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SECOND EDITION

English for Today's World

WITH WORKBOOK

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Language
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Joan Saslow Allen Ascher


Pronunciation Booster
by Bertha Chela-Flores

ALWAYS LEARNING PEARSON


Contents CR
Language
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Learning Objectives for 1A and 1B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv


To the Teacher .... . ....... . . . ......... . .. . . . .. . ... . ...... . ....... . . v iii
About Your ActiveBook Self-Study Disc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

UNIT 1 New Perspectives.. . .. . .... . . . .. ....... . ..... . ...... . . . ... . 2


UNIT 2 Musical Moods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
UNIT 3 Money Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
UNIT 4 Looking Good ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
UNIT S Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

APPENDICES FOR 1A AND 1B


Pronunciation table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2
Irregular verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A2
Stative verbs .. . . . . .. .. . .... . .. . .. . .... . ..... . ...................... A3
Verbs followed by a gerund. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A3
Expressions that can be followed by a gerund . .. ......... .. ... . . . . .. A3
Verbs followed directly by an infinitive . . . ....... . .... . .. . .. . . . . .. ... A4
Verbs followed by an object before an infinitive ..... ......... . .. . ... A4
Adjectives followed by an infinitive .............. . .... .......... . ... A4
Verbs that can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive .. . ..... . .... . A4
Participial adjectives . .. . ... . . .. .. . .. .. .... . . .... . .... . .. . .. . .. . . . ... A4
Grammar Booster .. . ... . ..... . .. .. .... . . .. . ... . ... . . . .. . .. .. . .. . Gl
Pronunciation Booster ........... . . .. . .... . ...... . . . .. ... .. .. .. Pl

WORKBOOK
UNIT 1 . . . .. . . ... .. . .............. . .. . ....... . . . .. . .. . .. . . . .. . .. Wl
UNIT 2 .. .. .. . ... . . . . . . . .. . .. ... ... .. . ....... . . . ..... . ....... . Wl O
UNIT 3 W21
UNIT 4 W3 1
UNIT S W39
About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . last page

iii
Learning Objectives
Unit CommGuni,cation Vocabulary Grammar
oa s
Suggest ways to enjoy life Personality types Gerunds and infinitives: changes
l more
Describe people's personalities
Compare perspectives on life
Word Skill:
Classifying by positive and
in meaning

New Share a life-changing


negative meaning
Gerunds and infinitives: summary
Perspectives experience Grammar for Writing:
page 2 parallelism with gerunds and
infinitives

Describe the music you listen to Elements of music The present perfect and the

2 Explain the role of music in


your life
Describe a creative person
Describing creative
personalities
present perfect continuous:
finished and unfinished actions
Noun clauses
Musical Discuss the benefits of music
Word Skill:
Using participial adjectives
Moods
page 14
summary
The past perfect continuous
Grammar for Writing: noun
clauses as adjective and noun
complements

Talk about your financial goals Expressing buyer's remorse Future plans and finished future
3

Express buyer's remorse
Describe your spending habits
Describing spending habits
Charity and investment
actions
The past unreal conditional:
inverted form
Money Discuss reasons for charitable
giving
Matters
page 26 The future continuous
The future perfect continuous

Discuss appropriate dress Describing fashion and style Quantifiers


4 Comment on fashion and style
Evaluate ways to change one's
Word Skill:
Using the prefix self-
Looking appearance
Discuss appearance and
Quantifiers: review
~and ~ ~and !it!!.e
Good self-esteem Using Qf
page 38 Without referents
Grammar for Writing:
subject-verb agreement with
quantifiers with Qf

s
Community
Politely ask someone not to do
something
Complain about public
conduct
Ways to soften an objection
Ways to perform community
service
Word Sklll:
Possessives with gerunds
Paired conjunctions

Discuss social responsibility Using negative prefixes to Conjunctions with ~ !QQ,


page SO Identify urban problems form antonyms neither or not either
~ !QQ, ~ or not either:
short responses

iv
Conversation
. Listening/
p ronunc1at10n
. . R
ead"mg w r1tmg
St ra t eg1es
Use~ to soften a . Listening Skllls: Texts: Task:
negative response Infer point of view A magazine article about Describe personality
Use I wonder to elicit an Listen for main ideas finding balance in life types
opinion politely Understand from context A magazine article about Writing Sklll:
Use You know to indicate that optimism vs. pessimism Paragraph structure:
you are about to offer advice A survey about perspectives review
or a suggestion on life
Skllls/strategies:
Relate to personal experience
Identify supporting details

Use SQ to indicate a desire to Listening Skills: Texts: Task:


begin a conversation Listen to activate vocabulary Brief CD reviews from a Describe yourself
Confirm information with right? Listen for main ideas website Writing Skill:
Use You know to introduce Listen for supporting details Interviews: the role of music in Parallel structure
information and be less abrupt one's life
Begin answers with Well to A biography of Ludwig van
introduce an opinion Beethoven
Skills/ strategies:
Make personal comparisons
Activate language from a text

Use ~ to indicate enthusiasm Listening Skills: Texts: Task:


Use to tell you the truth to Infer reasons Financial tips from a Explain your financial
introduce an unexpected Listen for main ideas newspaper goals
assertion Listen for details Interviews: financial goals Writing Sklll:
Ask What do you mean? A magazine article about Paul Sequencing events:
to clarify Newman's philanthropy review
Agree informally with Skills/strategies:
You're telling me Make personal comparisons
Express and support an
opinion

Use Can you believe to Listening Skills: Texts: Task:


indicate disapproval Infer information A newspaper article about Compare two
Use Don't you think to Listen to activate vocabulary casual dress at work people's tastes in
promote consensus Listen to summarize A magazine article about how fashion
Begin a response with Well to Express and support an opinion the media affects Writing Skill:
convey polite disagreement or self-image Compare and
reservation Skllls/strategles: contrast: review
Stress the main verb to Examine cultural expectations
acknowledge o nly partial Identify supporting details
agreement Apply ideas

Use Do you mind to express Listening Skllls: Texts: Task:


concern that an intended Listen to summarize A graph depicting world Complain about a
action may offend Listen for details population changes problem
Use fil1l.@!!y to object politely Critical thinking Interviews: pet peeves about Writing Sklll:
Use expressions such as ~ public conduct Formal letters: review
that's not a problem to soften An interview about
an objection "megacities"
Say Not at all to indicate a Skills/strategies:
willingness to comply Interpret data from a graph
Express your ideas
Confirm content
Understand from context
Infer information

v
.
Umt
Communication
Goals Vocabulary Grammar
I
Exchange opinions about the Ways animals a re used or The passive voice with modals
6 treatment of animals
Discuss the benefits of
t reated
Describing pets
Animals certain pets
Compare animal characters
Describing character t raits
expressions: summary
page 62 Debate the value of animal
conservation

Give sho pping advice Describing low prices and Passive forms of gerunds and
7 Discuss your reactions to ads
Persuade someone to buy a
p roduct
high prices
Shopping expressions
Ways to persuade
infinitives

Advertising Describe consumer shopping Grammar fo r Writing: past


and habits forms of gerunds and infinitives
Consumers
page 74

Describe family trends Examples of bad behavior Repeated comparatives and


B

Discuss parent I teen issues
Compare generations
Describing parent and teen
behavior
double comparatives

Family Describe care for the elderly Word Sklll:


Transforming verbs and Making comparisons: summary
Trends adjectives into nouns Other uses of comparatives,
page 86 superlatives, and comparisons
with M . . . fil

Speculate about the Ways to say "I don't know" Indirect speech with modals
9 out-of-the-ordinary
Present a theory about a
Ways to express certainty
Word Sklll:
Pe rfect modals in the passive
voice for speculating about
History's past event
Discuss how believable a
Using ad jectives with the the past
suffix -able
Mysteries story is
Evaluate the trustworthiness ~ filk. and !fill: summary
page 98 of news sources Grammar fo r Writing: other
reporting verbs

Explain t he benefits of leisure Ways to express fear and Order of modifiers


10 activities
Describe hobbies and other
fearlessness
Word Skills:
Your Free interests
Compare your use of leisure
Using collocations for leisure
activities Intensifiers
Time time Modifying with adverbs
Discuss t he risk-taking
page 110 personality

Pronunciation table I Irregular verbs ------------------ page A2


Stative verbs I Verbs followed by a gerund I Expressions that can be followed by a gerund ............. page A3
Verbs followed directly by an infinitive I Verbs followed by an object before an infinitive ................ page A4
Adjectives followed by an infinitive ............................... -- page A4

vi
Conversation
. p Listening/
. . Rea d .mg w r1tmg
S trate91es ronunc1at1on
Use I've heard to introduce a Listening Skills: Texts: Task:
statement of popular opinion Listen to activate vocabulary The Chinese Zodiac Express an opinion
Use for one thing to provide Express and support an opinion A discussion board about the on animal treatment
one reason among several in Draw conclusions humane treatment of animal.s Writing Skill:
supporting an argument Make comparisons An article about animal Persuasion
Use believe it or not conservation
to introduce surprising Skills/strategies:
information Evaluate ideas
Understand from context
Critical thinking

Soften a wish or a statement of Listening Skills: Texts: Task:


intent with I think I'd like to Listen to activate vocabulary Interviews: reactions to ads Explain an article
Respond with nothing in Support reasoning with details A presentation of eight you read
particular to indicate indecision Apply ideas advertising techniques Writing Skill:
or avoid commitment A magazine article about Summarize and
Make a suggestion by saying compulsive shopping paraphrase another
something would be a good bet Skills/strategies: person's ideas
Say Of course to make an Understand from context
affirmative answer stronger Infer information
Relate to personal experience

Use I hate to say it. but Listening Skills: Texts: Task:


to introduce unwelcome Listen to apply grammar A brochure about falling Describe your
information Listen to activate vocabulary birthrates relationship with a
Respond with I suppose to Make personal comparisons A newspaper article about family member
indicate partial agreement Listen to summarize China's elderly population Writing Sklll:
Use ~ to introduce a listen for details Case studies: aging parents Avoiding run-on
dissenting opinion Compare and contrast Skills/strategies: sentences and
Critical thinking Identify cause and effect comma splices
Summarize
~44.W@Mili.Plit.f.mi;' Confirm content
Stress placement Draw conclusions

Respond with Beats me to Listening Skills: Texts: Task:


admit lack of knowledge listen for main ideas Encyclopedia entries about Write a news article
Say You're probably right Listen to summarize well-known mysteries Writing Skill:
to acknowledge another's Draw conclusions A magazine article about the Avoiding sentence
encouragement world's greatest hoaxes fragments
Ask a question with Why else
~to confirm one's own
,.PMMdUW.U'MWt Skills/strategies:
Reduction and linking Draw conclusions
opinion Activate prior knowledge
Confirm facts

Use kind of like to make a Listening Skills: Texts: Task:


loose comparison Listen to define Statistics comparing Comment on
Use I hate to say this. but to Relate to personal experience technological promises vs. reality another's point
excuse oneself for disagreeing Message-board posts about of view
Use Well. even so to unusual hobbies Writing Skill:
acknowledge someone's point A magazine article about Expressing and
but disagree politely technology and leisure time supporting opinions
Skills/strategies: clearly
Draw conclusions
Identify supporting details

Verbs that can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive I Participial adjectives .................................. page A4
Grammar Booster ................................................................................................................................... page G1
Pronunciation Booster ............................................................................................................................ page Pl

vii
What is Summit?
Summit is a two-level* high-intermediate to advanced communicative course for adults
and young adults that can follow any intermediate-level course book.
The goal of the Summit course is to make English unforgettable, enabling
post-intermediate learners to understand, speak, read, and write English
accurately, confidently, and fluently through:
... Multiple exposures to new language
... Numerous opportunities to practice it
... Deliberate and intensive recycling
Each full level of Summit contains enough material for 60 to 90 hours of classroom
instruction. Alternatively, Summit Student's Books are available in split editions w ith
bound-in Workbooks. A wide choice of supplementary components makes it easy to
tailor Summit to the needs of your classes.
*Summit is designed to follow the Top Notch series, forming the top two levels of a complete six-level course.

The Summit Instructional Design


Balanced development of fluency and accuracy conclusions, expressing and supporting an
Every two-page lesson culminates in a free discussion, opinion, and activating prior knowledge. These
debate, presentation, role play, or project. Planning exercises develop analytical skills while providing
activities such as idea framing and notepadding lead additional opportunities for learners to support
students to confident spoken expression in those their answers through speaking.
activities. Grammar is tightly integrated with the A high-impact vocabulary syllabus
speaking syllabus for memorability. Grammar charts
include clear rules, examples, and explanations of Vocabulary in Summit is presented at word,
meaning and use. Authentic readings further reinforce phrase, and sentence levels, and includes
target grammar in natural contexts. expressions, idioms, and collocations. A
concurrent emphasis on word skills enables
Essential conversation models for students to expand their vocabulary by learning
post-intermediate students word transformation, classification, association,
Because post-intermediate students continue to need and other skills. Word skills practice increases
intensive development of spoken communication, students' mastery in both comprehending and
Summit provides ten essential conversation producing new vocabulary.
models that embed crucial conversation strategies
A writing syllabus dedicated to the
and provide a starting point for personalized conventions of written English
communication. Subsequent free communication
activities are crafted so students can continually Summit teaches the conventions of English
retrieve and use the language from the models. All writing so students will be prepared for
conversation models are informed by the Longman standardized tests as well as further academic
Corpus of Spoken American English. study. Key writing and rhetorical skills such
as using parallel structure, avoiding sentence
Academic skills and strategies fragments, expressing and supporting an opinion,
Each unit in the Summit course contains exercises and persuading the reader are clearly presented
that build key reading, listening, and critical thinking and applied in carefully structured writing tasks.
skills and strategies, such as paraphrasing, drawing Additional Grammar for Writing sections build
further awareness of these conventions.
viii
Summit

Um 2: MusK:al Moods
Unit 3: Morey Mattas
UM4: Looki'g Good
Um5: Ccmruity

A Digital Student's Book


SWTl-IG POINT
(with
_
complete audio)
........

SI

Interactive practice (with daily activity records)


Extra listening and reading comprehension
Record-yourself speaking
Grammar and vocabulary practice
Games and puzzles

--- -- -- ~r~
- ---- _________i_------
The Teacher's Edition ., arid . L~s'son Planner /--: ,I
Includes:
A bound-in Methods Handbook for professional development
Detailed lesson plans with suggested teaching t imes
Language, culture, and corpus notes
Student's Book and Workbook answer keys
Audioscripts
Summit TY teaching notes

A Digital Student's Book with interactive whiteboard {IWB) software


Instant ly accessible audio and Summit TY video
Interactive exercises from the Stude nt's ActiveBook for in-class use
A complete menu of printable exte nsion activities

Printable Extension Act1v1t1es


Including:
Discourse strategies
Extra writing skills practice

L .,,.re_ _ ___
Reading strategies
Graphic organizers
Pronunciation activities
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Classroom
Audio Program
Includes a variety of Ready-made achievement tests.
- Daily assignments that authentic regional and Software provides option to edit,
reinforce each lesson. non-native accents. delete, or add items.

MyEnglishlab
Full-Course
Placement Tests An optional online learning tool with:
An interactive Summit Workbook
Speaking and writing activities
Pop-up grammar help
Student's Book Grammar Booster and Pronunciation Booster exercises
Full-Course
Summit TY with extensive viewing activities
Placement Tes ts
Automatically-graded achievement tests
Four test forms to Easy course management and record-keeping

Activity 2 Listening
10 tM 4;0t" \ d ~upt""
t\ \chC2Chl~ ---~

- '
rJ Topic Preview. Look at the map of the world. Where do you
think the artist is from?


s
Bu~nos
Sydney
9
~ Aires

Johannesburg

Sao Paulo
N


Nairobi
Singapore
car!cas
Mumbai

Taipei Hong ~
Mexico

~ .
eCa1ro City
Kong ~

Tokyo
S~ul Beijing Rome New York ~
Los
Angeles
Berlin
London

Moscow
Stockholm Q .Vancouver

IJ Express Your Ideas.


1. What is unusual about the way the map depicts the world?
2. What do you think the artist is trying to say with the illustration? Is the artist being
serious or funny?

2 UNIT 1
n ~
r.:11 .. ., Sound Bites. Read and listen to a conversation
between two colleagues working temporarily in another
country.
GILBERT: Oh, man! Am I ready to head home!
ANNA: Are you kidding? I can't get enough of this place.
GILBERT: Well, it's been three weeks, and I think I've had about
enough. I'm tired of eating strange food.
ANNA: Wow! I feel just the opposite. I can't get over how much
I enjoy being here. I love how different the food is.
GILBERT: Well, not me. And frankly, it's a pain in the neck having
to work so hard to understand what people are saying to me.
ANNA: I actually think it's fun trying to figure out how to
communicate. Stop complaining! You'll be home before you
know it!
GILBERT: Fine by me. There's no place like home.

l:J Think and Explain. Read the conversation again.


With a partner, explain the meaning of each of the
following statements.
1. "Am I ready to head home!"
2. "I can't get enough of this place."
3. "I think I've had about enough."
4. "I can't get over how much I enjoy being here."
S. "It's a pain in the neck having to work so hard."
6. "There's no place like home."

D Identify Supporting Details. Read each statement


"I'm a little uncomfortable with
places that are new to me."
and with a partner decide who you think "/love trying
said it-Anna or Gilbert. Support your opinion new things."
with informat:::m from the conversation. "I want some adventure
in my life."
1
"/prefer to stick
D Compare and Contrast. Discuss the questions. I closer to home."

1. How would you describe Anna's and Gilbert's personalities?


How are they different?
2. Who are you more like, Gilbert or Anna?

STARTING POINT
Activate Language from a Text. Check which of the following statements you think you
would make about foreign travel. Then compare and discuss opinions with a partner.

D "I can't get enough of visiting D "I love how different the D "It's a pain in the neck having to
new and interesting places." food is." figure out what people are saying."

D "I think it's fun trying to figure D "After a few days I'm ready D Other:
out how to communicate when to head home."
I don't know the language."

3
C@f!i9
Suggest ways to enjoy life more
''' Grammar Snapshot. Read the article and notice the use of forget. stop. and remember.
(;)

/}~
-

A re you burning the candle at both ends? Here are some tips for restoring a healthy
Do you feel you have no time for yourself? perspective. First. remember to make time for
Do you forget to call family on birthdays or the important people in your life. Stop over-
holidays? Have you stopped going out with scheduling and spend quality time with friends
friends because you're too busy? Do you have and family. Second, learn to eat. talk, walk, and
trouble relaxing and having fun? drive more slowly. And don't forget to turn
If you recognize yourself, you should your cell phone off sometimes. People who
remember to slow down and take more time really want to talk to you will call back. Third,
for everything. Living a balanced life is about learn to live in the present and stop worrying
integrating the many vital areas of your life, about the future . And finally, take it easy and
including your health, friends, family, work, and begin enjoying the simple things in life. Stop to
romance. smell the roses.

EJ Relate to Personal Experience. Discuss the questions.


1. Did you recognize yourself or someone you know in the article? Give examples.
2. Did you find the tips helpful? Why or why n ot?

4 UNIT 1
B Grammar. Gerunds and infinitives: changes in meaning
Some verbs are followed by either a gerund or an infinitive with no change in meaning,
for example: love, hate, can't stand, ~ prefer, begin, start,. continue.
Begin enjoying the simple things in life. OR Begin to enjoy the simple things in life.
Some verbs change meaning, depending on whether they are followed by a gerund or an infinitive.
=
remember + infinitive remember to do something
Remember to make time for the important people in your lite.
I have to remember to send an e-mail to my friend. REMEMBE,~~
=
remember + gerund remember something that happened in the past Some verbs are f ollowed by infinitives.
I remember having more time for myself. Learn to live in the present.
Do you remember going there when you were a kid? Some verbs are followed by gerunds.
1 enjoy spending time with my friends.
=
forget + infinitive forget to do something Some verbs are followed by objects
Don't forget to turn your cell phone off.
and infinitives.
He always forgets to call on my birthday. He reminded me to call my mother.
~ + gerund = forget something that happened in the past For a complete list of verbs followed
I'll never forget seeing the mountains for the first time. by gerunds, infinitives, and objects
Can you ever forget going to the beach? and infinitives, see page A3 in the
Appendices.
=
stop + infinitive stop in order to do something
Stop to smell the roses.
GRAMMAR BOOSTER
Can you stop to pick up some chocolates for the party? p. G I
mm + gerund =stop an ongoing action Gerunds and infinitives:
summary
Stop over-scheduling and spend quality time with friends and family. Parallelism with gerunds
You need to stop worrying so much. and infinitives

DJ Grammar Practice. Complete each sentence with a gerund or an infinitive.


Explain the meaning of each sentence.
"Number 1 is about remembering
1. I'll never forget (travel) .............. .......... abroad for the first time. something that happened in the past.
2. When I feel stressed out, I remember (put) ......................... things in
perspective.

3. You need to stop (try) ....................... to do everything at once.

4. If I forget (send) ......................... a card for a friend's birthday, I try to remember (call) ...................... .
5. We forgot (buy) ......................... flowers, so we stopped (pick up) ....................... . some on the way to the party.

6. I remember (celebrate) .. ..............- holidays with my family when I was young.

Suggest ways to enjoy life more


Notepadding. With a partner, write a list of
suggestions for what someone can do to enjoy
life more. Use remember, forget, and stop.

Use the Grammar. Share your ideas with


your class or group. Using the information on
your notepad, create a list of suggestions that
everyone agrees with.

s
CdM
Describe people's personalities
rJ ($ Conversation Snapshot. Read and
listen. Notice the conversation strategies.
A: H ave you h ad a chance to meet the
new manager?
B: Liz? Actually, n o. H ave you ?
A: Not yet. I wonder wha t she's like.
B: Well, everyone says she's bad news.
A: You know, you can ' t b elieve
everything you hear. She might tum '
ou t to be a real sweetheart.
1:05

0 Rhythm and intonation practice

ll (5 Vocabulary. Personality Types. Listen a nd practice.

Positive Negative
a sweetheart someone who is likable and a tyrant someone, especially a boss, who '

easy to get along with makes people work extremely hard


a team player someone who works "'.'ell a workaholic someone who is always working
with other people so the whole group is and does not have time for anything else
successful a pain in the neck someone who complains a
a brain someone who is intelligent and can lot and often causes problems
solve problems that are difficult for others
a wise guy someone who says or do~s
a people person someone who likes being annoying things, especially to make himself or
with and works well with other people herself seem smarter than other people

Content words and


function words
0 (;, Listening. Infer Point of View. Liste n carefully to the conversations about
people's personalities. Infer which expression from the Vocabulary the spea ker would
use to describe the pe rson.

1. The wom a n thinks tha t She lly is .............. .


a. a sweetheart b. a brain c. a pain in the neck

2. The wo man thinks tha t Pete r is .........


a. a workaholic b. a tyrant c. a tea m p laye r

3. The man thinks tha t Paul is ..


a. a team p layer b. a people perso n c. a w ise guy

6 UNIT 1
l::J Word Skills. Classifying by Positive and Negative Meaning. Fill in the diagram
with the adjectives in the box. Decide which adjectives describe personalities positively,
negatively, or both. Add other adjectives you know.

annoying funny lovable outgoing silly


easygoing hardworking modest professional smart
friendly helpful nervous reliable talkative
fun impolite offensive serious unfair

Positive Both Negative

D Associate Words and Ideas. With a partner, write adjectives from the chart you think match
each of the personality types. More than one answer is possible. Explain your choices.
1. a sweetheart .............................
2. a team player ........................
3. a brain ..................................................................................................................................................................................................
4. a pain in the neck ..... . ................................
5. a tyrant ...................................................................
6. a wise guy .... .................................................................................... .. ....... ... ... .. . . .... ... . .. .... ...
7. a people person ............................................................................................................................................
8. a workaholic

f> Use the Vocabulary. Describe the personalities of people you


know. Give specific examples to explain.
a friend
a co-worker
a neighbor
"My sister is such a tyrant! She makes a spouse
a teacher
her kids do all the housework!" a classmate
a relative

"My friend Hugo is a real people I> Use the Conversation Strategies. Role-play a conversation
person. He's so outgoing and friendly." about a person you haven't met yet. Use the Conversation Snapshot
as a guide. Start like this: "Have you had a chance to meet .. . ?"

7
C3$i9
Compare perspectives on life
rJ Reading Warm-up. Look at the glass of water. Do you see the glass as
half full or half empty? What does that say about your perspective on life?

n '""' Reading. Read the article about optimism. How do optimists


~ 0
and pessimists respond to problems differently?

Mainiaining a Pef(fnCE [}Derspective


by Kali Munro, M.Ed., Psychotherapist

Have you ever wondered why some people feel down and The Pros and Cons
defeated when faced with difficult situations, while others feel There are pros and cons to both optimism and pessimism. A healthy
challenged and hopeful? These different reactions are due to how dose of optimism can be uplifting and hopeful, while a healthy dose
people interpret events-whether they think positively. from an of pessimism can be realistic and wise. Achieving a balance of being
optimistic viewpoint, or negatively, from a pessimistic viewpoint. realistic and hopeful isn't always easy.
Optimists and Pessimists Staying Optimistic
The difference between optimists and pessimists isn't a difference While we can learn from both optimists and pessimists. most of
in life experiences but rather in how people perceive and respond us need help being optimistic. Maintaining a hopeful, positive,
to problems. For example. an optimist who is going through yet realistic perspective in the face of hard times can be a real
a hard time feels confident that life will get better, while a challenge-one many are facing right now in the world- but it is
pessimist is more cynical and believes life will always be difficult essential to living peacefully and happily. Just as it is important
and painful. Pessimists tend to expect the worst and see only to recognize what is unjust and unfair in our lives and the world,
problems. Optimists, confronted with the same situations, expect it is important to see the beauty, love, generosity, and goodness
the best. While a pessimist may give up, an optimist will look on as well.
the bright side and, instead of seeing a problem, will see a solution. On your ActiveBook disc: Reading Glossary and
Extra Reading Comprehension Questions
Information source: www.KaliMunro.com
B Relate to Personal Experience. Discuss the questions.
1. Do you agree w ith the author that "most of us need help being optimistic"? How do you think
people can avoid negative thinking? Describe experiences from your own life.
2. In your opinion, are there times when optimism can be bad, or when p essimism can be good? Explain.

l:J Identify Supporting Details. With a partner, rate these people's optimisim on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being
very optimistic and 5 being very pessimistic). Explain your answers, citing information from the article.

I've had some bad


I wouldn't say that I think I can keep things I try to look on the I find it difficult when experiences, but I think
I'm cynical, but it's in perspective. I try not bright side. I think it's things get tough. they've made me more
important to be to think negatively, but better to try to see I sometimes feel realistic. It's not always
realistic. Let's face it- I'm realistic about the a solution instead of completely hopeless. possible to hope for the
life is hard. things I can't change. seeing a problem. I just don't expect best, but good t hings
things to get better. do happen.

121" s j 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

8 UNIT 1
Compare perspectives on life

Frame Your Ideas. Complete the survey.

Do you have a negative or positive perspective?


I . You wake up in the middle o f the night with 5. When a friend feels d o wn, y o u
a stomachac he. Your first thought is
- understand and try to offer support.
G " I'm sure it's nothing." G tell him or her about your problems too.
G "I'll take some medicine." tell him or her how much worse it
"I think I should go to the doctor." could be.

2 . You appl y for your perrecr job, but you 6. Your boss asks you out to l unch. Yo u think
don't get it. Yo u think
G "I must be getting a raise."
CD "Never mind. I'll find something else."
G "That's really nice."
- ''That's really unfair. n
"Oh, no! I'm getting fired!"
"It figures. I never get the job I want."
1. If som eone unexpectedly knocks o n y o ur
3. When you are introduced to som eon e door, you think
new, y o u
e make friends easily with that person.
CD "I wonder which friend is dropping by."
G "warm up" to that person gradually.
G " I wonder who it could be."
"I'm not answering. It must be
make that person prove to you that he or a salesperson."
she is likable. oo 00 AO oo OOO o 0 0 0 000000 0 oooOOoOO HO Oo 'o

Add up your points.


4 . !'fews about crime or disasters m akes you
7- 1o You're an optimist. Youalways see the glass half full.
CD want to do something to help. 11- 14 You're a bit of an optimist and a pessimist. You're very realistic.
G realize that sometimes bad things happen. 15-21 You're a pessimist. You tend to see the glass half empty.
feel unsafe and depressed.

Draw Conclusions. With a partner, compare and explain


your responses to t he survey items. Does your score describe
you and your perspective on life? Why or why not?

Discussion.
1. In your opinion, in order to succeed, how
important is your perspective on life? Do you
think it's better to be optimistic, pessimistic,
or somewhere in the middle? Explain.
2. Read the quotation by Winston Churchill.
Do you agree with him? Why or why not?

~
/ "The pessimist sees difficulty
in every opportunity. The OP_ti'!'ist s:es
the opportunity in every difficulty.
Winston Churchill,
British Prime Minister
(1874- 1965)
9
43.14
Share a life-changing experience
1"'9

0 Listening. listen for Main Ideas. Listen


to each person talking about a life-changing
experience. Then choose the best answer to
complete each statement.
1. The most significant experience of the
first speaker's life was when he ................. .
a. became a father
b. began working
c. traveled to another country
d. got married
2. The second speaker 's life changed
when she .............. .
a. got a full-time job
b. had a baby
c. got more free time
d. got married
3. The third speaker's perspective on life
changed when he ................ .
a.lost his home in a fire
b.lost his job
c.got divorced
d.had a serious illness

I] Q Listening. Understand from Context. Read the statements. Then listen again to infer
what each speaker means.
1. When the first speaker says, "I was really able 4. When the second speaker says, " [It] is
to see other people's points of view," he means definitely a life-altering experience," she
that ................. . means that ................. .
a. he could understand how other people feel a. the experience is not rewarding
about things b. the experience changes a person
b. he met people of different nationalities
5 . When the third speaker says, "That put things
2. When the first speaker says, "It was a real eye- in perspective," he means that ...... .....
opener for me," he means that a. he realized some things are not so
a. the experience was a bit scary important
b. the experience taught him a lot b. he had to work day in and day out
3. When the second speaker says, " It hit me that I 6 . When the third speaker says, "You start to see
was responsible for her," she means that ............. . the big picture," he means that ................ .
a. she realized she had to take care of her baby a . he understood what was really important
b. she regretted she had to take care of her baby in life
b. he realized how much he had lost

B Summarize. First, in your own words, summarize each person's life-changing experience.
Then discuss which person's experience you identify with the most. Explain why.

