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ISSN: 1995-0772 Published BY AENSI Publication

EISSN: 1998-1090
2015 Special; 9(17): pages 247-255 Open Access Journal

Application Of Superconductors In
Mitigation Of Grid Connectivity Issues For
Dfig Based Wind Energy Generation Systems
1Rajasekaran. R and 2Bharanikumar. R
1Research Scholar, Department of EEE, SNS College of Technology, Coimbatore.
2Professor, Department of EEE, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam.

Received 12 February 2015; accepted 20 March 2016; published 25 March 2016

Address For Correspondence:

Rajasekaran. R, Research Scholar, Department of EEE, SNS College of Technology, Coimbatore.

Copyright 2016 by authors and American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information (AENSI Publication).
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).

Wind is a main source for producing green power which is utilized for many applications in our day today life. The availability of
fossil fuels are reduced day by day, hence the power from non conventional energy sources is the need of the hour. Producing
electricity by Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) is a challenging task because of grid connectivity issues. Earlier days
transformers and crowbar protections are used for mitigating Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) capability. Crow bar is protecting
the rotor from the grid faults but it absorbs the reactive power. For mitigating this effect and to enhance the LVRT capability we
can use super conductors to solve the grid connectivity issues. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and
Superconducting Fault Current limiters (SFCL) are used to protect the rotor from the grid faults by reducing the current
component. Bridge type SFCL is used in Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power generation. The modified
control systems has implemented in this paper for controlling the operation of SMES and SFCL coordination. By this controller the
fault current is reduced and voltage is compensated during the fault condition. pThe performance of the DFIG can be improved and
shown in simulation results. All the works are carried out and analysed by MATLAB (Simulink) software.

KEYWORDS: DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator), Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT), Superconductors


In past years more attention has given to variable speed machines because it is suitable for both medium
and low power applications. The above mentioned generators are having more advantages than the conventional
one such as reduced cost for a unit, maintenance required will be less and robust in construction.[1,2] DFIG
which is a reliable one used for isolated power generating plant.
In recent years the role of the DFIG is involved in wind energy conversion system because it has the ability
to control the real and reactive power by the developed power semi conducting devices presented in converter
and inverter. Due to the variable speed and frequency operation the DFIM has been dominating in renewable
energy generation market. The general behavior of the induction machine is to supply and absorb the reactive
power so in last decades the role of DFIG is in absence due to the higher rating of drive system. The frequency
and speed cannot be control without drives when we go for a higher rating of the machine.
The real and reactive power can be controlled by the Grid Side Converter (GSC) and Rotor Side Converter
(RSC) for getting smoothened power from the DFIG.3 From the machine can get twice the power when
operates in super synchronous mode of operation.

To Cite This Article: Rajasekaran. R and Bharanikumar. R., Application Of Superconductors In Mitigation Of Grid Connectivity
Issues For Dfig Based Wind Energy Generation Systems, 2015. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. 9(17); Pages: 247-255
248 Rajasekaran. R and Bharanikumar. R., 2015/ Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. 9(17) Special 2015, Pages: 247-

The generated power has tied with grid using coupling transformer. In earlier days through the coupling
transformer real and reactive power could be compensated in fixed speed power generation system. For variable
speed converters are used to compensate the same.[3] During the grid faults the system voltage gradually comes
to low as per the LVRT phenomena shown in fig.1.

Fig. 1: Concept of LVRT

The current has risen from nominal value and voltage has dipped from the base value during grid faults. For
L2G fault particular line voltage is decreased. Compensating device is required to maintain (or) recover the
voltage level. The higher rating of energy saving devices are required for compensating the voltages such as
Super Conducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), Flywheel capacitors (FC), Super capacitors (SC) and
Pumped Hydro (PH) Power generators used for compensating voltage to the respective line.[4,5] Proposed work
mainly deals with applications of SMES in grid tied wind energy conversion system.
Voltage mismatching degrades the performance of DFIG-based wind turbines. In fact, if voltage unbalance
is not taken into account the stator and rotor currents will be highly unbalanced even with a small unbalanced
stator voltage. The unbalanced currents will create unequal heating on stator and rotor windings which will
produce entire rotational force change power pulsations of the generator which is double time of the line

Variable Speed Generator For Wecs:

