You are on page 1of 10

See

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265089089

Design of 20 m Deep Excavation with


Permanent Anchored Secant Bored Pile Wall
(SBPW) and Contiguous Bored Pile...

Conference Paper May 2014


DOI: 10.13140/2.1.2959.5520

CITATIONS READS

0 1,504

1 author:

Ozgen Kokten
Gazi University
3 PUBLICATIONS 0 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

All content following this page was uploaded by Ozgen Kokten on 28 August 2014.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.


Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2014 Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguau, Brazil.

Design of 20 m Deep Excavation with Permanent Anchored


Secant Bored Pile Wall (SBPW) and Contiguous Bored Pile
Wall (CBPW) as Retaining Structure of Cut and Cover Tunnel

O. Kokten
Temelsu International Engineering Services Inc. , Ankara, Turkey.
G. Gungor, S. Kiziroglu, A. Sirin, S. Kucukaslan
General Directorate of Turkish Highways, Ankara, Turkey

ABSTRACT: Deep excavations are common for tunnel constructions in urban areas nearby existing
structures. In this paper, design of deep excavation of cut and cover tunnel for Portal of dual tube
Konak Tunnel in the Konak Square in zmir, is presented. The maximum height of excavation is
20 m. At the right side of excavation section with maximum height, adjacent 5 storey masonry
museum building is located. For the staged excavation of cut and cover tunnel structure, secant bored
pile walls (SBPW), contiguous bored pile walls (CBPW) with and reinforced concrete deck (RCD)
are designed as components of portal structure. Jet grout columns are designed at excavation
basement level and under nearby museum building foundation. According the analysis results,
stability of cut and cover tunnel, displacements closed the excavation, internal forces in retaining
structures and settlements under nearby structure foundations are computed and checked with
acceptable limits in design state.

1 INTRODUCTION against heave and under nearby structure


foundation against settlements.
The design of deep excavation of cut and cover
tunnel for Portal of Konak Tunnel in the Konak
Square in zmir, is presented. Nowadays the
excavations of cut and cover tunnel has been
started. The cut and cover excavation area is
approximately 60m x 42m and is shown in
Figure 1. The maximum height of the critical
excavation section is 20 m.
At the right side of excavation section with
maximum height, adjacent 5 storey masonry
museum building is located and shown in Fig 2.
The groundwater level has been observed in
excavation area under ground surface.
For the staged excavation of cut and cover
tunnel structure, 1000 mm diameter secant
bored pile (SBPW) walls are designed at outside
boundary of excavation. At the inner side 1200
mm diameter contiguous bored piles (CBP) with
center to center spacing of 1600 mm and
reinforced concrete deck are designed as
components of portal structure.
SBPW and CBPW are supported with
permanent soil anchors. Before the start of the
excavation, jet grout columns are designed at Figure 1.Cut and cover structure plan, secant and bored
excavation basement level for the stability piles application plan
1
Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2014 Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguau, Brazil.

The stability of cut and cover tunnel, The clay deposits range in consistency from a
displacements closed the excavation, internal medium stiff to stiff and corresponding
forces in retaining walls and settlements under undrained shear strengths from UU tests, su=
nearby structure foundations are computed with 45kPa to 163kPa, respectively. The clays are
using PLAXIS 2D, MIDAS 3D and SAP2000 lightly over consolidated, but no consolidation
finite element simulations. tests were performed for this project. In the
longitudinal profile of excavation plan and in
some cross sections, sand and gravel layers
were found, lying between clay and rock layers.
These sand and gravel layers contain
pressured water and they have relatively high
permeability values, k = 1.2 m/day according to
index properties with literature assessments.
The blocky, gravelly sand layers were classified
as very dense layers based on SPT data.
Groundwater conditions were measured by a
series of piezometers, within the underlying
sands, till and rock layers and all borehole
observations. These data consistently confirm
the groundwater observation at below the
ground surface level.
The masonry museum building, immediately
adjacent to connection of the east piled wall row
Figure 2.Excavation Area and the beginning of excavation tunnel as
shown in Figure 3. Museum building is founded
1.1 Site description on uncontrolled fill overlying clay layer without
any areal mat or strip foundation. The building
is founded on separate under column and wall
The original site investigation comprised a se- footings.
ries of 14 deep borings is opened within the ex-
cavation area and footprint of the existing mu-
seum building. In-Stu tests were performed both
conventional SPT blow count and pressuremeter
test. There was a limited program of laboratory
tests (index properties, water content and UU
strength testing in the clay, and particle size dis-
tributions for the granular layers) while perme-
ability properties were reported from lugeon
tests.
Figure 4 summarizes the soil profiles, lateral
earth support systems and ground improvements
for the most critical excavation cross-sections
included existing masonry museum building.
The subsurface profile comprises 1m - 2m of
uncontrolled fill material overlying the medium
stiff and stiff clay layer on sedimentary clay-
stone, sandstone and siltstone bedrock layer.
The bedrock was described as very weak to Figure 3.Museum Building
weak, completely to slightly weathered rock ac-
cording to pressuremeter test results, net limit So this foundation is unexpected to distribute
pressures PL*=8.3-38.5 kg/cm2 for very weak the ground movements and hence, is most likely
PL*=15.4-61.1 kg/cm2 for weak rock. RQD to suffer serious damage during excavation to
values of rock varies between RQD = 0% - 64% building.
2
Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2014 Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguau, Brazil.

