Gautama Buddha
and the Bhagavad-Gita.

In China, Confucius and


Mencius.

At first through the spoken word and then in writing.


men began to make for themselves pictures of Man and
of what Man should become. More than some know, men
have been living by these pictures ever since.
If you have read this book up to this point, you can easily
read for yourself The Wrath 01 Achilles (Homer's Iliad)
in simple English, The Republic 01 Plato in simple Eng-
lish (both W. W. Norton, New York) and the Books of
Amos, Hosea and Isaiah in The Bible in Basic English
(E, P. Dutton, New York).

501
Here are some of the greatest sayinp of all time which,
in one language or another, go on living in men's minds.
For many centuries school children in China began to
learn to read with this sentence:

From the Chung Y ung (a later work of the school of


Confucius) :

"What makes us is named our nature. What


directs our nature is named the Way. What
makes the Way possible is education."

_ . . . . . what _ . . . d ..ply and truly ARE.

. .0....
~ II .....' dlrectlOftI to.
....(. ,
502
At first. writing seems to have been chiefly a way of keep-
big JeeOrds. 1be first great poems. the Iliad, for example,
\\'ere in the minds and mouths of poet after poet before
they were written down.

The teachings of Buddha and


of Mencius, Confucius and tho
earlier Hebrews were given first
by tho spoken word and writ-
ten down later by some who
heard them. Socrates, though
he used books, thought that
teaching should be by word of
mouth and by example. And
Jesus taught only by what he
said and did and Was.

Later. the written word was to become the chief instru-


ment through which Man could try to understand him-
self and his world.

503
It is chiefty through reac:Un& and through thought about
what we read, that we come to soc how our ideas depend
upon one another-very much as men are dependent upon
other men, or as organs in our 'bodies are interdependent.

DIRECTION WORK SUl'F'lY TlAHSPORT

Through reading and reflection we can learn to know


ourselves. Reflect for a while on these words of Shake-
speare. Thinking, he says.
" .. turns not to itself
Till it has traveled and is JDirror'd there
Where it may see itself."
TroillU and Cre.ssida, Act In. Scene ill, lines 109-111.
Some very good students of Shakespeare think that he
wrote married, not .""m.ord in line 11 O.
Cll'8Cll'I heart, lungl, ao..ach, brain, etc.
Interdepenclenh dependent 01\ one anoth....
Nflectloat If JOII look In a ..Irror JOII will
_ a reflection at your..lf. The ..Irror ....flec:b Hgllt fro.. JOII bact
to lOUI' eye. Tilt. eye II tilt. ..n.. argan !DOlI ~.,. _ n l to til.

.......,.,
brain. When _ undentand -IICIY _ _

wlU Nflect

504
Every idea with which we reflect is what it is and can
do what it can do only because our other organs of
thought arc what they arc and do their own work.

The parts of this bridge do what they do only because


the other parts of it arc there and are doing their work.

And this is equally true of the words in a language. Every


word is able to work as it does only because other words
work with it

In every step we take, what any of


our muscles can do depends on
what our other muscles are doing.
and all this is possible only be-
cause our nerve cells are in con-
trol. And nerve cells can work
together well only it the blood is
serving them well

50S
And the blood can serve them well only if tho heart is in
good order and if tho lungs are taking in enough oxygen;
and the heart and lungs in tum are dependent OIl the
food the stomach can give the blood stream and on the
control the nervous system can keep up over an tho
organs of the body.

S06
But in fact, the organization of our bodies is far more
complex than this short and simple account can say. In
everything we do, every breath we take, every metion we
make, from the directing of our eyes as we look to the
wording of a sentence as we write, billions Of cells of
every sort in our bodies are working together serving one
another.
It is the same with Man and his world. Any great ques-
tion coming up in any part of the world today bas its
effect on almost everyone anywhere. As with the body.
damage in any part is damaging to all the rest. The more
men reflect upon this the more they will understand why
world organization is important. We are far more do-
pendent upon one another than we know.

"What to do? What to do?" said Confucius. "In truth,


I do not know what to do with a man who does not ask
himself this!"
A wise man goes on asking himself what to do all his life.
It is two questions:
1. What should Man want to be or to become? What
is Man's end or purpose? We have seen (page 204)
how far he bas come. Where is he goingI
2. How can he best work to this end?

