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**Predictive Engineering and Computational Sciences
**

Background

Rayleigh–Taylor, Richtmyer–Meshkov, and Kelvin–Helmholtz hydrodynamic instabilities impact applications ranging from inertial conﬁnement fusion (ICF) to supernovae dynamics. Though the Navier–Stokes equations can exactly capture the physics, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is prohibitively expensive. Instead, the ﬂow physics can be efﬁciently approximated statistically using Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models. However, these instabilities are challenging because the models must accommodate variable density, inhomogeneity, nonstationarity, and anisotropy. Additionally, the simultaneous presence of shocks and turbulence requires sophisticated numerical techniques.

0.3

**TOWARDS A WENO-BASED CODE FOR INVESTIGATING RANS MODEL CLOSURES FOR HYDRODYNAMIC INSTABILITIES
**

Rhys Ulerich

1 1

Oleg Schilling

2

University of Texas at Austin

2

**Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
**

Work in Progress

Implement two-component, ideal perfect gas formulation: • Adds mass fraction transport equation [2] • Use Sutherland’s Law for species molecular transport coefﬁcients Implement 2-, 3-, and 4-equation Rayleigh-Taylor mixing-optimized RANS models for transport of: • turbulent kinetic energy (K ) • turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ( ) • density variance (ρ 2) • density variance dissipation rate ( ρ) APS DFD 2010: Comparisons of a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Model with Self-Similar Solutions for Large Atwood Number Rayleigh–Taylor Mixing

**DNS of Large-Atwood-Number, Single-Mode Rayleigh–Taylor Instability
**

2.2 2

∇ρ

0.5

∇ρ

1.8

Preliminary results from single species, γ = 5/3, µ = 10−5 2D Navier–Stokes simulations of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability at several large Atwood numbers. Gravity is downward. Dirichlet boundary conditions are used at the top and bottom of the domain. The horizontal direction is periodic. At t = 0 a non-diffuse interface is established at the domain midpoint. The initial velocity perturbation is −(c/40) cos (8πx) where c is the local speed of sound.

1.6

1.4

∇p

0.7

∇p

1.2 1

0

0.125

0.25

Misalignment of

ρ and

p in an

At =

initiates the Rayleigh–Taylor instability via baroclinic vorticity production.

ρh −ρl ρh +ρl

= 1/3 conﬁguration

0 4.5 7 35 12

Objectives

To develop a nonoscillatory, shock-capturing gasdynamics code designed to • simulate multi-species hydrodynamic instabilities and • facilitate N -equation RANS model closure evaluation and development. To investigate the Rayleigh–Taylor instability and mixing, including • comparing RANS models with self-similar solutions, • measuring mixing statistics and equation budgets, and • quantifying sensitivities relative to initial perturbations and model coefﬁcient choices.

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3 4

6 10

30

**Near-Term Plans
**

25

3.5 5 2.5 8 3

Investigate RANS closure budgets against averaged DNS ﬁelds: • Add support for perturbation with prescribed energy spectra • Add output of energy spectra, PDFs, and other statistics Extend work to other instabilities: • Add inﬂow/outﬂow characteristic boundary conditions • Study Richtmyer–Meshkov and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities Other related items: • Improve serial code performance • Hybrid WENO/ﬁnite differencing using Ducros sensor [1] • Add option for implicit time-evolution • Extend code to three dimensions • Implement a thermodynamically consistent and fully conservative formulation [5] • Add subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation (LES)

11 9

20 1 2 2.5 4

6 15 3

**High-Order Numerics and Code
**

Numerics allow hybrid upwind/central difference shock-capturing RANS & DNS: • Inviscid ﬂuxes computed using

• 9 -, 5 , or 3 -order weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) reconstruction [4], • Roe’s approximate Riemann solver [3], and • global Lax–Friedrichs ﬂux splitting th th nd

th th rd

2

2.2 0.2 2

1.5

3,2 1/240

4 1.5 1.5 2

10

1.8

• Viscous terms use 8 , 4 -, or 2 -order centered ﬁnite differences • Total variation diminishing explicit Runge–Kutta time stepping • Selectable orders allow isolating numerical viscosity effects

0.4

1.6

5 2 1 1

0.6

5,4 1/240

1.4

7

1.2

New, modular Fortran 95 code designed for ﬂexibility: • Equation-agnostic driver handles all MPI and IO considerations • Equation- and problem-speciﬁc modules provide relevant physics • Currently supports:

• Single species Navier–Stokes with constant gamma, viscosity • Rayleigh–Taylor and Richtmyer–Meshkov initial conditions

