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UNIT 1

DESCRIBING OBJECTS
Describing objects is very simple if you follow some basic steps.

You can mention the shape: What does it look like?

- IT LOOKS LIKE (It looks like a star)

- ITS A KIND OF (Its a kind of circle)

You can also talk about the materials:

Whats it made of?

- ITS MADE OF (Its made of wood/leather/glass/metal/iron)

You may refer to the use as well: Whats it used for?

- ITS USED FOR + -ING / TO + INF (Its used for cooking/to cook pasta)

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A Paragraph to Describe Objects

A paragraph to describe objects consists of 5 parts as follows:

1. Function/ Use
2. Components/ Parts
3. Characteristics material shape/
figure dimentions
property
colour
4. Position
5. Connection between parts

A. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Infinitives and Gerund
Infinitives Gerunds
A modem is used to connect Modem is used for connecting
computers to phones computers to phones
I can use the World Wide Web to find I can use it for finding information
information

Function/Use
N.to be + used to +V1

N.to be + used for + Ving

A drum is used for making music.


A drum is used to make music.

Exercise: Complete the phrases in column A with information from column B

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A B
1. Satelites are used.... study the worlds weather
2. Robots are sometimes used.... identify criminals
3. You can use a fax machine.... read the latest weather report
4. People use the Internet... transmit telephone calls
5. DNA fingerprinting is used... transmit television program
6. CD ROM is sometimes used.. perform dangerous task
7.

Components/Parts
1. A hammer consists of a handle and a
head. is made up of
is composed of

1. A hammer includes a handle and a head.

1. A hammer has parts: a handle and a head.


two sesections: one is a handle, the other is a
components: one is a handle, the other is a
head.
head.
Characteristics

Material
A chair is made of wood.
Bread is made from wheat.
This kind of motorboat is made of thermoplastics by a big company in
Germany

Shape/Figure

A is shaped like + n. A coin is shaped like a circle.


A is + Adj. + in shape.
A coin is circular in shape.
A is + Adj.
A coin is circular.
Noun Adjective

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Square squar
rectangle e
rectangular
triangl triangular
e
ellipse elliptica
semicircle l
semicircular
circle circula
cube r
cubic
pyramid pyramidal
cone conical
hemisphere hemispherical
cylinder cylindrical

Dimensions

length,width, height, depth, thickness etc.


This building is 250 metres high.
This building has a height of 250 metres.
The height of this building is 250 metres
This building is 250 metres in height.
Property

Property is a special quality that belongs to the object.


The interior of a ping-pong ball is hollow.
This book is thick.
The glass bottle is fragile.
The edge of a table is straight.
The sides of a car are flat.
The middle of a bottle is curved
Color
black, white, green, etc.

Position
If the objects to be described are complicated, consisting of many parts, or
appearing in a set, positions must be given.

Example: inside, outside, at the top, on the left/ right, in the middle, to
the right/ left (of), at the bottom, above, over, between, below,
beside, at the end of, behind, in front of, near, by, etc.

The engine is inside the scooter with a headlight at the top. The
spare wheel is at the back. There is a petrol cap under the seat.

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A car has four headlights at the front. At the top of the engine is
the radiator and at the top is an oil cap.

Connection between Parts

Connection is a relationship between two things or more. If the object has


more than one part, we have to describe them part by part with a connection
between them.
Verbs that signal the connection are: attach, detach, join, connect, support,
fix, fit, lead, link, etc.
The head of a hammer is fixed to the
handle. The rubber tube is fitted over
the glass tube. The glass tube is fitted
into the rubber tube. The wire leads
from the switch to the bulb.
The wire links between the switch and the bulb.
The wheels of a car are detached from the body of
a car. The wheels of a car are connected by the
axles

Speaking Practice:
- Describe the location of certain thing based on the picture (Hand Out)
- Do it in turn on your group

B. READING Read the text and complete the table below


This racing car is made from the latest hi-tech
engineering materials. Its made from metals, alloys,
ceramics, plastics and composites. Many materials C. V
in the car are light, but very strong. OCA
The nose cone of the vehicle is made of strong, light BUL
fiberglass. ARY
The spoiler and the wings are made from two
materials. The inner core is light, and made of 1. M
polystyrene. The outer skin is hard and made of ach
fiberglass. the
The frame is light, but very tough and rigid. Its sent
made of cromely, a steel alloy. ence
The radiator is made of aluminium and coated with s
ceramic. These two materials are corrosion-
resistant.
The engine and pistons are made of a light
aluminium alloy.The wheels are made of strong,
light aluminium alloy. The tyres are made of tough
rubber composite.
1. This material doesnt burn or melt a. Its rigid
if you heat it.
2. This material doesnt break if you b. Its hard
strike it or drop it
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3. You cant bend this material c. Its tough
4. This material doesnt corrode if d. Its heat resistant
you put it in water
5. You cant scratch this material or e. Its corrosion resistant
cut it

2. Match the words with their opposites


1. Tough a). Soft

2. Hard b). Heavy


3. Rigid c). weak
4. Strong d). Brittle

5. Light e). Flexible

Examples of a Paragraph to Describe Objects


A mixer is used for mixing food. The mixer is made of metal and plastic. It
consists of 5 parts: a base, a stand, a motor housing, beaters, and a bowl. The
base is rectangular in shape. It is 12 cm wide and 15 cm long. The stand which
is supported by the base is 30 cm in height. The motor housing which
contains a motor is joined to the stand. The steel beaters are very hard and
tough. They are fitted in the gearbox. The glass bowl is hard and brittle. The
edge of the bowl is circular. The glass bowl is detached from the base.
A kettle is a metal container which is used for boiling water. It consists of 4
main parts: a vessel, a lid, a spout, and a handle. The vessel is 7 inches high. It
is hollow and spherical in shape. The base is flat and circular. It has a diameter
of 6 inches. On the top of the vessel, there is a convex lid with a plastic knob in
the middle. The lid is 5 inches in diameter. Above the lid is as curved handle
which is covered with plastic at the middle part. At the side of the vessel is a
conical spout for pouring water out of the vessel.

A vacuum bottle is a container which is used to keep liquids either hot or cold.
It is composed of a metal container, a glass bottle, a plastic cap, a cork,
and a shock absorber. This vacuum bottle is 25 inches in height. The outer
part of the bottle consists of a metal container and a plastic cap. The container
is cylindrical in shape. Its base is flat and circular. It has a diameter of 10
inches. The cap is at the top of the container. Inside the container, there is a
cylindrical glass bottle with a tapering neck and a cork at the top. The glass
bottle is supported by a spiral shock absorber which is fixed to the base of the
container. It has 2 walls: the inner and the outer. Between these walls, there
is a vacuum to keep the liquid at a constant temperature.

