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D.

7 Oil Compressibility
Oil compressibility is required to predict oil formation volume factors of
undersaturated crude oils. Additionally, it is also needed to calculate oil
density at different pressures and temperatures.

Vasquez and Beggs' correlation3

(D-21)

where T is in 0 F, p is in psi, and RSD is the solution gas-oil ratio at bubble-


point pressure in scf/stb.

Example D-4 Calculating Oil Compressibility


For the oil described in Example D - I , calculate the oil compressibility
and hence the oil formation volume factor at 3000 psia. The following data
are given: pb = 2700 psia, Rsb = 600 scf/stb, j g = 0.75, 7 ^ 7 = BO0API,
T = 250 0 F, B0 = 1.331rb/stb.

Solution The oil compressibility and formation volume factor are calcu-
lated using Eqs. D-21 and D-12, respectively.

oil formation volume factor at pD, rb/stb

Example D-5 Determining Oil Formation Volume Factor


Determine the oil formation volume factor, FVF, of oil with the following
properties using Standing's, and Vasquez and Beggs' correlations:
pb = 2100 psia, Rsb = 600 scf/stb, 7 g = 0.75, *fAPI = 30 0 API, T = 250 0 F,
Ps= 14.7 psia, r , = 70 0 F.

Solution
1. Standing's Correlation:1 From Figure D-4, B0 = 1.380 bbl/stb
2. Vasquez and Beggs' Correlation:3 ^gc = j g = 0.75
D.8 Reservoir Rock Properties
Naturally occurring reservoir rocks contain fluid, water, gas, or a
combination of these fluids. The petroleum engineer is obviously con-
cerned with the properties of reservoir rocks. These properties constitute
a set of fundamental parameters by which the rock can be quantitatively
described.

Formation Compressibility
Formation compressibility c/ in most cases is estimated from the correla-
tion developed by Hall presented as Eq. D-22 and Table D-3 below:7

(D-22)

where cj) is the formation porosity in fraction and c/ the formation


isothermal compressibility in psi"1.
Total isothermal compressibility above dew point pressure:

(D-23)

Table D-3
Formation Compressibility as
Function of Formation Porosity

Porosity (%) cf x l O ^ p s i 1 )

2 9.48
4 7.11
6 6.01
8 5.33
10 4.86
12 4.51
14 4.23
16 4.00
18 3.81
20 3.65
22 3.51
24 3.38
Total isothermal compressibility below dew point pressure:

(D-24)

Effective compressibility above dew point pressure:

(D-25)

D.9 Reservoir PVT Water Properties


This section presents Tables D-4 through D-IO for computing reser-
voir formation PVT properties such as gas solubility and then compres-
sibility, formation volume factor, density, and density gradient both for
gas-free and gas-saturated conditions. Viscosity is calculated, which is
gas-free. The author of this book using the data supplied by previous
authors8"13 developed the graphical and empirical correlations.14 New
tables showing water PVT properties as functions of pressure, tempera-
ture, and total dissolved solids are presented, which improve accuracy of
prediction and save time.
Tables D ^ through D-IO show the following formation water PVT
properties:
1. [Cw] Formation water compressibility - gas-free
2. Formation water compressibility - gas-saturated
3. [RS W] Gas solubility in brine
4. [FVF] Water formation volume factor - gas-free
5. Water formation volume factor - gas-saturated
6. Formation water density - gas-free
7. Formation water density - gas-saturated
8. Density gradient - gas-free
9. Density gradient - gas-saturated
10. Water viscosity - gas-free
Table D-4
Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties14 (reservoir temperature, T = 1000F and total dissolved solids, TDS = 0.10; base
pressure, psc = 14.70 psia; base temperature, Tsc = 600F; specific gravity, Sp. Gr. = 1.721; density of pure water at standard
conditions = 62.42 lb/ft3; density of brine water at standard conditions = 66.92 lb/ft3)