2

At 0.5

At 0.6

At 0.7

1

At 0.8

At 0.9

t=1

2.5 2.75

5 3

0.8

1

1/480

0 0.1 0.2 0.15 0.25

9,8 1/240

**• New equations and problems easily added by implementing:
**

• Equation of state and any unique transport equations • Roe-averaged eigenvectors from system’s inviscid limit

• Supports single or multimode initial perturbations • Includes serial and parallel regression test suite • Flexible restart handling and statistics output • Features to simplify batch runs and parameter sweeps • Reasonable scalability and performance for effort to date • Doxygen-based documentation evolves with code

bubble amplitude

spike amplitude

At ∆x = 1/240, the (9,8) order method fully resolves At = 1/3 ﬂow structures while lower orders do not. It requires only 30% of the (3,2)th order’s compute time to obtain a converged solution.

th

0 0.25 Density ﬁelds for the indicated Atwood numbers at t = 1.95 s. Fields for At > 0.5 show “inviscid” ﬂow structures suggesting the 768 points per wavelength resolution was insufﬁcient to fully resolve dissipative effects. Prior runs at 512 points per wavelength (not shown) indicate adequate resolution for At = 0.5.

t=2

3

1

The Richtmyer–Meshkov instability generated by a Ma = 1.5 shock interacting with a perturbed At = 1/3, γ = 7/2 interface. Density ﬁelds show a reshock event and post-reshock mixing layer growth at the indicated times.

0.4

0.3

At 0.5 At 0.6 At 0.7 At 0.8 At 0.9

1

0.8

At 0.5 At 0.6 At 0.7 At 0.8 At 0.9

References

[1] F. D UCROS, Large-eddy simulation of the shock/turbulence interaction, Journal of Computational Physics, 152 (1999), pp. 517–549. [2] D. J. H ILL , C. PANTANO, AND D. I. P ULLIN, Large-eddy simulation and multiscale modelling of a Richtmyer–Meshkov instability with reshock, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 557 (2006), pp. 29–61. [3] P. L. R OE, Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference schemes, Journal of Computational Physics, 43 (1981), pp. 357–372.

0.6

0.2

0.4

Wall time per timestep (s)

10

WENO3, FD2 WENO5, FD4 WENO9, FD8

0.1 0.2

1

0

0.1 1 10 Number of MPI ranks 100

0 0 0.5 1 time 1.5 2 0 0.5 1 time

ρ (ρ−ρ )

1.5

2

Strong, parallel scaling for At = 1/3 at ∆x = 1/480

1 2 Bubble and spike amplitudes were found by thresholding the heavy-ﬂuid mass fraction m1 = ρ(ρ1−ρ2) ∈ [0, 1] at 0.99 and 0.01. The spike amplitudes increase smoothly with Atwood number while the bubble amplitudes remain clustered for At = 0.8, 0.9.

[4] C.-W. S HU, High order weighted essentially nonoscillatory schemes for convection dominated problems, SIAM Review, 51 (2009), pp. 82–126. [5] S.-P. WANG , M. H. A NDERSON , J. G. O AKLEY, M. L. C ORRADINI , AND R. B ONAZZA, A thermodynamically consistent and fully conservative treatment of contact discontinuities for compressible multicomponent ﬂows, Journal of Computational Physics, 195 (2004), pp. 528–559.

This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This material is also based in part upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-FC52-08NA28615.

1

rhys@ices.utexas.edu, schilling1@llnl.gov

2

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Rayleigh–Taylor, Richtmyer–Meshkov, and Kelvin–Helmholtz
hydrodynamic instabilities impact applications ranging from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to supernovae dynamics. Though the Navier–Stok...

Rayleigh–Taylor, Richtmyer–Meshkov, and Kelvin–Helmholtz

hydrodynamic instabilities impact applications ranging from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to supernovae dynamics. Though the Navier–Stokes equations can exactly capture the physics, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is prohibitively expensive. Instead, the flow physics can be efficiently approximated statistically using Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models. However, these

instabilities are challenging because the models must accommodate variable density, inhomogeneity, nonstationarity, and anisotropy.

Additionally, the simultaneous presence of shocks and turbulence requires sophisticated numerical techniques.

hydrodynamic instabilities impact applications ranging from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to supernovae dynamics. Though the Navier–Stokes equations can exactly capture the physics, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is prohibitively expensive. Instead, the flow physics can be efficiently approximated statistically using Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models. However, these

instabilities are challenging because the models must accommodate variable density, inhomogeneity, nonstationarity, and anisotropy.

Additionally, the simultaneous presence of shocks and turbulence requires sophisticated numerical techniques.

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