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University of Engineering and Technology Taxila

Mechanical Engineering Department

Notes: 04
(Entry-2016)

Course Title: THERMODYNAMICS-I


Code: ME-121
Tutor: Khalid Masood Khan
Reversible Non-Flow Processes

1. Constant Volume

2. Constant Pressure

3. Constant Temperature

4. Adiabatic/Constant Entropy

5. Polytropic Process
1. Constant Volume Reversible Non-Flow Process

In a constant volume process the working substance is contained


in a rigid vessel, hence the boundaries of the system are
immovable.

Therefore, constant volume implies that the work done during


the process is zero unless specified, such as the paddle-wheel
work.
Non-flow energy equation, 2.2, gives

Since no work is done, it gives

Or, for mass of the working substance


All the heat supplied in a constant volume process goes to increasing the
internal energy.

A constant volume process for a vapor is shown on a -diagram in fig-4.1a.


State 1 is in the wet region and state 2 is in the superheat region.

Fig-4.1b diagrams the same process for a perfect gas.

For a perfect gas, equation 3.13 gives


2. Constant Pressure Reversible Non-Flow Process

Unlike a constant volume process, the system boundary moves against an


external resistance (load) as heat is supplied.

A fluid in a cylinder behind a piston can be made to undergo a constant


pressure process.

As piston is pushed through a certain distance by the force exerted by the


fluid, work is done on the surroundings by the fluid (system).
From equation 1.2

For constant
From the non-flow energy equation, 2.2,

Therefore, for a reversible constant pressure process

Which, on substitution for enthalpy, gives

For mass , it is

For a perfect gas from equation 3.12,


Figs-4.2a and 4.2b show the process respectively for a vapor and for a
perfect gas.
Note that in figs-4.2a and 4.2b, the shaded areas represent the work
done by the fluid, .
Example 4.1

Statement

of a certain fluid is heated at a constant pressure of until


the volume occupied is Calculate the heat supplied and the
work done:
a) when the fluid is steam, initially dry saturated;
b) when the fluid is air, initially at .
Solution
a) Before heating, the steam is dry saturated at 2 , i.e.

= 2 = 2707

At the end of the heating process at 2


0.0658
= = 1.316
0.05

Using superheat tables, at 2 and 1.316 , temperature of steam is 300,


enthalpy = 3072 .

Using equation 4.4, for a reversible constant pressure process


= = = 0.05 3072 2707

i. e. heat supplied = 0.05 365 = 18.25

i. e. work done by 0.05 = 0.05 2 10 0.4304 10 = 4.304


The process is shown on a -diagram in fig-4.3. The work done is given by the shaded area;
i.e. = . At 2 , = = 0.8856 , and =
1.316 .

Inserting the values,

= 2 10 1.316 0.8856 = 2 10 0.4304

i. e. work done by 0.05 0.05 2 10 0.4304 10 4.304


b) Equation 3.6 gives
2 10 0.0658
= = = 917
0.05 0.287 10
It is an instance of a perfect gas undergoing a constant pressure process. Equation 3.12 gives
= ( )
i. e. heat supplied = 0.05 1.005 917 403
where = 130 + 273 = 403

i. e. heat supplied = 0.05 1.005 514 = 25.83

The process is shown on a -diagram in fig-4.4. Shaded area on this diagram is the work done, i.e.
= .
Equation 3.5 gives, = ,

work done = = 0.287 514

i. e. work done by the mass of gas present = 0.05 0.287 514 = 7.38
3. Constant Temperature Reversible Non-Flow Process

If temperature of the system remains constant during the process then it is


called a constant temperature or an isothermal process.

Expansion is a cooling process while compression raises temperature.

To keep the system at constant temperature in an expansion process,


energy must be added to it by means of heating continuously to keep
temperature at the initial value.

Similarly, energy is released by the system as heat during a compression


process for it to remain at constant temperature.
Fig-4.5 is a -diagram for a vapor undergoing an isothermal process.

A convenient way of evaluating energy supplied as heat is put off to when entropy will be
discussed as yet another system property.

However, once states 1 and 2 are fixed then the internal energies and may be
obtained from steam tables.

Work done is given by the shaded area on fig-4.5. It can only be evaluated by plotting the
process and measuring the area graphically or it can be evaluated (approximately exactly)
numerically by using some integration technique from numerical analysis.

Once heat flow is known then work can be obtained using non-flow energy equation 2.2,
Example 4.2

Statement
Steam at and dryness fraction expands in a cylinder behind a
piston isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of . Calculate the
change of internal energy and the change of enthalpy per of steam. The
heat supplied during the process is found to be . Calculate the
work done per of steam.
Solution
Fig-4.6 shows the -diagram for the process. The saturation temperature
corresponding to is . Therefore the steam is superheated at state 2.
Using equation 3.3, internal energy at state 1 is
Interpolating for from superheat tables at and ,

Therefore,
As for enthalpy,

Interpolating from superheat tables at ,


From non-flow energy equation 2.2,

Now, values for heat interaction, , and internal energy change,


, are available. Therefore, it is possible to find the work done
during the expansion process, i.e.,

Work done is the shaded area on fig-4.6. The integral can only be
evaluated graphically or numerically.
Like in processes dealt with already, an isothermal process for a perfect gas
obeys laws that relate and other properties. For instance, equation
3.5,