10 UNIT 1
@[1fli1Jlli;i Share a life-changing experience
Things tha t c a n cha nge
Pair Work. Explore ideas about experiences that can change a on e 's p e rspe ctive
person's perspective on life. Complete the list w ith your partner.
,fir~. P..ir..t"h.....<21!...a. ..~.hi/a.........
ccA....a..i5.'1$f<!Jr............_ ................_____ _
Notepadding. Think about a life-changing experience you have had.
Take notes about it o n your notepad. drar:t!I:/.................._...........-......................... __
--- < - ooooOO oooooo o ..

What was the experience? When did it happen? Where? -------- ----
....... .......... ..... ... -- --- ..... .. -- ---~--- ..... --
-

- -- --- -
------- -- ...................
................... .... -
------
How did the experience change your p erspective? How did you feel at the time?

--------

-------

Group Work. Share your life-changing experience with your classmates. Explain
how t his experience changed your perspective on life.

"Last year my mother had a serious illness. It really put


things in perspective for m e. All the disagreements
we'd had in the past seemed so unimportant." "A few years ago, I went on vacation to Europe. It hit
me how useful it was knowing English. It came in
handy in a lot of situations."

Presentation. Write a paragraph about a life-changing experience you have had.


Use it to present your story to your class or g roup.

11
Writing: Describe personality types
Paragra ph Structure: Review
- WRITING MODEL
A paragraph consists of sentences about one topic. The most
important sentence in a paragraph is the topic sentence. It
is usually the first sentence, and it introduces the topic of a Work a holics lead unbalan ced lives
They s pen d all their energy on
paragraph. For example: -
work . They rarely ta ke t
Workaholics lead unbalanced lives. lme t o r elax
and let their mind s rest . I know
In academic writing, all the supporting sentences that bec au s e my fath
e r wa s a workahol 1
follow a topic sentence-details, examples, and other and he wo rked e very day of th e c
fact_s-must be related to the topic presented in the week . We hardly e ve r s aw him. Even
topic sentence. whe n he was not at k
wor we knew he
Thelastsentenceoftheparagraphisoftenaconcluding H wa s thinking about wo rk. He seemed
sentence. Aconcludingsentencerestatesthetopic never t o think of anything el se .
sentence or summarizes the paragraph. A concluding 1n s ummary . not knowi ng how t o

sentence often includes phrases such as In conclusion e s cape from wo r k ma kes it di f f ic ult
orln summary. f~r a workaholic to find ba l a nce in
h1 s o r he r life.

fl Prewriting. Brainstorming Ideas. Write a topic sentence for each personality type.

team players tyrants wise guys

1 .....
2 .................................................................................................................................................................................................
3 ................................................................................................................................................................ ...............................

Now choose one of your topic sentences. On a separate sheet


JVorkaholic.s lea.a un/Jalanc.ea 1.Jy&sA
of paper, generate ideas you could use to support the topic.
- _-a./v.a:z-r.s f:JJink.. a.bouL..work.
.=.e-d.n!.T .re.ld.X.
0 Writing. On a separate sheet of paper, write a
paragraph about the personality type you chose in Prewriting.
Make sure all the supporting sentences relate to the topic.
End with a concluding sentence.

B Self-Check.
0 Does your paragraph have a topic sentence?
0 Do the supporting sentences in your paragraph all relate to the topic?
D Do you have a concluding sentence?

12 UNIT 1
grammar vocabulary listening
reading . speaking pronunciation

fl G Listening. Listen to the people talking about their reactions to events in the
news. Decide if each speaker is an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist.

1. John ................................ 2. Susan ................................. 3. Matt .................................

EJ Now read the statements. Write the name of the person from the listening who is most
likely to have said each statement. Listen again if necessary.
1. "You've got to be practical. There will be some problems in life that you can solve and
some that you can't. What's important is realizing when something is beyond your
control. Then it's better just to move on." ..............................
2. "Life is full of hard times. You just have to accept the fact that bad things happ en and
know that there's very little you can do about it." ..................... .........
3. "It's important to see a problem as both a challenge to be faced and as an opportunity
for success. Difficult experiences can make a person stronger." ..............................

(31 Complete each conversation with a personality type.


1. A: Looks like I have to work overtime again tonight. My supervisor just gave me three
projects to complete by the end of the day.
B: You're kidding. He sounds like a real ......................... !
2. A: You know, without Sarah's help, I would never have completed that presentation
in time.
B: Tell me about it. She really helped me out with my sales campaign last month. She's
such a .............. .............. ... .
3. A: Tom is really a .......................... I ran into him in the park last weekend, and he was sitting on
a bench and working on that report.
B: Yeah, that's Tom all right. He never stops!
4. A: I don't think Jill had a very good time at the party-she didn't say a word the whole
evening.
B: Well, Jill doesn't feel comfortable in social situations. She's just not a ................................ .
5. A: Have you heard the news? My daughter Audrey got a perfect score on her entrance exam
to law school.
B: Congratulations! I always knew she would do well in school. She's such a ................................. .
6. A: I'm so tired of Ken. The other day I made a mistake at the computer lab at school, and he
said something that really made me feel dumb.
B: Don't let it get to you. Everybody knows he's a .................................. Just try to ignore him.

l!J On a separate sheet of paper, write advice for each person. Use
the verbs stop, remember. and~ with gerunds or infinitives.
1. Samantha has a demanding job and works long hours. When she finally gets home, she's
exhausted. She spends all weekend trying to catch up on housework and shopping.
2. Michael spends most of the day at the computer. Some d ays he doesn't even get outside
except to walk to the bus stop. On the weekends, he just watches a lot of TV.
3. Philip is a single father with three kids, and he travels a lot for his company. He feels his kids
are growing up so fast that he hardly ever sees them.
4. Marisa has been using her credit cards a lot lately, and she can't keep up w ith the monthly
payments. And now she's having a h ard time keeping up with all her bills.

13
[R
Language
0
~

~~l/-1 :_;~;_;..,.;_,..i ::./

rJ Topic Preview. Look at the reviews from the music website.


Are you familiar with any of these artists?

Carlos Ponce, Ponce


Puerto Rican singer I
songwriter (and TV star)
Carlos Ponce delivers a fun
mix of romantic ballads
and Caribbean-flavored
performance grooves. Even
if you don't understand
Spanish, you can't help but
feel the emotion in Ponce's Andrea Bocelli, Sogno
voice, which ranges from a
Sogno finds the classically
rough growl to a passionate Marcos Ariel, My Only Passion
trained Bocelli moving
Another brilliant set from away from the world of
the richly talented Brazilian opera with a collection
keyboardist I composer of modern pop ballads.
Marcos Ariel. Check out the Fans of Bocelli's
unpredictable interplay remarkable voice won't
between the group members be disappointed. Whether
in "Bahia Suite," where Meia he's singing an Italian
Noite's exciting percussion pop song or a lovely duet
sets the tempo, while Ariel's with pop diva Celine
piano races in and around Dion, the depth and
Frank Gambale's surprising feeling of his music will
guitar lines. touch your soul.

Buddy Guy, Stone Crazy


He is an American blues gui- Muzsikas, The Prisoner's Song
tarist and singer. He was Singing in Hungarian and
ranked 30th in Rolling Stone playing traditional
Described as "sound pictures" magazine's list of the "100 instruments. Muzsikas
and "mind music" in his native Greatest Guitarists of All arranges ten Eastern
Japan, Kitaro's electronic music Time". His song "Stone European folk songs to tell a
incorporates the sounds of Crazy" was ranked 78th in haunting story of love, desire,
waves, wind, and rain, inspiring Rolling Stone's list of the 100 and freedom. Add lead singer
listeners to feel and appreciate Greatest Guitarists of All Marta Sebestyen's amazing
the natural world. A true Time. voice, and you've got a sound
unlike any you've ever heard.

Information source: www.allmusic.com


ll Express Your Ideas.
1. Which reviews did you find the most appealing? Why? Which musical genres in the reviews
interest you the most?
2. Can you think of other artists for each gerue?
14 UNIT 2
B 0 Sound Bites. Read and listen
to a conversation between two friends
comparing musical tastes.
TANIA: Wow! You've got quite a CD collection!
KEN: I guess so. Let's put something on.
TANIA: Got any pop?
KEN: How about some Gato Barbieri? I've got
Fenix.
TANIA: Actually, his saxophone playing kind of
gets on my nerves on that one.
KEN: Really? I'm totally into him. Fenix is one Qf
my all-time favorites.
TANIA: Yeah, but it's pretty hard to perform to.
KEN: Well, have you heard some of his later stuff?
TANIA: No, what's it like?
KEN: It's got more of a Latin feel. It'll definitely
get the party started.
TANIA: Oh yeah? Let's give it a listen.

l!J Think and Explain. Read the


conversation again. With a partner, explain
the meaning of each of the following
statements or questions.
1. "You've got quite a CD collection."
2. "Let's put something on."
3. "His saxophone playing kind of gets on my nerves on that one."
4. 'Tm totally into him."
5. "H ave you heard some of his later stuff?"
6 . "It'll definitely get the party started."
7. " Let's give it a listen."

STARTING POINT

Frame Your Ideas. What recordings are your all-time favorites? Complete the chart.

Title of recording Artist or group Genre of music

Pair Work. Talk with a partner


about the music in your chart.
Compare your musical tastes.
'Well, blues usually gets on my nerves,
but maybe I'll give it a listen sometime."

15
CHM
Describe the music JOU listen to
1:11
G Conversation Snapshot. Read and listen. Notice the
conversation strategies.
A: So what have you been listening to lately?
B: Mostly world music. Ever heard of Youssou N'Dour?
A: I think so. He's from Senegal, right?
B: That's right.
A: You know, I've actually never heard his music.
What's he like?
B: Well, he's got a terrific voice and a unique sound.
I'd be happy to lend you a CD if you'd like.
A: All right, thanks. I' ll let you know what I think.
1:14
G Rhythm and intonation practice

[J <;S Vocabulary. Elements of Music. Listen and practice.

beat the rhythm of a piece of music sound the particular style or quality of an
That song has a great beat you can perform to. artist's or group's music
lyrics the words of a song The band has created a new and exciting sound.
Her catchy lyrics make you want to sing along. voice the quality of sound produced when
melody the order of notes in a musical piece one sings
His song has an unforgettable melody. John has a beautiful soprano voice.

B (S Listening. Listen to Activate Vocabulary. Listen to the pieces of music. With a


Into nation patterns
partner, use the words from the Vocabulary to discuss what you like or don't like about the music.

l!J Grammar. The present perfect and the present perfect continuous: Words and phrases us~-
finished and unfinished actions with the present perfect -
for finished actions
Finished actions already ever never yet l - -

Use the present perfect, not the present perfect continuous, when an action is completed once, twice, three times
at an unspecified time in the past. (Remember that actions completed at a specified time in How many.= . ? J
the past require the simple past tense.)
I've already heard that CD. I heard it yesterday.
How many times have you seen Youssou N'Dour in concert?
I've seen him twice. As a matter of fact, I just saw him last week.
Very recently finished actions: an exception
The present perfect continuous is preferred to describe very recently completed actions
when results can still be seen.
They've been practicing. I see them putting their instruments away.
Unfinished or continuing actions
GRAMMAR BOOSTER
Use the present perfect OR the present perfect continuous to describe actions that began p. G3
in the past, continue into the present, and may continue into the future. Finished and unfinished
Have you listened to any pop lately? OR Have you been listening to any pop lately? actions: summary
The past perfect
I've listened to Beethoven since I was a child. OR I've been listening to Beethoven since I was a child. continuous

16 UNIT 2
[I Grammar Practice. Write E if the action is finished. Write .U. if the action is unfinished or continuing.
................. 1. He's played with their band for almost - 5. Ladysmith Black Mambazo hasn't been
ten years. playing many concerts lately.
................. 2. Caetano Veloso has made dozens ......... 6 . Have you ever gone to a classical
of recordings. concert?
................. 3. They've never heard of Alexandre ................. 7. How many times have you heard
Pires. Carmina Burana?
................. 4. We've been listening to that CD all day. - 8. They've played Brahms's First
Let's play something different. Symphony twice this year.

D Grammar Practice. Complete the biography of Vanessa-Mae with the simple


past tense, the present perfect, or the present perfect continuous. Use the present
perfect continuous if the action is unfinished or continuing.
Vanessa-Mae ........................... .................................. music since she was a little girl.
( 1. perform)
Born in Singapore on October 27, 1978, she ................ ............. ...... ................... her
(2. have)
first piano lesson at the age of three. A year later, she .................................................................
(3. s1art)
taking violin lessons, and when she was just ten years old, she
................................................................. her concert debut with the London Philharmonic.
(4. make)
Since then, Vanessa-Mae ................................................................. numerous classical
(5. make)
recordings, but it was in 1994 that she ....................................................... ....... the field of
(6. en!er)
pop music with The Violin Player. The album immediately ... ... ................................................... extremely
(7. become)
popular with pop and classical music fans.
In more recent years, she .......... ............. ............... . . ............. with other pop artists.
(8. play)
Vanessa-Mae ................................................................. her a udiences for over a decade,
(9. entertain)
and she continues to astonish them with her innovative sound.

Describe the music you listen to


Write some of the musical artists or bands you've been listening to lately.

Artist or band What oulike


--- - - - -
Ero!/e ae Dakar gYD.tlr muSI& bOOr
Artist or band ~-----'VVh
'-=~a~tyoulik:e

Use the Conversation Strategies. Talk about music you listen to. Use the Vocabulary from page 16 and
the Conversation Snapshot as a guide. Start like this: uso what have you been listening to lately?"

17
ca.m
Explain the role of music in your life
rJ (;, Grammar Snapshot. Read the commentaries and notice the noun clauses.

It's my opinion that music is a kind


Frankly, I can't imagine what my of international language-a way I'm a performer, and music is a part of
life would be like without music. for people to communicate with who I am. It's a way for me to express
It's what gets me through the whomever they meet. The fact that what's in my heart. The truth .
h th IS,
day. Listening to music is how I enjoyment of music is universal w e . er or not I "Perform is not really
get going in the morning. Later, makes it an ideal way to bring cultures a choice-I have to do it. Whatever
at work, it's how I stay together. Music can open doors for happens during the day-gOOd or
productive. And in the evening, it's you everywhere you go in the world. bad-comes out in my music.
what helps me unwind.

[ ] Make Personal Comparisons. Do any of the comments above ring true for you?
Explain and discuss.
REMEMBER
A noun clause can begin with that. ~
B Grammar. Noun clauses whether !or not}, or a question word.
A noun clause can be a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, I believe that hie would be empty
a subject complement, or the object of a preposition. without music
We asked them if they could play the
Whatever happens during the day comes out in my music. [subject] song for us again.
I don't know why I'm so crazy about his music. [direct object] OR We asked them whether (or not)
I'll give whoever calls first the tickets. pndirect object] they could play the song for us again.
d decided to
Music is what helps me unwind. (subject complement] I'm not sure why the b an
Music is a way for people to communicate with whomever" they meet break up.
Do you know w hich I w hat instrument
[object of a preposition]
she plays? .
Indirect speech is expressed using a noun clause. They asked h
im how he trained his
They asked whether I it we could recommend some good recordings. voice to be so beautiful.
The violinist explained that the concerto was quite difficult to play.
When a noun clause is a direct obiect.
A noun clause can also be introduced by whoever, whomever, or whatever, the word that may be omitted.
meaning any person or any thing. 1 believe life would be empty
Whoever can combine blues with pop is sure to be a hit. without music.
The audience always loves whatever they play.
Noun clauses often follow phrases with impersonal tl subjects. BE CAREFUL! Use normal, not
It's my opinion that music is a kind of international language. inverted, word order in noun clauses
In writing, subject noun clauses are often preceded by phrases such beginning with question words.
as the fact, the idea, etc. NOT They asked him how did-fle
The fact that enjoyment of music is universal is quite interesting. treift his voice to be so beautiful.

*very formal

18 UNIT 2
l!J Grammar Practice. Introduce each noun clause with that. if, whether (or not), Question words
or a question word. who what
why which
1. It's his opinion . .... classical music is boring. when how
2. Buying old records is ................................. I spend my Saturday afternoons. where

3. I'm having difficulty recalling ............ . band played at the saloon.


4 .............................. I like most is to take a hot bath while I listen to music.
5. Did they tell you ......................... the concert would start? I don't want to be late.
6. I can't really tell you ............................ I like some pieces of music. Maybe it's because
they remind me of songs my mother sang to me when I was a child.
7. Robert asked me ......... .......... I had bought tickets yet.
8. She can' t imagine - she would do without music.

0 Grammar Practice. Complete each statement with a noun clause that represents
each question.

1. I don't know ............................. -- .............................


(Where did Mozart hve7J
2 . I have no idea ........................... ............... ................. ............... ......... .............................. ....................... ........................................................................... .
(When did Georges Bizet compose Carmen?)
3. She told me .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .
(Where do the BIJck Sheep usudlly pcrform7)
4. I don't know ............................................. ....................................... .......................................... ..................................................................................... .
(Which genre of music is his favonte7J
5. I'm not sure ......................................................................................................................................................- .......................................................................... .
!What kind of lyrics does she write7)

Explain the role of music in your life


D Analyze the Grammar. Read the following quotations and underline_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
the noun clauses. Classify each noun clause by its grammatical
function within the sentence (subject, direct object, etc.). "The audience knows when they're
Then discuss the meanina of each quotation. just listening to notes and when they're
Restate each in your - - truly listening to music."
own words.
Sarah Chang, US. violinist
"Music is a gift and a burden I've had 1980-
since I can remember who I was. "
Nina Simone, US. pianist
1933- 2003

Ludwig van Beethoven, German composer


1770- 1827

[ I Use the Grammar. Discuss the role of music in your life. Do you listen to music
at specific times during your day? What sorts of music do you listen to?
Use noun clauses to explain your ideas.

19
C3M8
Describe a creative person
1:18
0 Vocabulary. Describing Creative Personalities. Listen and practice.

EJ Reading Warm-up.
Do you agree?

B Q Reading. Read the short biography. What effect did Beethoven's personality have on his life?
On your ActiveBook disc: Reading Glossary and
Extra Reading Comprehension Questions

tlSSWtr or Music
B orn in 1no in Bonn, Germany, Ludwig van Beethoven started
playing the piano before he was four years old. By the time
he was twelve, this child prodigy had already composed his first
the piano so beautifully
that some listeners cried;
however, when he saw
piece of music. When Beethoven was just sixteen, he went to his fans crying, Beethoven
study in Vienna, Austria, then the center of European cultural life only laughed and said
and home to the most brilliant and passionate musicians and they were fools. He
composers of the period. Beethoven proved to be a gifted pianist was so egotistical that if
and an imaginative composer. people talked while he
Beethoven is remembered for his great genius but also for was performing, he would
his strong and difficult personality. In one infamous incident, stop and walk away.
Beethoven became so upset with a waiter that he emptied a plate Beethoven wrote two
of food over the man's head. Despite this type of behavior, many famous works, Moonlight Sonata and Fur Elise, tor two different
in musical and aristocratic circles admired Beethoven, and music women he loved. He was almost always in love, often with a
lovers were always Beethoven's greatest supporters. This fact woman who was already married or engaged. Although Beethoven
did not prevent him from losing his temper with one or another of asked several women to marry him, they all rejected him. But
them. However, because of his talent, Beethoven's friends always the most tragic aspect of Beethoven's life was his gradual loss
excused his insults and moody temperament. of hearing, beginning in his late twenties until he was completely
Beethoven was also notorious for his eccentric behavior. He deaf. However, even as his hearing grew worse, Beethoven
often walked through the streets of Vienna muttering to himself continued to be energetic and productive; his creative activity
and stamping his feet. He completely neglected his personal remained intense, and audiences loved his music. In 1826,
appearance; his clothes would get so dirty that his friends would Beethoven held his last public performance of his famous Ninth
come and take them away during the night. When they replaced Symphony. By this time, the maestro was completely deaf. When
the old clothes with new ones, Beethoven never noticed the he was turned around so he could see the roaring applause that he
difference. could not hear, Beethoven began to cry.
Although Beethoven was respected and admired by his audience, Beethoven died in Vienna in 1827 at age fifty-seven. One out
he was not concerned with pleasing them. Beethoven could play of ten people who lived in Vienna came to his funeral.

Information source: www,classicalarchjve.com


20 UNIT 2
l!J Activate Language from a Text. Read each fact about Beethoven. Then, with a partner,
discuss which adjective from the Vocabulary best completes each statement.
1. Beethoven was already publishing music 5. Beethoven became frustrated when he began
and earning a salary at the age of twelve. to lose his hearing. While socializing with his
He was very -- -------- friends, he would often have sudden bursts of
2. Beethoven once told a prince, "There anger. H e could be rather ............................................ .
will be thousands of princes. There is 6. Beethoven said that his music expressed what
only one Beethoven." He could be quite was inside of him and that he had no choice
but to compose. He was a ..............................................
3. Beethoven would work long hours composer.
composing and never seemed to tire. He 7. Beethoven's attention to feeling in his music
was always ................... -- when he began a new "style," different in some ways
performed for his audiences. from Baroque music, which was popular at the
4. Beethoven had many close friends who time. His compositions were ............. ............................ .
tried to help him with his problems. He 8. Beethoven's friends thought he could be
continually pushed them away and refused ................................................ at times. For example, when
their assistance. He was considered to be a he made coffee, he used to count out exactly
............................................ person. sixty beans for each cup .

~ ---- -.......-
' NOW YOU CAN Describe a creative person

0 Frame Your Ideas. Rate your own personality on a scale of Oto 3.


Compare your answers with a partner's. Use the Vocabulary. "I'm an extremely passionate person.
I think it's really important to love what
you do. What about your

difficult energetic moody egotistical creative Q

[I Discussion. Read the quotations from three famous musicians. Which one do you find the
most interesting? After reading the quotations, how would you describe each musician's personality?

"Music is nothing separate from me. "l'v<' outdone anyone you can
It~ me. . .. You'd have to remove name-Mozart. Beethoven, IJach,
Strauss. Irving Her/in. he wrote
1.001 tunes. I wrote 5,.500."

Ray Charles, American soul singer, James Brown, American R & B


songwriter, and pianist, 1930-2004 singer and songwriter, 1933 - 2006

:9 Project. Write a brief biography of a creative person you know. Describe his or her personality, creativity, and
achievements. Put all the biographies together for a web article about creative people.

21

~------ - -- --
c3.n1
Discuss the benefits of music
1:20

0 Listening. Listen for Main Ideas. Read the questions. Then listen
to Part 1 of a talk about an unusual use of music. Discuss the questions with
a partner.
1. What does Dr. Schmidt do?
2. What sorts of people does she work with?
Explain how she works with these people.

1:21
[] 0 Listening. Listen for Supporting Details. Read the
questions. Then listen to Part 2 of the talk and answer the questions.
1. What are the four benefits Dr. Schmidt talks about?
a . ....
b. ........ ................................ ...............
c. ...............................................
d. ...... .................................
2. What is one example of each?
a . ........................ ...................
b. ..... -
c. ....
d. ...................................................................

B Apply Ideas. Discuss the questions.


1. Can you think of any other
benefits of music therapy?
2 . Can you think of anyone
who might benefit from
music therapy?
If so, how?

22 UNIT 2
r
m Word Skills. Using Participial Adjectives.
1:22

0 Present
participles
Past
participles
'I

The present and past participle forms of many verbs function as adjectives. I amazing amazed l

The past participle has a passive meaning. Most sentences using past participles annoying annoyed
I boring
can be restated with a~ phrase. depressing
bored
depressed '
The patient is depressed. = The patient is depressed [by his life]. r disappointing disappointed
I'm bored. = I'm bored [by this movie]. entertaining entertained
exciting excited
The present participle does not have a passive meaning. Most sentences using I
present participles can be restated with an active verb.
I
interesting
pleasing
interested
pleased
I
relaxing relaxed
That book is depressing. = That book d epresses [everyone]. soothing soothed
It's so boring. = lt bores [me]. stimulating stimulated
touching touched
~
~
.-!.'I
.
Word Skills Practice. Circle an adjective to complete the sentence about music therapy.
~

1. Music can m ake patients feel (relaxed I relaxing).


2. Listening to music makes patients feel less (depressedI depressing).
3. Patients find some types of music to be very (soothed I soothing).
4. For patients in physical pain, the benefits of music can be (surprised I surprising).
I stimulating) by music.
5. Studies show that a student's ability to learn is (stimulated
6. For patients w ith emotional problems, music can be very (comforted I comforting).
7. Many doctors report they are (pleased I pleasing) by the effect music has on their patients.
8. Many patients say that music therapy is (entertained I entertaining).

Discuss the benefits of music

Notepadding. What are some


benefits music brings to people's Benefits
Examples
lives? With a partner, make a list M usic. c.an Pe soorh1n .
9 Play1n9 ;nvsic. a r work c.an relax
and discuss. Use participial
adjectives. people so rhey're /110re proavc.h.-e .
Benefits
Examples

Group Work. Share your ideas with your class or group. Comment on your classmates' ideas.

23
Writing: Describe yourself
Parallel Structure
In a pair or a series, be sure to use parallel structure. All the words, phrases, or clauses should be in the same form.

Incorrect Correct

He's a composer, singer, and a violinist. He's a composer, a singer, and a violinist.
(article, no article, article) (article, article, article)
OR He's a composer, singer, and violinist.
(one article for all three)

I like performing, painting, and to sing. I like performing, painting, and singing.
(gerund, gerund, infinitive) (gerund, gerund, gerund)
OR I like to perform, to paint, and to sing.
(infinitive, infinitive, infinitive)
OR I like to perform, paint, and sing.
(one to for all three)

The picture was framed, examined, and they sold it. The picture was framed, examined, and sold.
(passive, passive, active) (passive, passive, passive)

I like people who have the same interests as I do, I like people who have the same interests as I do,
make me laugh, or who like outdoor sports. who make me laugh, or who like outdoor sports.
(clause, verb phrase, clause) (clause, clause, clause)
OR I like people who have the same interests as
I do, make me laugh, or like outdoor sports
(verb phrase, verb phrase, verb phrase)

_.....,._....,......,_,.... . . .,._. . . .....,._..,...~....,._....,,.,.,..,_.....,,- ij;i;il;l3l;l;it4it-N1 Correct the errors. 1-~----

rJ Prewriting. Clustering Ideas. I have always been a relaxed, passionate , and been
Look at the idea cluster below. On a
a moody person. I love traveling, to meet new people,
separate sheet of paper, create your
own idea cluster. Draw a circle and write and learning about new places. I have been to many
ME inside it. Then write any ideas that
interesting places; for example, I have been on top of Mount
come to mind in circles around the main
circle. Expand each new idea. Include Kilimanjaro, I have gone ice fishing with Eskimos in Alask a,
hobbies, accomplishments, places you
and I rode on a camel in Morocco. These were some of
have traveled, interests, goals, etc.

Example

[J Writing. On a separate sheet of paper, write a


paragraph describing yourself, using the information
from your cluster. Make sure to use parallel structure.

Self-Check.
D Did you use parallel structure with pairs or series
of nouns, adjectives, and adverbs?
D Did you use parallel structure with the clauses,
phrases, and tenses?
D Does the topic sentence introduce the topic of
24 UNIT 2 the paragraph?
g rammar . vocabulary listening
reading . speaking . pronunciation

r.w
w ~ Listening. Listen to the conversations about musical preferences.
'i.,
Determine if each person likes the artist or group. Check the appropriate box or boxes.
Then listen again and write what th.e person likes (voice, melody, lyrics, beat, or sound).
the man the woman what he or she likes
1. Andrea Bocelli D D
2. Gato Barbieri D D
3. Ladysmith Black Mambazo D D
4. Enrique D . D
s. Antonio Carlos Jobim D D

I] Complete the statements with an appropriate adjective from the box.

eccentric egotistical energetic gifted moody passionate

1. Sarah is a very . ..... ...................... musician . She started playing the piano when she was three.
2. My neighbor has thirty cats. You could say he's a bit ................................................. .
3. Franco is an extremely ......................................................... person. He only thinks of himself.
4. Dalia is so ......................................................... lately. She gets angry at the smallest thing.

B Circle the correct form of the verb to complete the paragraph.


Sandile Khemese (1. has played I played) the violin since he was a child in Johannesburg,
South Africa. In 1989, Sandile (2. formed I has formed) the Soweto String Quartet with
his brothers, Reuben and Thami, and their friend, Makhosini Mnguni. The group
(3. played I has played) at President Nelson Mandela's inauguration in 1994. The Soweto
String Quartet (4. won I has won) many music awards in South Africa, including Best Ne~
Artist. They (5. have recorded I have been recording) a number of successful CDs. In recent
years, the Quartet (6. has been giving I gave) concerts all around the world.