EXERCISES

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Prepare an object that youve prepared at home, and practice using yes/no
questions about the object that you bring until your partner/friend guesses
what it is:

- Is it made from paper/ cardboard/ plastic/ metal/ fabric/ wood/ glass/


leather/?
- Is it square/ rectangular/ round (= circular)/ triangular/ oblong (= oval = egg-
shaped)/ sharp/ fragile (= easy to break)/ ?
- Is it big/ small/ heavy/ light/ dangerous/ expensive/ cheap/ noisy/ smelly/
long/ portable/ shiny?
- Does it use petrol/ electricity/ gas/ water/ ?
- Does it give off (= produce) heat/ light/ colours/ noise/ fumes?
- Are there some/ many in your house/ this room/ this building?
- Has it got a handle/ a lid/ buttons/ a screen/ batteries/ a motor/ cables/
pipes?
- Is it used for?
- Do you use it to?
- Do you use it often/ very often/ every day/ several times a day/ in the
morning?
- Do you use it in the bath/ the kitchen/ your workplace?
- Can you buy it in a department store/ convenience store/ stationery shop/
electronics shop/ street market?
- Is it a kind of furniture/ white good/ consumer electronics/ cutlery/
crockery/ machine/ gadget?
- Do you need to recharge/ shake/ wash/ polish/ refill it?
- Is it dark brown/ navy blue/ pastel yellow/ bright orange?

D. SPEAKING

Listen to your partner give a presentation on one thing that is important to them.
Dont interrupt or ask questions until you are sure that they have finished, then ask
about any of the topics below that they havent talked about.

What it looks like- colour, size, shape etc


What it sounds like
What it smells like
What it can be used for

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What you usually use it for
Its good points
Its bad points
Why it is important to you
Why you chose this thing to speak about
How you got it
Where it is/ where you keep it
How it compares to similar things
Strongest memories associated with it
How long youve had it
How long you think you will continue to use it
Things it is similar to

Together, try to decide on the greatest invention of the last 100 years. Present your
ideas to the class. Defend your invention against the negative things the other
groups say and then vote at the end on which is the greatest (you cant vote for
your own idea).

E. ENGLISH GRAMMAR TENSES

Simple Present
Affirmative She drinks.
Negative She does not drink.
Interrogative Does she drink?
Form I, you we they play | he, she, it plays
action in the present taking place once, never or several times
facts
Uses actions taking place one after another
action set by a timetable or schedule

Present Progressive
Affirmative He is reading.
Negative He is not reading.
Interrogative Is he reading?
Form To be (in the simple present) + verb + ing
action taking place at the moment of speaking
Uses action arranged for the future

Simple Past
Affirmative I cried.
Negative I did not cry
Interrogative Did I cry?
Regular verbs: Verb + ed | Irregular verbs: forms differ and should be
Form
learned by heart. This is a list of irregular verbs
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action in the past taking place once, never or several times
Uses actions taking place one after another

Past Progressive
Affirmative He was driving.
Negative He was not driving.
Interrogative Was he driving?
Form to be (in the simple past) + verb + ing
action going on at a certain time in the past
actions taking place at the same time
action in the past that is interrupted by another action

Uses

Present Perfect Simple


Affirmative They have slept.
Negative They have not slept.
Interrogative Have they slept?
Have / has + past participle (past participle of regular verbs: verb + ed |
Form Past participle of irregular verbs: forms differ and should be learned by
heart. This is a list of irregular verbs)
emphasis is on the result (not the duration)
action that started in the past & is still going on
action that stopped recently
Uses
finished action that has an influence on the present

Present Perfect Progressive


Affirmative He has been thinking.
Negative He has not been thinking.
Interrogative Has he been thinking?
Form have or has + been + verb + ing
putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)
action that recently stopped or is still going on
Uses
finished action that influenced the present

Past Perfect Simple


Affirmative She had won.
Negative She had not won.
Interrogative Had she won?

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had + past participle (past participle of regular verbs: verb + ed | Past
Form participle of irregular verbs: forms differ and should be learned by
heart. This is a list of irregular verbs)
action taking place before a certain time in the past
sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive
Uses
putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)

Past Perfect Progressive


Affirmative He had been waiting.
Negative He had not been waiting.
Interrogative Had he been waiting?
Form had + been + verb + ing
action taking place before a certain time in the past
sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
Uses putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action

Future Simple
Affirmative You will win.
Negative You will not win.
Interrogative Will you win?
Form will + verb
action in the future that cannot be influenced
spontaneous decision
Uses assumption with regard to the future

Future Progressive
Affirmative She will be listening to music.
Negative She will not be listening to music.
Interrogative Will she be listening to music?
Form will + be + verb + ing
action that is going on at a certain time in the future
Uses action that is sure to happen in the near future

Future Perfect
Affirmative He will have spoken.
Negative He will not have spoken.
Interrogative Will he have spoken?
will + have + past participle (past participle of regular verbs: verb + ed |
Form Past participle of irregular verbs: forms differ and should be learned by
heart. This is a list of irregular verbs)

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action that will be finished at a certain time in the future
Uses

Future Perfect Progressive


Affirmative You will have been studying.
Negative You will not have been studying.
Interrogative Will you have been studying?
Form will + have + been + verb + ing
action taking place before a certain time in the future
Uses putting emphasis on the course of an action

Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple present or present progressive)
1. Look! Sara (go) to the movies.
2. On her right hand, Sara (carry) her handbag.
3. The handbag (be) very beautiful.
4. Sara usually (put) on black shoes but now she (wear) white trainers.
5. And look, she (take) an umbrella because it (rain)

Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or past perfect)
1. When he (wake up), his mother (already /prepare) breakfast
2. We (go) to London because our friends (invite) us
3. When she (start) learning English she (already /learn) French.
4. Jane (already / type) three pages when her computer (crash).
5. By the time the doctor (arrive) at the house the patient ( die).
6. I (know) him a long time before I (meet) his family.
7. They (not / know) where to meet because nobody (tell) them.
8. It (be) cloudy for days before it (begin) to rain.

Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or present perfect).
1. I (just / finish) my homework.
2. Mary (already / write) five letters.
3. Tom (move) to his home town in 1994.
4. My friend (be) in Canada two years ago.
5. I (not / be) to Canada so far.
6. But I (already / travel) to London a couple of times.
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7. Last week, Mary and Paul (go) to the cinema.
8. I can't take any pictures because I (not /buy) a new film yet.
9. (they / spend) their holidays in Paris last summer?
10. (you / ever / see ) a whale?

Put the verbs into the correct tense (Simple Past or Past Progressive).
1. The receptionist (welcome) the guests and (ask) them to fill in the form
2. The car (break) down and we (have) to walk home.
3. The boys (swim) while the girls (sunbath).
4. My father (come) in, (look) and (tell) me to tidy up my room.
5. While one group (prepare) dinner the others (collect) wood for the campfire.
6. While the parents (have) breakfast the children (run) about.
7. Martha (turn) off the light and (go) to bed.

Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple future or future perfect)
1. Tomorrow I think I (start) my new project.
2. I (finish) it by the end of this month.
3. The teacher (probably/assign) a test to his students next Monday.
4. He (correct) it by the end of next week.
5. My friend (certainly/get) a good mark.
6. By 9 o'clock, we (finish) our homework.

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UNIT 2

INVITING, ACCEPTING & DECLINING INVITATION


Inviting:

Would you like to .


Could you come to
I would be very happy if ..
Would you care to .
Ill really happy if you come to.
Im sure that you wont be disappointed to come to.

Accepting an Invitation
Thank you for inviting me.
I would/will .
That would be very nice.
Thats very kind of you.
Thats fine.
Sure. Why not?

Declining an Invitation
Im very sorry, I dont think I can.
Id like to, but .
Thank you for asking me, but .
Unfortunately, I cant .
Im afraid Ive.

Dialog Examples:

Dialog 1

Ludi Invites Maya to go to a Movie


Ludi : Hi, Maya. There will be a great film tonight. Its about vampire.
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Would you like to go to the movie with me?
Maya : Yes, Id like tonvery much. When will you pick me up?
Ludi : Ill pick you at 7.00. Be ready, OK!
Maya : Alright.

Dialog 2
Afif is very busy doing his homework. Sheila, his friend, asks him to come to her
party.
Sheila : Heloo, this is Sheila. May I speak to Afif?
Afif : This is Afif speaking.
Sheila : Oh, hi Afif. I wonder if youd like to come to my house right now.
Were having a great party.
Afif : I dont think I can. Im doing my homework. My parents wont
let me out before I finish my homework.
Sheila : Thats alright.
Afif : I hope you enjoy your party. Bye.
Sheila : Bye.

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Put the words in the correct order:

1. a) you / Would / to / to /come /like /birthday party/ next week?


____________________________________________________________________
b) that s/ great / Ok, (accept)
____________________________________________________________________
2. a) tomorrow / you / watch / to / Do / want / movie / me / with ?
____________________________________________________________________
b) not / Sorry / I m / free. (decline)

____________________________________________________________________
3. a) month / like / you / my / I d / to / invite / to / open house / Hari Raya / next ?
____________________________________________________________________
b) Ok / is /great / thanks
____________________________________________________________________
4 a) you / play /like / this / football / to / Would / afternoon ?
____________________________________________________________________
b) am / I m / very / I / sorry / busy / afraid
____________________________________________________________________
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Adjective to describe cities

Adjectives to describe villages and the countryside

Features of cities

Features of villages and the countryside

Put any of the words below that you havent already got into
the boxes above. A few could be in more than one place.

Mountain range Crowded Polluted


Peaceful Monument Square
Cosmopolitan Busy Field
Meadow Rolling hills Narrow lane
Pedestrianized shopping street Skyscrapers
Housing estates Blocks of flats Cottage
Amusement park Traditional fair Amusement arcade
Shopping mall City hall Department store
Fountain Waterfall Botanical garden
Mosque Cathedral Temple
Lake Pond Market
Supermarket Castle Palace
Forest/ Wood Traffic jam Urban
Rural Quiet/ Peaceful Romantic
Scenery Peak Hiking trail
Landmark Cemetery/ Graveyard Downtown
Suburbs Commuters Rush hour
Tram Path Pavement (= Sidewalk)
Dirty Nature Litter
Crops Embassy

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Describe a country or city in the list below to your partner,
until they guess which one you are talking about

France Italy Belgium Austria


Australia Brazil Russia Netherlands
Turkey Indonesia Norway Switzerland
Greece Denmark Argentina Ireland
Iceland Thailand Portugal Paris
Philippines Egypt Vietnam

Discussion questions

Which of the places above would you like to visit and why?
Are there any places above that you have never heard of or know nothing about? Why
do you know more about other places, do you think?
How well do schools in your country teach you about other countries, for example in
geography classes?
How good is your geographical knowledge, do you think?

HOW IS IT GOING TO BE

PREDICTING
1. The future with 'going to' is used to express future plans or scheduled events. It is often
used instead of the present continuous for future scheduled work events. Either form can
be used for this purpose.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... next week / month
... tomorrow
... on Monday, Tuesday, etc.
Basic Construction
Positive
Subject + be + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression
Tom is going to fly to Los Angeles next on Tuesday.
Negative
Subject + be not (isn't, aren't) + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression
They aren't going to attend the conference next month.
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Question
(Question Word) + be + subject + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression

2. The future with 'will' is used to make future predictions and promises. Often the precise
moment the action will occur is unknown or not defined.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... soon
... next month / year / week

Basic Construction

Positive
Subject + will + verb + object(s) + time Expression
The government will increase taxes soon.
Negative
Subject + will not (won't) + verb + object(s) + time Expression
Question
(Question Word) + will + subject + verb + object(s) + time Expression

Activity:
One challenge of teaching intermediate grammar is that students have seen it before. In particular,
students have knowledge and experience with the basic tenses. The goal for intermediate levels,
then, is not to start at the beginning but to aim a little higher. The following semi-controlled
activity sets up practice of be going to for plans and will for predictions. Based on the assumption
that students are familiar with both, the activity allows teachers to do a quick assessment and
adjust the lesson to target specific needs.

Materials: students paper and pens.

Time: 20 minutes

A) Introduce the forms

Start with an example. Tell students about a definite plan that will allow them to predict a possible
outcome. Here are some examples.

I am going to meet a friend tomorrow morning, and we are going to run ten miles.

I am excited because I am going to Bali next summer.

Ask students to make a prediction about how you will feel or what will happen. (You might also
note that in predictions it is also okay to use be going to.) They might produce something like the
following.

You will be tired afterwards.

You will spend a lot of money. You will have a good time.

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Check understanding of be going to for plans that are not expected to change and will for
predictions, but do not spend a lot of time teaching them. (Perhaps note that the more sure you
are about your prediction, the more likely it is that you will use be going to.)

B) Practice

1) Have individual students write a quick list of five scheduled or definite plans using be going
to.

2) Put students in pairs, and have them take turns stating their plans. When partner A explains a
plan, partner B should make a prediction. When As list is exhausted, they can switch roles.
Partner B reads a statement with a plan, and A makes a prediction.

3) While students practice, the teacher can listen for errors or misunderstandings and use the
information for lesson planning or error correction. The teacher can also extend the lesson to
include will with probably, or use of the present progressive for future meaning depending on
students accomplishments.

4) As a follow up to any new material, students can switch partners and repeat with a new
partner using the new language.

