Earthquake Study Guide
Multiple Choice: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions is called a. shearing. b. tension. c. compression. d. deformation. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 2. The Earth’s crust at Owens Valley in California is under tension, resulting in a. compression faults. b. normal faults. c. reverse faults. d. strike-slip faults. 3. A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume is called a. an aftershock. b. friction. c. liquefaction. d. stress. 4. In a normal fault, the part of the fault that lies below the other part is called the a. hanging wall. b. reverse fault. c. footwall. d. anticline. 5. Which type of stress force produces reverse faults? a. shearing b. tension c. compression d. deformation 6. In a strike-slip fault, the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways with little a. noise. b. shaking. c. up-or-down motion. d. movement. 7. The land between two normal faults moves upward to form a a. fold. b. syncline. c. hanging wall. d. fault-block mountain. 8. A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch is called a(n) a. anticline. b. syncline. c. plateau. d. canyon. 9. A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level is called a a. syncline. b. plateau. c. canyon. d. fault. 10. The point beneath Earth’s surface where rock breaks under stress and triggers an earthquake is a. the syncline. b. the footwall. c. the epicenter. d. the focus. 11. The type of seismic waves that arrive at the surface first and move by compressing and expanding the ground like an accordion are called a. S waves. b. P waves. c. Surface waves. d. Mercalli waves. 12. S waves are also known as a. primary waves. b. secondary waves. c. surface waves. d. focus waves. 13. Compared to P waves and S waves, surface waves move a. faster. b. slower. c. at the same rate. d. farther from the epicenter. 14. In what direction do seismic waves carry the energy of an earthquake? a. away from the focus b. toward the focus c. from the surface to the interior d. through the mantle only 15. What type of earthquake wave can travel through both liquids and solids? a. P waves b. S waves c. focus waves d. surface waves 16. Which scale would most likely be used to tell how much earthquake damage was done to homes and other buildings? a. the Richter scale b. the Mercalli scale c. the moment magnitude scale d. the seismic scale 17. The rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake is called the a. Richter scale. b. moment magnitude scale. c. seismograph scale. d. Mercalli scale.
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creep b. mudflow 33. stand under a tree. the Mercalli scale rating for an earthquake b. Most earthquake-related deaths and injuries result from a. landslide c. d. 23. b. d. b. satellites have detected increasing elevation of the ground surface. the speed of seismic waves c. there have been no earthquakes there lately. creep meter d. 20. you would use a map’s a. c. d. c. c. earthquakes are not likely. If the Coast Guard warns of a giant wave of water approaching the shore as a result of a major earthquake. trenches. GPS satellite system c. d. liquefaction. 25. 26. wood-frame building. laser-ranging device c. liquefaction. a laser-ranging device. a tiltmeter. 30. What does a seismograph record? a. b. The fault locks. The risk of earthquakes is high along the Pacific coast of the United States because a. c. d. run as fast as you can. laser-ranging device b. a tsunami. and hold. liquefaction. Geologists cannot yet predict earthquakes because a. d. they are warning of a. symbols. P waves. 29. b. A device that uses wire stretched across a fault to measure horizontal movement of the ground is a. c. scale. brick building. an earthquake is occurring. and stress builds up until an earthquake occurs. Which of the following monitors both vertical and horizontal movements along a fault? a. they have too much data. b. What happens when friction between the opposite sides of a fault is high? a. Geologists know that wherever plate movement stores energy in the rock along faults. c. contour lines. A plateau may form on one side of the fault. 24. b. c. Folding of the crust may occur. contour interval. To find distance on a map. the arrival of surface waves. 32. b. 31. cover. b. a satellite.____
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18. slump d. A building designed to reduce the amount of energy that reaches the building during an earthquake is called a a. d. the location of the epicenter 19. fixed-base building. Breaks in the Earth’s crust where rocks have slipped past easch other are called a.
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. 28. that’s where the Pacific and North American plates meet. c. Which type of fault-monitoring device is most like a carpenter’s level? a. creep meter 21. b. a creep meter. base-isolated building. The rocks on both sides of the fault easily slide past each other. d. b. b. tiltmeter d. they can’t be sure when and where stress will be released along a fault. d. c. c. they need to know where all past earthquakes occurred. a. c. plates. damage to buildings or other structures. drop. boundaries. b. Which of the following can cause damage days or months after a large earthquake? a. an aftershock. tiltmeter b. satellite 22. What occurs when rock and soil slide-rapidly down a steep slope a. there are too many faults to monitor. 27. landslides. an aftershock. c. a tsunami. The best way to protect yourself in an earthquake is to a. tsunamis. the ground movements caused by seismic waves d. d. d. serious earthquakes are rare east of the Rockies. go into the basement. earthquakes are likely. faults. an earthquake could never occur. d.
When an earthquake’s violent shaking turns loose. A type of building that absorbs the energy of seismic waves is a fixed-base building. The rating system used by scientists to estimate the total energy released by an earthquake is the Mercalli scale. The best way to protect yourself in an earthquake is to drop. A place where two plates slide past each other moving in opposite directions is a a. An upward fold in a rock is called a plateau. c. 49. mid-ocean ridge. In a strike-slip fault. change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. _________________________ 37.