507
BverythiD& saJd Aristotle. bas its own true
wOl'k-or purpose-tho wort it can do best,
the WOI't which is risbt for it.

A good wheel turns wen, a good knife cuts


well. a good clock keeps time well. A good j,
apple tree gives good fruit, a good cow
gives good milk.

-
In the body. eye, hand, foot, each has its own work to do.

What can Man do best? What is his own work as Man?

Is it to learn? To learn what?

Is it to learn what to do?

How does he leam?

Is it by the feed-back from the effects of what he does?


Is it by seeing from the ouk:ODle whether he is doing the
right thing?

S08
If you are trying to draw a circle. the curved tine you
have made (together with your knowledge of what a circle
is) keeps telHngyou
how to go on. You
can learn to draw
better by trying.

If you are mating a speech. what you will go OIl tola}'


depends upon what you have said up to that point aacl
upon the people listening to you, A bad speaker is one cI
whom this is not true. A good speaker bas learned by
experience how to design a speeeh and how to chango
the design if necessary.

In speaking. as in everything we do. the way we begin


depends upon what OUt purpose is, upon what we are
trying to do. But we are not always. nor need we be.
fully conscious of what that purpose is. Sometimes, in
reftection, we see more purpose than we tucw in what
wedid.

....... -
wID.....
wIIaIlhouldbe . . . _d how 10 datlt.
.....,.) ........
S09
How you Itm your drdo depeada 011 how large it is to be.

So there is feed-forward as well as feed-back. Feed-


forward is as widely supported a fact as feed-back. Any
number of examples can be found. There can be no feed-
back without feed-forward. Knowledge of what you have
done and are doing will not help you unless there is direc-
tion in what you are trying to do.

You may not fully know what this direction is; you may
be trying to find out what it is.

As the development of the microscope has in-


creased man's power to see, so the development of his
instruments of thought is increasing his power to design
and direct and see wfult he is doin&-

............... if ....... I'1IO.

510
In every sentence you write, the feed-back from the let-
ters of any word you are writing, together with your
knowledge of the spelling of the word. tells you which
letter to write next. But feed-back can do this only be-
cause you fed forward that word and no other as the
word you would write. And in writing any sentence. feed-
back from the words you have written can tell you what
to write next only because you fed forward that sentence.
And you fed forward that sentence only because of a
more general feed-forward. the purpose of the paragraph
in which the sentence is to take part. And the paragraph
too depends upon the chapter and the chapter on the
book.

"General"? What does


this word mean? Each of
these circles as they go out
from YOU represents a
more general idea than
all that is within.

paragraplu a part of a Iong.r pi.c. of wrillng which d .....lops an


Idea In II.
eII."'1 a part of a boolr. _d. up of a nUIllbeI' of parographs under
a s.parat. heading (or nUlllber).

511
John Amos Comenius (15921670) was, so far as we
know, the first man to use pictures in books written for
beginning readers and for beginners in a second Ian
guage. (It was Latin.) He was to have been the first
head of Harvard College, where this book is being writ
ten, but could not come.

Comenius began his reader, Orbis Pictus (Nurnberg,


1657), with this picture.

The teacher is saying: "Come, Boy, learn to be wise."


And the boy asks: "What does this mean, to be wise?"
The teacher answers: "To understand rightly, to do
rightly and to speak out rightly all that is necessary."
512
The teacher gives the boy an answer thoup he knows
that no one can become wise all in a minute. All our lives
through, we go on learning how to understand rightly, to
do what is right, and to speak out at the right time. See
the size of the question the boy is asking.

In this book we have not tried to give any answers, but


only to bring together some of the more important ideas
and facts needed if we are to ask ourselves what we
should know and think and feel and desire and do. To
have been wise is to have known, thought, felt, desired
and done as was best. But there are many diJlerent ways
of knowing, thinking, feeling, desiring and doing. Which
are the best? That is the question. Our lives are our at-
tempts to find an answer, and language is the most impor-
tant of all our instruments for this purpose.

18 3an3 1633 513