Introducing the Future

Start by Speaking about Plans and Hopes

To help students become familiar with both forms, discuss your future plans as well as your
thoughts about the future. This will ensure that you use both the future with 'will' and 'going
to'. If you are teaching beginning level students, separating the two forms will help students
understand the difference. If your students are intermediate level, mixing the forms can assist
in teaching the fluidity between the forms in everyday usage.

Beginners

I have some predictions for next year. I think that you will all speak better English at the end of
this course! I'm sure I will have a vacation. However, I don't know where. I'll probably visit my
parents in Seattle in the summer, and my wife will ...

Intermediate

Next year, I'm going to take up the guitar. It will probably be very difficult for me, but I love
music. My wife and are going to fly to New York in September to visit some friends. While we're
in New York, the weather will probably be good...

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In both cases, ask students to explain the function or purpose of the different forms. Help
students understand that the future with 'will' is used for making predictions, or what you
think will happen. The future with 'going to', on the other hand, is used to state future
intentions and plans.

Future with 'Will' for Reactions

Introduce the future with 'will' for reactions by demonstrating various scenarios that call for
reactions:

John is hungry. Oh, I'll make him a sandwich


Look it's raining outside. OK, I'll take my umbrella.
Peter doesn't understand the grammar. I'll help him with the exercise.

Using the will future form for predictions


The will future form can be used for predictions not based on evidence. These predictions
are often based on opinion, so will sounds more personal, or determined. This can include
guesses, judgments based on character or assertions of faith.
These predictions often use adverbs such as probably or definitely to show the strength of
opinion.
I will win this game. (This shows determination, but it is not a known fact.)
The shop will probably lose money this month. (A guess or estimate.)

Using the going to future form for predictions


If you replace will with the going to form in the above examples, the
prediction sounds more definite.
I am going to win this game. (It is almost certain.)
The shop is probably going to lose money this month. (It is likely.)

Predictions demonstrated with going to are therefore similar to planned


events. They are future events that we have reason to believe are very
likely, or inevitable. It may be based on present or past evidence.
- Its going to rain all night. (The weather forecast told us, or we can see
the rain is coming.)

MAKING PREDICTIONS WORKSHEETS

Directions: Read the following passages. Determine what event is likely to occur
next. Explain your answer using textual evidence.

Vince Thunder waved to the crowd one more time before he put on his motorcycle helmet. The
crowd cheered uproariously. Vince looked down the ramp and across the 17 school busses that

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he was about to attempt to jump. It was a difficult trick and everything would need to go right
for him to nail it. His cape blew in the wind. As Vince hoped on his motorcycle and started
down the ramp, he noticed something that he had not seen before. There was large oil slick at
the end of the ramp. He attempted to stop the bike, but it was too late. He had already built up
too much momentum...

1. What event is most likely to occur next?


2. What evidence from the text support your predictions?
Answer:
Vince is likely to fall off his bike or otherwise fail in his attempt.

Explanation
I believe this because in the text it mentions that everything must go right for him to land the
trick. There is an oil slick at the end of the ramp. He also hesitates. It is too late to reverse his
course. The combination of these factors makes it likely that he will not succeed in his attempt.

Exercises
1. Rex sat at the mouth of the alley and chewed the bone that he had found by the
dumpster. It was a meaty bone that had belonged to a larger animal, perhaps a state fair
prize winning pig. Rex was attracted to the bone by its strong scent. Apparently, he was
not the only one who could smell it. He heard the jangle of tags behind him and turned to
see a larger dog. Rex released the bone and began growling at the other dog. The other
dog began growling at Rex. The two dogs inched toward one another, maintaining eye
contact. Each began growling louder as the other approached within striking distance...

- What event is most likely to occur next?


- What evidence from the text support your predictions?

2. John sat in the classroom and drew pictures of the Tatakai Fighting Warriors in his
notebook while his teacher lectured about biology or something. He didn't really
know for sure. The last thing he remembered her saying was that there would be a
test tomorrow. His heart jumped. He went home to study for the test, but he was
soon drawn to his Game Box. He played Tatakai Fighting Warriors long into the
night. When his alarm clock rang the next day, he was too tired to hit the snooze
button, so he let it beep for about 20 minutes before he got up and went to
school. As she had promised, the teacher has prepared a test. She reviewed the
testing procedures and directions with the class and then passed out the test. John
looked at his test and scratched his head..

- What event is most likely to occur next?


- What evidence from the text support your predictions?

3. Angela threw the bedspread over the bed and fussed with it until it was free of
wrinkles. She dusted her dresser and straightened the knickknacks. As she was
leaving the room, she noticed that a picture frame on the nightstand was slightly
crooked. She went back into the room and straightened the picture frame. She
examined her bedroom one more time and gave it a satisfied nod, and then she went
to vacuum the living room. As she was running the vacuum, her three-year-old son
Jason walked into Angela's bedroom. He was drinking a glass of grape juice and

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playing with his cars. Angela's bedspread fell as he raced his cars off the bed. While
hitting an imaginary jump with his cars, he bumped into the nightstand and knocked
over Angela's picture frame. Then, while he lined his cars up at the starting line of a
pretend race, he kicked over the grape juice and it spilled all over Angela's white
carpet. Jason didn't notice. After Angela finished vacuuming the living room, she
tied the cord around the vacuum and went to return it to her bedroom...

- What event is most likely to occur next?


- What evidence from the text support your predictions?

4. Lance didn't cook much but he wanted to do something nice for his wife's birthday, so
he decided to make her dinner. He was preparing a meal of steak and potatoes by
following a recipe that he had found on the Internet. He put the steaks on the grill on
low heat and quartered the potatoes. Then he threw the potatoes in a skillet with a
little bit of oil and cooked them over medium heat. After browning the potatoes, he
grabbed the skillet by the metal handle and put it into the oven at 400 degrees. Twenty
minutes later he grabbed the steaks off of the grill and began preparing the plates. The
last thing that he needed to do was take the potatoes out of the oven. He thought about
using a potholder to remove the pan, but didn't want to bother with getting one out of
the drawer. He reached into the hot oven, his hand nearing the metal handle of the
skillet. He wrapped his hand around the handle and clenched tightly...

- What event is most likely to occur next?


- What evidence from the text support your predictions?

Assignment
Find a story and make a prediction of the story that you have

RULES AND WARNING

A warning means giving information of the danger or unexpected situation


that my happen if a person does something. He/she wants that person will
be more careful. When we see a snake on a tree, for example, we may
shout our friends "Watch out" It means we inform them be careful and to
pay attention to the snake.

A warning is usually in the form of imperative, but it may occur with the
modal "must" and "should"

Expression of warning :
- You should/should not_______________
- You must/must not___________________
- Don't_______________________________!
- Beware!
- Beware of___________________________
- Look out!
23
- Watch out!
- Watch out for_______________________!

Here are other examples of expressing warning.

