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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Jatropha curcas L.


ROOTS METHANOL EXTRACT AGAINST
Staphylococcus aureus

DIAN PUSPITAWARNI

1508062235

Supervisor

Muhammad Muhlis, S. Si., Apt., Sp. FRS.

DEPARTMENT OF APOTHECARY
FACULTY OF PHARMACY
AHMAD DAHLAN UNIVERSITY
YOGYAKARTA
2016
r' -!-l
:

APPROVAL PAGE

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

ANTIBACTERIAL ACfiVITY Cl'F Jatropha curcasz. ROOT'S -

METHANOL EXTRACT AGAINST Staphytoeoccus Aureus


Diar Puspitawarni

15a8a62235

Approved and Authorized

on l6th Mei 2016

Author,

-ffirL Dim kspitawmni

Confirmed by,

Chief of Professional Department of Apothecary,

Dr. Moch. Saiful Ph.D., M.Si., Apt


TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER........................................................................................................................... i
APPROVAL PAGE ........................................................................................................ ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................... iii
LIST OF TABLE ............................................................................................................ iv
LIST OF FIGURE .......................................................................................................... v
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... vi
A. BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................... 1
B. METHOD .................................................................................................................. 2
1. Searching Method ............................................................................................... 2
2. Reference Selection Method ............................................................................... 2
3. Data Extraction ................................................................................................... 3
4. Processing and Data Assessment ........................................................................ 3
C. RESULT .................................................................................................................... 4
D. DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................ 4
E. CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................... 6
F. REFERENCE............................................................................................................. 6

iii ii
LIST OF TABLE

Table I. PICO Assessment 2


Table II. Search Result Data ... 3
Table III. Result of Article Selected 3
Table IV. Result................ 4
Table V. Result Data Review Article . 5

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iii
LIST OF FIGURE

Figure I. Staphylococcus aureus. 1


Figure II. Jatropha curcas Linn 1

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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Jatropha curcas L.
ROOTS METHANOL EXTRACT AGAINST
Staphylcoccus aureus
Dian Puspitawarni, Muhammad Muhlis
Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahmad Dahlan University

Correspondence :
dianpuspita36@gmail.com

Background: Antimicrobial is substance that can kill/inhibit the growth of pathogenic


microorganisms. One of microorganism that can cause infection is Staphylococcus
aureus. Now, there are several increasing of resistance to many antibiotic, so scientist
encouraged to find new antimicrobial from a variety source including medicinal plants.
One of the herbs that can be used as an antibacterial agent is Jatropha curcas L. Based
on previous research showed antibacterial activity from Jatropha curcas L.
Objective: This review aimed to determine antibacterial activity methanol extract of Jatropha
curcas L. against Staphylococcus aureus based on research thats been published.
Metode: This study used Systematic Review method. The inclusion criteria: article in English,
published in 2006 - 2016, full-text article, the species used is Jatropha curcas L., using
methanol extract of Jatropha curcas root, studied use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
Exclusion criteria: incomplete publication, not as an antibacterial effect, there is no MIC values
and clear zone.
Outcome measured: MIC and minimum inhibitory zone
Result: Methanol extract of Jatropha curcas L. has antibacterial activity against S. aureus with
MIC 2,3 ; 6,25 ; 30,82,50 mg/ml and minimum inhibitory zone 14 ; 110,24 ; 29,60,23 mm.
Conclusion: Based on an article review, it explains that methanol extract of Jatropha
curcas L. root has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, so Jatropha
curcas L. root tend to be the antimicrobial source from the plant. MIC values show there
is no correlation with the minimum inhibitory zone that caused by some influencing
factors, so standardization of simplisia is needed.

Keyword: Antibacterial, Jatropha curcas L., root, methanol extract, Staphylococcus aureus

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A. Background

In the part few years, there has been an increasing interest in use of natural
bioactive compound for medicine. The plant is an important source of natural
bioactive compounds. According to WHO, about 80 % of people in worldwide still
rely on herbal medicines. There are thousands of important medicinal plants which are
medicinally important and also
recommended for to cure various infectious
disease that cause by bacteria and yeast.
One of bacteria that can cause infection is
Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus
aureus is gram positive bacteria, spherical
shape with diameter 0,7 1,2 m,
facultative anaerobic, unforming spore,
Figure I. Staphylococcus aureus
and unmoved (Figure I). This bacteria
grows at optimum temperature 37C, but form pigments the best temperature in room
temperature (20-25C) (Jawetz et al., 1995; Novick et al., 2000). Microorganisms
have developed resistance to many antibiotics because of inaccuracies using
commercial antimicrobial, so scientist are encouraged to finding new antimicrobial
from variety source including medicinal plants (Karaman et al., 2003). Medicinal
plants are one of important source of antimicrobial agent. Antimicrobial is substance
that can kill/ inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.
One of the plants that have been used in society is Jatropha curcas L. Jatropha
curcas belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae, Jatropha genus (Backer and Brink,
1965). Jatropha curcas L. is a plant that
has been cultivated for a long time ago in
worldwide. Natural compound of Jatropha
shows bioactive activity for fever, mouth
infection, jaundice, and rheumatic joints
(Aiyelaagbe et al., 2007). Extracts from
various parts of Jatropha curcas such as
seeds, seed oil, stem barks, roots and leaves Figure II. Jatropha curcas Linn.
have shown fungicidal (Nwosu and Okafor,
1995; Saetae and Worapot, 2010) and bactericidal properties (Igbinosa et al., 2009).
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Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and flavonoids of active compounds are
known to have activity against several pathogens (Hassan, et al., 2004).
The hypothesis in this review is methanol extract of Jatropha curcas L. root has
antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the hypothesis, so the
objective of this review aimed to determine antibacterial activity methanol extract of
Jatropha curcas L. root against Staphylococcus aureus based on research that has
been published.