E Underline t he noun clause in each sentence. Write whether it is a subject, a direct object,
a subject complement, or an object of a preposition.
1. I believe that without music life wouldn't be as much fun.
2. Whatever's playing on the radio is fine w ith me.
3. That's why Jorge likes only pop music.
4 . Do you know where some good music is playing?
S. They'll listen to whatever music is playing.

25
fl Topic Preview. Read these fi nancial tips.
Do you t hink you have a high fi nancial IQ?

How to RaiseYour
Financial IQ
I . Save money.
Start saving while you are young. When you have
money in your pocket, the impulse to spend it
can be very strong. When you get your paycheck,
don't run to the mall. If you put away a small
amount of money into a savings account each
week and earn interest, your money will grow.
2. Live within your means.
The secret to financial success is spending less
than you earn. If you make a lot of money, but
spend it all, you are not really rich or financially
secure. If you lose your job, or get seriously ill,
you will have nothing to fall back on. People who
make less money than you but don't spend it all
are actually much wealthier because they are able
to handle any emergency that arises. Fortunately,
today's technology makes managing your money
easier than ever. Financial-planning software can
help you keep a budget by adding up your income
and expenses and keeping track of your spending.
3. Don't go into debt.
It is a lot easier-and sometimes safer-to pay
with a credit card than to carry around a lot of
cash in your pocket or purse. However, it is easy
to get into trouble with credit cards if you use
them as a subst itute for money you don't have. If
you charge so much that you can't keep up with
your monthly bills, interest charges will quickly add
up. Going into debt because of credit card bills is
the surest sign of a low financial IQ.

D Express Your Ideas. Which t ip do you think is the most important one to follow? Why?
Can you think of any others?

26 UNI T 3
B (5 Sound Bites. Read and listen to a conversation bet ween
two friends about saving money.
DAVID: Hey, a new entertainment system! What did you do-strike it rich?
JUDY: I w ish! No, I saved up for it.
DAVID: There's no way I could do that. Too many bills.
JUDY: I know w hat you mean. My credit card bills used to be totally
out of hand.
DAVID: Really? Then how did you manage to save up all that cash?
JUDY: Well, I just decided it was time to start living within my means.
I cut way back on my spending.
DAVID: Wasn't that hard?
JUDY: Kind of. But I'm glad I did it.

l:J Think and Explain. With a partner, discuss the questions and
support your answers with information from Sound Bites.
1 . Do you think Judy makes a lot of m oney?
2. Do you think David is good w ith money?
3 . What was Judy's financial situation like in the past?
4. What did Judy do to chan ge her financial situation?
5. How would you describe Judy's finan cial IQ?
6 . Are you more like Judy or David?

STARTING POINT

Frame Your Ideas. What's your financial IQ? Choose the statements that best apply to you.

1. D I live within my means. D I live beyond my means.

2. D I keep track of my expenses. D I dont know where the money goes.

3. D I regularly put something away into savings. D I spend everything I have and never save. I'
I'
11

4. D I always try to pay my credit ca rd bills in full.


D I don't worry about paying my credit card bills off
every mon th.

s. D I always have enough money for what I need. D I can't make ends meet!

Pair Work. Compare your answers with a partner's. Who do you t hink has the higher financial IQ?

27
Cfl1Mi
Talk about your financial goals
1:2S
0 Grammar Snapshot . Read the interview responses and notice how futu re plans are expressed.
What are your short-term and long-term financial goals?

I find it really helps me to try and picture


where I want to be over the next few
years. By next year, I hope to have gotten
a good job as a financial con sultant. That's
my short-term goal. My long-term goal?
I plan to have reached real financial
independence before I retire.

I've decided to set a long-


term goal for myself-to My long-term goal is
put aside enough money to have saved enough
to buy a new car. By this My college expenses are going to get me money to spend a
time next year, I'll have into a lot of debt. I don't expect to have year traveling. By the
put away enough cash begun making payments by the time I time I'm forty, I'm
for a down payment. My graduate, but I do have a plan. After I finish sure I'll have saved
short-term goal is to school, my short-term goal is to find a job enough. After I've
start living within my where I can make some good money and seen some of the
means. Once I' ve started begin a payment p lan on my loans. Then, I world, I plan to settle
sticking to a monthly figure that by the time I'm thirty, I should down and buy
budget, I think it'll be easy. ha ve paid back everything I owe. a house.

Andreas Festring, 33
Munich, Germany

I] Make Personal Comparisons. Discuss how similar you are to any of the people in the Grammar
Snapshot. Do you share any of the goals they mentioned? If not, discuss some of your goals.

B Grammar. Future plans and finished future actions


Future plans
Express general future plans with expect, hope, intend, or plan and an infinitive.
We hope to start putting some money away.
I don't plan to be financially dependent for the rest of my life.
Use the perfect form of an infinitive to express that an action will or might take place
before a specified time in the future.
By this time next year, I plan to have saved up enough cash to buy a new car.
Her goal is to have paid off all her debt in five years.
Finished future actions
Use the future perfect to indicate an action that will be completed by a specified time in the future.
By next year, I will have completed my studies, but I won't have gotten married.
How much will you have saved by next month?
Use the present perfect in an adverbial clause to distinguish between a completed future action
and one that will follow it.
Once I've completed my studies, I'll get married.
I'm going shopping when I've finished my report
The future continuous
The future perfec t
BE CAREFUL! Don't use the future perfect in the adverbial clause.
continuous
NOT I'm going shopping when I nill have finished my report.

28 UNIT 3
l:J Grammar Practice. Complete the paragraph about Ms. Kemper's future plans. Use expect. hope.
intend. or plan and an infinitive form of the verb.

Jessica Kemper . .......... . ............................ business school this semester, and then she
(1. complete)
......... .. ...... ...................... a job in the financial industry. However, Ms. Kemper has a lot of debt
(2. find)
to repay. She's borrowed some money from her parents and some from the bank, but she
... ...................... ...... ...... everyone back as soon as she can. She ....................................................... a part-time job to
(3. pay) (4. get)
help make ends meet while she's paying off her debt.

II Grammar Practice. Complete the paragraph about Mr. Randall's future plans. Use expect. hope.
intend. or llifill and a perfect form of the infinitive.

Paul Randall has been "drowning in debt," so he's decided to make some changes in his
financial habits. By the end of this month, he ........................................................ a realistic budget that he can
(1. create)
follow. As a matter of fact, he .... .......................................... one of his last credit cards by October.
(2. pay off)
In addition, he ....... - ........ putting some money away in savings. If he can stick to his
(3. begin)
budget, he ............ ..................................... most of his debt within the year.
(4. pay back)

IJ Grammar Pract ice. On a separate sheet of paper, use the cues to write sentences with the future perfect.
1. By the end of this month I I I put 10 percent of my paycheck in the bank.
2. By the summer I I I save enough to go to Italy.
3. you I pay off your credit card balance by December? Sentence rhythm
4. When I they I pay the bill in full?

4l1ijJli11ilff41 Talk about your financial goals


D Notepadding. Write your short-term and long-term financial goals on your notepad .

be financially independent
save enough to buy ...
cut back on expenses
11mnmllm
create a budget
pay my debts in full
live within my means

Use the Grammar. Describe your future financial goals to a partner. "Once I've started working, Iplan to put a
little something into savings every week."

"By the time I graduate, I hope to have


saved enough to buy a new car."

29
CBt!ii
Express buyer's remorse
1:26
(;) Conversation Snapshot. Read and listen.
Notice the conversation strategies.
A: Hey, I heard you got an E-tec MP3 player. Lucky you!
B: Well, to tell you the truth, I could kick myself.
A: What do you mean?
B: I had no idea it would be so hard to operate.
It took me hours to figure out how to download a song.
A: What a pain!
B: You're telling me. Had I known, I would have gotten a
different brand.
1:27
0 Rhythm and intonation practice

Vocabulary. Expressing Buyer's Remorse. Listen and practice.

It costs so much to It takes up so much It's so hard to lt#s so hard to put It just sits around
maintain. room. operate. together. collecting dust.

r.:11 ~
~ "., Listening. Infer Reasons. Listen to the conversations in which people regret having
bought something. Complete each statement by inferring the reason for buyer's remorse.
1. H e's sorry he bought it because ................. .
a. it costs so much to maintain b. it takes up so much room
2. She's sorry she bought it because ............ .
a. it's so hard to operate b. it's so hard to put together
3. She's sorry she bought it because ................. .
a. it takes up so much room b. it just sits around collecting dust
4. H e's sorry he bought it because ......
a. it just sits around collecting dust b. it's so hard to put together
s. She's sorry she bought it because ................. .
a. it costs so much to maintain b. it's so hard to operate

30 UNIT 3
l:J Grammar. The past unreal conditional: inverted form
Past unreal conditionals can be stated without if. Invert hfil! and the subject.
If I had known it would take up so much room, --> Had I known it would take up so much room,
I wouldn't have bought it. I wouldn't have bought it.
I might have gotten another brand if I had --> I might have gotten another brand had I realized
realized it would be so hard to operate. it would be so hard to operate.
If we hadn't been so busy, we could have --> Had we not been so busy, we could have
shopped around. shopped around.
If I'd been told they wouldn't operate without --> Had I been told they wouldn't operate without
Use the past unreal
batteries, I would never have considered batteries, I would never have considered
conditional to describe
getting them. getting them. unreal or untrue
conditions and results.

D Grammar Practice. On a separate sheet of paper, rewrite the following past unreal
conditional sentences, using the inverted form.
1. They would have lent her the m oney if she had asked.
2. If I had been debt free, I would have considered buying that house.
3. If the Carsons hadn't been able to support their son, he would have had to
find a part-time job.
4. Could you have gotten the car if they hadn't raised the price?

0 Integrated Practice. Make statements of buyer's remorse, using the inverted form
of the past unreal conditional and the Vocabulary. Compare statements with a partner.
1. . .. I would never have gotten that espresso maker.
#Had I known it would take up so
2. . .. we never would have bought such a large sofa. much room, I would never have
3. . .. I could have gotten an entertainment center with fewer pieces. gotten that espresso maker.*
4. . .. we probably would have bought a more economical car.
S. . .. I would have gotten a DVD player with simpler directions.

Express buyer's remorse

Notepadding. On your notepad, What did you buy?


answer the questions about something
you regret buying. Tell your partner
about it. Why did you buy it?

Do you still have it?


Use the Conversation Strategies.
Role-play a conversation about the item
on your notepad. Use the Conversation If so, where is it?
Snapshot as a guide. Start like this:
"Hey, I heard you got ...." If not, what did you do with it?

Would you ever buy a similar item again?

Why or why not?

31
1;.n11
Describe your spending habits
1:30
Q Listening. Listen for Main Ideas. Read the statements.
Then listen to a radio call-in show and check True or False.
True False
1. Steve finds it hard to save money. D D
2. Steve buys a lot on credit. D D
3. Steve spends less money than he makes. D D
4. Steve has been on a budget for three months. D D
1:)1

ll Q Listening. Listen for Details. Now listen again. What


are the three tips Lara Savino gives the caller?
1 . ..................................................................................................................................................... .
2.
3 . .................. - ............................- ................- ............................................................ .

I! Draw Conclusions. Discuss the questions.


1. Why do you think Steve has a problem with money?
2. Which tip do you think is the most useful? Why?

IEJ (S Vocabulary. Describing Spending Habits. Listen and practice.

a big spender someone who likes to spend generous willing to give more money, time,
large amounts of money etc., than is expected

a spendthrift someone who spends money cheap I stingy unwilling to spend or give
carelessly, especially when he or she doesn't money, even when one has a lot of it
have a lot of it
thrifty I frugal using money carefully and
a cheapskate / a tightwad someone who wisely
does not like spending money and can be
unpleasant about it

D Vocabulary Practice. Complete the sentences about people's spending habits.


1. Can you believe what ......................................... Martin is! He refused to leave a tip for the waiter!
2. Our grandmother donates to many organizations. She's always been very
with her money.
3. He's so ............................................... that he wouldn't even lend his own son money.
4. George must be wealthy. He's such ................................ . He always insists on treating his
friends to dinner.
S. If you try to be more . .............................. ..... with your money, you'll have enough when you
really need it.
6. Unless you stop being such ............................................ , you're going to get deeper in debt.

32 UNIT 3
4(1M1Jll!@ Describe your spending habits
D Frame Your Ideas. First circle the letter that best completes the statement for you. Then compare
your answers with a partner's. Find out if your spending habits are the same or different.

go out and buy a new jacket.


have the jacket repaired.
use your credit card and hope you get a raise C. wear the jacket-it's no big deal.
this year. D. other: ...........................- ...................- ............................_.._ ................
cut back on other expenses until you've
saved enough.
C. wait until big-screen TVs come down in price.
D. other: ........................................................................................................ If you circled three or more As:
You can be generous at times, but you're a bit of a spendthrift.
Your motto Is "Easy come, easy gol"
If you circled three or more Bs:
You're usually very careful with your money-even thrifty.
Your motto Is "Everything In moderation.
If you circled three or more Cs:
A. offer to pay the entire bill. You hate spending money. Some might say you're a tightwad.
B. suggest splitting the bill equally. Your motto is "Money doesn't grow on treesl"
C. pay only what you owe. If you circled three or more Os:
D. other: ......................................................................................................... How would you describe your spending habits?

I> Group Work. Tell your classmates about your spending habits or your partner's. Use the Self-Test
and the Vocabulary from page 32.

Summarize. On a separate sheet of paper, describe your spending habits.

I 111ake a 9oot::t- 1tv1fi9, .bur I '1aye rrouflle sf-t&ki119 ro a flut::t-9ef ant::t- ]

33
@
Discuss reasons for charitable giving
1:31
0 Vocabulary. Charity and Investment. Listen and practice.

charity /'tSrer;)!if n. plural charities 1 [CJ an investment I m'vESlm;)nt/ n. 1 [C,U] the


organization that gives money, goods, or help money that people or organizations have put
to people who are poor, sick etc. 2 [U] charity into a company, business, or bank, in order
organizations in general to get a profit or to make a business activity
successful 2 [C,U] a large amount of time,
contribution / ,kontr;)'byuS;)n/ n. 1 [CJ energy, emotion etc. that you spend on something
something that you give or do in order to help
something be successful 2 [CJ an amount of philanthropist / fI 'lren8r;)p1st/ n. [CJ a rich
money that you give in order to help pay for person who gives money to help people who are
some thing poor or who need money to do useful things
profit / 'profit/ n. [C,U] money that you gain by
selling things or doing business

Excerpted from Longman Advanced American Dictionary 2007

ll Reading Warm-up. What are some reasons people donate money? What kinds of people
or organizations get contributions? Why?

B 0 Reading. Read the article. What reasons does Paul Newman give for donating to charity?
On your ActiveBook disc: Reading Glossary and
Extra Reading Comprehension Questions

Paul Newman: Actor and Philanthropist


Actor Paul Newman began acting in 1954 donate all profits to charity. The salad dressing
they can temporarily forget their illnesses.
and appeared in more than fifty films in was a big success: In the first year, Newman Newman and other generous donors have
his lifetime. He won an Oscar for best contributed approximately USS 1,000,000 to sponsored over 100,000 children to attend
actor in 1986 for The Color of Money. In charitable organizations. these camps free of charge. When asked why
1993, Newman received a special Oscar for Newman's Own expanded, and the _____ he gave so much to children with illnesses,
humanitarian service. These two awards reflect Newman said, "I've had such a string of good
company now makes many other food
his dual success as actor and philanthropist. fortune in my life .... Those who are most
products. Every year, Newman donated
lucky should hold their hands out to those
In 1982, Newman and a friend, A.E. Hotchner, 100% of the profits from the sale
who aren't.
founded Newman's Own, a not-for-profit food of Newman's Own products to
products company. The company's first product thousands of educational and Paul Newman didn't think that being
was a salad dressing that Newman and charitable organizations. And since philanthropic was an exceptional
Hotchner made at home themselves. Newman Paul Newman's death in 2008, quality. To him, generosity was simply
was told that the Newman's Own, Inc. continues a human trait, a common-sense
salad dressing this practice and has donated more way of living. "I respect generosity
would sell only if than US S295 million to charities in people. I don't look at it as
his face were on in the U.S. and 31 other countries philanthropy. I see it as an investment
the label. Though around the world. in the community. I am not a professional
he didn't want to philanthropist." said Newman. " I'm not
One of Newman's special projects was the
call attention to running for sainthood. I just happen to think
Hole in the Wall Gang Camps, the world's
himself, Newman that in life we need to be a little like the
only network of camps for children with life-
agreed because farmer who puts back into the soil what he
threatening illnesses. At these camps, children
he planned to takes out.
participate in many outdoor activities where

11
/ don't took at it as phila.ri .1. opy.
I see it as an investment in the communitv."
Information source: www.newmansown.com
34 UNIT 3
l!'J Express and Support an Opinion. Discuss the questions.
1. Why do you think Paul Newman's face has helped to sell his products?
2. Do you think that the work Newman is doing is making a difference?
3. In your opinion, do famous or wealthy people have a responsibility to "give back"
or to share w hat they have with others?
-- - - -=---~

' NOW YOU CAN Discuss reasons for charitable giving


D Pair Work. Read the list of possible reasons some people donate money.
In your opinion, which are good reasons? Explain.

to change society to give new opportunities to people


to feel good about themselves to satisfy religious beliefs
to get publicity or advertising so other people will thank them
to say "thank you" for past help so other people will admire them
to share what they have with others other: .................................................

[ I Notepadding. On your notepad, check the people or organizations you might consider
J making a contribution to. List your reasons for giving or not giving.

People I Organizations Reason~_for giving or not giving

D a homeless person
D a_seriously ill person
D a political candidate_ _
D a disaster relief agency _ __
D a hospital
D a school in a poor neighborhood
D a theater or a museum
D a local char!!Y
D an international charity _ _ __
D a religious institution
D other:

B Discussion. Talk about the people and "/ would rather give money to a local charity because
they'll use it to help people in my community."
organizations you would or would not give
money to. Use your notepad. Explain your reasons.

D Presentation. Choose one person, charity, or type of organization people donate money to.
Write a paragraph explaining the reasons why people should donate to this cause. Use the
Vocabulary from page 34 in your paragraph. Then present your ideas to your class or group.

35
Writing: Explain your financial goals
Sequencing Events: Review
When writing a paragraph, the sentences need to be WRITING MODEL
logically organized. Time order words are used to
clarify the order of events in someone's life, to present . I intend to be financially
the steps in a process, or to give instructions.
independent by the time 1 am
Special time order words and expressions help make
s~. How? To begin with, I plan
sequence clear:
to live within my means. I will
First, cut corners where I can and stick
First of all,
to my budget. Then, I hope to
To begin with,
~pen up my own business. Next, I
Second, intend to start putting some money
Third,
away. After that, I plan to make
Next, some smart investments. In the
Then, end, by the time I am sixty, I will
Following that,
have saved up enough to retire and
After, buy a nice weekend house.
Afterwards,
After that,
Finally,
Lastly,
In the end,

Topics
My long-term financial goals
fl Prewriting. Listing Ideas. Choose a topic. Then complete the chart. The steps I need to take in
order to buy .....................
Topic:

Goal or step My plan Completion date


First,
Then,
After that,
Finally,

a Writing. Write a paragraph, using your notes. Use time order words and
expressions to organize the sequence of goals or steps in your paragraph.
Remember to write a topic sentence.

B Self-Check.
D Did you use time order words or expressions in the paragraph?
D Does the sequence of events in the paragraph make sense?
D Does the topic sentence introduce the topic of the paragraph?

36 UNIT 3
grammar vocabulary listening
reading . speaking . pronunciation

F.I ..~., Listening. Listen to the conversations about money matters. Then decide which
w
statement best summarizes each conversation. Listen again if necessary.
Conversation 1. Conversation 2. ...................... Conversation 3. .....................
a. If he'd known it would just sit around collecting dust, he never would have bought it.
b. He's too much of a spendthrift. He should be more frugal.
c. He's not a spendthrift. He's just feeling generous.
d. If he'd known it would be so hard to put together, he never would have bought it.

l!J Complete the statements with words from the box.


1. Steve Gold, an assistant to a big executive at World Corp, saved his charities
company a lot of money by purchasing airplane tickets online from a
contribution
discount travel website. His boss appreciated his being so ..........................
frugal
2. Bill Gates, founder of the Microsoft Corporation, is not only one of the richest
men in the world, but he's also one of the most . ..... ... ...................... . The Gates generous
Foundation donates a minimum of US $1.5 billion each year. investment
3. Dan Fielding expected that his ........... ..... .......... in the ComTech philanthropist
Corporation would result in a nice ......... . . .. . ...... However, the
profit
business failed and Dan lost all of his money.
stingy
4 . One of the richest women in history, Hetty Green was also notoriously
............... She once refused to light the candles on her birthday tightwad
cake so she could return them to the store for a refund. Hetty is considered
to be history's greatest . . . ..... .....
5. Andrew Carnegie was a famous .. .... ................ ... who gave away over
US$350 million to ..................................... His largest ...................... ............... ..... was for
US$56 million dollars, which was used to build over 2,500 free public libraries
around the world.

B Write a conditional sentence for each regret below. Begin with an inverted form ("Had I ...").
1. a regret about your financial situation

2. a regret about something you bought

3. a regret about a relationship

l!'J Express your future plans and goals. Use the perfect form of an infinitive or the
future perfect.
1. Before the end of today, I plan ........... -- ..... --- - ............... .
2. By next month, I will .....
3. By the end of this English course, I expect .................. . ---- - ........ - .....
4. By the end of the year, I intend ........
5. Within five years, I hope .. ........ -

37
Looking Good

rJ Topic Preview. These pictures depict concepts of ideal


beauty at different times and in different places. Do you find
any of these fashions attractive?

For centuries in
Japan, the geisha
defined beauty
and grace.

Paduang women of Myanmar


begin lengthening their necks
with gold bands at the age of
five or six.
In India, Pakistan, the Middle East, and Africa,
women paint their faces and hands with henna
for specia l occasions. In New Zealand, it is traditional
for Maori men to decorate their
faces and bodies.

EJ Express Your Ideas.


1. What things do people do today to make themselves
more attractive? Which techniques do you think are the
most successful?
2 . In your opinion, why do tastes change over time from
culture to culture?
3. What do you think this expression means? Do you agree?

'beholder-the person who is looking

38 UNIT 4
P!I ~
1i:1 ,. .., Sound Bites. Read and listen to a conversation between a couple about dressing up and dressing down.

MARGO: Don't you think you might be a little PAUL: How's this?
overdressed? MARGO: Now that's a little too casual.
PAUL: What do you mean? PAUL: Margo! I wish you'd make up your mind.
MARGO: Hello! The invitation said casual. MARGO: And what's with the baggy pants?
PAUL: Oops. I thought we were supposed to get PAUL: OK. If I change into a polo shirt and a pai1
dressed up. Be right back. of slacks, will that work?
MARGO: Perfect.

m Activate Language from a Text. Use the following words to tell the story of what happened
in the conversation.
underdressed overdressed formal casual

STARTING POINT

D Apply Ideas. Look at the pictures.


Are the people dressed appropriately
for each event? With a partner,
use the words from Exercise D
to describe how the people are
dressed. Then compare your answers
with other students'.

D Relate to Personal Experience.


Discuss the questions. Event:
a dinner party at a
1. When was the last time you got dressed up? friend's home
What did you wear?
2. Have you ever been underdressed or Event
English class
overdressed for an event? What happened? How did you feel?

39
l!J Grammar Practice. Circle the correct quantifier. Explain your answer. HBusinesspeople is a
plural count noun. H
1. (Most I Much) businesspeople today prefer to dress casually.
2 . (A number of I A great d eal of) com panies would prefer not to change their dress codes.
3 . {Ail I Every) manager has to d ecide what is best for the company and its employees.
4. (One I Several) com pany in New Zealand d ecid ed to try a "casual summer" because the
summers are alw ays so hot.
5. Research has shown that a business casual dress cod e has resulted in (less I a few) job dissatisfaction
among p rofessionals.
6. (A little I A few) companies are returning to a more formal dress code.

D Grammar Practice. Read the Grammar Snapshot again. On a separate sheet of paper, rewrit e
t he art icle, using different quantifiers wit h similar meanings.

A 1114/or#y or pro/ess10.na1s a
M os t professionals
around the world wear
formal business attire
to work in company
___
.f'orma/ .6usi.ness af-hre
,...._ ~----
r.
YOu,n,::t_ f'Jie WOY/,:: wear
o work i.n c;ompa.ny o,f'f'/c;es.

offices.

D (5 Listening. Infer Information. Listen to the conversations about casual and


formal d ress. Determine how best to co mplete each statement.
1. He'd prefer to ................ a. dress up b. d ress d own
2. She wants to .............. a. dress up b. dress down
3. He's p retty sure a tie is .......... a. optional b. mandatory
4. She thinks a dress is . - ..... . a. optional b. mandatory

4cIMiii@.i Discuss appropriate dress


D Frame Your Ideas. How do you t hink people in your Events
a business meeting
country would generally suggest dressing for t hese
dinner at a nice restaurant
events? Discuss appropriate dinner at the home of your friend's parents
and inappropriate d ress for an evening party at a cafe or restaurant with
*Most people would . .. ,
each event. your classmates
but a few people .... " an in-class party

0 Use the Grammar. In a group, compare your classmates'


opinions. Use quantifiers t o summarize your classmates' ideas.

"A majority of the class said .... "


( "A few students said . ... "J
B Discussion.
1. Do you think it's important to dress according to social conventions? Explain.
2. How does w hat people wear affect h ow others perceive them?

41
Cij1Mi
Comment on fashion and style
B (S Conversation Snapshot. Read and listen. Notice the
conversation strategies.

A: Check o ut that guy over there.


B: Which guy?
A: The one on the cell phone. Can you believe w h a t he's
wearing?
B: What do you mean?
A: Don't you think that shirt's a little flashy?
B: Well, the colors ARE pretty loud, but that's w h a t's in style.
2"'6
0 Rhythm and intonation practice

IJJ 0 Vocabulary. Describing Fashion and Style.


Listen and practice.

Attractive
fashionable I stylish modern
temporarily popular
in style / trendy I hot*
in good taste
elegant I chic
attention-getting
striking

~ Unattractive
old-fashioned / out of style no longer popular
tackY* in poor taste
flaShY*
attention-getting
shocking offensive

informal

li:I ~
1'::11 .. .., Listening. Listen to Activate Vocabulary. Listen to the
conversations about fashion and style. Choose the adjective from the
Vocabulary that best summarizes each speaker's point of view.
1. They think the purses in the magazine are ................ . / >
a. hot b. flash y c. elegant
2. He thinks the jacket Carl is wearing is .........
a. stylish b. flashy c. striking
3. They think the girl's hairstyle is
a. striking b. old-fashioned c. shocking
4. He thinks the dress the salesperson is suggesting is
a. elegant b. striking c. trendy
s. She thinks the blouse her friend's h olding is ... .... .
a. out of style b. tacky c. chic

42 UNIT 4
l!J Vocabulary Practice. What do you and your partner think of these fashions and
hairstyles? Use the adjectives from the Vocabulary to describe them in your own way.

D Think and Explain. With a partner, read and match each quote with a person in the photos in
Exercise D. Explain your answers. Which quote sounds the most like you?

"Clothing should express your individuality. I don't "/draw the line at wild and crazy clothes. I just don't like
want to conform to how other people look or what to attract attention to myself. I'm a lot more comfortable
they wear-I prefer to stand out in a crowd." in subdued colors and classic styles. n

"What I wear may not be the most trendy- "I prefer a look that isn't just a fad that won't be in style for
but I like it that way. I'd rather be comfortable very long. I prefer clothes that are well made-they may
than fashionable." cost a bit more, but they last longer. n

"The way you dress affects how people perceive you, so it's important
to dress well. I always choose designer labels-they're the best.#

- - - -- -- --

NOW YOU CAN Comment on fashion and style


well made
.... comfortable
.,_., Frame Your Ideas. Complete each statement about fashions in your own way. 1
wild and crazy
Use these words and expressions. classic

I prefer clothes that ...


conform
stand out - - l
i..- - - < 1
subdued
fashionable
attract attention old-fashioned stylish
I don't like to ... express one's out of style elegant
individuality tacky striking
I dislike it when women wear clothes that ... flashy trendy
I dislike it when men wear clothes that ... shocking

Use the Conversation Strategies. Explain why you find some fashions attractive and some
unattractive. Refer to the photos on this page or bring in others. Use the Vocabulary from page 42
and the Conversation Snapshot as a guide. Start with one of the following expressions:

43
Bt4 Language
0
3

Evaluate ways to change one's appearance .;\;o~' .J':').;.,,;_,..\ ~/

B O Listening. Infer Information. Listen to Part 1 of a radio program about men's


hairstyles. Then read the statements and listen again. Complete the statements,
according to the information in the program. a goatee
1. In the eighteenth century, wigs were considered .......
a. chic b. tacky c. out of style
2. In the nineteenth century, w igs w ere considered ..
a. in style b. old-fashioned c. striking
3. Before the twentieth century, short hair would not have been considered .
a. stylish b. out of style c. shocking

0 <;;)
Listening. Listen to Summarize. Now listen to Part 2. What generally
happened to men's hairstyles in the mid-twentieth century?

B 0 Listening. Infer Information. Read the following statements and listen to


Part 2 again. Complete the statements, according to the information in the program.
1. Men changed their hairstyles in the 1960s as a ................. statement.
a. fashion b. social and political c. religious and moral
2. Twenty years ago, the bald look would have been considered .............. .
a. eccentric b. stylish c. old-fashioned
3. Young people who dye their hair w ant to ................ .
a. be stylish b. conform c. express their individuality

DJ Express and Support an Opinion. Do you agree with the hair stylist that
"anything goes" today for men's hairstyles? Are there any hairstyles that you really
sideburns
don't like on a man? Do you think men's hairstyles have improved or gotten worse
in recent times? highlights

braids

44 UNIT 4
~
NOW YOU CAN Evaluate ways to change one's appearance

Frame Your Ideas. Discuss and complete the checklist with a partner.

