ON LIGHT AND OTHER HIGH FREQUENCYPHENOh&ENA . .

,

INTRODUCTOHY

SOME "FHQUGHTS ON THE EYE

W.henwe look :at the world. around us, on N:ature~ we are Impressed with .its beauty and grandeur. Ea,d.l thing-we perreive~though it may be vanish,i[l8~Y small, is ~.nitslelf a world, that is, ~jl~:e ~h.e wli.ole of the universe, .maUer and fosee governed by -law t _., a woi1d~the' "ontempl~aHon of'whieh Fills us with feeUngs o.f wond.erand_ rnesistib1y urgesus to" ceaseless th,augh:t and in:qulry. But .wn all tbis vast wodd:! of aU objects OUt senses reveal to us, the J.Tlost msrvelous.fhe most :appeaUngtQ our imag,ina.t:ion~ ~'ppears no doubt a ,bigll~Y deve](lped organ~sm~ ,Ii thinking being. ]f there Is, nnythIng fitted :tD make us adm[rc Natu!,e"s. lumd~work~ it is ce'ctain,[y tbis rnconceivab~e structure, which ])crfornls its .~ nmemerable motioas of ebedienee to le:x:~ema] inHuen.cc. To understand Its workings, to get ~ deeper l[lsjg_ht lnto th~s; :Wa:ture's mnstcfpi,c(c~. has ,ever been for thinkers .afasclnaHng aim, andaf'~er Inawy c'enturieso.fardiuollS research men .~.1I1. ve :anived, at :a, 6lh: underst_and in.S of the' functio:ns of its o,il:8~nsand. senses, Agai,~n" .!na,~] the perfei;t h.umany of its p~rts~ of the psetswhleh ,const.itu~:e the malter~3!~. ortangiMc ,ot Qurbei.ng, ·o,£, an its o.rgans and senses, the eye is the most wonderful. It is the most preclous. tbe mcst indIspensable of our perceptive or directive OIll_g<lLOS! .~t Is t:heg.re~t ,ga.rewa.ythr,ough whichall k;now~:e~.geen.te.rs the mind. Of aU ourors~:nsiJ ilt is theone, whkh is In the most intimate relatloa wlth that w:~:i,ch we call Iatellecr. So i~t[mat~ ~s; th~srclatjon, that it~$. onens~id~ the very soul shows itself in t'he ey·e ..

It can be h'lI,ken.as a f:il.c~,wbjdl the theory of the action ~f .the leye h1JnpHes, that for ea'chexre.rnaljmpress~on:!. that is, for each image ,p\roduceduponthe retina, ~he ,ends of the visuan nerves, ccncemed in theoonveyance ·of ehe impressicn to' the' mind, must be under a peculiar stress or in Olv[bratory state. It now does not secm jmprobab le that, when b"y Ihepower of thought, an imagie is evoked, a disrinctrcHex ~I(t[on. no matter how 'Weak, is ex:erh:::d upon eeetai n ends or the vEulill nerves, and therefore upon the retina. wm it ever be within human power to ,analyz-e :the condit(on :of th;e retina wh~n d.~sturbed by thought or reflex actfon~ by the help of scme opticai or ot$ler means of such se~sIU~le'ness,that $ clear idea of its state mjgl\1t be gai_n:!C'dat any thne?U th~s we're A}Ossib]e~ ~hel1 the £m)ble.m of .[!cacHn8 one's. thOlllshts with P'OOdSlOll) Iike ~hechamde:r.s ,0,( an ope~ bOQk~ J.I1.ight' be much easler to solve than many p,rob[cms Ibelong[:ng to the domain of po~IUv'C physkal science, In the soletionofwaich lrl,any. If not the m:ll.jo.rit.v. of scientific men. im,liddy believe .. Hehmlolitz has shown that the fUI~d~ of theeyeare themselves, luniioouS~ ttfTJ:dhe:was able to see, inboita;~ darkness, the movement of his arm by the' light of hisoiwn eyes.. This is one (yf the JUOSI[ rema r.kable experiment's reGorded .i:n. ~he hIs[tuy of seienee, and ,probab[yon.[y ~ few men could saHsfartolrH~

., A lecture delive~ed before ~he .PrankJin Irutifu~e~ 'Ph,i.b.ld(dph~a~F~.rl;lary~ ::I.893~ and befof,* the Na.t~Mal Electri, Light Associ:'l:tion. St.Louis:; March, 18:9;.