B. Method

This study used Systematic Review method with descriptive design. This study
is made in March until May 2016.
1. Searching Method
a. The strategy of article searching is based on PICO analysis.
Table I. PICO Assessment
PICO Data

Problem Antibacterial

Intervention Methanol extract of Jatropha curcas L. root

Comparation Placebo

Antibacterial activity methanol extract of Jatropha


Outcome
curcas L. root against S. aureus

b. Keyword: antibacterial activity, Jatropha curcas L., root, methanol extract,


Staphylococcus aureus.
c. Reference Address
The library resources on this research use the database of Google and Google
Scholar from the period of 2006 until 2016.
2. Reference Selection Method
Literature studies are selected become inclusion and exclusion criteria, namely:
a. Inclusion Criteria:
1) The article in English
2) Published in 2006 - 2016
3) Full-text article
4) The species used is Jatropha curcas L.

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5) Using methanol extract of Jatropha curcas L. root
6) Studied use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria
b. Exclusion Criteria:
1) Incomplete publication
2) Not as an antibacterial effect
3) There is no MIC values and clear zone
3. Data Extraction
Result of data extraction from reference obtained as follows (Table II).
Table II. Search Result Data
Number of Article
Reference Search Result
Received
Google 5440 3

www.scholar.google.com 325 2

From some result of the research was found, then obtained some article selected
that are (Table III).
Table III. Result of Article Selected
Tittle, Author, Year

Phytochemical Compound and Antibacterial Activity of Jatropha curcas Linn.


Extract
A. Namuli, N. Abdullah, C. C. Sieo, S. W. Zuhainis & E. Oskoueian (2011)

Comparative In Vitro Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Evaluation Methanolic Extract


of Root, Stem and Leaf of Jatropha curcas Linn.
Amit Kumar Sharma, Mayank Gangwar, Regini Tilak, Gopal Nath, et al. (2012)

Antimicrobial Potential of Methanolic Extract and Various Fractions of Jatropha curcas


Root
Sidrah Anwar, Muhammad Zubair, Umer Rashid, Komal Rizwan, et al. (2013)

4. Processing and Data Assessment


After extraction of the data, then the data obtained will be described in the form
of tables and views the lowest and highest average.

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C. Result

Table IV. Result


No Tittle Type Author & Result
Year
1. Phytochemical Primer Namuli, et Methanol extract of Jatropha
Compound and al., 2011 curcas L. root showed
Antibacterial antibacterial activity against S.
Activity of Jatropha aureus with the lowest MIC
curcas Linn. Extract 2,3 mg/ml and clear zone 14
mm
2. Comparative In Vitro Primer Sharma, et Methanol extract of Jatropha
Antimicrobial and al., 2012 curcas L. root showed good
Phytochemical antimicrobial activity against
Evaluation Methanolic S. aureus by providing clear
Extract of Root, Stem
zone 11 0,24 mm and the
and Leaf of Jatropha
MIC value 6,25 mg/ml.
curcas Linn.

3. Antimicrobial Primer Anwar et al., Methanol extract of Jatropha


Potential of 2013 curcas L. root showed
Methanolic Extract antibacterial activity with the
and Various Fractions clear zone sebesar 29,6 0,23
of Jatropha curcas mm and the lowest MIC value
Root 30,8 2,50 mg/ml.

D. Discussion

This Systematic Review is to discuss about antibacterial activity methanol


extract of Jatropha curcas L. root against Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial
activity tested by diffusion method with agar media and dilution method for
measuring MIC. The minimum inhibitory zone was measured after incubation for 24
hours in temperature 37C to see the antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of
Jatropha curcas root against Staphylococcus aureus have been studied and is known
as an antibacterial activity.
This is a table result of review article methanol extract of Jatropha curcas root
against Staphylococcus aureus can be seen in Table V.