In DFIG Based WECS is shown in fig.2. The stationary part is connected to the grid directly and rotor
mains are done by a Variable Frequency AC/DC/AC Converter (VFC). Wind speed is varied from time to time.
Back to back converter connected through the rotor to grid is maintained the constant power during the variable
speed operation. In order to maintain the constant DC link voltage at capacitor the power quality can be
maintained at the grid coupling.[6]

Fig. 2: Basic Structure of DFIG based WECS

A. Rotor Side Converter (RSC)Controller:

The Rotor-Side Converter (RSC) controls the current flowing in rotor of DFIG in terms of stator flux. The
reference value of control signal is stator flux. The RSC is used to control the torque of machine at output
terminal. In order to have maximum power point tracking the power is taken as reference by that the generator
will follow pre-defined power speed curve.[6]
The parks model is introduced for modelling the induction machine.
Voltage vector equations of stator are
Vs=is*Rs +d/dt (1)
Vr=ir*Rr+ d/dt (2)
where Vs is the stator voltage. The rotor voltage, Vr is controlled by the rotor-side converter.
The flux vector equations are
s = Ls*is + Lm*ir (3)
249 Rajasekaran. R and Bharanikumar. R., 2015/ Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. 9(17) Special 2015, Pages: 247-

r = Lm*is + Lr *ir (4)

The stator and rotor self-inductances are Ls and Lr :
Ls = Lm + Lls , Lr = Lm + Llr (5)
=1-Lm2/Lr*L (6)
L0=Lm2/Ls (7)
Vrd=ird*Rr+ Lr*dird/dt-wslip* Lr*irq (8)
Vrq=irq*Rr+ Lr*dirq/dt-wslip (Lr*ird+L0*ims) (9)
wslip=ws-wr (10)
The stator angle
st= (Vst-is*Rs)dt (11)
sb= (Vsb-is*Rs)dt (12)
s=tan-1(st / sb) (13)

These equations can be implemented as a simulink diagram in MATLAB. By referring the output the
controller will giving pulses for converter which in turn controls the operation of DFIG. The control methods for
the rotor-side converter are organized in a generic way with two PI-controllers. The outer speed control loop or
a reference torque imposed on the machine is used for the reference q-axis rotor current irq. For speed-control
mode one outer PI controller is to control the speed error signal in terms of maximum power point tracking.
Schematic diagram is shown in fig.3.

Fig. 3: The Rotor-Side Converter (RSC)

B. Controller circuit of Grid-Side Converter (GSC):

GSC maintains the constant voltage at DC link capacitor. The function is realized with control loop and
regulation loop.

Fig. 4: The Grid-Side Converter (GSC)

At current regulator terminal can measure the reference current in terms of voltage at voltage regulator that
is icdref. Inside of the current regulator the control signal of magnitude and phase angle of voltage is presented.
Refer in Fig.4.

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (Smes):

250 Rajasekaran. R and Bharanikumar. R., 2015/ Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. 9(17) Special 2015, Pages: 247-

A SMES device is stores energy in magnetic conductors. The stored energy can be utilized for voltage
compensation by switching operation performed over the SMES coil connected with the power converters.7
During the fault condition magnetic flux stored in the coil is injected to grid for maintaining the voltage profile
of the grid. The energy which is stored in inductance and the rated power can be expressed,

E=(1/2)LI2- (14)
P=dE/dt=LI di/dt=VI (15)

Where L is the coil inductance, I be the dc current flowing through the coil and V is the voltage across
the coil. The components of SMES system is shown in fig.5. This is used to construct the SMES.

Fig. 5: Components of a typical SMES system

Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (Sfcl):

As mentioned above, during the fault condition the current of the respective line goes to increasing till the
fault recover. So there is need some fault current suppressor for maintaining the system on grid tied.
Superconducting Fault Current Limiter is one of the solutions to protect the generator from fault current.[7]
SFCL should withstand the temperature around 100 k because while fault condition due to the flow of large
current the temperature of the winding and conductor is increased. SFCL can be used to decrease the line current
during the fault. Fig.6 shows the structure of SFCL.

Fig. 6: Superconducting Fault Current Limiter connected in series transmission line

Methodology Of Dfig For Lvrt Enhancement With Sfcl-Smes:

The bridge type SFCL is used in this proposed system. It is similar to that of rectifier type SFCL.[7,8,16]
During normal condition the super conductor regulates the current and maintains the peak amplitude of isabc.
Under fault condition the SFCL is connected in stator or rotor for reducing the fault current. Fig. 16 and Fig. 17
shows the wave forms after action carried out by SMES and SFCL.