For an isothermal process,

Therefore for an isothermal process for a perfect gas


In fig-4.7, the process line is solid (reversible) and it is a hyperbola.
The work done by a perfect gas in expanding from state 1 to state 2
isothermally and reversibly is given by the shaded area on fig-4.7.
Equation 1.2 gives

The process line relates and in isothermal process through the


relation, , or ( .
Since , then

Substituting equation in equation 4.6,


Or, for mass, , of the gas

Substituting equation 3.5, , in equation 4.8, and noting that


work done is for unit mass of the gas,
Or, for mass, , of the gas

Clearly, a large number of equations for work done can be derived


using perfect gas laws.
For a perfect gas, from Joules law, equation 3.16,

Since for an isothermal process for a perfect gas, then equation


reduces to

i.e. internal energy remains constant in an isothermal process for a


perfect gas.
Quoting non-flow energy equation 2.2, , and using,
, in it then gives

i.e. heat flow is equivalent to work done in an isothermal process for a


perfect gas.

This conclusion is in contrast to that for steam (Example 4.2)


where ,
Example 4.3

Statement
of nitrogen (molar mass ) is compressed
reversibly and isothermally from , to .
Calculate the work done and the heat flow during the
process. Assume nitrogen to be a perfect gas.
Solution

For nitrogen, from equation 3.9,

Fig-4.8 shows the process on a -diagram.


When a process takes place from right to left
on a -diagram, the work is done on the fluid
(system) and therefore it is negative
by convention.
Equation 4.10 gives
4. Reversible Adiabatic Non-Flow Process
A system is said to have undergone an adiabatic process if energy by
means of heat transferred to or from the system, during the process, is
zero. The process can be either reversible or irreversible. A reversible
adiabatic process only will be discussed here.

Equation 2.2, i.e., energy equation for control mass, gives

Applying adiabatic process condition reduces the above


relationship to
Equation 4.13 gives work done for any adiabatic process, reversible or
irreversible, in terms of change in system internal energy.
(equation 4.13) is positive for expansion (work done by the system),
negative for compression (work done on the system).
For a vapor (system/working fluid) undergoing a reversible adiabatic
(isentropic, i.e. ) process, is calculated by finding and from
steam tables.
For a perfect gas, the analysis (beginning with equation 2.3) is

and (equation 1.1)


Inserting values (equation 2.3), noting that the process is adiabatic
(i.e. )

since , differentiating it then gives

which on substitution, in equation 4.14, gives


Picking the LHS in equation , for further analysis, gives

Joules law, for a perfect gas with a constant is (equation 3.14)

which on differentiation gives

inserting it in equation then gives


Dividing through by (absolute temperature/thermodynamic temperature)

+ =0

and integrating gives


log + log = constant
Now remove using the characteristic equation of state for a perfect gas, i.e. = ,

log + log = constant

Dividing through by then gives

log + log = constant

and, from equation 3.21,

= 1
which on substitution gives
Now, substituting in equation

Also, substituting in equation


Therefore, states 1 and 2 can be related through the relationships obtained using
equations 4.16, 4.17 and 4.18, i.e. for a reversible adiabatic process between state
1 and state 2,
equation 4.16 gives

equation 4.17 gives

equation 4.18 gives


( )

( ) ( )
Equation 4.13 gives

and equation 3.16 gives

also, from equation 3.21,

which, on substitution, gives

Using equation 3.5,


Fig-4.9 shows, on a -diagram, the reversible adiabatic (isentropic)
process for a perfect gas. Shaded area is the work done which can be
evaluated by integration, i.e.
Therefore, since then

This is equation 4.23 previously obtained through analysis using the


non-flow energy equation for an adiabatic process.
Example 4.4

Statement
of steam at and expands reversibly in a perfectly
thermally insulated cylinder behind a piston until the pressure is
and the steam is then dry saturated. Calculate the work done by the
steam.
Solution
From superheat tables at 100 and 375,
= 3017 / and = 0.02453
Since = (equation 2.7)
100 10 ( / ) (0.02453)( )
= 3017
10
Steam is finally dry saturated, i.e. = and pressure is 38 ; which gives,
from steam table (for saturated liquid/steam)
= 2602 /
Nature of process undergone by steam in the cylinder is ascertained by examining
the problem Statement which tells that the cylinder is perfectly thermally
insulated, i.e. the process is adiabatic.
Using equation 4.13 for work done,
= = (2771.7 2602)
= 169.7
Shaded area in Fig-4.10 represents the work done on a -diagram.
5. Reversible Polytropic Non-Flow Process
Some processes may not fit into any of the categories dealt with previously. Such
processes, both for vapors and for perfect gases, approximate to a reversible law
of the form , where is a constant.

In (equation 1.2), inserting , and using , gives


Equation 4.24 is valid for any working substance undergoing a reversible
polytropic process.

Another useful relation is


Substituting in , gives

or

Writing ,

or


The reversible adiabatic process for a perfect gas is a particular case of a
polytropic process with the index, , equal to . Some other useful relationships
are


Equations 2.62.9 do not apply to a vapor, since these have been derived using
. Equation 4.24, , in terms of a temperature
difference is

For heat flow or energy flow as heat, to be more appropriate, during a polytropic
process, using non-flow energy equation 2.2,
Substituting from equation 3.21, gives

Now on the RHS is the work done per unit mass


(W), i.e.
Example 4.5
Statement
Solution
Various processes considered previously are special cases of the polytropic
process for a perfect gas.
For example:

Fig-4.13, next, illustrates these cases on a -diadram.