: Ways people spend time and money to make


~ themselves more attractive
!
Which do you think are good ideas for women? How about for men? Which do you
think are good for both? Check the appropriate box.
men women men women
skin lightening D D contact lenses D D
skin tanning D D false eyelashes D D
facial piercing D D makeup D D
henna D D hair coloring D D
facia ls D D permanents (perms) D D
m anicures D D hair transplants D D
nail extensions D D wigs D D
nail polishing D D hair removal D D
cosmetic surgery D D other D D

Discussion.
1. Who do you think should spend more time making themselves attractive--
men or women? Why?
2. Can people do too much to try to make themselves attractive? If so, what do you
think is "too much"?

45
Bh''
Discuss appearance and sel}esteem
2:12

0 Word Skills. Using the Prefix Self-. Use a dictionary to fi nd othe r words with t he prefix self-.

self-confidence the belief that onf has the ability self-centered interested only in oneself
to d o things well Children are naturally self-centered, but they usually
Parents can build their children's self-confidence by learn to be more interested in others as they grow up.
praising their accomplishments.
self-confident sure of oneself; not shy or nervous
self-esteem the attitude of acceptance and in social situations
app roval of oneself Janet is a very self-confident young woman. She'll do
High self-esteem can help a person succeed, and low well at the university.
self-esteem can be damaging.
self-image the opinion one has about one's own self-conscious worried abou t what one looks like
abilities, appearance, and character or what other people think of one's appearance
Mark's self-image improved after he started his Everyone at the meeting was dressed casually, so I felt
new job. self-conscious in my suit.

self-pity the feeling of being sorry for oneself self-critical tending to find fault with oneself
It's easy to indulge in self-pity when you're faced Paul is too self-critical. He always focuses on his
with problems. mistakes rather than his accomplishments.

( ] Reading Warm-up. Do you t hink most people are self-conscious about how they look?

B 0 Reading. Read the article about female body image. What do you think is expressed in the song lyrics?

WHO "Am I not pretty enough?


Is my heart too broken?
On average, U.S. children age eight or older spend

DEFINES Why do you see right


through me?'
almost seven hours a day watching television, playing video
games, or reading magazines. Studies have revealed these
trends:

BEAUTY? If they had just one wish, girls ages eleven to seventeen
say they would wish to be thinner. .
W hat makes a girl beautiful? The lines above are from Between the ages of ten and fo urteen, the percentage
the song "Not Pretty Enough," written and performed of girls who are "happy with the way I am" drops
by Kasey Chambers, an Australian folk singer and from 60%to 29%.
songwriter. The words tell us a lot about what it's like to 80%of ten-year-old girls are on diets.
be female in a society in which media such as television, Between S and 10 million teenage girls and young
movies, and magazines define what it means to be beautiful. women have an eating disorder-extreme dieting--
In cultures where success and happiness are equated that can be dangerous to their health.
with being thin and attractive "just like models or movie Teenage cosmetic surgeries more than doubled in the last
stars," many young women are left feeling either invisible decade and are growing at an alarming rate.
or fat and unaccepted.
70% of girls say they have wanted to look like an actress.
It might not surprise you to read that 75 percent of
About 30% have actually tried to.
women in the United States think that they are "too fat."
But many people do not realize how these ideas about
body image have affected teenagers and children. You don't Young people ca n benefit from realizing how much
The average fashion model is 5 feet,
11 inches (1.83 meters) tall and have to look much fa rther than a billboard sign, magazine they are being targeted as a consumer group and how media
weighs 11 7 pounds (53 kilogram s). advertisement, or popular television show to see how girls messages are used to either sell them products or convey
The average woman is 5 feet, 4
inches (1.65 meters) tall and weighs
and women are being presented and to understand how it messages about body image, self-esteem, social values,
140 pounds (63.5 kilograms). affects them. and behavior.
On your ActiveBook disc: Reading Glossary and
Extra Reading Comprehension Questions Information source: www.riverdeep.net
46 UNIT 4
I!] Identify Supporting Details. Complete each statement, according to uwho Defines
Beauty?" Then support your answers, using information from the article.

1. The media can be damaging to young people's ............ .


a. self-image b. high self-esteem c. self-pity
2. If girls had more ..... ...
, they would not want to look like fashion models.
a. self-pity b. self-confidence c. self-image
3. Before the age of ten, most girls are ............. .
a. self-conscious b. self-confident c. self-critical
4. After the age of ten, a lot of teenage girls suffer from ............. .
a. too much self-confidence b. high self-esteem c. low self-esteem

II Apply Ideas. Discuss the questions.


1. Are girls and women in your country affected by images in the media?
Are boys and men also affected? How?
2. What do you think young people can do to avoid being affected by the messages
they get from advertising, TV, and the movies? What can they do to be more satisfied
with the way they look and to develop their self-esteem?

4c114i1)ijff4 Discuss appearance and self-esteem

i; Frame Your Ideas. Take the survey. Then compare and explain your choices with a partner.

How much do you agree with each statement


strongly disagree strongly agree
about men and women in your country?
1. Most women are self-conscious about their bodies. 2 3 4 5
2. Most men are self-conscious about their bodies. 2 3 4 5
3. Most women are self-conscious about their faces. 2 3 4 5
4. Most men are self-conscious about their faces. 2 3 4 s
5. Most women want to look more like people in the media. 2 3 4 5
6. Most men want to look more like people in the media. 2 3 4 s
7. Most women think beauty is not important. 2 3 4 5
8. Most men think beauty is not important. 2 3 4 s

D Notepadding. Make a list of factors t hat affect self-esteem.


Build self-esteem
Interfere with
self-esteem
B Discussion.
1. Do you think life is easier for people who are
attractive? Why or why not?
2. Do you think people should just accept the way they
look or try to change their appearances?
3. In an ideal world, what should one's self-esteem be
based on?

47
Writing: Compare two people's tastes in fashion
Compare and Contrast: Review
Compare (show similarities) Contrast (show differences)
like unlike
Like Sylvia, I wear jeans all the time. Unlike her sister, Wendy wears great clothes.
OR Wendy wears great clothes, unlike her sister.

similarly in contrast
I grew up paying little attention to fashion. I've always liked ear piercings and henna.
Similarly, Mel was not very interested in clothes. In contrast, my friend thinks they're ugly.
OR I grew up paying little attention to fashion; OR I've always liked ear piercings and henna;
similarly, Mel was not very interested in clothes. in contrast, my friend thinks they're ugly.

likewise however
My mother always liked elegant clothes. Lily had to wear a uniform when she was in school.
Likewise, her two sisters did too. However, I was able to wear anything I wanted.
OR My mother always liked elegant clothes; OR Lily had to wear a uniform when she was in school;
likewise, her two sisters did too. however, I was able to wear anything I wanted.

as well / not either whereas I while


Many people spend too much money on clothes. Sam spends a lot of money on clothes, whereas
They spend too much on shoes as well. Jeff shops in thrift stores.
Our parents' generation didn' t worry so much OR Sam spends a lot of money on clothes, while
about fashion. Their own parents didn't either. Jeff shops in thrift stores.

Prewriting. Organizing Ideas. Me / -co11rervotive nyle


Choose a topic and draw a diagram similar to the -!ffeor rvitr, rkirtr, blovrer Topics
one on the right. Label the circles with the topics Compare and
you are comparing and write Both in the ( contrast your fashion
style with that of
middle. List the differences in each circle -like to lffeor J..otr
-bvy clotJ..er 011 role someone you know.
and the similarities in the middle. Both Compare and
-J..ove mo11y poirr of rJ..oer
contrast fashion
today with fashion
five, ten, or twenty
Writing. Write two paragraphs comparing and -ki11d of ecce11tr/i
-liker florJ..y po11tr, years ago.
contrasting ideas, referring to the notes in your
tacky rJ..oer
diagram. In your first paragraph, write about
the differences. In your second paragraph, write My brother
about the similarities. Use connecting words and
include a topic sentence for each paragraph.

B Self-Check.
O Did you correctly use connecting words for comparing?
O Did you correctly use connecting words for contrasting?
O Does each paragraph have a topic sentence?

48 UNIT 4
grammar vocabulary listening
reading speaking pronunciation

rJ Q Listening. Listen carefully to the conversations about tastes in fashion.


Infer which adjective best describes what each person t hinks.
1. The man thinks the suit is ..
a. stylish b. out of style c. tacky
2. The woman thinks the dress is ...
a. chic b. old-fashioned c. flashy
3. The man thinks the tie is .. ............ .
a. fashionable b. out of style c. shocking
4 . The woman thinks the shoes are
a. out of style b. in style c. striking

[J Complete each statement with an appropriate word o r phrase.


1. A set of rules for how to dress in a particular situation is a dress
2 . In the United States and Canada, many companies allow their employees to wear
"business "on Fridays-they don't have to wear suits, skirts, or ties.
3. Some companies allow employees to dress .. ................... for some business meetings
where the focus is on getting to know each other in a more casual setting.
4 . When a fashion is . style, people no longer wear that fashion. When a fashion
is ...... style, everyone wants to wear it.

1311 Cross out the one quantifier that cannot be used in each sentence.
1. (Every I A few I Most) older people find today's fashions pretty shocking.
2. Our company says that it will allow us to dress down (one I a couple of I a few)
days a week.
3 . (Most I Many I Every) young girls aren't worried about the way they look.
4. (Much I A majority of I A number of) researchers are concerned about the effect
the media has on young boys as well.
5. (Many I Most I Much) men wore their hair very short in the 1930s.
6. I'd say your sister could use (some I a little I a few) fashion help.
7. There are (several I most I many) reasons why so many people have eating disorders.
8. A new study says that (most I many I every) children who watch TV for more than
six hours a day may have problems with self-esteem as teenagers.

l!J Write a paragraph explaining your opinion about one of these expressions.
Give concrete examples from you r life.

"1\eauty iS only skin-deep." "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder."

49
rJ Topic Preview. Look at the graph and photos. Whe re do most
people live in your country-in rural or urban areas?

6-

xperts predict major changes in .,


5_

-
Estimated and Projected
World Urban a nd Rural Population

the distribution of the world's g-


8. -
1950-2030

population in the 21st century ~


c3-

.!!!!- - - - -
Throughout human history,
most people have lived in
&_2 - ... ---
0
Q. -
Urban
.. -
Rural
rural areas. o I I
1950 1975 2000 2030
In 1950, only 29% of the world's population lived in towns and cities.
Now in the twenty-first century-for the first time in human history-
more than half of the world's population lives in urban areas.
Source: United Nations Population Division, 2000

In the late twentieth centu ry, rural ~:is.~-iii~


populations began to m igrate in ..
great numbers to urban areas.

In many developed countries, there has also been '


a migration-but from urban areas to the suburbs.

[J Interpret Data from a Graph. With a partner, answer the questions, according to the
information in the graph.
1. Approximately how many people in the world will be living in urban areas in 2030?
How about in rural areas?
2. In what year did the world's urban population surpass the world's rural population?

B Express Your Ideas. Is there much migration in your country? What are some reasons people migrate?
50 U N IT 5
l:J Q Sound Bites. Read and listen to a
conversation about city life.
DON: Hey, Kyle! So how's the big city treating you?
KYLE: Funny you should ask. Not great.
DON: What do you mean?
KYLE: Well, on my way here, I'm crossing the street
and this guy in an SUV turns the corner and
almost runs me over.
DON: Are you serious?
KYLE: Yeah. The driver was in such a big hurry he
didn't even notice. I just can't keep up with the
pace here.
DON: Well, you do have to learn to stay on your
toes in the city.
KYLE: It really gets to me sometimes. I don't
think I'll ever get used to it. I guess I'm just a
country boy at heart.

II Think and Explain. Read the conversation again.


With a partner, explain the meaning of each
of the following statements or questions.
1. "So how's the big city treating you?"
2. "I just can't keep up with the pace here."
3. "You do have to learn to stay on your toes."
4. "It really gets to me sometimes."
5. 'Tm just a country boy at heart."

STARTING POINT

Frame Your Ideas. What are some advantages and d isadvantages of living in each type of
place? Write them in the chart.
.. -
.-a 1r.u r;.,.,...,.
.n
-
, . , I'll" ':L~~

the country

the city

the suburbs

D Discussion. Whe re would you prefer to live-in the country, the city, or the suburbs? Why?

51
Cflh18
Politely ask someone not to do something
2:16
0 Conversation Snapshot. Read and listen.
Notice the conversation strategies.
2:18
A: Do you mind my smoking here? 0 Ways to soften an
B: Actually, smoking kind of bothers me. objection
I hope that's not a problem. I hope that's not a problem.
1hope you don't mind.
A: Not at all. I can step outside.

i
I hope it's OK I all right.
B: That's very considerate of you. Thanks I don't mean to
inconvenience you.
for asking.
2:17
0 Rhythm and intonation practice

ll Grammar. Possessives with gerunds


You can use a possessive before a gerund when you want to indicate the performer
of the action.
The kids' singing was too loud.
Your constant arguing is getting on my nerves.
I didn't like their talking during the movie.
You should complain about Sam's cutting in line.
The thing that bothers me is her smoking.
In informal spoken English, a noun or an object pronoun is often used instead of a possessive.
I can understand John being annoyed. (instead of "John's being annoyed")
I can't accept them Ignoring me. (instead of "their ignoring me")

B Grammar Practice. Combine the two statements, using a possessive


with a gerund.

Example: They allow smoking. I'm not in favor of it.


............... ....l:.m....1x?.t...in...ftl.r..<?.r...9l!...th.~i.r.....4/!.<?.w./.n9....P.mP.f:::..in9.,......... ..
1. He plays his MP3 player in the library. I don't appreciate that.

2. They smoke cigars in the car. My mother objects to it.

3 . She's talking on her cell phone. We don't mind it.

4. My brother litters. I'm really annoyed by it.

52 UNITS
m (.) Word Skills. Using Negative Prefixes to Form Antonyms.
2:19 Negative prefixes
dis-
im-
ir-
un-
1. acceptable ~ unacceptable 4. proper ~ improper in-
2. con siderate ~ inconside rate s. respectful ~ disrespectful
3. polite ~ impolite 6. responsible ~ irresponsible

IJ Word Skills Practice. Use a dictionary to find antonyms for the following words. Unstressed syllables
What other adjectives can you find with negative prefixes?
1. appropria te ~ ........................................... s. honest ~ ...................................
2. courteous ~ ............................... ................... 6. pleasant ~ ..................................................
3. excu sable ~ ................ ..... 7. rational ~ ...................................................
4. imaginable ~ .................................................. 8. mature ~ ..........................................._......

D Activate Word Skills. Write your own examples of inappropriate behavior. Use the adjectives
from Exercises D and E.
Example: ..... If..S....J!1..c;..o..t1..S./4..~rate:...fo.....P!4.Y .../C?tJ..tf!: ...l?'P.?.'.c.. . ..O..r.7... 4.....P...u..~.:....... .............................................................
1. ..... ........................................................................................................................... ......................................... ..
2. .........................................................................-............................................ ............................................ ....................................................................................
3.
4.
s.

NOW YOU CAN Politely ask someone not to do something


D Notepadding. Discuss situations in which you would probably ask for permission to do
something. Make a list on your notepad.

s /11okin 9 i n a Y6sfauranl'
furnin9~n fJi6 TV i;i. a ,:t.o&for's ..waitin9 roo111
111aki119 a ,;all on 111.y ,;ell p.hon6 in pu/JJic-

Your list:

"Do you mind


D Use the Conversation Strategies. Role-play a mysmokingr
"Do you mind my
conversation asking for permission to do something.
making a quick call
Your partner politely asks you not to do it. Use the
on my cell phone?"
Conversation Snapshot as a guide. Start like this:
"Do you mind my ..."

53
lijMi
Complain about public conduct
2:20
0 Grammar Snapshot. Read the interview responses and notice the paired conjunctions.

What ticks you off?

. .. " ., ..,. . .. . .--. I


Jorge Santos,_31 .
Sao Paulo._Brazil . :

Here's something that


What ticks me off? Well, gets on my nerves: I
I can't understand why hate it when people use
people litter. Who do they You know what gets to their cell phones in public
think is going to clean me? Smoking. It's such places. They annoy other
up after them? Either an inconsiderate habit. people, not only on trains
they should throw their Secondhand cigarette It really bugs me when and buses but also in
garbage in a trash can or smoke is neither good people spit on the street. theaters. They should
hold on to it till they find for you nor pleasant to Not only do I find it have the courtesy to
one. I think it's great that be around. I'd like to see disgusting, but it's also either turn their phones
people have to pay a fine smoking banned from unhygienic. It's important off or to leave them at
for littering. Maybe they'll more public places. Don't to think about other home. It really makes me
think twice before doing non-smokers have rights people's feelings and angry. I guess it's kind of
it again. too? public health. my pet peeve.

IJ Express Your Ideas. Do any of the behaviors described in the interview responses "tick you off"?
With a partner, discuss and rate each of them as follows:

extremely annoying somewhat annoying not annoying at all GRAMMAR BOOSTER


. C9
Conjunctions with 1Q.1QQ,
neither. or not either
$..Q,!QQ,~Or.!l.Qt
either: short responses
B Grammar. Paired conjunctions
You can connect related ideas with paired conjunctions. BE CAREAJL! When not only ... but (also} joins two
either ... QI clauses, notice the subject-verb position in the first
Either smoke outside or don't smoke at all. clause of the sentence.
Cell phones should either be turned off or left at home. Not only did they forget to turn off their cell phones, but
they also talked loudly during the concert.
neither .. nor Not only are they noisy, but they're rude.
I would allow neither spitting nor littering on the street.
Neither eating nor chewing gum is acceptable in class. Verb agreement with paired conjunctions
When joining two subjects, make sure the verb agrees
not only .. . but (also)
with the subject closer to the verb.
Not only CD players but also cell phones should be banned
Either the mayor or local businesspeople need to decide.
from trains.
Either local businesspeople or the mayor needs to decide.

54 UNIT 5
l!J Grammar Practice. On a separate sheet of paper, combine the sentences with the paired
conjunction indicated. Use QL nor. or but (also).
1. My uncle isn't willing to give up smoking. My grandparents aren't willing to give up
smoking. (neither)
2. People should speak up abou! what bothers them. They should just learn to live with
other people's habits. (either)
3. I don't like it when people use cell phones in theaters. I don't like it when they use them
on buses. (not only)
4. The smell of the smoke bothers me. The danger to my health bothers me. (not only)

.
Complain about public conduct

Notepadding. Make a list of some of the things that really get on your nerves
in public places. Then write sentences with paired conjunctions to express your
opinion. Use some of the adjectives with negative prefixes.

In restaurants: ralki119 on c.ell phones cutting in line


. /. ,,. .,,... "/so very il1'polire. graffiti on walls
Ir's nor only annoy1n9, vw ' ' s .. talking in theaters
strong perfumes
In restaurants: gossiping

In stores:
Adjectives with
negative prefixes
On buses and trains: disrespectful
immature
impolite
On the street: inconsiderate
inexcusable
irresponsible
In offices: unacceptable
unpleasant

In movie theaters:

Other:

J> Use the Grammar. One student is an "on-the-street interviewer" and asks the other students
about what gets on their nerves. Use the sentences with paired conjunctions from your notepad
in your responses.

-- me off ls ...
" ..... 1 can't understand why
l'H tell you what really You want to know
gets on my nerves.... what really bugs me?
B Discussion.
1. In your opinion, how should people behave in public places? Do you think it's important
to speak up when people behave inconsiderately in public?
2. Do you ever do things that annoy other people? Explain.

SS
CijMi
Discuss social responsibility
2:21 ..
0 Vocabulary. Ways to Perform Community Service. Listen and practice.

GET INVOLVED WITH YOUR COMMUNITY!


Donate
your time
Plant flowers or
trees where there
Mail letters, make phone
calls, raise money, or
~ Volunteer 9
aren 't any. collect signatures for Work without pay in
a community service the fire department, a
organization. hospital, or a school.

I] Vocabulary Practice. Would you ever consider doing "/ would never consider donating my
any of the community service activities in the Vocabulary? organs because it's against my beliefs."
With a partner, explain why you would or would not.

2:22
0 Listening. Listen to Summarize. Read the questions and
listen to Part 1 of the story about Nicholas Green and his family.
Take notes on your notepad. Then summarize the first part of
the story w ith your partner.

Whe re were the Greens from?

What were they doing in Italy?

What happened to Nicholas?

Wha t decision did his parents make?

How did the Italian people react?

l:J Q Listening. Listen for Details. Read the questions and listen to Part 2. Discuss your
answers with a partner.
1. What changes occurred in Italy after the Greens made their decision?
What is "The Nicholas Effect"?
2. How many people received one of Nicholas's organs? What effect did his gift
have on their lives?
3. As a result of this incident, what are the Greens doing today?

56 UNIT 5
0 Critical Thinking. Discuss the questions, using information from the listening passage and
your own ideas.
1. Do you think you w ould h ave m ad e the same d ecision the Greens did if you h ad b een
in their situation ? Why or w h y n ot?
2. Why d o you think p eople resp on d ed so strongly to this story?

NOW YOU CAN Discuss social responsibility


Frame Your Ideas. Consider each situation and discuss what you might do. Based on your
answers, how strong do you think your "sense of community" is? Compare ideas with a partne r.

"My first responsibility is to ~y "I'd be happy to donate money


family. I can't imagine ~oing to help a stranger. People
this for a total stranger. should help each other.

There has been a terrible storm, an d many homes have been


destroyed. You're asked to let a family live w ith you until their
home is fixed.
What would you do if they were . . .
a. your relatives? c. your colleague's family?
b. your neighbors? d. complete strangers?

Som eone needs a new liver to survive. Doctors say th at


they can use a piece of your liver to save that person's life.
What would you do if the person were . .
a. a family member? c. your classmate?
b. your neighbor? d. a complete stranger?

Developers plan to destroy a well-known historical


monument so t hey can b uild a new office building. You're
asked to donate your t ime to help save t hat monument
What would you do if the monument were .
a. in your neighborhood? c. in another city in your country?
b. in another part of the city? d. in anothe r country?

Discussion. Have you or someone you know ever volunteered for some kind of community
service? How important is it for a person to be active in his or her community? Explain.

57
13.141
Identify urban problems
Reading Warm-up. What problems do you think cities of 10 million or more people might share?

a 0
2:24

Reading. Read t he interview. Do you agree with Dr. Perlman's views?

The Advent of the Megacity


Following is an interview with Dr.
Janice Perlman, founder and president
of Mega-Cities Project, Inc. Her
organization attempts to make cities
worldw ide more livable places by
taking good ideas from one place and
trying to make them work in another.

Q. How do you define "megacity"?


A. We define megacities in our work as
cities that have reached populations of 10 million
or more. The majority of these are in developing
countries. Migration to the city is the route for
many people to greater choice, opportunity, and
well-being. By coming to settle in the city, they
have in effect "voted with their feet." Q. Do megacities in the developed and Q. Is the solution to urban problems strict
developing world differ. or are they linked by central planning?
Q. Why are these places going to be very certain similarities? A . Absolutely not. We need decentralized
important in the next hundred years?
A. These large cities have a lot more in planning that includes local citizens. In my view,
A . The 21st century won't be a century of common with each other than they do with attempts to create planned cities or communities-
rural areas and small towns but of giant cities the small towns and villages in their own like Brasilia or Chandigarh-are too sterile and
that will set the standard of how we live, how our countries. For example, every megacity struggles miss the spontaneity of cities that grew organically,
environment is preserved (or not preserved), how with a widening gap between rich and poor. Every like Rio de Janeiro, Bombay, or even New York
our economies work, and what kind of civil society "first-world" city, such as Los Angeles, New York, City. The best example of urban planning I've
we develop. London, or Tokyo, has within it a "third-world" seen recently is in Curitiba, Brazil, which set up a
city of poverty and deprivation. And every third- brilliant public transportation system in anticipation
world city, such as Calcutta, Cairo, or Mexico City, of population growth. The historic areas of cities
~ --- - .
has within it a first-world city of high culture, like Siena, Paris, or Barcelona all have elements of
~ technology, fashion, and finance. planning that led to buildings of similar heights
In addition, all megacities share the problems and architecture, but they were not centrally
of providing jobs and economic opportunities, planned. There is a lot of diversity within the
and making housing, education, and health care design, and people love to go to those cities.
available. They deal with crime and violence, Megacities are really very exciting places. The
as well as basic infrastructure such as water, truth is, I've never met a megacity that I didn't like!
sanitation. and public transportation. This is
no easy task. The leaders of these cities The World's Ten Population (millions) Rank
Largest Urban Area s in 1996 in 2015 in 201'
recognize that they have similar problems,
1 Tokyo, Japan 27.2 28.9 1
and they would like to learn more from other
2 Mexico City, Mexico 16.9 19.2 7
cities, particularly about successful solutions.
3 Sao Paulo, Brazil 16.8 20.3 4
If we are going to create livable cities for 4 New York, United States 16.4 17.6 9
the next century, we will need to be clever 5 Mumbai (Bombay), India 15.7 26.2 2
enough to do it through collaboration and 6 Shanghai, China 13.7 18 8
cooperation. That is why the Mega-Cities 7 Los Angeles. United States 12.6 14.2 15
Project works to share experiences that work 8 Kolkata (Calcutta), India 12.1 17.3 10
across boundaries of culture and geography. 9 Buenos Aires. Argentina 11.9 13.9 17
10 Seoul, Korea 11.8 13 19
Source: U.N. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division
' - - - - - - -- - - - -- 1 On your ActiveBook disc: Reading Glossary and ! - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -- - ----'
Ex tra Reading Comprehension Questions Information source: www.megacit iesproject.org

58 UNIT 5
B Confirm Content. Check the types of urban problems Dr. Perlman mentions or suggests in
the interview.
D poverty 0 pollution 0 unemployment 0 inadequate public
D lack of housing 0 disease 0 discrimination transportation
D crowding 0 crime 0 corruption

l!J Understand from Context. Read each statement from the interview.
Choose the sentence closest to what Dr. Perlman means. Use information from the
article to explain your answers.
1. "By coming to settle in the city, they have in effect 'voted with their feet."'
a. People are making it clear which kind of life they prefer.
b. People would rather live in the country than live in the city.
c. People don't have as much opportunity in the city as they do in the country.
2. "Every 'first-world' city ... has within it a 'third-world' city of poverty and
deprivation. And every third-world city . . . has within it a first-world city of high
culture, technology, fashion, and finance."
a. Some megacities have more poverty than others.
b. All megacities have both poverty and wealth.
c. Some megacities have more wealth than others.
3. "The Mega-Cities Project works to share experiences that work across boundaries of
culture and geography."
a. The Mega-Cities Project helps megacities communicate their success stories to the
people who live in that city.
b. The Mega-Cities Project helps megacities communicate their success stories to
other cities in that country.
c. The Mega-Cities Project helps megacities communicate their success stories to
rnegacities in other countries.

D Infer Information. Discuss the questions. Support your opinion with information from the article.
1. Why does Dr. Perlman say she prefers cities that are not planned over planned cities?
2. Why do you think Dr. Perlman thinks megacities are exciting? Do you agree?
3. Do you live in a rnegacity, or have you ever visited one? What are the pros and cons
of living in a rnegacity?
4. Do you think life in rnegacities will improve in the future or get worse? Why?

NOW YOU CAN Identify urban problems

b Frame Your Ideas. Check which urban


problems you think exist in your area. Discuss
with a partner and provide examples.
Q
Q
poverty
crime
Q
Q
pollution
corruption
Q crowding Q lack of housing
0 Discussion. Talk about the problems you've Q disease Q discrimination
identified. As a group, discuss at least five ways Q inadequate public 0 unemployment
to make improvements in your town or city. transportation Q other:

Project. Choose several social problems that exist in your town or city.
Write letters to a local newspaper suggesting possible solutions.

59
Writing: Complain about a problem
Formal Letters: Review
WRITING MODEL
When writ ing to a friend or family member, an informal tone,
casual language, and abbreviations are acceptable. However, your address - { 47.19 McP~erson Avenue
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102
when w riting to the head of a company, a boss, or someone date - { June 30, 2006
you don't know, standard formal language should be used,
and regular spelling and punctuation rules apply. Formal Red Maple Cafe
letters are usually typewritten, not handwritten. The following 708 West Pine Street recipient's
salutations and closings are appropriate for formal letters: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19 l 02 } - address

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-s_al_ut_a_tio_n_=:--{ DearSrrorMadam:
Formal salutations Formal closings
Dear Mr. I Mrs. I Ms. I Dr: / Professor [Lee]: Sincerely (yours), th I live a few blocks from your restaurant For
e past several months, I have noticed that the
everungs there is a lot of trash .
in
Dear Sir or Madam: Respectfully (yours), buildin C . on the side of your
g. ats m the neighborhood turn th
garbage cans d th over e
To whom it may concern: Best regards, . . , an e trash goes everywhere
~::~~~:~.unpleasant to look at, but it is ctlso
Cordially,
trash <?ould you please make sure that when the
Letters of Complaint Yo ;: p~t out, the garbage cans are closed?
ur . elpmg keep our neighborhood clean and
When writing a formal letter of complaint, first state the reason beautiful would be greatly appreciated.
why you are writing and the problem. Then inform --{
closing Respectfully,
whomever you are writing what you would like him or
her to do about it, or what you plan to do. /YJ. ' <;/-,.. . . }--
~ / "){ ~ signature
Olivia Krum

rJ Prewriting. Listing Ideas. Think of a problem


in your community that you would like to complain about.
List the reasons why it is a problem.