251 Rajasekaran. R and Bharanikumar. R., 2015/ Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. 9(17) Special 2015, Pages: 247-

Fig. 7: Modelling of DFIG based wind power generation under fault

Fig.7. shows the simulink Model for the DFIG which consists of Rotor Side Converter and Grid Side

Fig. 8: Torque Generation

The torque generation block takes generator speed and wind speed is the references and pitch angle is
maintained as zero as shown in fig.8.
In conventional method the crowbar protection is used which is nothing but set of resistor used to quench
the excessive current as shown in fig.9.

Fig. 9: Conventional method for protection (Crow bar protection Scheme).

Those crowbar protection does not ensure the continuous operation of DFIG. Fault ride through capability
will be very less. To improve this the SFCL is designed as shown in fig.10.
252 Rajasekaran. R and Bharanikumar. R., 2015/ Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. 9(17) Special 2015, Pages: 247-

Fig. 10: Bridge Type SFCL

Corresponding simulation diagram with SMES and SFCL is shown in fig.11.

Fig. 11: DFIG with SFCL and SMES for Voltage regulation and Fault current limitation

A. Under Fault Condition:

Fig. 12: Voltage and Current in Stator and Grid Under fault Condition

From the Fig. 12 it describes the stator current and voltage wave forms during the fault condition. The fault
time is in between 1.5 sec to 2.5 sec during that period the current is increased and voltage is reduced during that
253 Rajasekaran. R and Bharanikumar. R., 2015/ Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. 9(17) Special 2015, Pages: 247-

Fig. 13: Rotor Voltage and Current

Fig. 13 it shows the current and voltage behaviour of rotor during the fault condition.

Fig. 14: Capacitor Voltage

The oscillated DC link capacitor voltage during the fault condition is shown in the fig. 14.

B. Conventional Control (Crow Bar):

Fig.15: Rotor Fault current under conventional control technique.

Using crowbar protection the current will have the waveform line above shown fig.15.

C. Under the action of sfcl:

Fig.16: Limited Rotor voltage and current by the effect of SFCL

D. Under the action of smes:

254 Rajasekaran. R and Bharanikumar. R., 2015/ Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. 9(17) Special 2015, Pages: 247-

Fig. 17: Stator Voltage by the action of SMES

Fig. 17 shows stator voltage during the fault condition with SMES in connecting with stator

A new topology has been proposed for grid connection during symmetrical fault condition to enhance the
variable speed driven DFIG fed AC-DC-AC system fault ride-through capability. The proposed technology is
simulated in MATLAB using powersim toolbox. Simulation results prove that the proposed control strategy is
able to provide full ride through to the generator and power system capability can be improved. An SFCL-
SMES circuit is very intensive to enhance the LVRT capability and smoothened the power output of a DFIG
based wind turbine. The SFCL-MES has no influence on the power generation of the DFIG based wind turbine.
Co-ordinated operation of SMES with SFCL is used to improve the overall performance.

The following Table.1 and Table.2 gives the referred values for simulating this DFIG with SMES and

Table 1: DFIG Simulation Values.

Symbol Quantity Value
Vs Stator Voltage Line 650 V
Ws Speed - Synchronous 2 50
Lm Magnetizing Inductance 2pu
Lls, Llr Leakage Inductance, Stator and Rotor 0.11, 0.07pu
Rs, Rr Stator and Rotor Resistance 0.003pu
P No. of. Poles 4
S Apparent Power 1.5 MW
Nrs Rotor to Stator Turns Ratio 3

Table 2: Drive Train Details.

Symbol Quantity Value
R Rotor radius 30.5m
Vr Rated wind speed 12m/s
Air density 1.2kg/m3
Jr Rotor Inertia 6.35x105 kgm2
Jg Generator inertia 34.2kgm2
Bd Shaft damping coefficient 31901 Nm/ rad/ s
Kls Shaft stiffness coefficient 9.036x105Nm / rad
Br Rotor friction coefficient 91.87 Nm/ rad/ s
Bg Generator friction coefficient 0.2Nm/ rad/ s
ng Gearbox ratio 65.23


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