L-I08

repeat it, lo.r it is very likely, that the Iuminositj' of the eye.s~s assccisted with uncommon activity of the brain and ,great imaginative power. It is fluorescence of brain action,

as it weIe. -

Another fact having a bearing on thissubject which has probably been noted. by matl.y~ since' it is stared in popular expressions, but which M cannot recollect to have found. chronicled as a positive result of observation is, that at times, when a sudden

deaoc i . . I'f h ,." [I therei di " ~ "".. ". f" •

i ea 0,[ Imagepresenes Itse~" to the mte.: teet, "' ere .IS a '_ istmct ana sometimes pa.m u~

sens arion of luminosity produced. ] n theeye, observable ever. in broad dayHgl.lt.

The sllying then, that the soul shows litseU in the eye, is deeply founded, and we feel thatItexpresses a great truth. It has a. profound meaning even fo.r one who, like a poet Of artist, 'Only followiag his inborn. instinct or love for Nature, finds delight in aimless thQu,gh.ts and in the mere <contemplation of natural phenomena, but a still more profound meaning for one who, in. the' spirit of positiy,e' sdentifk invcs,tJgatio,n,. seeks tOllsc:e.rtain the causes, of the effects, It is principally the natural philosopher, the

physicist, for whom the ,eye is the subject of the most intense admiration, .

Two facts about the ,ey'e mustfordbly impress the mind of the physicist,. notwithstanding he ffi<'lly th[nk or say that it, ism. Unperfcct optical Instrument, forgett.ing~ that the very conception of that which is perfect or seems so, to him" ljas been gained through thissame instrument. First, the eye is, ;2.S far as our positive knowledge goes) the 'only organ which is: dirertly 'affected by' that subtile medium, which as scienre reaches us, must fill all. space; secondly, it is th.e' most sensitive o·.f our organs, incomparably more sensitive to' external impressions than any other.

The organ of hearing implies the impact of ponderable bodies, the OtWt" of smel 1 the transference of detached material parHdes~and the organs of taste~ and of touch or force, the dired: contact, or at' least some interference or ponderable .matlte~~, and this is. true even. in these Instaaces of anl mill organisms, in: which some of these' organs are developed to a .degree of truly marvelous perfection. This bein,g SO~ itseems wonderful that the organ of s~ght solely should be capable of being stirred by thnt,wl1kh 'all our other organs are powerless to detect, yet which. plays an essential put in all nntu:ral phenomena, whiCh transmits all energy and sustains ~J'! motion and,' that most~n.trknt~ of a.U~nifc:~ but which has properties such that even a scientifically trained mind. cannot help drawing a distinction between it and. all that .!S called. matter .. Conslderiog merely dliis,and the lOiIlct t]'.Iirut the eye, by its marvelous power, widens our otherwise very narrow range >of perception far beyond the Jimits of the small world. which IS our own, to embrace myriads of other worlds, suns and stars in the infinite depths, of the universe, would make it justifiable to essen, that it is an organ of a higher order, Irsperformance, arc beyond comprehension. Nature as far as. we know never [l:l!'oduccd anything mote wonderful. We can get ba:rely a. faint idea of its prodigious, power by analyz~[]g what it does and byoompadog.When ether waves iml'inge upon the human bodYt they produce the sensations of warmth or cold, pleasuse or pain. or perhaps other sensations of "whidl we are not :il:ware~and.any degree OE .IntensIty of these sensations. which d:egr,ees are infinite in number" hence an infinIte number of distinct sensations. But our sense of touch" or our sense of fotce.cannct reveal to us these differences in degree or inte.ns~ty, unless they arc' very great Now we can readily conceive how an organism, such as the human, in the eternal process of evolution, or more philosophicallyspesking, adaptation to Nature" being constrained to the-use of only the sense of rouch or force, for instance, m.igh t develop this sense to such a. degree of sens itiveness or perfection, that it would becapable of distinguishing the minutest differences in the temperature of a body even at some distance, to a hnnd redth, or thousandth, or mill iontb. part ,of :!} degr.f!e. Yet, even this spparently irnpcssible performance would not begin to compare 'with that of theeye, which is capable of distinguishing and conveylng to. the mind in a. single .instant Innumerablepeculiarities of the bDdy, be it in form, or color, or other

