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Notes: 04

(Entry-2016)

Code: ME-121

Tutor: Khalid Masood Khan

Reversible Non-Flow Processes

1. Constant Volume

2. Constant Pressure

3. Constant Temperature

4. Adiabatic/Constant Entropy

5. Polytropic Process

1. Constant Volume Reversible Non-Flow Process

in a rigid vessel, hence the boundaries of the system are

immovable.

the process is zero unless specified, such as the paddle-wheel

work.

Non-flow energy equation, 2.2, gives

All the heat supplied in a constant volume process goes to increasing the

internal energy.

State 1 is in the wet region and state 2 is in the superheat region.

2. Constant Pressure Reversible Non-Flow Process

external resistance (load) as heat is supplied.

pressure process.

fluid, work is done on the surroundings by the fluid (system).

From equation 1.2

For constant

From the non-flow energy equation, 2.2,

For mass , it is

Figs-4.2a and 4.2b show the process respectively for a vapor and for a

perfect gas.

Note that in figs-4.2a and 4.2b, the shaded areas represent the work

done by the fluid, .

Example 4.1

Statement

the volume occupied is Calculate the heat supplied and the

work done:

a) when the fluid is steam, initially dry saturated;

b) when the fluid is air, initially at .

Solution

a) Before heating, the steam is dry saturated at 2 , i.e.

= 2 = 2707

0.0658

= = 1.316

0.05

enthalpy = 3072 .

= = = 0.05 3072 2707

The process is shown on a -diagram in fig-4.3. The work done is given by the shaded area;

i.e. = . At 2 , = = 0.8856 , and =

1.316 .

b) Equation 3.6 gives

2 10 0.0658

= = = 917

0.05 0.287 10

It is an instance of a perfect gas undergoing a constant pressure process. Equation 3.12 gives

= ( )

i. e. heat supplied = 0.05 1.005 917 403

where = 130 + 273 = 403

The process is shown on a -diagram in fig-4.4. Shaded area on this diagram is the work done, i.e.

= .

Equation 3.5 gives, = ,

i. e. work done by the mass of gas present = 0.05 0.287 514 = 7.38

3. Constant Temperature Reversible Non-Flow Process

called a constant temperature or an isothermal process.

energy must be added to it by means of heating continuously to keep

temperature at the initial value.

process for it to remain at constant temperature.

Fig-4.5 is a -diagram for a vapor undergoing an isothermal process.

A convenient way of evaluating energy supplied as heat is put off to when entropy will be

discussed as yet another system property.

However, once states 1 and 2 are fixed then the internal energies and may be

obtained from steam tables.

Work done is given by the shaded area on fig-4.5. It can only be evaluated by plotting the

process and measuring the area graphically or it can be evaluated (approximately exactly)

numerically by using some integration technique from numerical analysis.

Once heat flow is known then work can be obtained using non-flow energy equation 2.2,

Example 4.2

Statement

Steam at and dryness fraction expands in a cylinder behind a

piston isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of . Calculate the

change of internal energy and the change of enthalpy per of steam. The

heat supplied during the process is found to be . Calculate the

work done per of steam.

Solution

Fig-4.6 shows the -diagram for the process. The saturation temperature

corresponding to is . Therefore the steam is superheated at state 2.

Using equation 3.3, internal energy at state 1 is

Interpolating for from superheat tables at and ,

Therefore,

As for enthalpy,

From non-flow energy equation 2.2,

, are available. Therefore, it is possible to find the work done

during the expansion process, i.e.,

Work done is the shaded area on fig-4.6. The integral can only be

evaluated graphically or numerically.

Like in processes dealt with already, an isothermal process for a perfect gas

obeys laws that relate and other properties. For instance, equation

3.5,

In fig-4.7, the process line is solid (reversible) and it is a hyperbola.

The work done by a perfect gas in expanding from state 1 to state 2

isothermally and reversibly is given by the shaded area on fig-4.7.