1.2 Ground improvements

Changes in groundwater level that can lead the


unexpected effective stress increments and it
could be the result of unwanted consolidation
settlements under masonry museum building
founded on uncontrolled fill and underlying clay
layer and the surrounding other structures foun-
dation.
For the purposes of prevention in changes
groundwater level under museum building and
surrounding structures foundation in the city
center, 80 cm diameter and 10 cm overlap inter-
secting with 5m and 7m thick jet grout columns
was designed at the base elevation of excavation
shown in Figure 4.
Whereby the movement of ground water and
Figure 4.Idealized soil profile, support system and ground
the possibility of basement heave were pre- improvements
vented against excavations under ground water
level. The tieback anchors were also specified with
Another in a useful of jet grout columns in zero tolerance against water leakage in order
excavation basement level is to behave such an protects the steel tendons from long term corro-
embedded pressure element (strut) and to pre- sion problems according to FHWA-IF-99-015,
vent the base deformation of wall elements, 1999 and CIRIA C580, 2003.
possibility of kick of failure of system and the Each anchor was inclined at 20 with mini-
close the frame structure with reinforced con- mum fixed anchor lengths of 10m in the bond
crete top deck. soil and weak rock zone. Horizontal spacing of
For the purposes of increasing shear strength the anchors ranged from 0.80m to 1.6m and
of museum building foundation soil and to pre- each tendon comprised from 3 strands of 1.5cm
venting displacements can be caused by excava- diameter high tensile strength steel. The vertical
tions soil improvement was designed with con- distances of anchors are 2m.
solidation and jet grouting. The lock-off loads for each level of anchors
around the excavation is designed as 35 tons. It
1.3 Lateral earth support system and ground should be noted that the two levels of anchors
improvements just below and above the reinforced deck are
most critical levels and in this region the an-
chors horizontal distance is designed as 0.8m.
For the permanent lateral earth support system
of cut and cover tunnel, 1000 mm diameter
secant bored pile walls (SBPW) are designed at 1.4 Measurement program for excavation
outside boundary of excavation.
At the inner side 1200 mm diameter
contiguous bored piles walls (CBPW) with The excavation performance of Konak Tunnel
center to center spacing of 1600 mm and cut and covers structure all excavation sections
reinforced concrete deck are designed as will be monitored by topographic measure
components of portal structure. points and tilt meters of museum building set-
In most critical excavation section, walls are tlements.
supported with ten levels of post grouted soil The deflections of SBPW and CBPW will be
anchors was designed to resist the lateral earth monitored by readings from a series of incli-
and pore water pressures, seismic loads and nometers. The pore water pressures in soil and
surcharge loads from construction equipment weathered rock and ground water level changes
and adjacent structures. during excavations will be monitored by vibrat-
3
Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2014 Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguau, Brazil.

ing wire piezometers. Axial forces in the post


grouted pre-tensioned anchors will be monitored
by load cells in all anchor levels.

1.5 Finite element simulations and model


parameters

A series of finite element simulations have been


carried out to obtain better insight into the per- Figure 6.PLAXIS 2D finite element model at 14th. stage
formance of the excavation support system for
the Konak Tunnel cut&cover structure excava-
tion.
The deformation calculations and the per-
formance of lateral support systems and defor-
mation based calculations have been carried out
with all using the plane strain models in
PLAXIS 2D and 3-D continuum models in
MIDAS 3D finite element package programs.
The large number of prepared finite element
2D and 3D models for excavation cross sections Figure 7.PLAXIS 2D finite element model at 30th. final
representing the behavior of all sides of the ex- stage
cavations.
The other interesting point in this project de-
sign stage, modeling the structural behavior of
SBPW, CBPW and RCD frame system. Be-
cause the structural modeling of adjacent SBPW
and CBPW piles is required to define imaginary
constrained elements to interface surfaces of
walls in numerical models. In this way it is pos-
sible to catch real bending behavior of both pile
walls together.
For this purpose the structural design of rein-
forced concrete SBPW, CBPW and deck was
designed with using SAP 2000 finite element
models.
Figure 8.MIDAS 3D finite element model
The finite element model representing the be-
havior of lateral support systems and defining
the displacement levels that will occur due to
excavation is given below in Figure 5., Figure
6., Figure 7., Figure 8. and Figure 9. The staged
construction modeling of excavation was model
in more than 30 stages in PLAXIS 2D and MI-
DAS 3D.