respects. Thispower ,of the eyf: rests upon two th ings" namely"the rcctJ,Hnear propagation ,of the dIsrurb~nce by which it is efi'ecb;:d,land upon jts sensitiveness, To ~ay th:~t fh~' ey,e issensit,(ve. is not saying. anything. Cowp@red w,~ith itJ all other organs are monstrous[y ,crude. The organof smell whkhgu,[aes a dog: On the trail ofa deer, the organ of touch or force whj(l~ guides en insect in Its wand erlngs, theo,rgan of hco.ui [lg" w,hich is a:ffect~d b'y the slightest disturbaeces of [hem,lr~ are sensitive organS,bo be sure, but what are they comp~,red with the. human eyel N,o doubt it [iesponds to ~he f:ll:~nte5t echoes Q1 rev:erbe,mtio.(ls of the medium; 11100 doubt" it brings us tidings from otherworlds, infin,itcly[\emobc. hu:t in a~anglllag,ewe cannot O1IS, yet always understand. And, why not? Because we live In a medium fined with air aad other g<];Sies~VapOri and a dense mass or solid particles fly.ing' about, 'These play an im,portant p!U':t in filan)' phenomena; they fdtber aw.ay the energy of the vibra:t(ons before they (an J!leach the q,e; they too, are theenrrlers of germs of dcstmcti'ol1!) they ge1t into' our lungs and other o:r;gan5~ dog up ~hc dt1lflnels and impeC'ocptibly,. yetint!vitabIy~ arrest the .stJ:'eanl of lii,e. Could we but do. away 'with all ponde,r.able maHer In th.e ~[ne of sIght of the telescope, ~t w'O'uJd reveal to us undreamt of marvels. Evc:filJi. the una.idc(~C.r:1 .~ lh]ok, would he capable of disitlrl81l.lshingin. the . pure medium, .. small objects a:t distaeces measured p'.fOba:bly by hundreds or perhaps thousands of miles,

BUI~ there .~s sOlnething ewe about t'hc eye whkh .~mp\ressles: us .sH]~ more than these wonder luI features which we obscrvcdtviewlng it from. the standpoint of aph.ysklst~ mcr,ely as an." optical in;stwment~ - .. some:th,ing whkh ~pp~,~s to us more than ~ts marvelous faculty of he.~.n.g .. ~ ire-dry affected. by the v ibrations 0.£ the medium, without int,e,rfe.~ence of gross nUlittc.r;· and more than its inoof.l(,elvabJe sens,ltI veaess and discerning powe'r. It '. is Its significance in. the processes of life, .No Jru1!t~er what one's vrews. ('In nature and Iife l'i]lay be, he m:1l$it .shtnd.ama~d whe'n~ for the first lime i~hIs d1li.oug'h:t.:i~. he realizes the impo-.[:wDce of the eye In tbephyslcaJ processes and me:il~;J;~, performaaces of the hrum~m o[g~n ism, A~~d how co,uld it he ot:herw~sc" when he reaHus~, tb:at ~heef,e is ~he means through which the human race has a.c:qu[red the entire know]edgq it possesses,. that it conrrolsnll our motions, more still, and. euractiens,

These is no w.ay of acquiring kaowledge except through :the eye •.. What is the foundation. of all philosophical systenis of ancient and modern times, in fact. of :aH '~hc ph.ilotSophy of man? 1 (ff}lJ, 1. ,thh~k~· .1 Ihblk~ tbN:efm'll 1 d""7 But how .oouM I t~ink and ~10W wouM ]kn.ow ,that' I e:ds~~ if I had not Iheeye? For know]edge invclves eonscionsness; co.nsdousncss involves Ideas, conceptions; concepticcs ~[JNolve pictures or images, a.nd~m<1!ges the sense ()if visioi£l~and ~hetef·ote the orgafll of sigl'lt. But how about

b.['t l.:al men 'W' .;:[~ L:", "'",k'-~:" Y"''''", "', '1:~~~,.".l!nMn m iift't! ~'''''l",,;,..·t· ~n m ... (r"':;'~l"","'n'''' t'l"""' ..... ",f,.,.,_, ..... . __ llu '.' .. ', ,., ,~, p .... """~.. ....."', •• I:)h ... Y .I,U,," .... ",J (,iI"" .......... ,u,.,' ":~.ur ._,"" ,,1,., ,i ...... "~~j; "vrm~

and scenes From real l~iliSc~ from a worM! bep]l'yskally does not see, A blind man may