Problem: rrash on siae of f7u1l&t1n9


Reasons: -uttpleasanr ro look ar
D Writing. On a separate sheet of paper, use your
-healrh haz.ara notes to write a letter of complaint. State what
you intend to do or what you would like to see
Proble m: done. Remember to use the appropriate level of
formality.
Reasons:

B Self-Check.
D Did you use the proper salutation and closing ?
D Are the tone and language in the letter
appropriate for the audience?
D Did you use regular spelling and punctuation
and avoid abbreviations?

l!J Peer Response. Exchange letters with a


partner. Write an appropriate response to your
partner's letter, as if you were the person to whom it
was addressed.

60 UNITS
grammar vocabulary listening
reading . speaking pronunciation

r.w
w -.~.., Listening. Listen carefully to the conversations about cities. Check the adjectives
that are closest in meaning to what the people say about each place. Listen again if necessary.

:;,..<?. :;,..<?.
,,,., {l,,o~ o~ ~~4'
.,,,_l> 1,0 ~ R;
~ -~e. oe.~ <..e">
, <::-4'
._. c-
. ~o
o<.. fl>~
(::.(/; ~"
~o
~q,
o,'1> o'1>~ ~( <" .,,,_<?.
.s <..'
'00

1. rural China 0 0 00 00 00 00
2. Los Angeles 00 00 00 00 00
3. Singapore 0 0 00 00 00 00
4. Paris 00 00 00 00 00
ll Respond to each question in your own way.
1. "Do you mind if I call someone on my cell phone?"
C!~u) ............ ........................... . ........................................................................................................-- -
2. "Would you mind not smoking in here?"
C!~.U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. "What bugs you about living in your town?"
(!~u) ...................................... ........................................................................................................................ .
4 . "Who do you know that really gets on your nerves?"
C!~.U ....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . .... . . . .
B Make each sentence logical by attaching a negative prefix to one of the adjectives. Use a
dictionary if necessary.
1. Painting graffiti on public buses and trains is s. When a salesperson is rude, I find it not
really excusable. only respectful but also annoying.

2. I believe littering and spitting on the street are 6. I should warn you that the air pollution
responsible behaviors. downtown is really pleasant.

3. Young people who play loud music without 7. I think politicians who are honest and
consideration for the people around them are corrupt should be punished.
exhibiting really proper behavior.
8. It doesn't help when people are courteous
4. I think it's very appropriate for people to to each other.
scream into their cell phones in theaters.

I!] Combine the sentences with the paired conjunction indicated. Use or, nor, or but (also).
1. Restaurants shouldn't allow smoking. Theaters shouldn't allow smoking. (neither)

2. Smoking should be banned. It should be restricted. (either)

3. Littering doesn't offend me. Spitting doesn ' t offend me. (neither)

4 . I think loud music is rude. I think loud people are rude. (not only)

61
Pronunciation table
These are the pronunciation symbols used in Summit 1.
Vowels Consonants
Symbol Key Word Symbol Key Word Symbol Key Word Symbol Key Word
beat, feed a banana, among p pack, happy z zip, please, goes
bit, did Cf- sliirt, murder b back, rubber J ship, machine,
e1 d ate, paid a1 bite, cry, buy, eye t tie stat ion, special,
e bet, bed au about, how d d ie discussion
re bat, bad :ll voice, boy k came, key, q uick 3 measure, vision
a box, odd, father Ir cheer 9 game, g uest h hot, who
:> bought, dog er bare tf ch urch, nature, m men, some
OU boat, road or tar watch n sun, know,
u book, good :>r door ca judge, g eneral, pneumonia
u boot, food, student ur tour major I) sung, ringing
/\ but, mud, mother f fan, photograph w w et, white
v van light, long
e thing, breath r right, wrong
0 then, breathe y yes, use, music
s sip, c ity, ! butter, bottle
psychology t, button

Irregular verbs
base form simple past past participle base form simple past past participle
be was I were been forget forgot forgotten
beat beat beaten forgive forgave forgiven
become became become freeze froze frozen
begin began begun get got gotten
bend bent bent give gave given
bet bet bet go went gone
bite bit bitten grow grew grown
bleed bled bled hang hung hung
blow blew blown have had had
break broke broken hear heard heard
breed bred bred hide hid hidden
bring brought brought hit hit hit
build built built hold held held
burn burned I burnt burned I burnt hurt hurt hurt
burst burst burst keep kept kept
buy bought bought know knew known
catch caught caught lay laid laid
choose chose chosen lead led led
come came come leap leaped I leapt leaped I leapt
cost cost cost learn learned I learnt learned I learr
creep crept crept leave left left
cut cut cut lend lent lent
deal dealt dealt let let let
dig dug dug lie lay lain
do did done light lit lit
draw drew drawn lose lost lost
dream dreamed I dreamt dreamed I dreamt make made made
drink drank drunk mean meant meant
drive drove driven meet met met
eat ate eaten mistake mistook mistaken
fall fell fallen pay paid paid
feed fed fed put put put
feel felt felt quit quit quit
fight fought fought read /rid/ read /red/ read / red/
find found found ride rode ridden
fit fit fit ring rang rung
fly flew flown rise rose risen
forbid forbade forbidden run ran run

A2
base form simple past past participle base form simple past past participle
say said said spring sprang I sprung sprung
see saw seen stand stood stood
sell sold sold steal stole stolen
send sent sent stick stuck stuck
set set set sting stung stung
shake shook shaken stink stank I stunk stunk
shed shed shed strike struck struck I stricken
shine shone shone string strung strung
shoot shot shot swear swore sworn
show showed shown sweep swept swept
shrink shrank shrunk swim swam swum
shut shut shut swing swung swung
sing sang sung take took taken
sink sank sunk teach taught taught
sit sat sat tear tore torn
sleep slept slept tell told told
slide slid slid think thought thought
smell smelled I smelt smelled I smelt throw threw thrown
speak spoke spoken understand understood understood
speed sped I speeded sped I speeded upset upset upset
spell spelled I spelt spelled I spelt wake woke/waked woken I waked
spend spent spent wear wore worn
spill spilled I spilt spilled I spilt weave wove woven
spin spun spun weep wept wept
spit spit I spat spit I spat win won won
spoil spoiled I spoilt spoiled I spoilt wind wound wound
spread spread spread write wrote written

Stative verbs
amaze desire hear need seem
appear dislike imagine owe smell*
appreciate doubt include* own sound
astonish envy know please suppose
be* equal like possess surprise
believe exist look like prefer taste
belong fear look* realize think*
care feel* love recognize understand
consist of forget matter remember want*
contain hate mean resemble weigh*
cost have mind see*
*These verbs also have action meanings. Example: I see a tree. (non-action) I'm seeing her tomorrow. (action)

Verbs followed by a gerund


acknowledge consider endure imagine prevent resent
admit delay enjoy justify prohibit resist
advise deny escape keep propose risk
appreciate detest explain mention quit suggest
avoid discontinue feel like mind recall support
can't help discuss finish miss recommend tolerate
celebrate dislike forgive postpone report understand
complete don't mind give up practice

Expressions that can be followed by a gerund


be excited about be opposed to believe in blame [someone or something] for
be worried about be used to participate in forgive [someone or something] for
be responsible for complain about succeed in thank [someone or something] for
be interested in dream about I of take advantage of keep [someone or something] from
be accused of talk about I of take care of prevent [someone or something] from
be capable of think about I of insist on stop [someone or something] from
be tired of apologize for look forward to
be accustomed to make an excuse for
be committed to have a reason for

Appendices A3
Verbs followed directly by an infinitive
afford choose grow mean pretend threaten
agree claim hesitate need promise volunteer
appear consent hope neglect refuse wait
arrange decide hurry offer request want
ask demand intend pay seem wish
attempt deserve learn plan struggle would like
can't wait expect manage prepare swear yearn
care fail

Verbs followed by an object before an infinitive*


advise choose force need remind urge
allow convince get' order request want'
ask enable help pay require warn
beg encourage hire permit teach wish*
cause expect' instruct persuade tell would like*
challenge forbid invite promise

*In the active voice, these verbs can be followed by the infinitive without an object (example: want to speak or want someone
to speak).

Adjectives followed by an infinitive*


afraid content disturbed glad proud sorry
alarmed curious eager happy ready surprised
amazed delighted easy hesitant relieved touched
angry depressed embarrassed likely reluctant upset
anxious determined encouraged lucky sad willing
ashamed disappointed excited pleased shocked
certain distressed fortunate prepared

* Example: I'm willing to accept that.

Verbs that can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive


with a change in meaning without a change in meaning
forget (+ gerund) = forget something that happened begin love
(+ infinitive) = forget something that needs to be done can't stand prefer
regret (+ gerund) = regret a past action continue start
(+ infinitive) regret having to inform someone about an action hate try
like
remember (+ gerund) remember something that happened
(+ infinitive) remember something that needs to be done
stop (+ gerund) stop a continuous action
(+ infinitive) stop in order to do something

Participial adjectives
alarming - alarmed disturbing disturbed paralyzing paralyzed
amazing - amazed embarrassing - embarrassed pleasing pleased
amusing amused entertaining entertained relaxing relaxed
annoying annoyed exciting excited satisfying satisfied
astonishing - astonished exhausting exhausted shocking - shocked
boring bored fascinating fascinated soothing - soothed
comforting comforted frightening frightened startling - startled
confusing confused horrifying horrified stimulating - stimulated
depressing depressed inspiring inspired surprising surprised
disappointing - disappointed interesting interested terrifying - terrified
disgusting disgusted irritating irritated tiring - tired
distressing distressed moving moved touching touched

A4
Grammar Booster
0

g 0
.::l;>'r-' ;;~;;.;._;,,_\ :::r/
Grammar Booster
The Grammar Booster is optional. It provides more explanation and practice as well as additional grammar concepts.

Unit 1

Gerunds and infinitives: summary REMEMBER


Some verbs can only be followed by a gerund.
Gerunds
I suggest asking her if she can make it.
A gerund functions as a noun. A gerund or gerund phrase can be the subject We finished writing the report.
of a sentence, a direct or indirect object, a subject complement, or the object He recommends not waiting till the last minute.
of a preposition. Some verbs can only be followed by an infinitive.
Living a balanced life is about integrating all parts of'it. [supject] You should expect to be there by early afternoon.
I love spending time with my family. [direct object] I hope to complete the course.
The best part of life is learning new things. [subject complement] Learn not to live in the past.
Here are some tips for getting a healthy perspective on life. [object of Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an
a preposition] infinitive with no change in meaning.
He likes listening to pop.
Infinitives He likes to listen to pop.
An infinitive also functions as a noun. An infinitive or infinitive phrase can Some verbs require an object before an infinitive.
be the subject of a sentence, but infinitives as subjects are often considered He reminded me to call my mother.
awkward. It is more common to use an impersonal tl as the subject. I persuaded them not to sell their house.
To be honest isn't always easy. [subject] The school permitted her to skip the first level.
OR It isn't always easy to be honest. Some adjectives can be followed by an infinitive.
An infinitive or infinitive phrase can be a direct object or a subject complement. He was surprised to get the promotion.
I want to feel less stressed. [direct object] I was disappointed to hear the news.
My favorite thing is to spend time with friends. [subject complement] For a complete list of verbs, adjectives,
and expressions followed by gerunds and
An infinitive or infinitive phrase can express a purpose.
infinitives, see pages A3-A4 in the Appendices.
Make time to relax.
We stopped to buy some gas.

rJ Complete each sentence with a gerund or infinitive form of the verb. Refer to pages A3-A4 in the
Appendices if necessary.
1. We were delighted ............................................... out that we had won the contest.
(find)
2. Be sure to thank your father for .. ............................................ me get that interview.
(help)
3. She goes to the gym five times a week ............................................... in shap e.
(stay)
4 . Don't be surprised if he refuses ................................................. with them.
(cooperate)
s . ................................................. other people for help is sometimes hard to do.
(ask)
6. They definitely won't permit you ........ that on board .
(carry)

Ii) On a separate sheet of paper, rewrite the following sentences, using an impersonal 11 as the
subject of the sentence.
1. To pass the examination is not the easiest thing in the world.
2. To speak English fluently is my greatest wish.
3. To live in an English-speaking country might be an exciting experience.
4. To know when to use an infinitive and w hen to use a gerund is pretty confusing.

Grammar Booster G1
Grammar for Writing: parallelism with gerunds and infinitives
A common error in formal written English is mixing gerunds and infinitives when listing items
in a series. A list of items should either be all gerunds or all infinitives.
When I take time off from work, I prefer relaxing at home, spending time with my family, and getting
things done around the house.
NOT I prefer relaxing at home, spending time with my family, and ~ things done around the house.
I can't stand getting up late and missing the bus.
NOT I can't stand getting up late and tG-mf&s the bus.
In a series, either use 1Q with all the infinitives or only with the first one.
When I take time off from work, I prefer to relax at home, spend time with my family, and get things
done around the house.
NOT When I take time off from work, I prefer to relax at home, spend time with my family, and
wget things done around the house.

B On a separate sheet of paper, correct the errors in parallelism in the following sentences.
1. After she arrived in London, she began to write long letters home and calling her parents at
all hours of the night.
2. There are two things I really can't stand doing: speaking in front of large audiences and
chat with people I don't know at parties.
3. Right before midnight, everyone began to sing, have a fun, and to welcome in the new year.
4 . There's no question I prefer using all m y vacation time and take a long vacation.

l!J Complete the following sentences, using appropriate gerund or infinitive forms. Refer to
pages A3-A4 in the Appendices if necessary.

1 . I would suggest . ............... out the form immediately and . .................................... a copy for
(fill) (make)
your records.

(experience)

around if you'd like me to.

6. He promised ............. ........................ the report home, .. . .... it carefully, and ....... .............................
(take) (read) (respond)
to any questions by the next day.

G2
Unit 2

Finished and unfinished actions: summary


Finished actions
Use the simple past tense or the past of be for an action finished at a specified time in the past.
They watched that DVD yesterday.
Use the present perfect for an action finished at an unspecified time in the past.
They've watched that DVD three times.
Use the past perfect for an action that was finished before another action in the past.
When I arrived, they had already watched the DVD.
NOTE: Although the continuous aspect is used for actions in progress, the present perfect continuous is
sometimes used for very recently completed actions, especially to emphasize duration.
They've been watching that DVD all afternoon, but they're done now.

Unfinished actions
Use the present perfect OR the present perfect continuous for unfinished actions that began in the past and may
continue into the future. Use the present perfect continuous to further emphasize that the action is continuous.
She's listened to Ray Charles for years. [And she may continue .]
OR She's been listening to Ray Charles for years. [And she may continue.]

fl Complete the article, using the simple past tense, the past of Q.g, or the present perfect.

World Music is not really a true genre of music-it is a combination of musical genres from around the
world. For a number of years, recording companies ........................................ the term to describe the music of artists who
(1. use)
they feel could appeal to new audien ces across cultures. The concept of World Music ......................................... first created
(2. be)
after U.S. singer / songwriter Paul Simon ......... .. ........ .......... his hugely successful Graceland album in 1986. At that
,3. record!
time, he ......................... South Africa's male choir Ladysmith Black Mambazo and music group Savuka to accompany
4 invite
him on the recording. Both groups later ........................................ with him around the world. This exciting collaboration
(5. tour)
immediately ................................ to European and North American audiences, who were attracted to this different sound.
(6. appeal)
Since that time, as more artists .................................. to reach new audiences, there ....................................... an increased amount
(7 tryl (8. be)
of "crossover"-that is, musicians influencing each other across cultures. Enthusiasm for music from other cultures
................................... steadily. Artists such as Angelique Kidjo and Carlos Vives, who were well-known within specific
(9. rse
regions such as Africa or Latin America, --- -- international stars, and mainstream music ........................................
(10. become) 11. incorporate)
many of the features of these artists.

llJ Read each statement. Then decide which description is closer in meaning.
1. By the time I heard about it, the concert had sold out.
a. First I heard about the concert. Then i t sold out.
b. First the concert sold o ut. Then I heard about it.
2. After he'd won the award , h e got a big recording contract.
a. First he got the recording contract. Then he won the award.
b. Firs t he won the award. Then he got the recording contract.
3. We wanted to go to his p erformance because we'd heard his new CD.
a. First we heard his CD. Then we w anted to go to his performance.
b. First we wanted to go to his performance. Then we heard his CD.
4. He'd played at a lot of different halls before h e p erformed at Carnegie Hall.
a. First he p erformed at Carnegie Hall. Then he played at a lo t of different halls.
b. First he played at a lot of different halls. Then he performed at Carnegie Hall.
Grammar Booster G3
The past perfect continuous
Use the past perfect continuous for a continuous action that occurred and finished before an earlier time or event.
By 1998, he had been studying French for about five years.
When the test began, the students had been waiting for over an hour.
NOTE: This structure tends to occur more in formal writing than in speaking.

B Use the present perfect continuous o r the past perfect continuous to complete each statement.

1. Stella is such a big fan of Bob Marley that she ............................................... nothing but his recordings for years.
(collect)
2. Jill Morsberger ............................................. at salOOtlS for ten years before Greenwood Entertairunent invited her
(perform
to sign a recording contract.
3. Jeff ............................................. at the airport for his friend when he saw the lead singer for U2.
(wait)
4. She must be extremely popular. The audience .... ....................................... in line to buy tickets for over two
(stand)
hours.

S. The lead guitarist for the band ............................................ the new songs for weeks. That's why they sound
(rehearse)
so good tonight.

6. Enrique ........... ..... ......... .............. songs only in Spanish before he decided to branch out and try recording
,record)
songs in English for the U.S. market. Impersonal .expressions that introduce noun clauses
It IS important (that)
It appears obvious (that)
It seems c lear (that)
It becomes essential (that) .
Grammar for Writing: noun clauses as adjective
It is possible (that)
and noun complements It looks likely (that)
Noun clauses as subjects are awkward and generally avoided.
Noun phrases that can precede a noun clause
Two ways to rewrite s uch sentences follow. the an nouncement that the news that
Use a noun clause as an adjective complement. the argument that the possibility that
AVOIDED That Frankel is quite critical of modern art is obvious. the belief that the proposal that
PREFERRED It is obvious (that) Frankel is quite critical of modern art. the chance that the reason that . .
the c laim that the recommendation tnat
Use a noun clause as a noun complement.
the demand that the report that
AVOIDED That her job was so difficult was why she quit. the fact that the suggestion that
PREFERRED The fact that her job was so difficult was why she quit.
the idea that
The reason that she refuses to appear in films is a
mystery to everyone.
The argument that classical music is dead makes
no sense. .
l::J On a separate sheet of paper, rewrite each sente nce, using
The news that the new CEO is retiring surp rised a
lot of people.
the impersonal]!.
1. That developing countries address the problems caused b y global warming is extremely important.
2. That the president plans on resigning appears obvious to everyone.
3. That not providing disaster relief will only worsen the situation seems quite clear.
4. That a cure for cancer will be discovered in the next twenty years is certainly possible.

s. That the governments of Argentina and Chile will reach an agreement looks v ery likely.
6. That Max Bianchi won't be participating in the Olympics next year is not important.

G4
IJ Read each quote from a radio news program. Then, on a separate sheet of paper, complete each
statement, using the noun clause as a noun complement.
Example: "Volkswagen announced that they would unveil a new car design early next year.
This is causing a lot of excitement in the auto industry." [The announcement ...]
T/1e am1ount::eJ'11enf" f"Jtaf" Volkswa9e11 wovl.d u11YtN/ a new t::ar aes19n
early next- yi!!-ar ts c.aust"n9 a /of" of' e~if"emtMf" 1/1 f"he auf"o 1nausf"ry.

1. "The Health Ministry announced that they will begin vaccinating all infants for measles. This was
greeted with criticism from the opposition party." [The announcement ...]
2. "The president said it was possible that he would resign by the end of this year. This has taken
everyone by surprise, including the news media." [The possibility ...]
3. "The London Sun reported that Dr. Regina Blair of the Glasgow Medical Center has discovered a new
protein. This is attracting much interest in the world of science." [The report .. .]
4. "The Auckland Times claimed that a 95-year-old New Zealand man had broken the world record for
growing the longest beard. This has triggered similar claims across three continents." [The claim ...]

Unit 3

The future continuous


Use the future continuous for actions that will be in progress at a specific time or over a period of time in the future.
To form the future continuous, use will + ~ + a present participle OR be going to + be + a present participle.
'II be lying } am1111;"14"!111,ll l! 1114 i"il!!f:l15#~ilr---
At this time next week, I on a beach in Hawaii. [specific time] _ ...........
{ 'm going to be lying Stative verbs are "non-action"
verbs such as ~ have,
'II be studying } know, remember, ~ seem,
I English in the United States for about two years. [period of time]
{ 'm going to be studying appreciate, etc.
Do not use the continuous with
Sometimes sentences in the simple future and the future continuous have almost the same stative verbs.
meaning. Choose the future continuous to emphasize a continuous or uninterrupted activity. DON'T SAY By next month, I~
Next year, I'll study English in the United States. ee l'laviAg a new car.
Next year, I'll be studying English in the United States. For a complete list of stative
Questions and short answers verbs, see page A3 in the
Will you be working at home? Yes, I will. I No, I won't. Appendices.
Are you going to be working at home? Yes, I am. I No, I'm not.
Use the future continuous and a time clause with while or when to describe a continuous activity
that will occur at the same time as another activity. Do not use a future form in the time clause.
I'll be looking for a job while my wife continues her studies.
NOT I'll be looking for a job while my wife will be seAtiR11iA!J her studies.
When the mayor Is speaking, we 'll be listening carefully.
NOT When the mayor will be speakiR!J, we'll be listening carefully.

fl On a separate sheet of paper, com~ct the errors in the following sentences.


1. She'll be staying at the Newton Hotel when she's going to be attendirtg the meeting.
2. We won't be spending much time sightseeing while we'll be visiting London.
3. When he's going to stay in town, he's going to be meeting with some friends.
4. She'll be correcting homework while the students will be taking the test.
s. While Michelle will be serving dessert, Randy will already be washing the dishes.
6. Won't they be going to sleep in New York when you'll be getting up in Taipei?

Grammar Booster GS
----- - ------- -- ~- - -- --- _,. --- - - -- - - - - --- --=~-=--=---~

I] Complete the following sentences, using the future continuous with will when possible. If the
future continuous is not possible, use the simple future with will .
1. After I've completed my studies, I ............................................. for a job.
(look)
2 . She ................................................ historic sites while she's in Turkey.
(photograph)
3. In a few years, they ................................................. all the problems they had.
(not I remember)
4 . ................................................ h e ............................................ .... between flights for very long?
(wait)
s. I'm sure she ................................................ when you call.
(not I sleep)

The future perfect continuous


Use the future perfect continuous to emphasize the continuous quality of an action that began before a specific
time in the future. To form the future perfect continuous, use will + have + been and a present participle.
By next year, I'll have been studying English for five years. [Describes an action that began before "next year"
and may still continue.]
Combine a statement using the future perfect continuous with a time clause to show the relationship between
two future actions. Use the simple present tense in the time clause.
By the time I arrive in New York, I'll have been sitting in a plane for over ten hours.
NOT By the time I~ in New York, I'll have been sitting in a plane for over ten hours.

B Complete the notecard, using the future continuous or the future perfect continuous.

Dear Ia.a, Then, a/Yer Paris, it's oH ro rite l?in'era, where

Veni&e was 9rear, Pur rinally on ro Paris/ /?Jy I ................................................. aroun;::t. on rite /;e-a&hes of
(6. lounge)
r omo rrow arrernoon, I .................................... ........... ;::town /./i&e- an;::t. Sainr- Tropez. ror a week. /?Jy rhar r i me,
(1 . stroll)
rite Champs Elysees ana. .............................................. in I .... ...................................... ror rhree weeks, ana. ir will
(2. take) (7. travel)
rhtJ beauhrul si9hrs of rhar 9rear dry. In rite almost- be rime ro &ome home-a lon9 rrip ror a

eYeni119, I ..... ... .. .. ... ....... . ..... an opera l>y /?Jiz.er ho111ePo;::t.y like "'"'-'
(3. enjoy)
in rite &iry where he was born. Jusr rhink, Py
See you soon/
Sarur;::t.ay, I .............. ......................... ;::t.elic.ious Fren&h
(4. eat) ?aye/
r oo;::t. r o r a whole week/ Plus, I ......................................
(5. practice)
my Fren&h wif'h real nahve speakers.

Unit4
fl Review. Check all the quantifiers that can complete each sentence correctly.
1. 1f a child watches ................ television, he or sh e may develop a self..image problem.
O a lot of 0 several 0 a number of 0 a great deal of
2. I don't think you can say that .............. young people are self..conscious about their bodies.
0 most 0 a great deal of 0 every 0 a majority of
3. It's clear that .......... company needs to make its own decision about it.
O some 0 each 0 every 0 most
4. There are ......... ..... beauty treatments available to our customers.
0 a number of 0 a few 0 plenty of 0 a little
S. I was surprised to read that ................. men are considering cosmetic surgery.
0 a lot of 0 some 0 every 0 less
G6
Quantifiers: a few and few, a little and little
Use a few with plural count nouns and a little with non-count nouns to mean "some." Use few
with plural count nouns and little with non-count nouns to mean " not many" or "not much."
A few companies are allowing their employees to dress casually on Fridays. [some companies]
Few companies are allowing their employees to dress casually on Fridays. [not many companies]
Employees are showing a little interest in this new dress code. [some interest]
Employees are showing little interest in this new dress code. [not much interest]

I] Change the underlined quantifiers to a few. few. a little. or~.


a liH le
Example: Would you like to listen to ~ music?
1. We actua lly eat almost no meat.

2. The newsp aper had a bit of information about the concert tonight.

3. There were several new students in my class today.


4. To tell the truth, I've seen hardly any movies in the last month.
5. I enjoy visiting my hometown, but there's no t m uch to do there.
6 . If you look in the refrigerator, there should b e ~ eggs.

Quantifiers: using of
Use fil (to refer to something specific) when a noun is preceded by a possessive adjective, a possessive noun,
a demonstrative pronoun, or the article ll!i.
most of Jack's co-workers most co-workers in Italy possessive adjectives my, her; their; etc.
several of these companies several companies po~ssi~ nouns John's, the- doctor's
demon~tive pronouns this:-Tnat,tnese, those
a few of the choices
a little of the cake
a few choices
a little cake
- -- -
many of those books many books
any of her friends any friends ~E CAREFUL! In the superlative, do
much of the coffee much coffee not useof with mosc !--+--.
some of his students some students ~..NTSAY ToJ<Yo 1~ tne-cJty wltfl the
each of the classes each class most et p eople in Japa n. -
,......_
one of my cats one cat
all of our employees all employees
- BE CAREFUL! Of must be inc luded
Using fil after fill or both is optional, with no change in meaning. -When using an object pronoun.
all of our employees OR all our employees NOT all 9f employees __both onnem NOT eotl'l l l'lem
__....._
both of those choices OR both those choices NOT both Gf choices
One and each are used with singular nouns only. But one of and ~ are used with plural nouns only.
However, the meaning of both expressions is still singular.
One student One of the students
Each class Each of the classes
Some quantifiers must include fil when they modify a noun or noun phrase.
a lot of a majority of
lots of plenty of
a couple of a bit of
a number of a great deal of

Grammar Booster G7
B Only one of each pair of sentences is correct. Check the correct sentence and correct the mistake
in the other one.
Example: a. ...II"'..... She went with several of her classmates.
b. ................ Several ei classmates went out for coffee.
1. a. Most of companies in the world are fairly formal.
b. Most of the companies in the United States have dress-down days.
2. a. ... . . All of hot appetizers were delicious.
b. ..... Everyone tried all of the cold appetizers.
3. a. A lot of my friends have traveled to exotic places.
b. .. There are a lot places I'd like to see.
4. a. I read a few of Steinbeck's novels last year.
b. A few of novels by Steinbeck take place in Mexico.
s. a. Several managers were interviewed, and many them liked the new policy.
b. Many of the employees we spoke with liked the new policy.

Quantifiers: used without referents


Most quantifiers can be used without the noun they describe as long as the
context has been made clear earlier.
A number of people believe there is life on other planets. But many don't. [many people]

Grammar for Writing: subject-verb agreement with quantifiers with of


In quantifiers with Q!, the verb must agree with the noun that comes after Q!.
Some of the movie is in English. Some of the movies are in English.
A lot of the music was pop. A lot of the musicians were young. BE CAREFUL! The quantifiers one
Qf, each of, and every one of a~
In formal English, none of is followed by a singular verb. However, in everyday always followed by a plural noun,
spoken English, it is common to use it with a plural verb. but they alw~ys take a singular verb.
Formal: None of the students was late for class. One of the ~tude11ts likes rap music.
Informal: None of the students were late for class.

l:J Choose the verb that agrees with each subject.


1. Every one of these choices (sound I sounds) terrific!
2. One of the teachers (was I were) going to stay after class.
3. A lot of the problem (is I are) that no one wants to work so hard.
4. Each of the employees (want I wants) to work overtime.
S. Half of the city (wasI were) flooded in the storm.
6. None of the players (is coming I are corning) to the game.
7. Only 8 percent of their workers prefer shorter work weeks, while at least 90 percent (don't I doesn't).