Your little sister wants to cross the busy street. Then you warn her to
cross carefully by saying,"Mind the traffic!"
There is a long wire connected to the computer. At present you are using
your computer and your little brother is playing a toy car behind the
computer. You see what he is doing and warm,"Dont touch the
wire!"
There is blackout in the neighbourhood. A father lights a lantern and puts
it on the table. His son is amazed and plays with the lantern. When
the father sees, he warns,"Keep away from the fire!" or "Don't
play with the lantern!"
You are walking on the pavement with your friends in the rain. Suddenly
you see a big hole on the pavement. You want your friends by
pointing at the hole and saying,"Look out!"
In the zoo, many cages of wild animals are applied with a warning board
saying,"Beware of the wild animals!"

24
Unit 3

WOULD YOU LIKE TO..

Sometimes, we have a situation and have to also invite some of friends to


come. There are many situations that probably happened in our daily life, such
as meeting, birthday party, graduation party etc. of course, we have to make an
invitation for our guests. There will be two answers for them who are invited by
us, they may come or accept the invitation and they may not come or decline
the invitation. The situation will be divided into formal and informal. There is
differences expression that is use in the different context of situation.

Expression to make, accept or decline in vitiation in formal situation.

Making in vitiation

Would you like to?

I would very happy if?

We would be delighted if you?

Would you care to..?

We would be pleased if you could?

Would you care to?

Accepting invitation

Thats very kind of you

Wed like very much to.

What a delightful idea

With the greatest pleasure

Thank you very much for inviting me

Its delightful to.

Declining invitation

Im very sorry, I dont

Think I can.
25
Id like to, but .

Im afraid Ive

Already promised.

Thank you for asking me, but .

Unfortunately , I cant.

Expression to make, accept or decline in vitiation informal situation

Making invitation

Why dont you come to

Like to come to

Come and

Shall we come to

You must come to

Accepting invitation

I would/will

That would be very nice

OK,I will be there !

Id like love to come.

All right.

Sure, I am coming

Declining invitation

Sort, I cant.

Id love to, but

I dont think I can.

26
In wish I could, but

Sorry, I am very busy

Sorry, may be next time

Thank you, but I cant

Sorry, I dont think I

Cant make it
Im so sorry I can make it

RULES AND WARNING


A warning means giving information of the danger or unexpected situation that my happen if
a person does something. He/she wants that person will be more careful. When we see a
snake on a tree, for example, we may shout our friends "Watch out" It means we inform them
be careful and to pay attention to the snake.

A warning is usually in the form of imperative, but it may occur with the modal "must" and
"should"

Expression of warning :
- You should/should not_______________
- You must/must not___________________
- Don't_______________________________!
- Beware!
- Beware of___________________________
- Look out!
- Watch out!
- Watch out for_______________________!

Here are other examples of expressing warning.

Your little sister wants to cross the busy street. Then you warn her to cross carefully by
saying,"Mind the traffic!"
There is a long wire connected to the computer. At present you are using your computer
and your little brother is playing a toy car behind the computer. You see what he is
doing and warm,"Dont touch the wire!"
There is blackout in the neighbourhood. A father lights a lantern and puts it on the table.
His son is amazed and plays with the lantern. When the father sees, he warns,"Keep
away from the fire!" or "Don't play with the lantern!"
You are walking on the pavement with your friends in the rain. Suddenly you see a big hole
on the pavement. You want your friends by pointing at the hole and saying,"Look
out!"
27
In the zoo, many cages of wild animals are applied with a warning board saying,"Beware of
the wild animals!"

28
UNIT 4
GIVING REASONS

Giving Good Reasons As, Because, Since, Seeing As, Seeing That

As, because, since and seeing that or seeing as all give a reason.
There is no difference in meaning.
However, there are some other differences, as follows:
Since is formal. You will usually find since in writing.
Seeing that and seeing as are informal, so only use those in speaking or in an informal email
to your friend.
What they have in common is this:
You can use all of them in the middle of your sentence, after a comma (,), but you can also
use them at the beginning of your sentence.

Examples
Here are a bunch of examples, and when youve looked at these you should do the
exercise:
Seeing as Debbie brought us out here, she should know how to find her way back.
We demand to be paid for extra hours, as we worked until 11 oclock on three nights
last week.
The visibility on the crossroads should be improved, since too many accidents happen.
Lets sleep over at our friends, seeing that we dont have money for a hotel.
Because Im on holiday next week, I wont be able to teach the workshop.

Exercise:
Match a suitable clause from A and B, using the indicated
connector.
A B
The neighbours must be on holiday You must be really addicted.
Kylie has come to talk to me We assume you are no longer interested in our offe
Youre playing on your DS all day long Our garden has turned into a jungle.
The Johnsons left early in the morning Ronnie is selling his entire Lego collection.
We havent received your payment yet I havent seen or heard them all week.
Weve scheduled you with Dr Bini The drive to the theme park will take them about 3
He needs the money You never take the time to listen to her.
It must have been warm when we were Dr Wallstone is on holiday.
away from home

1 __________________________________, as
______________________________.
2 Since _____________________________, ________________________________.
3 __________________________________, seeing
as_________________________.

29
4 ________________________________, because
___________________________.
5 As ________________________________ ,
_______________________________.
6 _________________________________, since ____________________________.
7 Seeing that _________________________, _______________________________.
8 ________________________________, because
___________________________.

Linking words help you connect the ideas in a sentence. In this lesson,
youll learn some common linking words to express reasons and results.

Linking Words: Reasons


Because / Because of
The difference between these two words is that because is followed by a subject + verb, and
because of is followed by a noun:
The game was canceled because of the rain.
The game was canceled because it was raining.
In spoken English, many people say cause as a short form of because.

Due to / Owing to
Due to and owing to are also followed by a noun. These words are a little more formal.
Theres a lot of traffic today due to the upcoming holiday.
(holiday = noun)
The after-school program was canceled owing to lack of interest from the students.
(lack = noun)
Due to the fact that / Owing to the fact that
Use these phrases before a subject + verb. Again, these phrases are a little more formal.
- Many people are still unemployed due to the fact that the economic recovery has been
slower than anticipated.
- The publisher rejected the authors latest work owing to the fact that the manuscript was
full of errors.

Since / As
Since and as are more informal, and they are followed by a subject + verb.
8. Im going to bed at 10 PM since I need to get up early tomorrow morning.
9. I didnt go to the gym today, as I had a lot of homework to do.
Linking Words: Results

Therefore / Consequently / As a result


These words are more formal, and are more commonly used in written English.
Our companys profits have increased 150% in the past year. Therefore, were going to
invest in new equipment and training programs.
The tennis player had knee surgery mid-October; consequently, she took the rest of the

30
season off.
There have been heavy rains throughout the interior of the state. As a result, several areas
have experienced flooding.

So
So is more informal, and more commonly used in spoken English.
We were hungry, so we stopped at a cafe for a snack.