Gas-free conditions

Pressure Compressibility RSW Density Sp. Gr. Gradient Viscosity


(psia) FVF (bbl/bbl) (ft3/bbl) (lb/ft3) (air = 1.000) (psi/ft) (cP)
8000 0.210535E-05 0.9814 20.11 68.1923 1.0924 0.4736 0.9218
7000 0.220900E-05 0.9843 17.96 67.9884 1.0892 0.4722 0.9231
6000 0.227536E-05 0.9876 15.94 67.7648 1.0856 0.4706 0.9235
5500 0.230103E-05 0.9892 14.97 67.6495 1.0837 0.4698 0.9234
5000 0.232466E-O5 0.9909 14.03 67.5334 1.0819 0.4690 0.9233
4500 0.234816E-05 0.9926 13.10 67.4177 1.0800 0.4682 0.9231
4000 0.237318E-05 0.9943 12.15 67.3030 1.0782 0.4674 0.9230
3500 0.240115E-05 0.9960 11.18 67.1900 1.0764 0.4666 0.9228
3000 0.243322E-05 0.9977 10.14 67.0792 1.0746 0.4658 0.9226
2500 0.247034E-05 0.9993 9.02 66.9708 1.0729 0.4651 0.9225
2000 0.251315E-O5 1.0009 7.77 66.8648 1.0712 0.4644 0.9225
1500 0.256211E-05 1.0024 6.35 66.7612 1.0695 0.4636 0.9224
1000 0.261738E-O5 1.0039 4.74 66.6597 1.0679 0.4629 0.9224
750 0.264737E-05 1.0047 3.84 66.6096 1.0671 0.4626 0.9224
500 0.267889E-O5 1.0054 2.87 66.5599 1.0663 0.4622 0.9223
250 0.271191E-05 1.0062 1.82 66.5104 1.0655 0.4619 0.9223
15 0.274424E-05 1.0069 0.76 66.4641 1.0648 0.4616 0.9223
Table D-4 (continued)

Gas-saturated conditions

Pressure Compressibility RSW Density Sp. Gr. Gradient Viscosity


(psia) (psi-1) FVF (bbl/bbl) (ft3/bbl) (lb/ft3) (air =1.000) (psi/ft) (cP)

8000 0.253267E-05 0.9921 35.35 67.4558 1.0806 0.4685


7000 0.255487E-05 0.9941 31.56 67.3182 1.0784 0.4675
6000 0.257268E-O5 0.9959 28.01 67.1968 1.0765 0.4667
5500 0.258336E-O5 0.9968 26.32 67.1383 1.0756 0.4663
5000 0.259601E-O5 0.9976 24.66 67.0800 1.0746 0.4658
4500 0.21080E-05 0.9985 23.02 67.0209 1.0737 0.4654
4000 0.262766E-05 0.9994 21.36 66.9606 1.0727 0.4650
3500 0.264828E-05 1.0003 19.64 66.8989 1.0717 0.4646
3000 0.266612E-05 1.0013 17.82 66.8358 1.0707 0.4642
2500 0.268637E-05 1.0023 15.84 66.7714 1.0680 0.4637
2000 0.270598E-05 1.0032 13.65 66.7064 1.0686 0.4633
1500 0.272354E-05 1.0042 11.17 66.6415 1.0676 0.4628
1000 0.273737E-O5 1.0052 8.33 66.5777 1.0666 0.4624
750 0.274227E-05 1.0056 6.74 66.5467 1.0661 0.4621
500 0.274545E-05 1.0061 5.04 66.5163 1.0656 0.4619
250 0.274562E-05 1.0065 3.20 66.4870 1.0651 0.4617
15 0.274561E-05 1.0069 1.34 66.4605 1.0647 0.4615
Table D-5
Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties14 (reservoir temperature, T = 1000F and total dissolved solids, TDS = 0.20; base
pressure, psc = 14.70 psia; base temperature, Tsc = 600F; specific gravity, Sp. Gr. = 1.1311; density of pure water at standard
conditions = 62.42 lb/ft3; density of brine water at standard conditions = 70.61 lb/ft3)

Gas-free conditions

Pressure Compressibility RSW Density Sp. Gr. Gradient Viscosity


(psia) (psi 1 ) FVF (bbl/bbl) (ft3/bbl) (lb/ft3) (air =1.000) (psi/ft) (cP)