GS
Unit 5
BE CAREFUL! Use a negative with
either and an affirmative with nefthe~
and neither does littering.--
Conjunctions with IQ, 1QQ, neither. or not either NOT and neit1'1er eleesn't littering.
Use and so or and . .. too to join affirmative statements that are similar. . and littering doesn't either.
Spitting on the street is offensive, and so is littering. NOT ... and littering aees either.
OR Spitting on the street is offensive, and littering is too.
Use neither or not either to join negative statements that are similar.
Spitting on the street doesn't bother me, and neither does littering. BE CAREFUL! Notice the subject-verb order.
Spitting on the street doesn't bother me, and littering doesn't either. .. and so is littering.
If the first clause uses the verb ~ an auxiliary verb, or a modal, . and littering is too.
use the same structure in the second clause. and neither does littering.
and littering doesn 't either.
Tokyo Is a huge city, and so is Sao Paulo.
New York doesn't have a lot of industry, and neither does London.
Mexico City has grown a lot, and so has Los Angeles.
Nancy can't tolerate loud radios, and neither can Tom. BE CAREFUL! With__Q and neither the verb (or auxiliary
verb) goes before the subject.
If the first clause does not include the verb be, an auxiliary verb, or
Nancy can't stand loud boom boxes, and neither can Tom
a modal, use a form of do. NOT ... neither TeA1 san.
John thinks graffiti is a big problem, and so does Helen.
Tokyo is a huge city, and so is sao Paulo.
NOT .. and so Sae Pa1:1le is.

rJ Find and underline the nine errors. On a separate sheet of paper, write each sentence correctly.

New York is one of the most famous cities in the world, If you're looking for first-rate entertainment, New York
and so does London. While these two cities differ in many is filled with theaters, and so London does.
ways, they also share a number of characteristi cs. Here's a Hungry? London's restaurants feature exciting dishes
quick comparison: from around the world, and New York's are too.
Both cities offer a huge choice of museums to
If you're looking for peace and quiet, New York is not visit. The museums in New York can't possibly be seen
the place to be, and neither London is. They are both in a day, and either London's can't.
exciting and noisy places. If you're not used to it, New New York offers some of the world's most famous
York's traffic an be deafening at times, and so does tourist sites-for example, the Statue of Liberty and
London's. the Empire State Building-and so is London, with
The best way to get around in both cities is the subway Buckingham Palace and the Millennium Wheel.
(or the Tube in London). New York's subway system is It's clear that New York shouldn't be missed, and neither
quite old and elaborate, and is London's too. London shouldn't!

[J On a separate sheet of paper, rewrite each statement, using the word in parentheses. Make any
necessary changes in verbs or possessive adjectives.
Example: Both Vilnius and Riga have large historic districts. (so)

---------
Vilnius Ms a /ar9t1- .ltisrori& ,:t,isf"ri&r, and- so aot11s 1?19a.

-----___,..-.-~--._.,,;"
1. Both Bangkok and Sao Paulo face many problems caused by too much traffic. (so)
2. Both Athens and Barcelona have hosted the Olympic Garnes in the past. (too)
3. Vancouver and Taipei don't ever get very cold. (neither)
4. Mexico City and Tokyo won't experience a decrease in their populations any time soon. (not either)
5. Both Hong Kong and Rio de Janeiro are famous for their physical beauty. (so)
6. Prague and Krakow attract people who like great architecture. (too)
7. The Prado Museum in Madrid and the Louvre in Paris shouldn't be missed. (neither)
8. Tokyo and Mexico City haven't lost their places among the world's largest cities yet. (not either)

Grammar Booster G9
So, too, neither, or not either: short responses
Use ~ ~ neither, or not either in short responses to express agreement.
A: I hate littering. B: So do I./ I do too. NOT So do I hate./ I do hate too.
A: I can't stand smoking. B: I can't either./ Neither can I. NOT I can't staOO either./ Neither can I staOO.
In English, it is common to express agreement with me too or me neither.
A: I hate littering. B: Me too.
A: I can't stand smoking. B: Me neither.

B Agree with each statement. Use short responses with ~ 1QQ, neither. or not either.
1. A: I've never been to Ulan Bator. B: ..................- ...........................................
2. A: I can't figure this out. B: -.. ... ..... - ...................
3. A: I loved going there! B: ...............................................................
4. A: I have to get some cash. B: ..............................................................
5. A: I'm getting really tired. B: ...............................................................
6. A: I used to travel more. 8: ................................................................
7. A: I'll call her tomorrow. 8: .....................................................
8. A: I'm not going to tell her she's late. 8: ................................................................

G10
1
1
Pronunciation
Booster
.
""
Language
;:t;.'..--!\;A.:..;;,_,..\ !:?'/
I
t
I

Pronunciation Booster
The Pronunciation Booster is optional. It provides more information about pronunciation as well as additional practice.

Unit 1 Content words


nouns boss, Julie, happiness
verbs find, meet, call
.
Content words and function words adjectives talkative, small, green
adverbs quietly, again, slowly
In English, content words are generally stressed. possessive pronouns mine, yours, his
Function words are generally unstressed. demonstrative pronouns this, those, that
My BOSS is a PAIN in the NECK! reflexive pronouns ourselves, herself
He's REALLY a TERRIFIC BOSS. interrogative pronouns what, who, where
MARK is such a SMART GUY.
I'm SURE she'll be a GREAT MANAGER.
Function words
Stress in compound nouns prepositions of, from, at
A compound noun is a noun that is made up of two or more words. conjunctions and, but, or 1

Stress generally falls on the first word in compound nouns. determiners a, the, some
compound noun adjective + noun personal pron<?uns he, she, they
He's a WISE guy. BUT He's a WISE LEADER. possessive adjectives my, her, their
She's a PEOPLE person. BUT She's a NICE PERSON. auxiliary verbs have + [past participle)
It's an APARTMENT building. BUT It's a TALL BUILDING. be + [present participle)
They're EXERCISE machines. BUT They're NEW MACHINES. BE CAR~FULI When an auxiliary verb is negative
or used m short answers, it is generally stressed
I CAN'T GO. He WON'T LIKE it. .
No, they DON'T. Yes, I HAVE.

a 0 Listen and practice. ~---- ,.....

1. My BOSS is a PAIN in the NECK!


2. He's REALLY a TERRIFIC BOSS.
3. MARK is such a SMART GUY.
4. I'm SURE she'll be a GREAT MANAGER.

[ ] Circle the content words.


1. Learn to live in the present.
2. He reminded me to call m y mother.
3. He asked me to work faster.
4. I prefer to stick closer to home.
5:03
0 Now practice reading each sentence aloud and listen to compare.* (Note that your choices may
differ from what you hear on the audio.)
SoO<
0 Listen and practice.
I

1. He's a WISE guy. He's a WISE LEADER. r

2. She's a PEOPLE person. She's a NICE PERSON. I

3. It's an APARTMENT building. It's a TALL BUILDING.


4. They're EXERCISE machines. They're NEW MACHINES.
l":'t S<>S
... 0 Practice reading each compound noun aloud and listen to check.*
1. a swimming pool 4. a telephone directory
2. tennis courts 5. office managers
3. an answering m achine 6. the bullet train
*NOTE: Whenever you see a listening activity with an a,sterisk (*),say each word, phrase, or sentence in the pause aher each number. Then listen for confirmation.

Pronunciation Booster P1
I
------ ------ - - - - - - --- - - = - - - - - -- ---~ -- -- -- ---- -- -- ----- -- -- ------- - - - - -- - - !

Unit 2

Intonation patterns
In statements, commands, and information questions, lower pitch after the stressed syllable
in the last stressed word. If the last syllable in the sentence is stressed, lower pitch on the
vowel by lengthening it.
--,,_ ____ ~
I haven't been to many concerts lately. Don't forget to watch them on TV tonight.

--..
What do you like about that song?

Raise pitch after the stressed syllable in the last stressed word in ~I no questions and requests.
If the last syllable in the sentence is stressed, raise pitch on the vowel by lengthening it.

____r--- _J
Have you ever heard of Annie Lennox? Could you pick up their new CD for me?

Do you think she has a nice voice?

r.w
W
~
1t., Listen and practice.
1. I haven' t been to many concerts lately.
2. Don't forget to watch them on TV tonight.
3. What d o you like about that song?
4. Have you ever h eard of Annie Lennox?
5. Could you pick up their new CD for me?
6. Do you think she has a nice voice?

[I Circle t he last stressed content word in each of the following sentences. if that word has more
tha n one syllable, underline the stressed syllable.
1. That song has a great beat you can perform with.
2. Her catch y lyrics make you want to sing along.
3. Didn't you like that song's melody?
4. What time d o you think the concert w ill be finished?
5,07
0 Now practice reading each sentence aloud, using the intonation patterns you have learned.
Listen to check.*

P2
'-------------- - - ~----- ~----- - - - ~- - ~ ---

Unit 3 ~amples of thought groups


subJect + verb I don't know
noun phrases my short-term goal
prepositional phrases by the end of the month
Sentence rhythm: thought groups predicates is drowning in debt
Longer sentences are usually divided by rhythm into smaller "thought groups" noun clauses where the money goes
- groups of words that naturally or logically go together. Exactly how adjective clauses that I paid off last year
statements may be divided into thought groups will vary among speakers. adverbial clauses when I've finished my report

My short-term goal I is to start living I within my mean s.


NOT My short term I goal is to I start l:irr.ng v,rithin my I means.
I don' t plan I to be financially dependent I for the rest of my life.
By next year I I hope to have gotten I a good job I as a finan cial consultan t.
Pitch in lon ger sentences
In longer sentences, pitch may fall-or rise-after the last stressed syllable in each thought group, with no change in meaning.

~ ---i_ _r ~
Once he tries keeping I a realistic budget I he'll find it easy I to save money. OR

Once he tries kee~ing I a realistic buJ get I he'll find it~ I to save ~

B 0 Listen and practice.


1. M y short-term goal is to start living within my means.
2. I don't plan to be financially dependent for the rest of my life.
3. By next year, I h op e to h ave gotten a good job as a financial con sultant.
4a. Once he tries keeping a realistic b udget, he'll find it easy to save m on ey.
4b. Once h e tries keeping a realis tic budget, he'll find it easy to save money.

IJ Read the following sentences. Decide how you might break each sentence into t hought groups.
1. By the end of this month, I hope to have finis hed paying off m y student loans.
2. In two months, when w e've finally paid off our house, we're going to h ave a big party to celebrate.
3. To be p erfectly honest, I couldn' t tell you w he re the money goes.
4. By n ext year, I w ill h ave completed m y studies, but I d on' t think I w ill h ave gotten m arried .
S"'9
(;) Now practice reading each sentence aloud, paying attention to pitch. Listen to compare.*
(Note that your choices may differ from what you hear on the audio.)

Unit4

Linking sounds
Linki ng w it h vowels Linking identical consonants
When the final consonant sound of a word is followed by a When the final consonant sound of a word is followed by the
vowel sound, link the sounds together. same sound, link the sounds together as one sound.
It' t,.i n style now. She thinks the blouse iU triking.
She bou ght hin:ui~elegant tie. They p referre<t_9ark suits.
!'~already boughV new suit. What an attractive....__,,.vest!

Pronunciation Booste r P3
fl Q Listen and practice.
1. It's in style now.
2. She bought him an elegant tie.
3. I've already b ought a n ew suit.
4. She thinks the blouse is striking.
5. They preferred dark suits.
6. What an attractive vest!

m Underline all the places where you think the sounds should be linked.
1. She wants Susan to dress up next time.
2. It's fashionable and elegant.
3. It's out of style.
4. I wish sh e preferred dressing down.
5. That blouse isn't trendy en ou gh for my taste.
6. I think Kyle has stylish taste.
S:1 1

0 Now practice reading each sentence aloud and listen to check.*

Unit 5

Unstressed syllables: vowel reduction to l~I


In conversation, the vowels in unstressed syllables are often reduced to the sound fo/. The vowel sound /a/ occurs more
often in English than any other vowel sound and contributes to maintaining the rhythm of English .
. - ..
ac cept a ble ~ /ak'scptabal/
.
re sp ect ful
. ~ /ra'spcktfal/
. - . .
con sid er ate ~ /kan's1darat/ ir
.
re spon si ble ~ /,Ira'spansabal/

po lite -t /pa'la1t/
. .- . .
in ex cus a ble -t /,mak'skyuz:ib:il/

a S:12

0 Listen and practice.


1. acceptable 4. respectful
2 . considerate s. irresponsible
3. polite 6. inexcusable
S:ll
0 Listen to each word and circle the unstressed syllables that have the sound /-;J/.
1. un ac cept a ble 4. unpleasant 7. un i mag i na ble
2. in con side ra te 5. ir ration al 8. dis re spect ful
3. irn p o lite 6. immature 9. in ap pro pri ate
5,13

0 Now practice reading each word aloud and listen again to check.*

"

P4
SECOND EDITION

Workbook
Joan Saslow Allen Ascher
With Julie C. Rouse

. .
ALWAYS LEARNING .. . PEARSON
New Perspectives
PREVIEW
D Read the article and take the quiz.

Do You Have What It Takes to Work Abroad?


Are you bored with your day-to-day life? Sick of the daily grind? If you've had
enough of your dull, daily routine, then working in another country may be the
life-changing experience you need.
Can you imagine yourself living and working in some far-away location? Maybe
you picture yourself working as a computer programmer in Beijing and practicing tai chi in
your free time. Maybe you'd like to work as an accountant in Sydney and surf on the weekends.
What about a job as a nurse in Chicago, a manager in Bangalore, or an engineer in Montreal?
Whatever your dream, now may be the time to go for it. Before you do, take this quiz to see if
you have what it takes to work and live abroad.

l@tj!.ii1Miij"iijiii!Mil(Ul!.lii'Ml'I'
G) a. I want adventure in my life. a. I make new friends easily.
b. I like trying new things. b. It takes a while for me to make new friends.
c. I'm a little uncomfortable in new situations. c. It's hard for me to make friends.
d. I prefer to stay close to home. d. I'm shy and do not have many friends.
a. I will eat almost anything. a. I think difficult situations can be good learning
b. I like trying different foods.
c. I prefer foods that are familiar to me. experiences.
d. I won't eat strange food. b. I wor1< hard to make difficult situations better.
c. I complain a lot in difficult situations.
a. It's fun trying to figure out how to communicate in d. If a situation is too difficult, it's probably more
a new language. trouble than it's worth.
b. Communicating in a new language is a
good experience. Now figure out your score. Give yourself:
c. Having to use a new language to communicate is 3 points for each a.
kind of scary. 2 points for each b.
d. It's a pain in the neck trying to understand 1 point for each c.
a different language. Opoints for each d.

I
If your score was:
13-15 points Do it! You'll love working and living overseas.
10-12 points It may be difficult, but working abroad will be a good experience for you.
7-9 points You may have to work hard to have a good experience.
o-6 points Don't do it! You'll be ready to head home after one week.

SOURCE: www.transitionsabroad.com

Do you have what it takes to work and live abroad? Why or why not?

W1
0 Complete each opinion with an expression from the box. More than one answer
is possible for each item.

It's a pain in the neck. It's more trouble than it's worth. I can't get enough of it.
I've had about enough of it. I can't get over how much I enjoy it.

1. The food here is delicious.


2. The weather is terrible here.
3. It's too difficult to get there, and there isn't a lot to see . .
4. I have to work hard to understand what people are saying.
5. Being here is so much fun.

LESSON 1
IJ Complete each sentence with the gerund or infinitive form of the verb in parentheses.
a. Don't forget (call) ... .. your mother on her birthday.
b. Stop (eat) ....... . . . .. ... sweets and fatty foods.
c. Remember (make) time for just the two of you.
d. I'll never forget (meet) ..... ... my boss for the first time.
e. Every now and then, you should stop (tell) the people you know how much they
mean to you.

Now match each sentence above with a topic below. Write the letter on the line.
1. health 3 . .... . family 5. romance
2. friends 4. work

El Challenge. Answer the questions about yourself.


1. What will you never forget about your childhood?
Example: /'f./ ne..v.er fo.r.get bq/<;ing holiday.. cookies wit h.my gr.andmo.the.r::., -

2. When you're eighty years old, what do you think you'll remember about your life now?
Example: .l'!I r.:err..embe.r...going.. toJh.e.c. beach with.my frien.c:h;.. .... .

W2 UNIT 1
ii Write a tip or reminder for each person. Use remember, forget, or stop with a
gerund or an infinitive. Use the phrases in parentheses.

1. .....----- ... ... 2 . ............................................................................................................ -


(buy coffee) (wish your wife happy anniversary)

3 . ...................................................................... 4. -
(work so much) (tum off your cell phone)

LESSON 2
(I Complete the conversation. Write the letter on the line.
A: Have you met our new neighbors, the Lovinas? a. And the wife? I wonder what
she's like.
B:
1.
b. So, she's a boss ... I hope she's
A: Well, the husband is friendly. He seems like a nice guy. not anything like my boss!

B: c. No, I haven't had a chance yet.


2. What are they like?
A: She's never home. Everyone says she's a workaholic. d. Really? What does she do?
B: ....
3.

A: She works in advertising, I think. She's a manager. In Japan, 76 percent of people


work more than 40 hours per
B: week In Germany, 44 percent
4.
of people work more than
A: Well, the least we can do is keep an open mind. 40 hours per week.
She might turn out to be really likeable.