Figure 5.PLAXIS 2D finite element model Figure 9.MIDAS 3D finite element model
4
Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2014 Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguau, Brazil.

The excavation in Konak Tunnel cut and Soil deformation parameters and shear
cover tunnel have been started recently. The re- strength properties was selected according to
cent construction stages are shown in Figure index properties and UU test results from bore-
10., Figure11. and Figure 12. below. holes samples, pressuremeter test results and lit-
erature survey of similar site properties.
Each of the soil layers have been simulated
using the Mohr Coulomb model due to lack of
parameters for hardening soil model. The stress
and strain relations of Mohr Cloumb model is
given below in Figure 13. and Figure 14.

Figure 10.Excavations under cut and cover structure

Figure 13.Yield surface in principal stress space in


Mohr Cloumb model

Figure 14.Elastic, perfectly plastic Mohr Coulomb


model
Figure 11.Excavations under cut and cover structure
For clay layer undrained behavior was de-
fined in PLAXIS with Undarained-B loading for
using UU test results in analyses. The stress
path is given below in Figure 15. for Undrained-
B loading in PLAXIS 2D.

Figure 12.Excavations under cut and cover structure Figure 15.Undrained-B loading in PLAXIS 2D
5
Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2014 Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguau, Brazil.

The shear strength and elastic properties is The model parameters were assumed in finite
characterized for very weak rock overlying element models is given below Table 1.
weak rock layer for drained loading condition
such an assuming dense sand layer. For weak Table 1.Model parameters in finite element models
rock layer shear strength properties was as- Very weak Weak
Parameter Clay
sessed from RMR rock classification system. rock rock
The drained elastic parameters for input were Material model M-C M-C M-C
Material loading Undrained- Drained Drained
defined from using the relation given by accord- type B Loading Loading Loading
ing to relation between over consolidation ratio Unit weight,
18 20 22
OCR, plasticity index and Eu/su by Duncan and kN/m3
Buchignani, 1976 in Figure 16. Saturated unit
20 21 23
weight, kN/m3
Drained
elasticity 30 35 250
modulus, MPa
Poisson ratio 0,38 0,35 0,30
Cohesion, kPa 40 5 200
Angle of
- 35 20
friction, o

The elasticity modulus of jet grout columns


were defined as Ejg=500 MPa by using table
given by Durgunoglu, 2004. The grid spacing of
jet grout columns was assessed for wanted elas-
ticity modulus for soilcrete elements by using
relation given by Saurer et all. 2011.

1.6 Finite element simulations results


Figure 16.Eus/su versus OCR
The initial settlement of museum building be-
The drained elasticity modulus is assessed fore the start of excavation was calculated as 3.5
with using Equation 1: cm given below in Figure 17. This back analysis
result value is consistent with the building in-
2(1 + ' ) vestigations. Also some differential settlement
Ed ' = Eu
3 cracks were observed on museum building walls
in site investigations.
where v is the drained poisson ratio and Ed is
the drained elasticity modulus.

The elasticity very weak rock layer is selected


from table given from Bowles. The elasticity
modulus of weak rock layer is defined by using
Equation 2: given by Hoek, Torres, Corkum,
2002.

D ci ((GSI 10 ) / 40 )
E m (GPa ) = 1 10
2 100

where ci is the uniaxial compressive strength of Figure 17.Initial settlements of museum building before
the start of excavations, PLAXIS 2D
rock sample, GSI is the geological strength in-
dex, D is the disturbance factor and Em is the The most critical level was the excavation
rock mass elasticity modulus. stage under reinforced concrete deck. This stage
6
Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2014 Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguau, Brazil.

is fourteenth stage of model and fourth anchors In the final stage of excavation the maximum
level of construction. In this level, maximum to- wall deflections of SBPW and CBPW walls was
tal displacements were obtained as 6.5 mm at calculated as 7.3 mm is shown in Figure 21.
nearest corner of foundation to excavation bor-
der is given in Figure 18.

Figure 21.Horizontal displacements of SBPW and CBPW


elements at final stage, tenth anchor level, PLAXIS 2D

Figure 18.Settlements of museum building at fourteenth According to the 3 dimensional Midas 3D


stage, fourth anchor level, PLAXIS 2D analysis results, at final stage the maximum to-
tal displacements were obtained as 1.3 cm at
In this stage of excavation the maximum wall under museum building foundation is given in
deflections of SBPW and CBPW walls was cal- Figure 22.
culated as 7.3 mm is shown in Figure 19.