L 'h 1,. f" .. h '. - . .. d 1 .[. f' b

WllC~~ t :0 xeyso .• · an~ns.trumcne w~t . ·.unerrmgpr·eC.lSlon, rna}' mCLC_ tL1C rastest loot~ m::1)f

disceverand inv,e]lit~ ,r.aJrnla.teafld COjllSt[l!lJd~ fn~y do stat sr,ctatcr wonders -. _. but all the blind men who have done such thin_gs have descended from those w.hohad seeing eyes. Nature' may reach the same result in ma:n:y ways.. Like 9" wave in the physim~ world, in the'~.nfinit,e oeeaacf the m,ed.iulJIl wible}" .. pc:rva.dcsaU, so' In the world .of ()tgan[sln~~ in Ilfe, an impulse- started proceeds oQ:lJitlill[d~ :at times, may be, with tile speed 0,[ l ~8ht)at rimes, again". so slowly thait for ages and ages i~ seems . to st:Jly,passi~g thl\'C!ugh. precesses of a ('OJ.1fip~!exity ineoncei vaMe to men, but in all its forms, in. .1111 its stages, Hs 'cr.:l!e:r~!:l.Y everaad ever .integra]];, p[~e[li't A single ray of .Hght .from a cHstrunt star.faUing: upon the qe ·of a tymnt in by~gone times, may ha,ve nrtcred. the course of 11~S. ~if.e:! ~nay ]]av.e chnngedthe destiny of nations, lrIZty have tra.nsforB'I(ld the surface of the globe, so intricate, so inconoeivab~y complex nre dle processes 11.1 Nature, In no 'W:l.yc.an we get such. an ,ovc'rwhebn[:ng .wdca of the grandeur of Nature, as when we Gonsidler~ that in aceosdance with i~he],aw of the conservation of ,energy,. Huouglllout the illfirdte. the forces ate in a perfect balance, and hence the energy of a s,filgle thought may determine

the motion of a. Universe. It is not necessary that, every individnal, not even that every gene',ration, or manygenerations, should have the physical Instrument of sight" in ordez to be able t"oform-ir"n:ages and to think, thDlt hi; form ideas 01 conreptions; but sometime or other, dudng the PCOCl!SS of evohnion, the eye ce',rtalnly mast _have ,c:dsted,. else thought, as W'(~ understand it, would be impossible; ejse conceptions, ,like -$.1)I.r~t, .h:ltcH.cd" mind, call it ns you nl:,hY. could not exist . .It .is conceivable, that in some other world, in some ether beings, the eye is replaced !by a differentorgan, eguaJJy or :In,OW pcrfe(t, but these beings cannot be men, -'

Now what prompts us ~U to voluntary motions and actions of any kind? Ag~in the eye, If I am conscious of the' motion, E must have an idea or conception, that i::i., an image, therefore the eye. If I am' not prcds!cly censcious of the motion, .it ]s" because the Images are vague O[ indistinct, being- blurred by the superlmpositioa of many. B~.,t, when I perfot,m the motion, does the impulse wi][dl prompts me to the action. come from within or from without? The grcate-st physicists have not disdained toendeavor to answer this and similar questions rind have at times abandoned. themselves to the de] ights of pur,e and uh,mstrajncd thought. SutCh 'questions an: gcncraUy considered not to belong to the realm of positive physical science, but wHl bcforejong be annexed 'to its domain. Helmholtz has probably thought more on life than nny modern scientist. Lord Kelvinexpressed his, belief that IHe.'s process is .: clcctrknland that there is a fOfC-C inherent to the organism and determining its motions. Just as much as I ZI:.B1: ccnvinced of ~.lny phy,sicaI 'truth ,1 am ccnviaeed that the motive Impulse must Corne From the outside, For, consider the k~'We$t 'org:,ul~:5J).l we know ===; and there aee p.robably ma:Dly ~oT" ... er ones - an :agg:regation of a ,feW' cells only. If itfS capable orv,o~untary,mot~on it can perform an inijn,ite number of motions, .. an definite and precise, But .nmva mechanism consisting of a finite number of parts and f,ew at that, c;annot perform an infinite number of definite motions, hence the impulses which govem its movements must come from the cnvieonmcnt, So, theatom, d.1C ultc,dor elemene of the Universe's structure, is tossed about in spruce eternally, a. pby toexternal influences, Iike a, bo-at in a troubled seru.''U'ere it to stop its motion it 1I1tJ'lIJ(I~/;e'. Matter ,a:t rest, if such a thing: could 'exist, would be matter dead, Death . of matted Never hcs a sentence ·o.fd~cper phllosophkul me,aning been uttered. TIlis is the \¥ay in whkh ,:Pr,o·!. Dcv,r:at for.cib~y cxpr,esscs it in the description of his admirable experiments, in which Iiquid oxygen if. h~:ldl'cd as one handles water. and air at o,rdinary pressure is made to condense and c .... en to solidify 'by the intense cold, Experiments, - whidl -serve 't.o iUustrate~' in' his Ianguage, the last feeble manifestations of life. the- last quiverings of matter about to die. But human eyes sh:ltU ],'lIot witness such death, ,Tbere is no death of matter, fc,t',