SouRcE: www.nationmaster.com

New Perspectives W3
IJ Read the descriptions of Type A and Type B personalities. Then answer the questions.
~~~-----~---o---- --- ,. -----~~-~- .---- --~--- ---- -- --
~~ www.personality.com b)(g)~
File Edit Links Tools Help Chat
(@ Back I @ Forward I <!) ;eload 0 Stop Gil Home . fJ Seard!

TYPE A TYPE B 0

A determined, impatient, and sometimes angry The opposite ofType A personality. The Type B
personality. People with Type A personalities work personality is easygoing, patient, and friendly.
hard to succeed and to get what they want. They People with Type B personalities are able to relax
are busy, often stressed out, and don't like to wait. and have fun. They live a more balanced life.
They eat, talk, walk, and drive fast. They might Someone who is a sweetheart, a team player, or a
seem unfriendly and difficult to get along with. people person may have a Type B personality.
Workaholics and tyrants may have Type A
personalities.

1. Do you know someone who has a Type A personality?


2. What is this person like? Write three examples to support your opinion.

3. Describe your own personality. Are you more like a Type A or a Type B personality?

m What qualities would you like the people in your life to have? Complete the
sentences with adjectives from the box.

easygoing fun helpful polite reliable smart


fair funny lovable outgoing serious talkative
friendly hardworking modest professional silly

1. I would like a boss who's .......................................................


2. I would like co-workers who are ...............-................-....................... .
3 . I would like a spouse who's ......................... ............................

W4 UNIT 1
4. I would like classmates who are ....................................... ..... .... .
5. I would like friends who are ....................................................
6. I would like neighbors who are .........................................................
7. I would like a teacher who's ........................... .....................
8. I would like to be more ........................................................

6 Complete the conversation with your own words.


A: Have you had a chance to meet ......................................................... ?
B: No, I haven't. I wonder what ........................................................ like.
A: Well, everyone says .......................................................................
B: Yeah, but you can't believe everything you hear.

LESSON 3

mJ Read each adjective. Does it describe an optimistic or a pessimistic perspective?


Write Q for optimistic or for pessimistic:. .e
1. ................... down
2. ................... defeated
3. .................. hopeful
4. ................... positive
5. ................... negative
6. ................... cynical

Now read each statement. Write Q for optimistic or for pessimistic. .e


1. ................... The glass is half full.
2. .................. The glass is half empty.
3. ................... Times are hard now, but life will get better.
4 . ................... Life will always be difficult and painful.
5. ................... The world is unjust and unfair.
6. .................. There's beauty, love, generosity, and goodness in the world.

mComplete each suggestion with the gerund or infinitive form of the verb in
parentheses.
1. Remember (look) ................................................... on the bright side.
2. Stop (expect) .................................................... the worst.
3. Don't forget (see) .................................................... goodness in the world.
4. Stop (believe) ................................................. . that life will always be difficult and painful.
5. Remember (avoid) ................................................ negative thinking.
6. Don't forget (try) ................................................... to see a solution.

New Perspectives W5
IE Reading Warm-up. Answer the questions.
1. Do you know someone who is very optimistic? Who? ...............................................
2. Do you know who Lance Armstrong is? What do you know about him?

llJ Reading. Read the article about Lance Armstrong. Then answer the questions.

VOL.55 The Power of Optimism


Martin Seligman has been 1996, Armstrong was diagnosed boy and twin girls. Lance
studying optimists and pessimists with advanced testicular cancer Armstrong has been called a
for 25 years. He's a psychologist that had spread to his lungs and "hope machine" and is an
and the author of bestselling brain. His doctors were not inspiration for those of us who
books that help people to be more optimistic. but he was. Instead of need help being optimistic.
optimistic. In his studies of feeling down and defeated by his
world-class athletes and top serious condition. Armstrong felt
perfonners in the business world, challenged and prepared for his
Seligman found that optimists future. He found chemotherapy
perform better when they Lreatments that would not damage
encounter difficult situations than his lungs permanently (because a
pessimists do. According to world-class cyclist needs strong
Seligman. "When pessimists lungs). He rode his bicycle 80 to
come up against an obstacle, they 100 kilometers a day, even though
often quit; when optimists meet he was so sick that it was difficult
an obstacle, they try harder." An for him to get o ut of bed. And, he
optimist stays in the game and had his sperm frozen so that he
instead of seeing a problem, looks could have children someday,
for a solution. even though he was single at the
One world-class athlete who time.
stayed in the game and is a perfect Armstrong survived cancer
example of the power of optimism and won the Tour de France seven
is the cyclist Lance Armstrong. ln times. He has three children, a

SOURCES: www.coachginger.com
Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life, Martin Seligman (New York, Pocket Books, 1998)

1. What was Lance Armstrong's difficult situation? .. ......... .........---.......................--........- ....._..- ... -..................................
2. How did he respond to this problem? .................................................................... ....... - ........._ .. .......................- ..............

3. Did he succeed?
4. Were his hopes realistic? Explain your answer. .............................. ................................................................. .............................. .

eJ Think of a problem you have or a difficult situation you're facing. What's the
problem or situation?

Now try to"see a solution." What are three things you could do to make the situation better?
1. ................................................................................,_................- ................................................................................................................._.....................................- .........._........................

2. .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3 . ..............................................................................................._.............................................................................................................................................................................................

W6 UNIT 1
IE Match the perspectives with their definitions.
1. - . optimistic a. expecting that bad things will happen in the future or that a
situation will have a bad result
2. ................... pessimistic
b. believing that good things will happen in the future, or feeling
3 . ................. realistic
confident that you will succeed
c. perceiving and responding to situations in a practical way,
according to what is actually possible

What's~ perspective? Explain your answer. ............... ..........._............... ......_.........................- ..............._...............................................................

Challenge. How does the realist see the glass of water?

"Keep a green tree in


your heart and perhaps
the singing bird will
come."
- Chinese proverb

LESSON 4
ml What About You? Answer the questions about your own experiences.
1. Describe an experience that broadened your horizons - or made it possible for you to learn,
understand, and do new things. .. ......... ..... ...................... ........ ............ ...... ..... ...................... ......... ........ ... ........................................ -

2. Describe a rewarding experience you've had - an experience that made you feel happy and
satisfied because you were doing something useful, important, or interesting, even if you did
not earn much money. ... .. .. ... ... ................. .. ... .. ....... . ... .. ... ...... . ... .. .............. ... .... ...... ..

3. Describe an experience that caused you to see the big picture - or made you realize what
was really important in your life. ... ......... .................... ...... ........................... ...................... .. ..... ......................... ........................ ...................

fi After completing Student's Book page 11 in class, write what you remember
about a classmate's life-changing experience.

New Perspectives W7
Grammar Booster
mCircle the gerund or infinitive form of the verb to correctly complete each sentence.
1. Mr. Banks often urges his wife coming I to come home from work earlier.
2. He wants her spending I to spend more time with her family.
3. She promises trying I to try, but she's really not capable of slowing I to slow down.
4. She's sorry disappointing I to disappoint her family, but she's also worried about
advancing I to advance in her career.
5. Mrs. Banks knows it's important living I to live a balanced life, but she keeps working I
to work late.and bringing I to bring work home on the weekends.
6. She plans taking I to take some time off next month, but don't be surprised if demands
at work prevent her from doing I to do so.

Ii) Complete each sentence with your own gerund or infinitive phrase. Refer to
Student's Book pages A3 and A4 if you need to.
1. I look forward to - ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... .......
2. I miss ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .
3. I'm fortunate ---
4. I struggle ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ .
5. I can't stand .......................
6. My parents encouraged me .... --
7. ............................................................................................. - is relaxing for me.
8. It's my dream --- --------------
9. I'm tired of ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................-
10. I'm studying English ..... _ - -........................................................................-............................................... .............. .

B List three ideas under each of the topics below.


1. Activities you enjoy 3. Good memories

2. Your goals 4. To-do list for this week

Now use your lists to complete the sentences. Use gerunds or infinitives.
Make sure the items in each series are parallel.
Example: I enjoy ...~.ki.i.119...r..Ynn.in.g...9.11.d... p._qi.r.i:t.!n.9................................... .................................................................................................................... .
1. I enjoy ................................................................................................._............................................................................................................................................------
2. I intend ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .
3. I recall ......................................................................................................................................................................-.................................................................................... .
4. I need ............................................................................................................._.......................................................................................................................................................... .

WS UNIT 1
Writing: Describe optimists or pessimists
ll1 Prewriting. Brainstorming ideas. Write words and phrases related to each
perspective.

Optimists Pessimists
...t.h.in/s . . pPSi~f~?.f.y............................................................................. ...t.h.in!s....n.~.9.a.t.ix.e.!.y........................................ ......................................................

Use your ideas to write a topic sentence for each perspective. (Remember:
The topic sentence introduces the topic and the focus of the paragraph.)
1. Optimists: .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2. Pessimists: ......................................................................................................................................................................- ....................................................................................- ....

Choose one of your topic sentences. Write three to five supporting sentences.
(Remember: The supporting sentences give details, examples, and other facts
related to the topic sentence.)

1. ................................................................................................ ----------"""""""'"" ....................................................................


2. ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3 . ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4. ................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................_....................
5 . .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

CJ Writing. Write your topic sentence and supporting sentences from Exercise A in the form
of a paragraph. End with a concluding sentence. (Remember: The concluding sentence
restates [gives the same information in different words] the topic sentence or summarizes
the paragraph.)

DI Self-Check.

D Does your paragraph have a topic sentence?


D Do the supporting sentences in your paragraph all relate to the topic?
D Do you have a concluding sentence?

New Perspectives W9
Musical Moods
P REVIEW
D Try to name an artist for each musical genre.
1. Pop: ...................................................... -----
2. Blues : -------
3. Urban music: . - .. - .........................
4. World:
5. Latin: ..
6. Country :
7. Classical:

fl Complete the chart.

What types of music do you listen to when you're ...

1. studying?
2. eating in a restaurant?
3. exercising?
4. f eeling down?
5. commuting (by car, bus, train, etc.)?

II Complete the conversation about musical tastes. Use your own words.
A: So, what's in your CD collection?
B:
A: Let's put something on.
B: How about ....... ............. ............._ ....................... ?
A: What's it like?

B: ------------ ----------

W10
D What About You? Answer the questions.

1. What was the last CD you bought? .... - ----------- --


2. Circle the adjectives you'd use to describe the CD.

annoying different exciting offensive surprising uplifiting

brilliant dull fun playful traditional

cynical energetic haunting romantic unpredictable

3. Which songs on the CD do you like the most? The least? ........ ......................................................................................................

El Read the online music review.

3. Musical genre: 4. How do you rate 5. Your opinion of the recording:


0 classical this item? (5 stars =
best, 1 star worst) = This CD is brilliant! I can't stop listening to it.
0 country Almost every song is good, but I'm totally into
0
0
Latin
new age
-
o~
~ "Speed of Sound." It's very energetic. "Fix You" is
a little too emotional and kind of annoying. It gets
0 pop o~ on my nerves, but I can't get over how much I like
e britpop
o~
the rest of the album. Coldplay is my all-time
favorite band!
0 urban music
0
0
world
other
o*
Now complete a review of the CO you chose in Exercise 4.

3. Musical genre: 4. How do you rate 5. Your opinion of the recording:


0 classical
this item? (5 stars =
best, 1 star = worst)
0 country
0 Latin o ~
0 new age o ~
Q pop o ~
0 britpop o ~
0 urban music
0 world
0 other
O*

Musical Moods W 11
LESSON 1
II For each description, name a song, a band, or a singer you know.
1. A song with a great dance beat: ...............................................................................................................................................................................................
2. A band with a unique sound: .......................................................... ................................ ... ............................................................................................
3. A song with a catchy melody: .........................................................................................................................................................................................................
4. A singer with an amazing voice: .................................................................................................................................................................................................
5. A song with fantastic lyrics: ..... ......... .. .............. ........................ ........ .... . ..... ............. ... ......

IJ Complete the questions with the simple past tense or the present perfect
continuous form of the verb in parentheses. Then answer the questions.
1. What .......................... you ........................................................ to lately? ..................................................................................................................................................
(listen)

2. What song .......................... you ....................................................... in your head all day? .............................................................................................
(hum)

3. How many CDs .......................... you ........................................................ to yesterday? ............................................................................ .


(listen)

4. When .......................... you .................................................... your first CD? What was it? ......................................................................................
(buy)

5. How long .......................... you ........................................................ to your favorite band? ....................................................................................


(listen)

El Check the sentences that are grammatically correct. Rewrite the incorrect
sentences, using a correct form of the verb.
1. D I've already been listening to Enrique's new CD.

2. D Have you been playing any music lately?

3. D He's been going to concerts for a while.

4. D She's been going to five concerts this month.

5. D I've seen Vanessa-Mae in concert twice.

6. D How many times have you been listening to that song?

7. D Have you been playing my favorite song yet?

W12 UNIT 2
LESSON 2
IJ Check the statements that you agree with.
1. D I can't imagine what my life would be like without music.
2. D Listening to music is how I stay productive.
3. D Music is what helps me unwind.
4. D Music is a way for people to communicate with whomever they meet.
5. D Music is a way for me to express what's in my heart.

ml Complete each noun clause with your own words.


1. I wonder who ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .
2. I don't understand why ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ .

3. I'm not sure when -


4. I don't know where -
5. I have no idea what
6. Can you tell me which ....... .......................... ............................................................................................................................................................... ?
7. I can't imagine how .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .

mRead each situation. Then use noun clauses to complete the sentences in your own words.
1. Your friend invites you to a concert. You need more information. You ask him .w..h.~n....th~.
_qcm_e;.~r:.t....i~...9.n.r;J....w..b.9.'..~..pl.q.y.ing................................................................................................................................................................................................... .
2. You need to buy a gift for your nephew. You ask his mother ..................................................................................................

3. You're discussing music with some friends. You say that to you, listening to music is ............................

4. Your colleague has just met a famous musician. You want to know ..............................................................................

Musical Moods W 13
IE Read about the role of music in Adam Reed's life. Underline the eight noun clauses.

I'm not sure when I started really listening to music.


I think I was about 14. I was totally into pop music then.
Now pop music gets on my nerves. I listen to urban
music mostly. and country or classical when I'm
working or studying. My taste in music has changed
over the years, but t he role of music in my life has not
changed. I've been listening for almost ten years now,
and I can't imagine what I would do without music.
Listening to music is how I spend my free time, and it's
w hat helps me focus and get things done. It's how I
relax and how I have fun with my friends. I believe that
life would be dull and empty without music.

Adam Reed
San Francisco, California, USA

Now write a short paragraph about the role of music in your life. Why do you
listen to music? What types of music do you listen to? How has your taste
changed? Try to use noun clauses.

LESSON 3

l!J Do you know someone who's gifted? What does this person do well? Describe
his/her personality. What are some of this person's positive qualities? Negative
qualities?

eJ Reading. Answer the question. Then read the biography on page 15.
Have you ever heard of Ray Charles? What do you know about him?

W 14 UNIT 2
Ra~ Charles
''I was born with music
inside me.))
They called him "The Genius"-"the rmly genius in
the [music] business," according to singer Frank
Sinatra. What made him a genius is the o riginal
way in which he combined the diverse genres of
music, rhythm and blues, gospel, and country.He
broke down the walls that h ad always existed
between musical genres, creating groundbreaking
music that has had a huge influence on the course
of pop. It has been said that his music can
"break your heart or make you perform." His Always energetic, he explored new genres and
name was Ray Charles, and he was known as "the brought his unique style to new audiences. In the
father of soul." 1960s, he had both coun try and pop hits, with songs
Ray Charles was born in 1930, into a poor like "Georgia on My Mind" and "Hit the Road, Jack."
family in the southeastern United States. At age Throughout his life, Charles continued to write
five, he gradually began to lose his vision and was and perform. He also made television and movie
totally blind by age seven. appearances. His participation in the 1985 release
Charles had shown an interest in music si nce of "We Are the World" brought a renewed interest
the age of three. At seven, he left home to attend in his work.
the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind. There To this day, Ray Charles remains one of the
he learned to read, write, and arrange music in most important influences on popular music. His
Braille and play the piano, organ, saxophone, passionate singing and intelligent combining of
clarinet, and trumpet. While he was at the school, different musical genres is the ideal that many
his mother died. At fifteen , he left school and musicians continue to measure their work by.
began working as a traveling musician in
Florida, and later in Washington state. Ray Charles died o n June 10, 2004, at the age
of 73. A n otorious ladies' man, he is survived by 12
In 1950, Charles moved to Los Angeles, where children, 18 grand children, and 1 great-grandchild.
he found his own unique sound. He combined In response to the news of his death, singer Aretha
blues with gospel music to create his first Franklin said , "He was a fabulous man, full of humor
big hit recording, "I Got a Woman." On "I Got a and wit ..." Ray Charles possessed all of the positive
Woman," Charles began to sing in a more qualities of a creative personality-he was gifted,
emotional, intense, and exciting voice. He later energetic, imaginative, and passio nate-without
said, "When I started to sing li ke myself ... when I displaying the negative qualities that often accompany
started singing like Ray Charles, it had this spiritual creative genius. He was n ot difficult or egotistical.
and churchy, this religious or gospel sound." This In fact, he was quite humble. In 1983 he said,
recording made him famous and marked the "Music's been around a long rime, and there's going
beginning ofa new musical genre, "soul." to be music long after Ray Charles is dead. I just
Although Charles had discovered his sound want to make my mark, leave something musically
and success, he didn't stop trying new things. good behind."

SOURCES: www.pbs.org, www.en.wikipedia.org, www.swingmusic.net

list at least six adjectives from the reading that describe Ray Charles's music.

Now list five adjectives from the reading that describe Ray Charles's personality.

Musical Moods W1 S
IE Match the words and phrases from the reading with their definitions.
1. ................... groundbreaking a . a type of music with jazz, blues, and gospel influences
that often expresses deep emotions
2. ................... blind
b. a form of raised printing that blind people can read by touching
3 . ................... Braille
c. original and important; showing a new way of doing or thinking
4. ................... gospel about things
5 . ................... soul d. not considering yourself better than others
6. humble e. not able to see
f. a style of religious music associated with the southern U.S.

Im Write a short description of Ray Charles's music, based on the reading.

16 Challenge. What do Ludwig van Beethoven and Ray Charles have in common? How are
they different? Fill in the diagram to compare them.

esot istical humble

LESSON 4
iEJ Complete the sentences with the corred participial adjectives. Use the present or
past participle of the underlined verb.
1. Classical music soothes her infant son.
a. Classical music is ................................................................. to her infant son.
b. Her infant son is ................................................................. by classical music.
2. Pop interests Robert.
a. Robert thinks pop is ................................................................. .
b. Robert is ................................................................ in pop.
3. Her piano playing amazes me.
a. I'm ................................................................. by her piano playing.
b. Her piano playing is .................................................................
4. The song's lyrics touched Samantha.
a. Samantha was - by the song's lyrics.
b. Samantha found the song's lyrics to be very ..................................................................

W 16 UNIT 2
5. Pop music bores Eric because it's so predictable.
a. Eric is -.................................. by predictable pop music.
b. Eric thinks pop music is ................................................................. and predictable.
6. Concerts excite Alex and Sophie. They're going to one this Saturday.
a. Alex and Sophie think concerts are .......................................................... .
b. Alex and Sophie are ............................................................. about the concert on Saturday.

Im Circle the correct adjective and then complete each sentence with your own words.

1. I'm (soothed I soothing) by ..................................................................


2. I find .............................................................. to be very (entertained I entertaining).
3. I try to avoid .......................................................... because it's so {depressed I depressing).
4. I was (disappointed I disappointing) when I found out that ..................................................................
5. For me, ................................................................. is really (relaxed I relaxing).
6. I'm {pleased I pleasing) that ....................................................... .

~ Read the advertisement. Then answer the questions.

Litt Ie Gen ius cDs Classical music for infants and toddlers ADVERTISEMENT

Babies are soothed by classical


melodies selected and arranged for
their little ears. And when babies stop
crying, parents are more relaxed, too!
But that's not all these CDs have to offer.
Research has shown that listening to classical
music promotes babies' intellectual development and can make them
better at reading and math. As they listen, babies' abstract thinking skills
and spatial intelligence are improved. Creativity and imagination are also
stimulated. And you can start preparing your "Little Genius" before she's
even born! These CDs are highly recommended listening for mothers-to-be.
This music has been successful with babies all around the world. Since there
are no lyrics, the CDs are truly international. Try them for yourself and witness
your own baby's amazing responses. You won't be disappointed!

1. According to the ad, what are five benefits of Little Genius CDs?

2. What's your opinion? Do you think listening to music is beneficial for babies?

Musical Moods W 17
Grammar Booster
mChoose the correct verb form(s) to complete each sentence. In some sentences,
two or more verb forms are correct.
1. He ...................... to pop music when he was a teenager.
D listened D has listened D has been listening
2. They ...................... new-age music all day, and it's starting to get on my nerves.
D played D have played D have been playing
3. By the time I got to the concert, my favorite singer ...................... .
D already performed D had already performed D had already been performing
4. He ...................... that music video last night on TV.
D saw D has seen D has been seeing
5. She ..................... on the lyrics for her new song for hours, but now she's taking a break for dinner.
D worked D has worked D has been working

I) Find the error in each sentence. Rewrite the sentence, using a correct verb form.
1. What did you listen to lately?

2. Sarah Cho has been playing that CD for me yesterday.

3. I've been watching that video four times already.

4. I was buying that DVD yesterday.

5. How many concerts have you been going to?

6. The performance already began by the time we arrived.

7. When we got to the ticket window, the concert already sold out.

8. Many people have been downloading world music last year.

W18 UNIT 2
Ii Complete the sentences with your own words. Use appropriate verb forms.
1. When I began this class, I had already -- ----
2. Before I traveled to ------------------- , I had never ....................................... --- .-------
3. I had never seen ----- ... until . .-----------------------
4. I bought the -- .......................... CD after .............................. ........................................................................................................ .
5. By the time I got home last night, ................................................................................................................................................................................... .

l!J Read each pair of sentences. Then write one sentence with a similar meaning,
using the past perfect continuous.
1. He worked at Datatech for 35 years. Then he retired .
._Hg__ h.P4..b.e.gn...W.9.r:..lsin9...9.:t...P..c;i:t.gt.~~h.. fc>.r: .~?....y"!..a.r:..~...w.h.~.n...h.<i!....r..et.ir..g_d,....................- .........................
2. She slept for only. four hours. Then her alarm clock went off.

3. They drove their car for ten years. Then it broke down.

4. I waited for 45 minutes. Then the train arrived.

5. We lived in London for five years. Then we decided to move to Dublin.

II Complete each statement in your own way.


Example: Many people believe that th.e.r:.e. J.~...l.!fo...9r.!...9t.h.<i!.c.p.fgri.iz..t.~........................................................................................

1. Many people believe that ------


2. My friend argues that ....... --------------
3. Experts recommend that -- -----------------------------------
4. Some people claim that .................................................................................................................... -- ....................................... .
5. The newspapers report that .... ----------------- -----

Now give your opinion of each statement, using a noun clause as a noun complement.
Example: [The belief . ..] .Th.<i!....b.e./.i."!..f ..t.h_c;it....th?r.!fZ ..f.$.) _ifiz..9..t?...C?..thiz..r..pl.c;i_nfi!..t.~ ..m.9.k.?.$....s.e.n.~.e....t.P....m.fi!.,_ .................
1. [The belief ...1....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2. [The argument ...] ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. [The recommendation ...] ............................................................................................................................................................................................

4. [The claim ...] -----------


5. [The report ...] ......................................................... ---------------------

Musical Moods W1 9
Writing: Describe a friend or a relative
rJ.1 Prewriting. Clustering ideas. Create an idea cluster about a friend or relative
you know well.
a. Write the person's name inside the center circle below.
b. Use the idea cluster to describe the person. Write ideas that come to mind in the circles around the main
circle. You can include personality traits, interests, accomplishments, personal qualities, occupation, etc.
c. Use the circles connected to each of those circles to expand or give details about your ideas. Try to w rite
something in each circle, but it's OK if some circles are empty.

EJ Writing. Write a paragraph describing your friend or relative, using the information from
your cluster. Make sure to use parallel structure.

l!I Self-Check.
D Did you use parallel structure with pairs or series of nouns, adjectives, and adverbs?
D Did you use parallel structure with the clauses, phrases, and tenses?

D Does the topic sentence introduce the topic of the paragraph?

W20 UNIT 2
Money Matters
PREVIEW

D How can you spend less and save more? List some ideas.
1. 1. &ring lunch to work instead of
buving it.
2.
2. lal::e the bus to work instead
3. ....................................................................................................................................................................................... of driving.
4. ;,. Remember to pav credit card
bills on time. Avoid late charges!
5.

EJ Read each statement. Check the statements that are good financial advice.
1. D Keep track of your expenses.
2. D If you don't have enough money for something, use your credit card to treat yourself.
3. D Buy financial planning software.
4. D Cut back on your spending.
5. D Live beyond your means.
6. D Wait until you're older to start saving.
7. D Make sure your income is more than your expenses.
8. D Pay the least possible amount on your credit card bills each month.
9. D Put some money away in savings each month.
10. D If you're feeling down, go shopping.

D Answer the questions.


1. What's a minor indulgence (something small and unnecessary) that you spend money
on regularly? (For example, a daily cup of coffee or a weekly magazine.) ................................................................
2. How much does this indulgence cost? ...... ........................................................................................................................................................................
3. Calculate how many t imes per year you spend money on it. (For example, a cup of
=
coffee each weekday: 5 days x 52 weeks 260 times per year.) .............................................................................................
4. Multiply the cost (your answer to question 2) by the number of times (your answer to
question 3). How much money do you spend in a year on your small indulgence? ....................................
5. Were you surprised by the results? Can you think of something else you'd like to spend
that money on? .......................................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................

W21
19 Read the article.

2. A budget can keep you out of debt. With a budget. you


Financial know whether or not you're living within your means. If you

Planning use credit cards, this may not be obvious. You might have extra
cash at the end of each month and think that you're OK. But, if
Five Benefits of you're not paying your credit card bills in full, you're probably
Keeping a Budget living beyond your means.
3. A budget can make you better prepared for
emergencies. A budget requires you to put some money away
I. A budget allows you to spend money in savings. So. if you find yourself in a difficult situation or
on things you really need or want. A faced with unexpected expenses, you'll have some extra money
budget requires you to keep track of your you can fall back on.
expenses. You see where your money
4. A budget can help you reach your savings goals.
actually goes and plan where to cut back on
Whatever you are saving for, you need a plan that tells you how
spending. The money you used to spend
much you have. how much you need to spend. and how much
daily on little things like coffee or taxis can
you can save.
go toward something more important.
5. A budget gi\les you peace of mind bec~use it allows you to
stop worrying about how you're going to make ends meet.

SOURCE: www.financialplan.about.com

Now answer the questions.


1. According to the article, why is it important to keep track of your expenses?

2. According to the article, why can using credit cards be a problem?

3. Why can a budget make you better prepared for emergencies?

4. Which benefit from the article do you think is the most important? Why?

El Respond to the e-mail. Write three suggestions for how the person could
budget his money to save for a TV.

From: I joesoccer@mail.com
Subject: I Need advice!

Hey, did you see the game last night? I can't believe I missed it again!
I have to get a new TY, but I just can't manage to save up any cash.
What am I going to do?????

W22 UNIT 3
LESSON 1

m Answer each question about your financial goals. Then, for each answer, do
the following:
a. Write a sentence about what you will do to reach your goal. Use expect,
hope, intend, or plan with an infinitive.
b. Write a sentence about when your goal will be reached. Use the future
perfect.
Example: What's something expensive that you ho pe to buy? ..g_.Jg.p.:t.9.p....f.9.!!1.P.Y..tf?.r::....-................................................
a. ...l....in:t?..n4...:t2..p.Y..t...9..w..9..y...$.l.Q.Q...i.I.'.!.. ~gv.!n.9~...?.g_
qh...m.Qn.th..........................................................................................................................
b. ...!....w.i!!...h.9..".?....~9.".?..4..?..!'.!9..!-!9h...t.9.. ...b..Y..Y...9... !9.p..t gp....b..y...n.!?.~t...t.19..r.fh......................................................................................................_

1. What's something expensive that you hope to buy? --

a. - ----
b. - - -
2. Do you have a debt you'd like to pay off? What is it? ...........................................................................................................................
a . ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

b. -----
3. What is one way you can cut back on your spending and save more each month?

a . ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

b. -
lfJ What will you have done by the year 2020? Write a short paragraph. Use the future
perfect or expect, hope, intend, or plan and the perfect form of an infinitive.
Example: .... 'l?..y....th.~...y..~.9..r:....Wf.C),___l...w.i!!. ..h.9..Y.r?....finis.h.(?.g)q_w....~f.h.9..Q!:...l...!i!~p..!~.qt...tc:>...h.9.Y..~....b..9..Y.9h.t....9....h.9..tl.~f?............-
........b..y....th.(?.r.J........!...h9.p..f! ...t.c:>...h.c;i..v..~...fj9.t.t.?..n...m.9.r..r:.i.~d....Qn4..;?Jgr..t!?:.'i.. ..9. ..fami.ly,...,..,.................................................................-

l
I . I

-
--
~

= - ...,,.... -- ~

~
- ---- ~
.... = -- - - ~ ~ - =

Money Matters W2 3
LESSON 2

EJ Look at the pictures. Why do the people regret their purchases? Complete each
explanation with a reason from the box.

is so hard to operate takes up so much room is so hard to put together


just sits around collecting dust costs so much to maintain

1. "I bought a guitar last summer. I really 2. "I was so excited to get my new PDA.
intended to learn how to play it, but I But it ..................................................................................................... .
haven't picked it up for months now. Who has thumbs small enough to
It .................................................................................................................... '' push those tiny buttons? Not me!
What a pain!"

3. "We bought a beautiful crib for our 4. "I ordered a new computer online, but I
baby, but it's in pieces all over the floor. had no idea the monitor would be so big.
Unfortunately, the instructions are in It ................................................................................................................. on
Italian, and it ............................................................. " my desk. I should have bought a laptop."

5. "I wish I hadn't bought th is boat. I don't use it


very often, and it .............................................................................. .
Between the fuel, the docking fees, and the
costs to service and clean it, I'm not sure it's
worth it."

W24 UN IT 3
II For each item in Exercise 8, write a sentence about the buyer's remorse.
Use the Inverted form of the past unreal conditional.
1. ...H.9.d ..b.~...kn.9.W..!1...f.t. ..W..9.Yl.4-JYS..t ...S..i.t..Qr.:9.Y.n.d..~.9.f.f.~~.tin9._fi_YS..t....b.!i;...W..9YJ.4.r.J.'.t...b.9)1'.~ ...f?.9.Y9b..t...P. ..9.Yitg.r.:,........_
2.
3.
4.
5.

mJ After completing the Now You Can on Student's Book page 31, write a statement
expressing buyer's remorse about the purchase listed there or about another
purchase. Use the inverted form of the past unreal conditional.

LESSON 3
mTry
Read the following excerpts from the radio call-In show on Student's Book page 32.
to determine the meaning of the underlined phrases from their context.

Steve: " I'm afraid I'm really having problems making ends meet ... I earn a good living,
but it seems like no matter how much money I make, I can't seem to catch up. "

Lara: "Do you put anything away for a rainy day?"


Steve: "You mean savings? No way. There's never enough for that. "

Lara: "Steve, what about debt? Are you maxing out on your credit cards?"
Steve: "Well, yes, I do use credit cards, if that's what you mean."

Lara: "Are you drowning in credit card bills, or have they been fairly reasonable so far?"
Steve: " Well ... I guess I'd have to say I've been drowning in debt."

Lara: "Steve, if you want to keep your head above water. you've got to live within your means.
That means spending less than you're making, not more."

Lara: " If you feel like your finances are out of control. then you need to take the bull by the horns
and take control of your finances."

Now match the phrases on the left with the definitions on the right. Write the letter on the line
1. .................. ... make ends meet a. owe so much money that your financial
situation is almost impossible to deal with
2 . ...................... put something away
for a rainy day b. have just enough money to buy what you need
3. .................... max out c. use something to its limit or so much that
there is nothing left
4. ...................... drown in debt
d. manage to deal with all your debts or some
5. ...................... keep your head above water
other problem, but it's so difficult that you
6. ...................... live within your means almost can't do it
7. ...................... take the bull by the horns e. to save something, especially money, for a
time when you will need it
f. to take control of a difficult situation
g. to spend only the money or income
that you have, no more
Money Matters W25
IE Circle the letter of the correct choice to complete each statement.
1. Spendthrifts generally live ....... - their means.
a. below b. within c. beyond
2. Big spenders are more likely to ....... ........
a. be drowning in debt b. be frugal c. stick to a budget
3. Cheapskates generally .............
a. use credit cards often b. have a lot of stuff c. keep track of their expenses
4. Big spenders are usually ..
a. generous b. stingy c. frugal
5. Thrifty people are more likely to ....
a. be wiped out by b. stick to a budget c. let their bills get out of hand
a job loss

II] Do you know someone who's a big spender, a spendthrift, or a tightwad?


Describe his/her spending habits. Give examples.

The world record for


owning the most credit
cards is held by Walter
Cavanagh of Santa Clara,
California, USA. He has
1,397 cards, which
together are worth more
than $1.65 million in credit.
- - ~
- - _ _ _ _ _ _!,)
LESSON 4 SouRce: www.guinnessworldrecords.com

mJ Reading Warm-up. Complete the chart with information about a charity with
which you are familiar.

Name of charity Who they help What they do

work to reduce poverty


poor people all over the and solve problems in poor
CAR
world communities-through
education. health care. etc.

Have you ever donated money to a charity? What was the name of the
organization or cause? Why did you make a donation?

W26 UNIT 3
IE Reading. Read the article.

World Wildlife Fund Doctors Without Borders The United Nations


The World Wildlife Fund Doctors Without Borders Children's Fund
(WWF) is known worldwide by (Medecins Sans Frontieres, or The United Nations
its panda logo. WWF has been MSF) is an international Children's Fund (UNICEF) is
working for almost 50 years in independent humanitarian active in 157 countries and
more than 100 countries around organization that provides territories around the world.
the globe to conserve nature emergency medical assistance in The organization works to
and the diversity of life on almost 70 countries. Each year, improve the lives of children
Earth. With more than 5 MSF medical and non-medical worldwide. Its mission is to
million members worldwide, volunteers participate in more ensure every child's right to
WWF is the world's largest than 3,400 aid missions. These health, education, equality,
privately-financed conservation international volunteers work and protection. UNICEF's
organization. It leads with more than 16,000 people priorities are:
international efforts to protect hired locally to provide medical
animals, plants, and natural care. They often work in the 1. ensuring quality basic
areas. Its global goals are: most remote or dangerous parts education for all children,
of the world to do things such especially girls.
1. to save endangered species- as provide health care, get 2. reaching every child with