8000 0.194705E-05 0.9886 12.43 71.4250 1.1442 0.4960 1.0574


7000 0.201171E-05 0.9912 11.09 71.2309 1.1411 0.4947 1.0600
6000 0.204519E-O5 0.9940 9.85 71.0330 1.1379 0.4933 1.0607
5500 0.205627E-05 0.9954 9.25 70.9333 1.1363 0.4926 1.0606
5000 0.206628E-05 0.9968 8.67 70.8336 1.1348 0.4919 1.0604
4500 0.207698E-05 0.9982 8.09 70.7342 1.1332 0.4912 1.0601
4000 0.208983E-05 0.9996 7.51 70.6352 1.1316 0.4905 1.0597
3500 0.210608E-05 1.0010 6.90 70.5369 1.1300 0.4909 1.0594
3000 0.212672E-05 1.0024 6.26 70.4397 1.1284 0.4892 1.0591
2500 0.215249E-05 1.0038 5.57 70.3436 1.1269 0.4885 1.0589
2000 0.218389E-05 1.0051 4.80 70.2489 1.1254 0.4879 1.0587
1500 0.222116E-05 1.0064 3.93 70.1558 1.1239 0.4872 1.0586
1000 0.226432E-05 1.0071 2.93 70.0646 1.1224 0.4866 1.0585
750 0.228803E-05 1.0084 2.37 70.0197 1.1217 0.4863 1.0585
500 O.23131OE-O5 1.0090 1.77 69.9753 1.1210 0.4860 1.0585
250 0.233946E-05 1.0097 1.12 69.9315 1.1203 0.4856 1.0584
15 0.236534E-05 1.0130 0.47 69.8907 1.1196 0.4854 1.0583
Table D-5 (continued)

Gas-saturated conditions

Pressure Compressibility RSW Density Sp. Gr. Gradient Viscosity


(psia) (psi 1 ) FVF (bbl/bbl) (ft3/bbl) (lb/ft3) (air =1.000) (psi/ft) (cP)
8000 0.219652E-05 0.9952 35.35 70.9499 1.1366 0.4927
7000 0.219763E-05 0.9973 31.56 70.7986 1.1342 0.4917
6000 0.219689E-05 0.9992 28.01 70.6663 1.1321 0.4908
5500 0.219866E-05 1.0001 26.32 70.6033 1.1311 0.4903
5000 0.220264E-05 1.0009 24.66 70.5408 1.1301 0.4899
4500 0.220914E-05 1.0018 23.02 70.4778 1.1291 0.4894
4000 0.221830E-05 1.0027 21.36 70.4140 1.1280 0.4890
3500 0.223008E-05 1.0037 19.64 70.3488 1.1270 0.4885
3000 0.224427E-05 1.0046 17.82 70.2823 1.1259 0.4881
2500 0.226042E-05 1.0056 15.84 70.2147 1.1248 0.4876
2000 0.227790E-05 1.0066 13.65 70.1465 1.1237 0.4871
1500 0.229580E-05 1.0076 11.17 70.0784 1.1227 0.4867
1000 0.231300E-05 1.0085 8.33 70.0115 1.1216 0.4862
750 0.232091E-O5 1.0090 6.74 69.9789 1.1211 0.4860
500 0.232810E-05 1.0094 5.04 69.9471 1.1206 0.4858
250 0.233436E-05 1.0099 3.20 69.9163 1.1201 0.4855
15 0.233920E-05 1.0103 1.34 69.8884 1.1196 0.4854
Table D-6
Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties14 (reservoir temperature, T 1000F and total dissolved solids, TDS = 0.30; base
pressure, psc = 14.70 psia; base temperature, Tsc = 600F; specific gravity, Sp. Gr. = 1.1690; density of pure water at standard
conditions = 62.42 lb/ft3; density of brine water at standard conditions = 72.97 lb/ft3)

Gas-free conditions

Pressure Compressibility RSW Density Sp. Gr. Gradient Viscosity


(psia) (psi1) FVF(bbl/bbl) (ft3/bbl) (lb/ft3) (air - 1.000) (psi/ft) (cP)
8000 0.161694 0.9902 7.06 73.6941 1.1806 0.5118 1.2172
7000 0.169788 0.9927 6.30 73.5047 1.1775 0.5105 1.2213
6000 0.174782 0.9952 5.59 73.3239 1.1746 0.5092 1.2224
5500 0.176674 0.9964 5.25 73.2351 1.1732 0.5086 1.2222
5000 0.178413 0.9976 4.92 73.1470 1.1718 0.5080 1.2219
4500 0.180151 0.9988 4.60 73.0592 1.1704 0.5074 1.2213
4000 0.182022 1.0000 4.26 72.9714 1.1690 0.5068 1.2208
3500 0.184130 1.0012 3.92 72.8838 1.1676 0.5062 1.2202
3000 0.186556 1.0024 3.56 72.7963 1.1662 0.5055 1.2198
2500 0.189357 1.0036 3.16 72.7092 1.1648 0.5049 1.2194
2000 0.192565 1.0048 2.72 72.6227 1.1634 0.5043 1.2192
1500 0.196187 1.0060 2.23 72.5372 1.1620 0.5037 1.2190
1000 0.200205 1.0071 1.66 72.4533 1.1607 0.5032 1.2189
750 0.202350 1.0077 1.35 72.4122 1.1600 0.5029 1.2189
500 0.204577 1.0083 1.01 72.3716 1.1594 0.5026 1.2188
250 0.206875 1.0088 0.64 72.3318 1.1588 0.5023 1.2187
15 0.209092 1.0093 0.27 72.2951 1.1582 0.5021 1.2186
Table D-6 (continued)