31
2

32
33
34
35
36
37
A. SPEAKING
Language Practice

1. Do you understand all those work document ? explain it!

2. What kinds of Work Document do you know?

3. Bring one work document that you have and explain it to your friends about
it.

B. VOCABULARY

WORD FORMATION PROCESSES

38
What are the different methods of word-formation?
The common of word-formation methods are: affixation, compounding, blending,
clipping, hypocorism and borrowing.

BORROWING as a method of word-formation


When words from another language enter a language, it is known as borrowing.
English has taken many words other languages. Some examples are: leak, yacht
(Dutch); barbecue, cockroach (Spanish); piano, concerto (Italian), cash, rice, teak
(Malayalam), and admiral, alcohol, average, caliber, cotton, magazine, nadir,
ream, satin, sofa, tariff, zero (Arabic).

COMPOUNDING as a method of word-formation


Compounding is making a new word by stringing together existing words: e.g.,
earthquake (earth + quake). Some other examples are homework, girlfriend,
mailman (noun + noun); sleepwalk, break-dance (verb + verb); icy-cold, red-hot
(adjective + adjective); breastfeed, spoon-feed (noun + verb); spoilsport, killjoy,
breakfast, cutthroat, dreadnought, know-nothing (Noun + verb); headstrong (noun +
adjective); overtake, outdo (preposition + verb).
While some compounds some others retain the meaning of their parts, (e.g.
doghouse) some others have new meanings (e.g. white-collar).

BLENDING as a method of word-formation.


Blending is the process of fusing words together. In the process, both words lose
parts. Some examples are:

smog (smoke + fog), guesstimate, (guess + estimate),


motel (motor + hotel), infomercial, (information +
brunch (breakfast + lunch). commercial),
motorcade (motor + cavalcade), motel, (motor + hotel),
transistor (transfer + resistor), motorcade, (motor + cavalcade),
electrocution, (electricity + execution) simulcast, (simultaneous broadcast),
travelogue (travel + monologue). stagflation, (stagnation + inflation),
bash, (bang + smash), transistor, (transfer + resistor),
brunch (breakfast + lunch.), travelogue, (travel monologue),
chunnel, (channel + tunnel), cablegram (cable telegram)
edutainment, (education + showbiz (show business)
entertainment), sci-fi (science fiction)
electrocution, (electricity + execution), sitcom (situation comedy
emoticon, (emotion + icon),

CLIPPING as a method of word-formation.

Clipping is the shortening of a word: e.g: gym (gymnasium), fax (facsimile), lab
(laboratory). Thre are different types of clipping: front-clipping, middle-clipping,
end-clipping, ends-clipping and complex clipping.

39
Front-clipping: End-clipping: Middle-clipping:
phone (telephone) ad (advertisement)
varsity (university) cable (cablegram) maths (mathematics)
chute (parachute) exam (examination) flu (influenza)
bus (omnibus) gas (gasoline) fridge (refrigerator);
fax (facsimile) memo (memorandum)
plane (airplane); gym ( gymnasium)
pub (public house)
fan (fanatic);

HYPOCORISM as a method of word formation.


Hypocorism is using a noun differently as endearment term. It is a kind of
backformation in which a final y or ie is added to a back-clipped word:

Aussie (Australian)
telly (television)
sweetie (sweet heart)
movie ('moving picture')
hanky (handkerchief)
granny (grandmother)

AFFIXES as a method of word formation (Prefixes and Suffixes)

Prefixes

Prefixs are added to the beginning of a word to make a new word, eg mis+take.
Some common prefixes are 'mis', 'dis', 're', 'for', 'anti', 'ante', 'sub', 'un' and 'in'. New
words are made by placing a prefix in front of a word. It is helpful to know the
meanings of prefixes. Prefix 're' means again, therefore reappear means to appear
again.

The following prefixes of 'im', 'ir', 'il', 'in' and 'un' can be added to the beginning of
words to

When a group of letters having a special meaning appears at the beginning of a


word, we call that group of letters a prefix. Following is a list of 10 prefixes all
dealing with counting.

Prefix Meaning Example


uni- one unicycle
mono- one monologue
auto- self autobiography
duo- two duodecimal
bi- two bifocal
tri- three tripod
penta- five pentagon
hexa- six hexadecimal
poly- many polygon
multi- many multicolored
40
pre before prehistory
mis wrong misplace
sub under subway
inter between international
semi half semicolon
im not possible
ir not irregular
il not illegal
non without nonsense

Suffixes

Letters added to the end of a main word are called suffixes. Common suffixes
are:

Suffix Meaning Example


-able able to be manageable
-ible defensible
-ance resistance
-ence independence
-ic heroic
-ion state of union
-ism quality of patriotism
-hood brotherhood
-ity legality
-ment puzzlement
-er one who writer
-or advisor
-ite Mennonite
-less not careless
-ful wishful
-ness state of/condition loneliness
imaginative
ive having
ly forming adverb clearly

Exercises

Fill in the Prefixes and Suffixes


Bank of Suffixes
Bank of Prefixes
-able -ful -ly
dis- im- re- -al -ion -y
il- pre- un-

41
Use the bank of prefixes and suffixes to complete each word. There may be more
than one answer for some words.

Prefix - Root Word - Suffix Prefix - Root Word Suffix


____cover____ ____predict____
____like____ ____proper____
____agree____ ____success____
____logic____ ____comfort____
____order____ ____equal____
____expected____ ____construct____
____act____ ____reason____
____luck____ ____honor____
____trust____ ____usual____
____connect____ ____new____

For each prefix, write its definition, and find as many words as you can that begin
with that prefix.

Prefix Definition of prefix Words that begin with the prefix


anti-
auto-
de-
dis-
ex-
il-
in-
mis-
non-
over-
pre-
re-

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un-

C. GRAMMAR

CLAUSES

What is a clause?

A clause is a part of a sentence. There are two main types: independent (main
clauses), dependent (subordinate clauses).

Independent Clauses

An independent clause is a complete sentence; it contains a subject and verb and


expresses a complete thought in both context and meaning.

For example: The door opened.

Independent clauses can be joined by a coordinating conjunction to form complex or


compound sentences.

Co-ordinating Conjunctions
and but for
or nor so
yet

For example: Take two independent clauses and join them together with the
conjunction and: " The door opened." "The man walked in." = The door opened and
the man walked in.

Dependent Clauses

A dependent (subordinate) clause is part of a sentence; it contains a subject and


verb but does not express a complete thought. They can make sense on their own,
but, they are dependent on the rest of the sentence for context and meaning. They
are usually joined to an independent clause to form a complex sentence.

Dependent clauses often begin with a a subordinating conjunction or relative


pronoun (see below) that makes the clause unable to stand alone.