Figure 19.Horizontal displacements of SBPW and CBPW


elements at fourteenth stage, fourth anchor level,
PLAXIS 2D Figure 22.Settlements of museum building at final stage,
tenth anchor level, Midas 3D
The final stage of excavation, maximum total
In the final stage of excavation the maximum
displacements were obtained as 1.0 cm at near-
wall deflections of SBPW and CBPW walls was
est corner of foundation to excavation border is
calculated as 7.1 mm is shown in Figure 23.
given in Figure 20.

Figure 20.Settlements of museum building at final stage, Figure 23.Horizontal displacements of SBPW and CBPW
tenth anchor level, PLAXIS 2D elements at final stage, tenth anchor level, MIDAS 3D
7
Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2014 Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguau, Brazil.

The structural model, obtained deformation Deep excavations for the Konak Tunnel cut
curve and bending moment diagram of cut and and cover structure were designed to support by
cover structure from SAP 2000 analyses is a permanent lateral earth support system com-
given below in Figure 24., Figure 25. and Figure prising a 1000 mm diameter SBPW and 1200
26. mm CBPW, reinforced concrete deck and up to
10 levels of prestressed postgrouted against
corssion protected soil anchors.
Before the start of excavation stages, the
ground improvements systems as a jet grout
columns and grouting was designed to prevent
and mitigate the changes in ground water level
and deformations.
According to analysis results, the lateral
Figure 24.SAP 2000 structural finite element model
earth support system was very successful in
controlling lateral wall movements of walls and
total displacements that may occurred under
museum building.
The 2D and 3D analysis results are in well
compliance. The results show that, at the final
stage of excavation the maximum wall deflec-
tion is about 7.3 and 7.1 mm. And under mu-
seum building the maximum total displacement
is 1 and 1.3 cm. These values show that the set-
tlements values of both wall and museum build-
ing foundation soils are with in expected and
Figure 25.Deformation curve in cut and cover structure, accaptable ranges.
SAP 2000 Analysis results also shows that, designing jet
grout columns under excavation basement layer
and soil improvement under museum building
prevent and mitigate the changes in groundwa-
ter level. The permanent pre-tensioned anchor
loads remain under design lock loads in all ex-
cavation stages. The reinforced concrete design
of walls and deck was made in reasonable lim-
its.
But it should be remembered that, these
analysis results is not confirmed from field in-
strumentation data. The excavation in Konak
Tunnel cut and cover tunnel have been started
recently. The analysis will be verified by the de-
Figure 26.Bending moments in cut and cover structure, tailed instrumentation results.
SAP 2000

REFERENCES
2 CONCLUSION
Bowles, J. E. ;.2005. Foundation Design and Analysis,
Konak Tunnel is one of the major transportation Fifth Edition, The Mc-Grawhill Company Inc.
projects in Turkey. The project area is located in CIRIA C580 ; 2003. Embedded Retaining Walls-
the city center of zmir. The adjacent buildings Guidance for Economic Design, London.
Hoek, E. ; Carranza, C. ;Torres & Corkum, B. 2002.
to excavation area, high groundwater level, traf- Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion-2002Edition. In:
fic density and the urgency of project are the Proceedings of the NARMS-TAC Conference on Soil
major difficulties. Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Toronto

8
Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress 2014 Tunnels for a better Life. Foz do Iguau, Brazil.

Holtz, R. D. ; Kovacs, W. D. ; Sheahan, T. C. 2011. An


Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering, Second
Edition, The Prentice Hall Company Inc.
Midas / GTS. 3D Finite Element Code, 2012. Getting
Starting Manual.
Midas / GTS. 3D Finite Element Code, 2012. Analysis
Case Manual.
Plaxis 2D Finite Element Code, 2012. Material Models,
Netherlands.
Plaxis 2D Finite Element Code, 2012. Reference Manual,
Netherlands.
Sauer, E. ; Marcher, Th., T.B. ; Lesnik, M. 2011. Grid
space optimization of jet grouting columns. In:
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil
Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.
Netherlands: IOS Press
Temelsu International Engineering Services Inc. 2012.
Konak Tunnel and Connection Road, Konak Portal
Geological Study Report . Ankara.
Temelsu International Engineering Services Inc. 2013.
Konak Tunnel and Connection Road, Konak Portal
Final Design Report . Ankara.
U.S.Department of Transportation Federal Highway
Administration;1999. Geotechnical Engineering
Circular No.4, Ground Anchors and Anchored
Systems, Washigton.

View publication stats