Equation 1.2 gives

relation, , or ( .

Since , then

Or, for mass, , of the gas

work done is for unit mass of the gas,

Or, for mass, , of the gas

using perfect gas laws.

For a perfect gas, from Joules law, equation 3.16,

reduces to

perfect gas.

Quoting non-flow energy equation 2.2, , and using,

, in it then gives

perfect gas.

where ,

Example 4.3

Statement

of nitrogen (molar mass ) is compressed

reversibly and isothermally from , to .

Calculate the work done and the heat flow during the

process. Assume nitrogen to be a perfect gas.

Solution

When a process takes place from right to left

on a -diagram, the work is done on the fluid

(system) and therefore it is negative

by convention.

Equation 4.10 gives

4. Reversible Adiabatic Non-Flow Process

A system is said to have undergone an adiabatic process if energy by

means of heat transferred to or from the system, during the process, is

zero. The process can be either reversible or irreversible. A reversible

adiabatic process only will be discussed here.

relationship to

Equation 4.13 gives work done for any adiabatic process, reversible or

irreversible, in terms of change in system internal energy.

(equation 4.13) is positive for expansion (work done by the system),

negative for compression (work done on the system).

For a vapor (system/working fluid) undergoing a reversible adiabatic

(isentropic, i.e. ) process, is calculated by finding and from

steam tables.

For a perfect gas, the analysis (beginning with equation 2.3) is

Inserting values (equation 2.3), noting that the process is adiabatic

(i.e. )

Picking the LHS in equation , for further analysis, gives

Dividing through by (absolute temperature/thermodynamic temperature)

+ =0

log + log = constant

Now remove using the characteristic equation of state for a perfect gas, i.e. = ,

= 1

which on substitution gives

Now, substituting in equation

Therefore, states 1 and 2 can be related through the relationships obtained using

equations 4.16, 4.17 and 4.18, i.e. for a reversible adiabatic process between state

1 and state 2,

equation 4.16 gives

( )

( ) ( )

Equation 4.13 gives

Fig-4.9 shows, on a -diagram, the reversible adiabatic (isentropic)

process for a perfect gas. Shaded area is the work done which can be

evaluated by integration, i.e.

Therefore, since then

non-flow energy equation for an adiabatic process.

Example 4.4

Statement

of steam at and expands reversibly in a perfectly

thermally insulated cylinder behind a piston until the pressure is

and the steam is then dry saturated. Calculate the work done by the

steam.

Solution

From superheat tables at 100 and 375,

= 3017 / and = 0.02453

Since = (equation 2.7)

100 10 ( / ) (0.02453)( )

= 3017

10

Steam is finally dry saturated, i.e. = and pressure is 38 ; which gives,

from steam table (for saturated liquid/steam)

= 2602 /

Nature of process undergone by steam in the cylinder is ascertained by examining

the problem Statement which tells that the cylinder is perfectly thermally

insulated, i.e. the process is adiabatic.

Using equation 4.13 for work done,

= = (2771.7 2602)

= 169.7

Shaded area in Fig-4.10 represents the work done on a -diagram.

5. Reversible Polytropic Non-Flow Process

Some processes may not fit into any of the categories dealt with previously. Such

processes, both for vapors and for perfect gases, approximate to a reversible law

of the form , where is a constant.

Equation 4.24 is valid for any working substance undergoing a reversible

polytropic process.

Substituting in , gives

or

Writing ,

or

The reversible adiabatic process for a perfect gas is a particular case of a

polytropic process with the index, , equal to . Some other useful relationships

are

Equations 2.62.9 do not apply to a vapor, since these have been derived using

. Equation 4.24, , in terms of a temperature

difference is

For heat flow or energy flow as heat, to be more appropriate, during a polytropic

process, using non-flow energy equation 2.2,

Substituting from equation 3.21, gives

(W), i.e.

Example 4.5

Statement

Solution

Various processes considered previously are special cases of the polytropic

process for a perfect gas.

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