Subordinating Conjunctions
after although as because

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before even if even though if
in order that once provided that rather than
since so that than that
though unless until when
whenever where whereas wherever
whether while why
Relative Pronouns
that which whichever
who whoever whom
whose whosever whomever

For example:

The door opened because the man pushed it.

Dependent clauses can be nominal, adverbial or adjectival.


A nominal clause (noun clause) functions like a noun or noun phrase. It is a group of
words containing a subject and a finite verb of its own and contains one of the
following: that | if | whether

For example:

I wondered whether the homework was necessary.

Noun clauses answer questions like "who(m)?" or "what?"

An adverbial clause (adverb clause) is a word or expression in the sentence that


functions as an adverb; that is, it tells you something about how the action in the
verb was done. An adverbial clause is separated from the other clauses by any of the
following subordinating conjunctions: after | although | as | because | before | if
| since | that | though | till | unless | until | when | where | while

For example:

They will visit you before they go to the airport.

Adverbial clauses can also be placed before the main clause without changing the
meaning.

For example:

Before they go to the airport, they will visit you.

!Note - When an adverb clause introduces the sentence (as this one does), it is set
off with a comma.

44
Adverb clauses answer questions like "when?", "where?", "why?"

An adjectival clause (adjective clause or relative clause) does the work of an


adjective and describes a noun, it's usually introduced by a relative pronoun: who |
whom | whose | that | which

For example:

I went to the show that was very popular.

This kind of clause is used to provide extra information about the noun it follows.
This can be to define something (a defining clause), or provide unnecessary, but
interesting, added information (a non-defining clause).

For example:

The car that is parked in front of the gates will be towed away. (Defining
relative clause.)

Information contained in the defining relative clause is absolutely essential in order


for us to be able to identify the car in question.

My dog, which is grey and white, chased the postman. ( Non-defining relative
clause)

A non-defining relative clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
If you take away the non-defining clause the basic meaning of the sentence remains
intact.

For example:

My dog chased the postman.

Adjective clauses answer questions like "which?" or "what kind of?"

Summary

An adjective clause functions as an adjective (modifies a noun or pronoun); an


adverb clause functions as an adverb (describes a verb, adjective or other adverb); a
noun clause is used as a noun (subject of a verb, direct object, indirect object,
predicate nominative or object of the preposition).

!Note - The difference between a clause and a phrase is that a phrase does not
contain a finite verb.

Relative Clauses

45
A relative clause follows the noun it modifies. It is generally indicated by a relative
pronoun at the start of the clause, although sometimes you can tell simply by word
order. The choice of relative pronoun, or choice to omit one, can be affected by the
following:-

Human or Non-human?

We make a distinction between an antecedent that is a human who(m) and an


antecedent which is a non-human which.

Who(m) is used when the antecedent is a person.


That is used to refer to either a person or thing.
Which is used to refer to anything exept a person.

I met a man and a woman yesterday. The woman, who had long blonde hair,
was very pretty.
The man she was with, was the man that / who won the race.
The race was the one that I lost.
The man, to whom the winnings were given, was with the woman who was
very pretty.

Restrictive or Non-restrictive?

Restrictive relative clauses are sometimes called defining relative clauses, or


identifying relative clauses. Similarly, non-restrictive relative clauses are called non-
defining or non-identifying relative clauses.

In English a non-restrictive relative clause is preceded by a pause in speech or a


comma in writing, unlike a restrictive clause.

For example:-

The builder, who erects very fine houses, will make a large profit.
This example, with commas, contains a non-restrictive relative clause. It refers to a
specific builder, and assumes we know which builder is intended. It tells us firstly
about his houses, then about his profits.

The builder who erects very fine houses will make a large profit.
This second example uses a restrictive relative clause. Without the commas, the
sentence states that any builder who builds such houses will make a profit.

Restrictive Non-restrictive
Human Nonhuman Human Nonhuman
Subject who, that which, that who which
who, whom, which, that,
Object who, whom which
that,
After preposition whom which whom which

46
whose, of whose, of whose, of
Possessive whose, of whom
which whom which

47
UNIT 3

A. READING

Corrosion.

Corrosion attacks all engineering materials, especiallt metals. Corrosion is any


chemical action which harms the properties of a material. It reduces the life of a
material and increases the cost of a structure. For example, a steel bridge must
be repainted regularly to protect it from rust. Various metals have therefore
been developed to resist corrosion. Among them are the stainless steels. These
metals contain from 12 to 35 % cromium which form a very thin layer or film of
chromium oxide on the surface of the metal. This film protects from corrosion.
Alloys made from copper and nickel are also corrosion-resistant. For example
Monel metal, which contains roughly 60 % nickel and 30% copper, is resistant to
both fresh and salt water corrosion. It is therefore used for marine engine parts,
and for other surfaces like shipss propellers which are in contact with sea
water. They are mainly used to make tubes.

When two different metals touch each other in the presence of moisture,
corrosion occurs. This type of corrosion is known as galvanic or electrolytic
corrosion because it has an electrical cause. The metals and the moisture act
like weak battery and the chemical action which results corrodes one of the
metals. If, for example, aluminium sheets are riveted with copper rivets, the
aluminium near the rivets will corrode in damp conditions.

No material can be completely corrosion-resistant. Even stainless steel will


corrode. Engineers can, however, fight corrosion. For example, they can use
high- purity metals because this metals are more resistant than alloys. They can
also make sure that two dissimilar metals are not allowed to touch each other.
Finally engineers can protect the surfaces of the metals in many different ways.
One of the most common methods is to paint them.

48
Answer the Questions

1. What is corrosion?

2. Why does stainless steel and monel metal consider as corrosion- resistant?

3. How is the way to protect metals from corrosion?

B. WRITING

When we write, we may have to describe, explain, argue, persuade, complain,


etc. To make our writing effective, we have to make sure our readers can follow
our ideas. One way to help our reader is to make the links between the ideas in
our writing.

What are the links between these pairs of ideas? What words can we use to
mark the links?

1. Mechanisms deliver the power to do work

2. They play a vital role in industry

Mechanisms deliver the power to do work so they play a vital role in


industry.

KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS

There are two main kinds of conjunctions:

Coordinating conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions join two clauses or sentences of equal rank. Here both
clauses are capable of being principal clauses if they appear as such in separate
sentences.

A subordinating conjunction joins a principal or main clause and a subordinate


clause. Note that a subordinate clause cannot stand on its own and doesnt make
complete sense.

Coordinating conjunctions

The most common coordinating conjunctions are: and, but, or, nor, eitheror,
neithernor, yet, not only but also, bothand.

49
Coordinating conjunctions are of four kinds:

Additive (cumulative or copulative) conjunctions

An additive conjunction merely adds one statement to another. It doesnt express


ideas such as contrast, choice or inference. Examples are: and, also, too, as well
as, bothand, not onlybut also

He walked into the room and sat on the sofa. (Here the additive conjunction and
merely adds the clauses he walked into the room and he sat on the sofa.)
He was not only abused but also beaten. (Here the additive conjunction not
onlybut also joins the two clauses he was abused and he was beaten.)
These lessons are both free and useful.