throughout the infinite universe, aU has be move, ~o vibrate, that is" to live. . ,

II have made the p!l:cc:::dJng staternc~ts nt the peril of tre:.1d.i'ng upon Irtlcta,I"lhy~i'c:d ground~ In my desire to ~.nt:r,oduce the: subject of this lecture .ina manner not altogeth~t: uninteresting, I rna.y hope, to' an audience SUdl as I have the honer to address. aut, now, then, returning to the subject, this divine o!t'gan of sight. this Indispensable instrument fOof thought and all .inteUcctllal e,njoy.meut:l whiCh Jays open to us the marvels of thi; universe, througb which we have acquired what knowledge we IJQSSCSS~ ,:.~d :wbich prompts lQ,S to, andcontrols, aU our physicn~ and mental activity, By, what, is itaffected? By Jjgl]t! \Vha,t is ~tght?'

'\Xtc have witnessed the great strides whi,e:b have been made in all de:part~fl,ents l)i~ scieeee in f0C('Ot y,ears. So g:r,cat have been the advances that we cannot rc.fmin from ,asking ourselves, Is this an true~cris it but a dream? Centuries aBO men have lived, have thought, discovered, Invented, and. have believed fbat they were soaring, w.hile thoey were merely proceeding at n snail's pace, So we too may be mistaken. But: tai .. .il1g the truth of the observed. eventsas one' of .the .implied facts ,Q,r science, we must rejoice in the immense progress. ah"(~::l.cly made and stai more in the aneicipation of what' must

[-JI.l

come, Judging from, the pocSS]biHt]es: opened up b:y modernseseareh. There ,IS, however, an advanee which we have been w,~hleSS]ng~ \vhkh ,must be pa.ttkulady 8taH.fying,to eyery ~ovt::r of p[:08~es;s. It is .El:ot a d~scovefy,of an in.ventio,n" Of :an aehievement h'Ji any patt~rular dh:{lcHofi.It ,is, a~ 3tdvance,~n all directions ofscientific thought and experimenr .. I m.eanthegeneraHzation of the namrn~, forces and phenomena, the looming up' ,o,l .:I (cnar!1 broad ideat on the- scienti fie horizon, It is this idea. which has, 11.li)wc'!o'c'r, ,~9ngaJtO take',n l)Ossess~on of the mosr advsnced mlnds, to which] desire tocall yourauentio!~! and wh lch I~ ntend to' illustrate in a g,ener'C1:,~.way~ ill these' expeeiments, as t~c .first s te p h~ answering tl1!e'luestio~ "\Vhat is l ~ght' ?'. and to realize the: lTIodemmeaning .of thws. word.

It: .~5 beyo.ndthescope of my lecture to' dwel~, epe,n. the subject of m,ig~t ~.n. gencr"I,~,. my object beirDJg me·reIy to bring presently t.o your notice' a ce.daio. class - of Hght eff,eefs and a number of phenomena observed in. pursuing the studY' (If these effccts·, But to h~ ronsistent in m.y remarks. it is necessary to state that,a.(:(o:rdirlg to that Idee, now accepted by the majQrity o,.fscientjfic men as ill. positive result of theoretical and experimental ,[f.lyesti.g.aHo[J~ the various forms or ·.m3injfestations of' energy whk!l were gcneraHy dcsig;llaledas, "electric'!' or more predse~y··eledmm.llgneti(::·'a.re ener;,q~t m~nife5taHo.ns of the same nature as those' of rcadmant heat afld~wght Therefoee th~ phenomena of ligttt and heat and others besides these, may be called electzlcalpheuomena, 'Thus e]edrkaJ science has become the mother science Df all and .1 ts s~t]:dy }U!LS- become u!~.