especially giant pandas, tigers, hospitals up and running, vaccines and other life-saving
threatened whales and perform surgery, vaccinate health services.
dolphins, rhinos, elephants, children, operate feeding 3. building protective
marine turtles, and great apes. centers, and offer psychological environments to keep
2. to protect the habitats where care. MSF gets medical children safe from violence,
these endangered species and attention to people who need it abuse, and exploitation.
other wild animals live. in cases of: 4. preventing the spread of
3. to address threats to the HIV/AIDS among young
natural environment-such as 1. war or armed conflict. people and from parent to
pollution, over-fishing, and 2. epidemics of infectious child and providing care for
climate change. diseases such as tuberculosis, those already affected.
malaria, and AIDS. 5. giving each and every child
3. natural disasters. the best start in life-through
4. non-existent health care in health services, good
remote areas. nutrition, safe water, and
early learning activities.

SOURCES: www.worldwildlife.org. www.doctorswithoutborders.org. www.unicef.org

Now complete the chart with information from the reading.

Name of charity - I Who they help What they do

Money Matters W 2 7
Im To which of the three charities on page 27 would you consider making a
contribution? Is there one you wouldn't want to give money to? What are your
reasons for donating or not donating?

''
Charity begins at home
but should not end there.
-Scottish proverb

SouRa: www.charjtyyillage.com
''
Grammar Booster
EJ What are your plans? For each item, write a sentence about what you will
probably be doing. Use the future continuous.
1. Next Monday I ............................................................................................................................................. .
2. This weekend I ................................................................................................................................................ .
3. Next year I ................................................................................................................................................. .
4. Five years from now I .............................................................................................................................................. .
5. At this time next week I ..................................................................................................................................................

Ii) Imagine your life in ten years. Where will you be living? What are you going to
be doing? Write a paragraph, using the future continuous. When the future
continuous is not possible, use the simple future tense.

I
,

..

-
- -- = - - -
- ... --- -- ~-
--
-~
-~
-

W28 UNIT 3
B Look at the two schedules. Write sentences comparing the adivities of Tom and
Tina Lee for each day. Use a time clause with Ydllli:_ and the future continuous.
Tom Lee Tina Lee

Thursday work p~{orw~


"tr-q>w~fy~

Friday work Friday ~ 01'\t the,, be.ac.ht

Saturday clean the house Saturday

Sunday do laundry Sunday

1. Thursday: ...W.h.il.~....T<?m...~~-!i....f.s...w.2r.kf.ng...11n9...k.~~-..i~..99..f.ng...t..9....k~...p.9..f~.ing....fa.r.:...9....tr.ip..,........................................
2. Friday: ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. Saturday: ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................- ..........
4. Sunday: .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

l!J Complete the chart with three of your hobbies or adivities and the year in
which you started each.

Hobby I activity Whe n started

Now use the information in the chart to complete the sentences, using the
future perfed continuous.
Example: By t he year 2013, ..L.w.lll...h.9.V..~...P..~.~-n...f;.Q.l(~~.ting...st..~m1ps...far:...?...Q...y..~g_r.:~. .......................................................... ...... .
1. By the year 2015, ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .
2. By next year, ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. .
3. By the time I ........................................................................................................................ , I ........................................................................................................................._.

M oney Matters W2 9
Writing: Describe a new charitable organization
Prewriting. Listing ideas. Choose an idea for a
new local charity. Think of a name and long-term goal for
your charity. Then complete the chart. WRITING MODEL

Name:
Long-term goal:
The mission of People for City Park is to
m~ the park: a clean, safe, and fun place for
families to spend time outdoors. First, we Ian
I
to clean up the park. We will post si"'"a ;.. pth
Some ideas comm "ty ,,,._ ~ e
. wu and ask for volunteers. Next we
An organization to improve city parks intend to ask local nurseries t d ,
tre o onate new
es, plants, and flowers for the park. Then,
An after-school program for young children
we ~ope to raise money for new playground
A fund to provide housing for the homeless eqwpment. We will place collection jars in
cafes, restaurants, and shops. In the end, we
An organization to help stray animals
expect to have collected enough money and
A soup kitchen a-
bought new equipment for childre
byn...... summer. ntoplayon
Your own idea: ...........................................................................................

Goal or step Plan Completion date

First,
Next,
Then,
In the end,

l]J Writing. Write a paragraph, using ideas from your chart. Your topic sentence
should state your charity's long-term goal. Use time order words and expressions to
organize the sequence of steps in your paragraph.

[I Self-Check.
0 Did you use time order words or expressions in the paragraph?
0 Does the sequence of events in the paragraph make sense?

D Does the topic sentence introduce the topic of the paragraph?

W30 UNIT 3
Looking Good
PREVIEW
D Look at the hairstyles. Then answer the questions.

1. Do you find any of these hairstyles attractive? Which ones?

2. Do you find any of these hairstyles unattractive? Which ones? ---------

3. Do any of the hairstyles look modern, like you might see them in a fashion magazine today?

4. Which hairstyles are attention-getting? - ----

5. Which hairstyles look like they take a lot of time to maintain? ...........................................................................................

6. Would you consider any of these hairstyles for yourself? Which one(s)? .......... ... ... - -- ......... .

fJI Complete the sentences about your favorite outfit.

1. I love to wear my -
2. These clothes are formal I casual. (Circle one.)

3. If I wore this outfit to --, I would be underdressed.


4. If I wore this outfit to -- - I
I would be overdressed.

5. If I wore this outfit to - I would be appropriately


dressed.

W31
LESSON 1
II Read the opinions of casual business dress. Check the statements with which
you agree.
1. 0 What's important is to act like a professional. If you're confident and good at your job,
you can be just as effective in jeans and a nice shirt as in a suit and tie.
2. 0 I think casual dress is appropriate for most offices, as long
as one's appearance is clean and neat.
3. 0 I believe that when people dress like professionals, they
act more professionally.
4. 0 I think dress-down day is a pain in the neck. I never know
what to wear. What does "business casual" really mean?
5. D People have taken casual dress codes too far! A number
of companies have actually had to introduce "business
formal days."
6. 0 I don't think casual dress creates a good image for a
company, especially if the company does business
internationally. 1 think Charlie la taking
Casual Fridays a bit too farI
7. 0 Casually dressed employees are better workers because
SOURCE: www.CartoonStock,com
people are more productive when they're comfortable.

El Now summarize the opinions in Exercise 3. Complete each statement below


with a quantifier from the box.

each several half of two a number of


every three many most a couple of
some four one a few a majority of

1. .................................................................. person expressed an opinion about business casual dress.


2 . ................................................................... people think business casual is a good idea.
3. ................................................................... people think business casual is a bad idea.
4 . ................................................................... people think that dress and behavior are related.
5. ................................................................... person thinks business casual is annoying.

II Now rewrite statements 1-4 from Exercise 4, using different quantifiers with
similar meanings.
1.
2 . ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3.
4.
Challenge. Judging from the statements in Exercise 3,
do you think casual business dress Is on the way out? ............. .............................................. .....

W32 UNIT 4
LESSON 2
mi What Do You Think? Comment on each of the fashions shown. Use the
adjectives listed or your own adjectives. Where possible, use two adjectives.

chic elegant ffashy old-fashioned sloppy tacky


classic fantastic in style out of style striking tasteful
eccentric fashionable loud shocking stylish trendy

2. 4.

5. - 7.
6. 8.

lfJ Match each word or expression with its opposite. Write the letter on the line.
1. ...................... conform a . tacky
In the summer of 2005, both the
2. - classic b. subdued Japanese and Chinese governments
3. ...................... elegant c. trendy asked office workers to dress down to
save energy. A majority of Japanese
4. flashy d. cheap companies complied with the "Cool
5. ..................... fashionable e . stand out Biz" no-tie, no-jacket campaign to
reduce air-conditioner use. In Japan,
6. ...................... shocking f . tasteful about 210 million kilowatt hours of
7. ...................... well made g . old-fashioned electricity were saved, reducing
carbon dioxide emissions by about
79,000 tons.

SOURCE: wwwJapantimes.co.jp

Looking Good W3 3
El List an article of clothing, a pair of shoes, or an accessory you have that can be
described by each adjective.
1. Trendy: ................................................................................................ ------ --
2. EI egant: -----------------------------
3. Striking: ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4. Out of style: ....................................................................-............................................._......................................................................................................................................_
s. Comfortable: ................................._......... ................................................................................................. - ---
6. Classic: ........- ........................................._.....................- .........-....._..........................................................................................................._........................................................

fl Challenge. Read the quote from 1930s fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli. Then
answer the questions.

' ' Ninety percent [of women] are


afraid of being conspicuous and
of what people will say. So they
buy a gray suit. They should ''
dare to be different.
1. Rewrite Ms. Schiaparelli's fashion advice in your own words.

2. Do you think this is good fashion advice for people (not just women) today? Why or why not?

LESSON 3
iI!] Think about people you know-friends, relatives, classmates, colleagues, etc.
Write statements about things they do to make themselves more attractive.
Use quantifiers and ideas from the box or your own ideas.

ear piercing hair coloring nail extensions


braids hair transplants permanents
contact lenses hair removal sideburns
cosmetic surgery long hair skin tanning
facials makeup tattoos
false eyelashes manicures

...Sey~_r.:q.f...me.n I ~nP..w....h.9Y..e.. lqn9...h.gi.r.:,.....................-....................... -- --- --------- ------- -

----
,

W34 UNIT 4
mAnswer the questions.
1. Do you think that most people are happy w ith their
appearance, or that a majority would like to change
their appearance? -
2. What would you consider doing to change your
appearance? ......................................... ....................................................................

3. How far is too far? Which ways of changing one's


appearance do you think are inappropriate, tacky, or shocking?

LESSON 4
IE Reading Warm-up. Look at the ad. Then answer the questions.
1. How would you describe the man in this ad?

2. Do you think that the man in this ad reflects how


most men look?

3. Do you think men are more or less self-conscious


about how they look than women are?

BUY NOW!!!
Limited time offer.
No more sit-ups!
(I r\UI

Looking Good W3 5
I!] Reading. Read the article.

Boys and Body Image


ost people realize that unrealistic ideals of This new ideal of male beauty has also created
M beauty in the media have negatively affected
the body image of women and girls. However,
not as many are aware of the pressure on men and
some problems that are unique to men and boys. In
an effort to attain the muscular bodies of the shirtless
men in ads, many are turning to obsessive exercising
boys to conform to an ideal body type that television, and weight lifting. In the United States, the number
movies, and magazines have started to define for of men who exercise has increased more than thirty
them. Males are becoming more self-conscious and percent since the start of the 1990s. While exercise
self-critical. They compare themselves to media is, of course, a healthy habit, exercising excessively is
images of muscular, well-built men and are not not Some men spend so many hours at the gym
satisfied with how they look. that they don't have time for family and friends.
The trend in Researchers have defined a new body-image
advertising to use the disorder, termed musde dysmorphia, that is the
male body to sell a reverse of the extreme dieting that has been a
variety of products- problem among girls and young women. Men with
from dothes to exercise this disorder worry that they are too thin and small.
equipment-has led to As a result, they engage in extreme exercise and use a
an increase in negative variety of products that promise bigger muscles and
body image and low more energy. Some of these products-such as
physical self-esteem anabolic steroids-are dangerous. Abuse of these
among men and boys. muscle-building drugs can cause serious health
Although the majority problems such as heart disease, liver cancer, and
of teenagers with depression.
eating disorders are Research has shown that Western men are much
girls, researchers more concerned with looking muscular than Asian
believe that the men. Steroids are available legally and without a
number of boys prescription in Beijing, but steroid abuse
affected is increasing. is generally not a problem in China. According to
Haff man and half god, Also, like girls, teenage researcher Harrison Pope of Harvard University, the
Adonis was considered the boys who think they're
ideal of masculine beauty
Chinese idea of masculinity has more to do with inner
overweight are more strength-strength of character and intellect
by ancient Greeks. likely to try smoking as
a way to lose weight

SouRCES: www.mediascope.org, www.infoplease.com, www.healthyplace.com

Now complete the statements with words from the box.


1. Advertisers use images of ............................... men to sell their products.
dangerous
2. These images of perfect male bodies are an ....................................... ideal.
self-esteem
3. They have caused many men to become more ................................. .
muscular
4. As a result, a lot of men now suffer from low ....................... .
unrealistic
5. Some of these men try to improve their appearance in ways
self-conscious
that are
e:J Answer questions about the article.
1. According to the article, where do we see images that now define male beauty? .......................

2. How has the modern ideal body type affected Western men's self-image? ..............................................................

W36 UNIT 4
3. What problems are some men having as a result? ....................................---------

4. What do you think Western men could learn from Chinese men about self-image? ....................................

Grammar Booster
IJ Read each statement. Check the meaning of the quantifier in each sentence.

Some Not many I Not much


1. Few people were dressed appropriately for the event. D D
2. There are a few really good books on fashion here. D D
3. I've got a little money put away for a rainy day. D D
4. I have little interest in pop music. D D
5. There are few hairstyles that look good on me. D D
6. There's a little cake left, if you'd like a piece. D D
liJ Add 2( to the sentences that need it.
of
1. Several his co-workers wear suits to work.
A

2. A few friends are coming over for dinner on Friday night.

3. A few my friends are going to a movie tonight.

4. Both dresses look great on you.

5. A majority people still dress up to go to the theater.

6. This is the most traffic I've ever seen on this road.

7. Each the employees voted on whether or not to dress down on Fridays.

Ii Complete each sentence with a phrase from the box. Change the verb as
necessary to agree with the subject.

be quite good have ear piercing wear contact lenses


be self-confident dress casually

1. Most of my friends ................................................................................................................................. .


2. A lot of pop music .................................................................................................................................
3. Several of my classmates .............................................................................................................................
4. One of my family members ...................................................................................-............................................ .
5. None of the people I know .........................................--....................-....................................... .

Looking Good W3 7
Writing: Compare ways people make themselves more attractive
f.i.1 Prewriting. Organizing ideas. Choose one of the topics from the box.

Compare and contrast what you and someone you know well do
to make yourselves more attractive.
Compare and contrast what people today do to make themselves
more attractive with what they did twenty years ago.
Compare and contrast what celebrities do to make themselves
more attractive with what average people do.

Complete the diagram below. Label the circles with the people you're comparing. Think about
what people do {or did) to make themselves more attractive. List the differences in each circle
and the similarities in the middle.

Similarities

CJ Writing. Write two paragraphs comparing and contrasting ideas within the topic
you chose, referring to your notes in the diagram.
In your first paragraph, write about the similarities. Remember to use connecting words such as
like. similarly, likewise.~ and not either.
In your second paragraph, write about the differences. Remember to use connecting words such as
unlike. jn contrast. however. and whereas I while.

[i Self-Check.
0 Did you correctly use connecting words for comparing?
0 Did you correctly use connecting words for contrasting?
0 Does each paragraph have a topic sentence?

W38 UNIT 4
.
.. . ),..'
--~'. - .... s
\ .\
\./........
..\ . -...,,... .... . . \
.v ~
.
. ...~.,
\ '.' .

.- :l;JNIT-. \
' O F ' - O .! : /
//'.\
. - .......~\.
\ / ' -\ . \ l
>: '.\\
h ~ \
-

Community
PREVIEW
D Think about a city you have lived in or visited. Then complete the chart with
your opinions.

City: - - - - -- -- - - -- -

Things you like about the city

Things you dislike about the city

Trends (general changes taking place) in the city

Things that could be done to improve life in the city

fJ Read the e-mail message.

From: yourfriend@summitmail.com

Subject: City girl?

Hey! How's life treating you? I'm busy applying to universities. Can you believe I'm
graduating from secondary school this year? I'm thinking about going to a university in
the city. I know I've always been a country girl, but I think a faster pace might be a nice
change. Any advice? Let me know what you think.

Now respond to the e-mail message. Do you think a move to the city is a good
idea? Explain your opinion. Describe some advantages and disadvantages of
life in the city. If you can, give advice on living in a city.
,.__,,,.,.,_,r ~-,_-..,,. l""'l"-'l'J-,..~-,.,,....-~1lc-.,'"'_r_ - ,. ...... ~--~-~"''~-:!'"-- ,-,,~ ..
--.~_'C -~ ... - - '""".-- - ... - .. ~,:--.--. -"""::,>::~~ ~ -~~~~

0 e-mail . ~ b][g)[~L
To: yourfriend@summitmail.com
Subject: RE: City girl?

W39
LESSON '1
II Combine each pair of sentences, using a possessive with a gerund.
1. He sleeps in class. What do you think about it?

...W.h.9..t..4.9.... y2Y....thf.n.'5....QP.2Y.t...hf.~... sl~.gp.f.n9...i.tt..f.l9.$..$. ?. ................................................................................. .......................................................


2. Julie's husband checks his PDA constantly. She can't stand it.

3. Patricia's co-workers call her Patty. She resents it.

4. They complain all the time. I'm so tired of it.

5. We take calls during dinner. Our father objects to it.

6. I hum while I work. Do you mind?

7. You are late so often. Mr. Yu objects to it.

El Read the list of annoying office behaviors.

Top Ten Most Annoying Personal Behaviors at Work


What do your co-workers do that gets on your nerves? We recently asked our readers to e-mail us
the most annoying personal behaviors of their officemates. Here are the ten most popular responses:
1. Chewing, smacking, and popping gum 6. Inappropriate dress-either too casual or
2. Humming, whistling loudly, or listening to too shocking
the radio in a shared work area 7. Looking at the clock or at one's watch
3. Interrupting conversations repeatedly during a meeting
4. Smoking at work 8. Wearing too much perfume or cologne
5. Inappropriate jokes, language, or comments 9. Playing with objects on someone else's desk
10. Gossiping and complaining constantly __J
SoURCE: www.bizjournal.com

Now answer the questions.

1. Which behavior from the list do you f ind most annoying? ------
2. Can you think of any annoying workplace behaviors that aren't on the list?

3. Do you know someone who engages in one of these behaviors? How do you feel about it?
Write a sentence, using a possessive with a gerund . .................................................................................................................................

4. Write a sentence asking for permission to do one of the things listed.

5. Write a sentence politely asking someone not to do one of the things listed.

W40 UNIT 5
11 Judge the appropriateness of each behavior below. Write sentences, using
adjectives from Student's Book page 53 or your own adjectives.

1. Using a hand-held phone while driving: ...l:t.'.~...Yn.s.gfo._


..t9. ..Y..s.g___g__h_qn.4--:.h.?..frf..ph.9.n?....w.hf!.g...fl.r.f.Y.in.f1.........
2. Taking a call in a movie theater: ...................................................................................................................................................................................
3. Turning your cell phone off in class: ................................................................................................................................. .......... ............................
4. Having a loud, personal conversation on the train: .. ...............................................................................................................................

5. Talking on the phone while shopping: ................................................................................ ..... ..................................................................................


6. Turning your phone to silent mode in a restaurant: .....................................................................................................................................

7. Leaving your phone on during a flight: .................................................................................................................................................................

Cell-phone use at public cultural events - such as plays, movies, concerts, and art exhibits - is now against the law
in New York City. The penalty for violating the law is a fifty-dollar fine and removal from the theater, museum, etc.
The taw was passed in 2003 after two famous actors reacted to cell-phone users during Broadway performances. In
mid-performance, Kevin Spacey turned to a member of the audience who had answered a cell phone and said, "Tell
them you're busy: Laurence Fishburne wasn't as polite. When an audience member answered a phone during one of
his performances, he yelled, "Turn your@lf?!* phone off!"*

SOURCES: www.wired.com, WWW.playbill.com

LESSON 2

mOffer acceptable alternatives for each inappropriate behavior. Use either ... M

1. Littering: .P..~9.pfg__s.hqy.ld...?.!:th.?..c.t.hrn.w...t.b?.ir...fwr.f?.9.gg..ir.1..g.f.r.9..s.h...f.qn.9r:..h9.!.c:/.gn...t9...!.t...Y.!'.lt.il...t~.y. ..fi.!'.ld. ..c?.~.-


2. Talking during a movie: ................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................
3. Playing loud music on a bus: ........... .......................................................................................................................................................... ....... .................
4. Gossiping: ..................... ..............................................................................................................................................................
5. Eating in class: ............................................................................................................................... .... ...................................................

fJ Rewrite each sentence, using neither ... nor and the antonym of the adjective.
1. Listening to loud music and getting in and out of your seat constantly are inconsiderate on a
flight. ...fY.g_i.th.?..r.. ..!.i.s.:t.?.n.in.9....t.9...l9.Y.4....m.Y..s.ir;...n.9.r.:...g!?..t.tin.9...f.n. ..gnJl..9.M.t...<>.f...y.c:>Yr.:...s.ggf.._~gn~.t.9.n:tl.y.Js................
. ~cms.f.d.!?.r:.9..t.!?. ..9.r1...q...ff.!9h.t...................................................:. ........................... ..... ... .... . ..................................................................................................
2. Leaving a cell phone on and putting your feet up on the seat in front of you are discourteous
in a movie theater. ........................................................................ ......... ............................................. .................

3. Talking on a cell phone and smoking while driving are irresponsible. ............................................................................

4. Talking or laughing while the teacher is talking is disrespectful. ..............................................................................................

5. Touching the art and taking flash photography in a museum are inappropriate. ............................................

Symbols such as @#?!* are used to politely denote curse words.

Community W 41
E) Read the pet peeves of visitors to a website.

D Pet Peeves ~~ El
-
- - ...-
File Edit Links Tools H elp Chai
- - ...
~

--
AdJress Ihttp://www.yourpetpeeves.com
-
I
Name: Sam
I really can't understand why people slow down to stare at traffic accidents. It creates huge, ,,.
unnecessary traffic jams, and it's dangerous. A driver who's looking at an accident is not looking at
the road in front of him-and could cause another accident!
Name: Karen
What gets to me is people who don't cover their mouths when they cough. It really bugs me when a
server in a restaurant coughs, spreading germs all over my food. Waiters and waitresses around the
world, please wait until you leave the table to cough. If you can't, at least cover your mouth.
Name: Amy
I can't stand dog owners' taking their dogs for walks and not cleaning up after them. If you won't
take responsibility for your dog's messes, then don't have a pet!

Name: Will
It really gets on my nerves when salespeople won't interrupt their personal conversations to help me,
a paying customer. Ignoring customers is rude and bad for business.

Name: Isabella
I ride my bike a lot-to school, to work, basically wherever I need to go. The thing that ticks me off
is drivers who don't use their turn signals and who don't look behind them before they open their car
doors. They create a real danger for us cyclists.
..
.....
~

Now rate the pet peeves according to how annoying they are to you. Number them
from 1 (most annoying) to 6 (least annoying).
.. . .......... drivers who slow down to stare at traffic accidents
--- .. servers who don't cover their mouths when they cough
.... _ ........ dog owners who don't.clean up after their dogs
. salespeople who don't interrupt their personal conversations to help you
.. drivers who don't use their turn signals
...................... drivers who don't look behind them before they open their car doors

fJ Challenge. Now read the pet peeves in Exercise 8 again. Write a sentence
summarizing each person's opinion. Use the paired conjunctions in parentheses.
1. Sam's opinion (not only . .. but also): N.9.t....2t1.f.y....d.2?.s ..~/.2.w.f.n9...d.9.~!1...t9... star:.e....9..t...tr.:affJ<;........- . ....
. .acciden.t~...<;.riaq:t.e...h1,19e, 4.r.!n.?..f..e.~~.q.r...y...tr.afffc .j.qm.~, ..b.1,.rtJ(~...o.lso .d..9.n.9.e.r.:9.Y..~,..................- ..--..................................
2. Karen's opinion (either ... or): ........................................................................................-.............................................................................................. ..

. .......................---- .... .......--- - - - -

3. Amy's opinion (either ... or): .................................-......................................................- .................................................................-...............................

4. Will's opinion (not only . .. but also): ......_ ...........- .............................................- .....................- .........................__.........- ..............-...- ..

5. Isabella's opinion (neither ... nor): ..........................- ......-~ ......................._................................._ ...............................................................

W42 UNITS
mJ What About You? What's your pet peeve? Post a message to the message board.
Use the messages in Exercise 8 as a guide.

LESSON 3
m Check the community service activities that you or someone you know has done.
D plant flowers or trees D collect signatures
D pick up trash D volunteer
D mail letters D make arrangements to donate your organs
D make phone calls D donate money
D raise money D other: --------- --

Now write sentences.


Example: Write about two activities you or someone you know has done. Use not only ... but also.
f\l.9.t.. ..9.n.!.y...b.9.lf..li!...Lr..9..i.:;!_~4..m.9.nli!y,_./?.1.,1.t ..l.:Y.l?...9.fa.9..Y9.lY.n.t.li!?..r..~.cl....................................................................................................................._
1. Write about two activities you or someone you know has done. Use not only ... but also.

2. Write about two activities you haven't done. Use neither ... nor.

3. Write about two activities you'd like to do. Use~ ... QI.

if] Reading Warm-up. Describe your ideal vacation. Where would you go?
What would you do? Where would you stay?

I
I
~
~
r
I - - - - - -""- - '
..
. = = - ,,... _,~

= ~-- - ~
~
.. ,.... - -=

Community W43
II] Reading. Read about the service organization started by husband and wife
Bud Philbrook and Michele Gran.

B ud Philbrook and Michele Gran were married


in 1979. Instead of taking a honeymoon
cruise to the Caribbean, they decided to spend
people of all ages. There are young, single volunteers
and retired volunteers.
More recently, Global Volunteers has started
a week in a rural village in Guatemala, where offering programs for families with children as young
they helped raise money for an irrigation system. as five. Some Global Volunteers community service
When they returned to their home in St Paul, opportunities include:
Minnesota, USA, the local newspaper wrote a
story about their unusual honeymoon. Soon, helping to build clinics and community centers in
people started contacting them, asking how mountain villages in Costa Rica.
they could plan a similar trip. Philbrook said, caring for infants with special needs in a rural
"We knew there was a need in rural communities hospital in Romania.
around the world, and now we were learning working with orphaned and abandoned children in
people wanted to do this." India.
In 1984, the couple founded Global teaching conversational English in a large city or
Volunteers, a nonprofit agency for people who rural village in China.
want to spend their vacation helping others.
Now the organization sends about 2,000 people
each year to community development programs
in twenty countries on six continents. These
short-term volunteer service projects are focused
on helping children and their families.
Volunteers are invited by local community
leaders to work on projects that community
members have identified as important Not
only do volunteers work side by side with local
people, but they also live in the community.
In most cases, no special skills are required.
Anyone who wants to be of service and to learn
about other cultures can volunteer. Global
Volunteers' working vacations are popular with

SOURCE: www,globalvolunteers.org
Now answer questions about the article.
1. Where did Bud Philbrook and Michele Gran go on their honeymoon? .......................................................................
2. What did they do ? ........................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. Why do you think they decided to spend their honeymoon in this way? ...............................................................

4. What effect d id their story have on some people who read it? .............. ............................................................................. .

5. What did Bud Philbrook and Michele Gran do as a result of people's interest in their trip?

IE What About You? Would you consider a volunteer vacation? Answer the questions.
1. In my opinion, a volunteer vacation would be ..................... .
a. a life-changing experience c. more trouble than it's worth
b. an adventure d. kind of scary
Explain your answer: ... .........................................................................................................................- ...........................................................................................

W44 UNITS
2. Some Global Volunteers live with local families. How comfortable would you be doing the
same thing?
a. very comfortable c. a little uncomfortable
b. somewhat comfortable d. very uncomfortable
Explain your answer: ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3. At what stage in your life would you want to go on a volunteer vacation?
a. young and single c. married with a family
b. married without kids d. retired
Explain your answer: ............................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................
4. Which of the community services listed in the article would you want to do? Why?

5. Would you prefer to volunteer in a rural area or in a city? Why? ---..........................

LESSON 4
(m Reading. Look back at The Advent of the Megacity on Student's Book page 58.
What is Dr. Perlman's opinion of planned cities?

Now read about Canberra, Australia.

Canberra: A Planned City


Are planned cities too sterile? Not according roundabouts, rather than traffic lights, to
to most people who live in or visit Canberra, regulate the flow of traffic, the city offers the
Australia. With a population of just over shortest average commute times in Australia.
323,000, it's not a megacity-but it is Most city roads also have bike lanes, making
Australia's largest inland cycling an important form of
city and its capital. transportation in Canberra.
Opinions of the entirely As a result of careful
planned city cite plenty of planning, Canberra offers the
pros and not a lot of cons. benefits of city living without
According to the travel the urban problems such as
guide Lonely Planet, it's "a pollution and traffic. Not
picturesque spot with only does Canberra have
beautiful galleries and clean air and water and good
museums, as well as roads, but it also has
excellent restaurants, and affordable housing (cheaper
cafes." than Sydney or Melbourne)
One of the world's and an abundance of
greenest cities, Canberra is health-care facilities. As the
surrounded by nature reserves, and a great seat of Australia's government, Canberra has
d eal of city land was set aside for parks and low unemployment and high education and
gardens. Canberra is proof that-with proper income levels. It is a relatively safe city, with no
planning-the environment can be preserved murders reported in the 1999/ 2000 financial
in densely populated cities and towns. year. Canberra shows that planned cities can be
Canberra also has excellent great places to live and work.
infrastructure. With wide roads that use

SOURCES: www.up.edu.ph.www.educatioo.oatjooalcapital.gov.au

Community W 45

- - - - - -- - - -- - -
Im Look back at the reading on page 45 and mark each statement about Canberra
[R
Language
0
;>

:,;.~~' ;;.~;;_;.;_,,.i !'!""/


Im or B!.fg. Provide information from the article to support your choice.
True False
1. D D Canberra suffers from a lack of culture and entertainment. --

2. D D Transportation is a problem in Canberra . ........................................................................................................................................

3. D D Canberra has high levels of pollution . ..............................................................................................................................................

4. D D Housing is not a problem for most people in Canberra . ...._.................................................................................... .

s. D D A high percentage of people in Canberra cannot find work. ...................................................................--

6. D D Crime is low in Canberra . .............................................................................................-.......................................................................................

Ii List one aspect of life in Canberra that appeals to you. Explain your answer.

lEJ Challenge. If you were going to design a city, what would be important
to you? Choose three urban problems from the box. Provide ideas about
how each problem might be prevented or alleviated through planning.

crime corruption disease discrimination


overpopulation pollution poverty inadequate public transportation
lack of housing unemployment other: ......................................................................................................- ................

Problem Ideas

Unemployment Job training. encourage employers to locate in city

1.

2.

3.

Hippodamus, a Greek architect of the 5th century e.c., is often considered the father of
city planning. He designed the city of Miletus, using a grid plan for the layout of streets.
(A grid is a pattern of straight lines that cross each other and form squares.)

SOURCE: www.wikipedia.org

W46 UNIT s
Grammar Booster
EJ Rewrite each sentence, using the word In parentheses. Make verb changes as
necessary.
1. John Coltrane was a great musician, and so was Miles Davis. (too)
...J.9.hn...C.P!t.r..qn~....W.9.:$...9. ...9r..~.Q.t....m.Y.~.!~lg.r1,. q.mJ...~ll~.:$...PQ.V..i.$....W..Q.$....t9..!?.,............................................................................................
2. The restaurant doesn't allow smoking, and neither does the cafe. (not either)

3. Her company has adopted a casual dress code on Fridays, and his has too. (so)

4. Shorts aren't appropriate in the office, and neither are jeans. (not either)

s. She was annoyed by his behavior, and we were too. (so)

6. We've decided to volunteer, and so have they. (too)

7. Dave Clark doesn't like the city, and we don't either. (neither)

8. We're not going on vacation this summer, and they're not either. (neither)

CJ Use the diagram below to compare two cities that you know. Consider things
like traffic, weather, population, natural setting, architecture, infrastructure, and
tourist attractions. Write similarities where the circles overlap and differences in
the areas that do not overlap.

City: ........................................................................ ............... Similarities City: .................................................................................................

Now use the information from the diagram to write sentences about ways in
which the two cities are similar. Use conjunctions with so, too, neither, and
not either.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Community W47
II Use short responses with ~ 122' neither, or not either to agree with the
statements.
1. A: I don't really like the fast pace of life in the city.
8: ..............................................................................
2. A: I'm really annoyed by smoking in restaurants.

8: .....
3. A: I try to be courteous about using my cell phone.
B: .............................................................................
4. A: I can't understand why people talk during movies.

8:
5. A: I speak up when something bothers me.

8:
6. A: I don't have time to get involved with my community.

B:
7. A: I would consider donating my organs.
8:

W48 UNITS
Writing: An e-mail letter to an international website
EJ Prewriting. Listing ideas. Think about how visitors to your country generally
behave, both positive and negative aspects. List reasons why their behavior is either
positive or a problem. If it is a problem, list how you would
like behavior to change.

WRITING MODEL

http://www.GlobalCourtes .com/soundoff

I am writing to complain about tourists' littering in


our country. Not only is it inconsiderate, but it also
detracts from the ability of everyone-tourists
and locals alike-to enjoy all that our country has
to offer:
Tourists come to our country from all over the
world to enjoy our beaches, museums, and
monuments. I have noticed many of them
throwing candy wrappers, cigarette butts, and
other things on the ground, rather than in trash
cans. It is rude for them to expect the people who
live here to clean up after them.
I urge all tourists who visit our country to please
be considerate of your hosts and to clean up after
yourselves. That way we can all enjoy your visit.
Sincerely,
Sasha Pilcher

I]) Writing. Use your notes to write an e-mail letter to an international


tourism website. Remember to state how you feel about the behavior and,
if appropriate, how you would liike behavior to change.

-
................................................................................................................................................................................................_.................................................................................................._.........
~

1!11 Self-Check.
D Did you use the proper salutation and closing?

D Are the tone and language in the letter appropriate for the audience?
D Did you use regular spelling and punctuation and avoid abbreviations?

Community W49
About the Authors
Joan Saslow
Joan Saslow has taught in a variety of programs in South America and the United States. She is author
of a number of multi-level integrated-skills courses for adults and young adults: Ready to Go: Language,
Lifeskills, and Civics; Workplace Plus: Living and Working in English; and of Literacy Plus. She is also author
of English in Context: Reading Comprehension for Science and Technology. Ms. Saslow was the series
director of True Colors and True Voices. She has participated in the English Language Specialist Program
in the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of .Educational and Cultural Affairs. Ms. Saslow is coauthor,
with Allen Ascher, of Top Notch: English for Toda'}t's World.

Allen Ascher
Allen Ascher has been a teacher and a teacher trainer in China and the United Sta~es and taught in
the TESOL Certificate Program at the New School in New York. He was also academic director of
the Internationa l English Language Institute at Hunter College. Mr. Ascher is author of the "Teaching
Speaking" module of Teacher Development Interactive, an online multimedia teacher-training program,
and of Think about Editing: A Grammar Editing Guide for ESL. Mr. Ascher is coauthor, with Ms. Saslow, of
Top Notch: English for Today's World.
Both Ms. Saslow and Mr. Ascher are frequent and popular speakers at professional conferences and
international gatherings of EFL and ESL teachers.

Authors' Acknowledgments
The authors are indebted to the following educators who contributed invaluable feedback and suggestions for
the second edition of Summit.
Diana Allcla Avila Martinez, de Valle de Mexico, Monterrey, Marla Placido Florian, Sao Paulo,
CUEC Monterrey, Mexico Shannon Mexico Yenl Jimenez Torres, Brazil Armida Rivas, Monterrey,
Brown, Nagoya University of Centro Colombo Americana Bogota, Mexico Fabio Ossaamn Rok
Foreign Languages, Nagoya, Japan Colombia Simon Lees, Nagoya Kaku, Prize Language School, Sao
Marla Claudia Campos de University of Foreign Languages, Paulo, Brazil Ana Maria Roman
Freitas, Metalanguage, Sao Paulo, Nagoya, Japan Thomas VIiiareai, CUEC, Monterrey, Mexico
Brazil Isidro Castro Galvan, LeVlness, PROULEX, Guadalajara, Peter Russell, Waseda University,
lnstituto Teocalli, Monterrey, Mexico Mexico Amy Lewis, Waseda Tokyo, Japan Rubena St. Louis,
Jussara Costa e Sliva, Prize University, Tokyo, Japan Tanja Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas,
Language School, Sao Paulo, Brazil Maccandle, Nagoya University of Venezuela Greg Strong, Aoyama
Jacqueline Diaz Esquivel, Foreign Languages, Nagoya, Japan Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan
PROULEX, Guadalajara, Mexico Maria do Carmo Malavasl, Gerry Talandls, Toyo Gakuen
Erika Lida Esteves Sliva, Avalon Language School, Sao University, Tokyo, Japan Stephen
Murphy English, Sao Paulo, Brazil Paulo, Brazil Tammy Martinez Thompson, Nagoya University
Miguel Angel Guerrero Pozos, Nieves, Universidad Autonoma de of Foreign Languages, Nagoya,
PROULEX, Guadalajara, Mexico Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Mexico Japan Ellen Yaegashl, Kyoritsu
Cesar Guzman, CAADI Monterrey, Otllla Ojeda, Monterrey, Mexico Women's University, Tokyo, Japan
Mexico Cesar Ivan Hernandez Henry Eduardo Pardo Lamprea, Belkis Yanes, Caracas, Venezuela
Escobedo, PROULEX, Guadalajara, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Maria Cristina Zanon Costa,
Mexico Robert Hinton, Nihon Colombia Jose Luis Perez Metalanguage, Sao Paulo, Brazil
University, Tokyo, Japan Chandra Trevino, lnstituto Obispado,
Victor Jacobs Sukahal, Universidad Monterrey, Mexico Evellze
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