Adversative coordinating conjunctions

They express a contrast between two statements in a sentence. Examples are: but,
nevertheless, however, whereas, only, still etc.

He is poor but he is honest.


Wise men love truth, whereas fools shun it.
The captain was annoyed, still he kept quiet.
She was late, still she was not punished.

Alternative conjunctions

Alternative conjunctions express a choice between two alternatives. Examples are:


or, nor, eitheror, neithernor, otherwise, else etc.

He is either a fool or a rogue.


You must leave this place at once or you will have to face the consequences.
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be.
He knows nothing about this work, neither does he try to learn anything about it.

Inferential or illative conjunctions

These conjunctions introduce some inference. Examples are: therefore, for, so etc.

Work hard, for nobody can succeed without hard work.


He was lazy, therefore, he failed.

Practice Exercise

Supply the appropriate coordinating or correlative conjunctions from the chart


below for the following sentences.

50
1. Kim _______ Sara played tennis.
2. _________ Jack _______ Jill went up the hill.
3. Should I order soup________ salad with dinner?
4. Vincent moved slowly____________ steadily through the crowded room.
5. _________ did Haley arrive early,________ she was______ the first one there.
6. Greg wants to be either a cowboy_________ a ghost for Halloween.
7. It rained heavily,_______ the tennis match was canceled.
8. _______ you choose yellow______ he chose blue is not the issue.
9. __________ your mother_____ your grandmother has heard you play the piano
yet.
10. Write down the phone number______ you may forget it later.

Create new sentences with the following independent clauses (simple sentences)
and a sensible subordinating conjunction. Use the chart of subordinating
conjunctions below to help you. (Don't forget to add punctuation so your new
sentence is not a run-on.)

1. It is raining today. You should bring an umbrella along.

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2. The grass needs mowing again. It was mowed on
Tuesday.
3. We should arrive at the airport on time. We left a little
late.
4. You may play outside. Your homework is finished.
5. We can stay at the mall. It closes.

Answers

1. and
2. Both, and
3. or
4. yet
5. Not only, but, also
6. or
7. so
8. Whether, or
9. Neither, nor
10. for
11. It is raining today, so you should bring an umbrella along.
Since it is raining today, you should bring an umbrella along.
Because it is raining today, you should bring an umbrella along.
You should bring an umbrella along since it is raining today.
You should bring an umbrella along because it is raining today.
12. The grass needs mowing even though it was mowed on Tuesday.
The grass needs mowing since it was mowed on Tuesday.
The grass needs mowing again, since it was mowed on Tuesday.
Even though it was mowed on Tuesday, the grass needs mowing.
Since it was mowed on Tuesday, the grass doesn't need mowing.
13. We should arrive at the airport on time even though we left a little late.
We should arrive at the airport on time although we left a little late.
Although we left a little late, we should arrive at the airport on time.
Even though we left a little late, we should arrive at the airport on time.
14. You may play outside provided that your homework is finished.
You may play outside, as long as your homework is finished.

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You may play outside, so long as your homework is finished.
You may play outside now that your homework is finished.
You may play outside when your homework is finished.
You may play outside after your homework is finished.
You may play outside since your homework is finished.
You may play outside if your homework is finished.
You may play outside whenever your homework is finished.
Provided that your homework is finished, you may play outside.
As long as your homework is finished, you may play outside.
So long as your homework is finished, you may play outside.
Now that your homework is finished, you may play outside.
When your homework is finished, you may play outside.
After your homework is finished, you may play outside.
Since your homework is finished, you may play outside.
If your homework is finished, you may play outside.
Whenever your homework is finished, you may play outside.
15. Until it closes, we can stay at the mall.
We can stay at the mall until it closes.

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Combine this sentences using appropriate linking words

1. Copper is highly conductive

It is used for electric wiring

2. Weight is measured in newtons

Mass is measured in kilograms

3. Nylon is used for bearings

It is self-lubricating

4. Friction is essential in brakes

Friction is a nuisance in an engine

5. The company is expanding

We need to hire more staff

6. Stainless steel has corosion-resistant caracter.

It still has posibility to corrode.

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Unit 4

MAKING PREDICTION

(BUKU PAKET HAL 27)

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PASSIVE VOICE
to be + past participle

How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given:


- object of the "active" sentence becomes subject in the "passive" sentence
- subject of the "active" sentence becomes "object" in the "passive" sentence" (or is
left out)

Active: Peter builds a house.

Passive: A house is built by Peter.

Examples

Active Peter builds a house.


Simple Present
Passive: A house is built by Peter.
Active: Peter built a house.
Simple Past
Passive: A house was built by Peter.
Active: Peter has built a house.
Present Perfect
Passive: A house has been built by Peter.
Active: Peter will build a house.
will-future
Passive: A house will be built by Peter.
Active: Peter can build a house.
Modals
Passive: A house can be built by Peter.

We have listed active and passive forms in the following table.


We used the phrase I drive and have put this phrase into most common tenses.

Active (Simple Forms)


Simple Present I drive
Simple Past I drove
Present Perfect I have driven

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Past Perfect I had driven
will-future I will drive
Future Perfect I will have driven
Conditional I I would drive
I would have
Conditional II
driven

Active (Progressive/Continuous Forms)


Simple Present I am driving
Simple Past I was driving
Present Perfect I have been driving
Past Perfect I had been driving
will-future I will be driving
Future Perfect I will have been driving
Conditional I I would be driving
I would have been
Conditional II
driving

Passive (Simple Forms)


Simple Present I am driven
Simple Past I was driven
Present Perfect I have been driven
Past Perfect I had been driven
will-future I will be driven
I will have been
Future Perfect
driven
Conditional I I would be driven
I would have been
Conditional II
driven

Passive (Progressive/Continuous Forms)


Present I am being driven
Past I was being driven
Present Perfect I have been being driven
Past Perfect I had been being driven
Future I will be being driven
I will have been being
Future Perfect
driven
Conditional I I would be being driven
I would have been being
Conditional II
driven

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TENSE / VERB FORM ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
Simple present keeps is kept
Present continuous is keeping is being kept
Simple past kept was kept
Past continuous was keeping was being kept
Present perfect have kept have been kept
Past perfect had kept had been kept
Future will keep will be kept
Conditional Present would keep would be kept
Conditional Past would have kept would have been kept
Present Infinitive to keep to be kept
Perfect Infinitive to have kept to have been kept
Present Participle/Gerund keeping being kept
Perfect Participle having kept having been kept

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UNIT 5

SAFETY AT WORK

(HAL 46 BUKU AJAR)

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