Gas-saturated conditions

Pressure Compressibility RSW Density Sp. Gr. Gradient Viscosity


(psia) (psi 1 ) FVF (bbl/bbl) (ft3/bbl) (lb/ft3) (air = 1.000) (psi/ft) (cP)

8000 0.174606E-05 0.9939 35.35 73.4153 1.1761 0.5098


7000 0.178667E-05 0.9961 31.56 73.2510 1.1735 0.5087
6000 0.181628E-O5 0.9981 28.01 73.1087 1.1712 0.5077
5500 0.183038E-05 0.9990 26.32 73.0414 1.1701 0.5072
5000 0.184514E-05 0.9999 24.66 72.9751 1.1691 0.5068
4500 0.186110E-05 1.0008 23.02 72.9096 1.1680 0.5063
4000 0.187865E-05 1.0017 21.36 72.8415 1.1669 0.5059
3500 0.189794E-O5 1.0027 19.64 72.7732 1.1658 0.5054
3000 0.191899E-05 1.0036 17.82 72.7038 1.1647 0.5049
2500 0.194158E-05 1.0046 15.84 72.6334 1.1636 0.5044
2000 0.196533E-05 1.0056 13.65 72.5625 1.1624 0.5039
1500 0.198963E-05 1.0066 11.17 72.4917 1.1613 0.5034
1000 0.201368E-05 1.0076 8.33 72.4221 1.1602 0.5029
750 0.202532E-05 1.0080 6.74 72.3882 1.1597 0.5027
500 0.203651E-05 1.0086 5.04 72.3550 1.1591 0.5025
250 0.204712E-05 1.0089 3.20 72.3229 1.1586 0.5023
15 0.205642E-O5 1.0093 1.34 72.2938 1.1581 0.5021
Table D-7
Reservoir Formation Water PVT Properties14 (reservoir temperature, T = 2000F and total dissolved solids, TDS = 0.10; base
pressure,/^ = 14.70 psia; base temperature, Tsc 600F; specific gravity, Sp. Gr. = 1.0721; density of pure water at standard
conditions = 62.42 lb/ft3; density of brine water at standard conditions = 66.92 lb/ft3)

Gas-free conditions

Pressure Compressibility RSW Density Sp. Gr. Gradient Viscosity


(psia) (psi 1 ) FVF (bbl/bbl) (ftVbbl) (lb/ft3) (air = 1.000) (psi/ft) (cP)

8000 9.230275E-05 1.0099 40.59 66.2674 1.0616 0.4602 0.3695


7000 0.240640E-05 1.0133 33.47 66.0404 1.0580 0.4586 0.3599
6000 0.247276E-O5 1.0168 27.13 65.8152 1.0544 0.4571 0.3699
5500 0.249844E-05 1.0186 24.27 65.7054 1.0526 0.4563 0.3698
5000 0.252207E-05 1.0202 21.59 65.5980 1.0509 0.4556 0.3697
4500 0.254556E-05 1.0218 19.10 65.4932 1.0492 0.4548 0.3695
4000 0.257058E-05 1.0234 16.77 65.3908 1.0476 0.4541 0.3694
3500 0.259855E-05 1.0250 14.59 65.2906 1.0460 0.4534 0.3693
3000 0.263063E-05 1.0286 12.52 65.1920 1.0444 0.4527 0.3692
2500 0.266774E-05 1.0281 10.54 66.0941 1.0428 0.4521 0.3691
2000 0.271056E-05 1.0296 8.61 64.9952 1.0412 0.4514 0.3690
1500 0.275951E-05 1.0312 6.69 64.8958 1.0396 0.4507 0.3690
1000 0.281478E-05 1.0328 4.73 64.7945 1.0380 0.4500 0.3690
750 0.284477E-05 1.0337 3.73 64.7418 1.0372 0.4496 0.3689
500 0.287629E-O5 1.0346 2.69 64.6877 1.0363 0.5592 0.3689
250 0.290931E-05 1.0354 1.61 64.6321 1.0354 0.4488 0.3689
15 0.294164E-05 1.0363 0.57 64.5781 1.0345 0.4485 0.3689