. spreading boundary. geologists cannot predict exactly where and when earthquakes will occur. and land at a given location. liquifaction occurs. _________________________ 39. To reduce earthquake damage. new buildings must be made stronger and less flexible. sliding boundary. _________________________ 45. The squeezing together of rocks by stress is called shearing. soft soil into liquid mud. Geologists use a creep meter to measure the horizontal movement along a fault. _________________________ 42. cover and hold. The Richter scale describes the effects of an earthquake on people. 51. With the range of data available.
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Completion: Complete each statement.____
34. _________________________ 41. An earthquake’s epicenter is the point on the surface above where rock breaks under stress. d. _________________________ 38. which may grow into a huge wave as it approaches the shore. 47. the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways. During an earthquake. _________________________ 44. buildings. colliding boundary. _________________________ 43. seismic waves move outward from the focus in all directions. Earthquake risk can be determined by locating where faults are active and where earthquakes have occurred in the past. b. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 35. 50.
Modified True/False: If false. S waves are the first seismic waves to arrive at a given location. 48. 46. _________________________ 36. An earthquake on the ocean floor can produce a tsunami. _________________________ 40. Areas near faults usually suffer the least serious earthquake damage. When an earthquake occurs.
64. 59.52. compression. Laser-ranging devices can detect even tiny movements of the crust along a(n) ____________________. The stress force that causes a mass of rock to pull or twist in opposite directions is called ____________________. The stress force that pulls on the crust where two plates are moving apart is called ____________________. A valley that dips between two parallel ranges of hills was formed by a downward fold in rock called a(n) ____________________. 67. Geologists use a(n) ____________________ to measure the tilting of the ground along a fault. Earthquake damage can be reduced by making buildings more ____________________ so that they twist and bend without breaking. 61. Most faults occur along 74. Vibrations that move through the ground carrying the energy released during an earthquake are called ____________________. 70. formed when a block of rock was pushed upward by normal faults. The Sierra Nevada is a(n) ____________________ mountain range. 69. Three kinds of 73. The process in which the violent shaking of an earthquake turns soft soil into liquid mud is called ____________________. The ____________________ scale accurately rates the size of seismic waves only for small. nearby earthquakes. 66. An earthquake that occurs shortly after a larger earthquake is a(n) ____________________. 62. like the San Andreas fault in California. 72. Shearing creates past each other. 60. 65. Shearing creates ____________________ faults. Geologists determine earthquake risk by locating where ____________________ are active. 57. which is formed when compression causes the hanging wall to move over the footwall. The seismic waves that travel along Earth’s surface and produce the most severe ground movements are called ____________________. 71. 63. The scale that measures the strength of an earthquake based on seismic waves and movement along a fault is called the ____________________ scale. that occur in the crust are tension. 58. The block of rock that lies above a fault is called the ____________________. and shearing. 68. 55. Earthquake waves that vibrate from side to side and up and down only through solids are known as ____________________. faults in which rocks on either side of the fault slip
. boundaries. 56. Layers of rock that bend can produce a upward fold known as a(n) ____________________. The Klamath Mountains in California were produced by a(n) ______________ fault. 53. The point beneath the surface where rock breaks and an earthquake starts is the ____________________. 54.
76. Compare diagram B to diagram A. A(n) movement. which type of fault will form if the stress force continues? Explain. Florida
Distance to Epicenter
. Seismic waves cause the drum on a(n) 77. Contrast the plate movements that cause the stresses in diagrams B and C.75. and uplifting of Earth’s crust. 83. Colorado 2 min 10 s Houston. A(n) waves.
80. Describe the rock layers shown in Diagram A and any forces acting on the rock. 78. stretching. In diagram B. Use the table and graph to answer questions 86-88. How is it different? 84. Texas 3 min 55 s Miami. to vibrate. What caused the rock layers to take on the shape shown in diagram C? 82. The forces of plate movement can change a flat plain into landforms produced by . uses a laser beam to detect horizontal fault is a pattern of lines that record an earthquake’s seismic
79. Will a normal fault result from the stresses being applied to the rock unit in diagram D? Explain. Geologists try to use data from seismographs and fault-monitoring devices to when and where earthquakes will occur. 85.
Short Answer: Use the diagram to answer each question. City Difference in P and S Wave Arrival Times Denver. 81.
Distinguish between the focus and the epicenter of an earthquake. 92. 96. 95. What is a plateau and how can one form? 91. 93. Explain how GPS satellites are used to monitor faults. How is the moment magnitude scale used to describe earthquakes? 94. a house built on a solid rock ledge or a nearby house built on a soil river bank? Explain your answer. Which is likely to experience more damage during an earthquake. Explain the difference between P and S waves in an earthquake. What is the difference is arrival time of P and S waves at Miami Florida 88. Compare and contrast a normal fault and a reverse fault. Texas?
Essay 89. What is the distance to the epicenter from Denver. How does the design of base-isolated buildings reduce their risk of damage by earthquakes?
.86. 90. Colorado? 87. What is the distance to the epicenter from Houston.