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Table V. Result Data Review Article
Minimum Inhibition Concentration Minimum Inhibitory Zone
Article
(MIC) (Clear Zone)

1 2,3 mg/ml 14 mm

2 6,25 mg/ml 110,24 mm

3 30,82,50 mg/ml 290,23 mm

Based the result on Table V, it is result indicated that methanol extract of


Jatropha curcas L. root shows significant antibacterial activity against
Staphylococcus aureus, that is related the highest phenolic and flavonoid compounds
on methanol extract of Jatropha curcas L. root. This is because methanol is a solvent
that is more polar than other, so it can dissolve phenolic and flavonoid compound
(Vaquero, et al., 2007).
The mechanism of phenolic compounds as antimicrobial agents is by
protoplasmic poison, broke and penetrate the cell wall, as well as precipitate of
microbial cell protein. Phenol components also can denature the enzymes responsible
as the germination of spores or affect the amino acids involved in the process of
germination. Flavonoids have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity with a
reduced immune response in the target organism (Naidu, 2000). In addition, based on
the studies, it is said that gram positive bacteria are more susceptible towards plants
extracts as compared to gram negative because the cell wall in gram-positive bacteria
is of single layer, whereas the gram negative cell wall has a multilayered structure, so
the active compound through the gram negative cell wall may be inhibited (Sharma, et
al., 2012).
Based on the data on Table V, it is so obvious that there is no correlation
between the MIC values with the minimum inhibitory zone. It can be caused by some
factor that can influence the inhibition of methanol extract of Jatropha curcas L. root
against Staphylococcus aureus, in addition to MIC some factors that can influence
antimicrobial activity are solvent, extraction method, the origin of plants, and the
concentration used (Obasi et. al., 2011). In addition, the factors that may affect are the
level of sensitivity of bacteria and the different strain of Staphylococcus aureus are
used, so the standardization of simplisia is needed to minimize the factors that affect
the result.

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E. Conclusion

Based on a review article showed that methanol extract of Jatropha curcas L.


root has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, so it has potential as
antimicrobial source from plant. MIC values showed no correlation with the minimum
inhibitory zone, it caused by some factors that influence so need to standardization of
simplisia.

F. Reference

Aiyelaagbe, O.O., Adeniyi, B.A., Fatunsin, O.F. and Arimah, B.D. (2007). In-vitro
antimicrobial activity and photochemical analysis of Jatropha curcas roots.
Intern. J. Pharmacol., 3(1): 106-110.
Anwar, S., Muhamad, Z., Rashis, U., et. al. (2013). Antimicrobial Potential of
Methanolic Extract and Various Fractions of Jatropha curcas Roots. Asian
Journal of Chemistry. Volume 25: 7477-7480.
Backer, A and Van Den Brink, B. (1965, Flora of Java (Spermatophytes Only).
Volume I. N.V.P. The Nederlands. Noordhoff-Groningen.
Hassan MM, Oyewale AO, Amupitan JO, Abduallahi MS, Okonkwo EM. Preliminary
phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of crude extracts of the root bark
of Detarium microcarpum, J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria. 2004; 29:26-29
Igbinosa, O.O., Igbinosa, E.O. and Aiyegoro, O.A. (2009). Antimicrobial activity and
phytochemical screening of stem bark extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn).
African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 3(2): 58-62.
Jawetz, E., J.L. Melnick., E.A. Adelberg., G.F. Brooks., J.S. Butel., dan L.N. Ornston.
1995. Mikrobiologi Kedokteran. Edisi ke-20 (Alih bahasa : Nugroho &
R.F.Maulany). Jakarta : Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC. hal. 211,213,215.
Karaman, I., Sahin, P., Gulluce, M., Oguten, H., Songul, M. and Adiguzed, A. (2003).
Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus
L. J Ethanopharmacol., 2837: 1-5.
Naidu, A. S. 2000. Natural Food Antimicrobial System. CRC Press, USA.
Namuli A, Abdullah N, Sieo CC, Zuhainis SW, Oskoueian E. (2011). Phytochemical
compounds and antibacterial activity of J. curcas L. extracts. J. Med. Plants
Res., 5: 3982-3990.
Nwosu, M.O. and Okafor, J.I. (1995). Preliminary studies of the antifungal activities
of some medicinal plants against Basidiobolus and some other pathogenic fungi.
Mycoses, 38: 191-195.
Obasi, N.L., Madus, P., Ejikeme., Cemaluk A.C., Egbuonu. 2011. Antimicrobial and
phytochemical activity of methanolic extract and its fractions of Jatropha curcas
Linn (Eurphorbiaceae) stem bark. African Journal of Pure and Applied
Chemistry. 5(5) : 92-96. ISSN 1996 0840.
Saetae, D. and Worapot, S. (2010). Antifungal Activities of Ethanolic Extract from
Jatropha curcas Seed Cake. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 20 (2): 319-324.
Sharma, A.K., Gangwar, M., Tilak, R., et. al. 2012. Comparative In Vitro Antimicrobial
and Phytochemical Evaluation Methanolic Extract of Root, Stem and Leaf of Jatropha
curcas Linn. Pharmacognosy Journal. Volume 4. Issue 30.
Vaquero MJR, Alberto MR, Nadra MCM (2007). Antibacterial effect of phenolic
compounds from different wines. Food Control, 18: 93-101

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WHO. 2002. Traditional medicine growing needs and potential. WHO policy
perspective on medicines. World Health Organization. Geneva. 1-6.