1"""'P"""'t" "1',t· ··Th· ,," d,'",,'V' wh ,,,, . .,., ·W·"~ sh 'i>~1 know "r;tltr what ··,,"~Dr~·'l'.C'·l-'h:r·' 1~!." ·w· -ill c'~[o"" ic le ,",.-

,', ...... , ...... ,.. ,. , ... ~',r ... , .. no ....~....~ ....... - - l". .'.o'ii. .... ~ ...... !l,,",, '" _ .... , .. 1 _ ~~". flJ "",,[l

event ,pl'Qbab~:YSte:atet~, moreimpOdal:ltthan any other recorded in. the :history of the human race, The Hme. will come when the .c;QmfOd~ dl,1:! v(:ry existence, peihaps:~ ,')t man wiU depend upon that wonderful !g~nt, For our existeuce ·and comfcst we require heat, light and mechtlnka~powe,r. How do, we 'no,w, get a~~. t'hese?We ge~ them from fu"l~ 'we g:ft them. bvoonsllmi.ng m~terjal.\Vhat wHI man do when the forests d[sappe3:.r~. when the COt1l~ fields ere exhausted? Ooly one th~ng, nccordIng to our present kno·wiedgc wHl remain:i. that' is, to tmnsmit,power at great d ~staru:cs. Men will go ro the 'wa,terfa.lb::,. to ~he tides, w.bieb are the 'stores of an. i.nfinite.sima.f part of Nature's; i.m:me.asu.rnblee'nergy .. There wiU they harness thfenergy and transmit 'the same iID "their sctt]emenil::s.~ to' warm thd,rnomes iby~. to gtve rhem li.g;ht!andl to keep their obedrcDt slaves, the machines, to~]lng. But .how win. they transmit this energy if not by ,ele(ttkity ?' Judg,e thea, if the com.fort,. nay, the very existence, .or man. will not depend on e~ectrjc~ty. I am aware that this view i.sno:!;: that o.fa. practkalengJneer:,. but fieithet~s it that ofan .il~us,ionist, .for ,~t .~s (,elt:a~n,. that pOW~f t1'ansmisslon, which nt present .is merely a: stimalus b.) efl't\l!rprIsc, willsome day be a dire necessity.

It J.s more important for.the student, who takes u'P' d.1C stu,elY' of light pheeomena, to mike himself :thoroughly ;ru.Gquaint-edwith certain modem. views, than to peruse entire books on the ;scbjro: of lIght jitsdf) as ,dis(OflOoCC;ood frcm these views .. Wer.c I [h,e:rcf(~·r.'! to make these demoestmtionsbefore studen ts seek ing in formation .- and for the s:akc of the fewef those who may be presC1'".It, give me Jeave to so assume ~. it wou ~d be my pdn.cLpa~ ,endeavor 'to impress these views; upo.n their minds in this series, ·of

expcr~ments. '. .

It might be sufficient f~·f this purpose to, perform a simple and ~,cU .. known c:xpedment.I .mlght td~e a familiar appliance, a Leyden jar, chal'gc it from rtfrk6on:d nlachinc~and. then disc!harge it.. In exp13in.ingto you its, permanent statewhen charged, and itts tr:ansitory cond.itIon. ,"vhCfJJ d.isch:a.rging~ cn~H[!g your attenticn to the forces whkh enter :intoplay and to the various: phcnonl.crm.: they p[DduGc~ aodpointLng out the relatiou of the torccs and phenomena, I nlight" fuHy succeed in ~.uustraHng that modern ide.,,\. N,o doubt, to the: thinker, this simple c:xl)crimef!twQuld a'ppea~ as El.uch as the B:1Q:;{ rn<l.gn:lnC~,nt d[spby. But this ~s to be hill ,~xperh:ncnb'il~ demonstration, ,and one which

L-112

should possess:1besidi.e:s .wnstru.ctlve, also entertamning features and as such. a. simple experiment, such. as the <one cited, would not go vC'.!y f;lrt:owards the :attainme.llt of 'trelil! lecturer's aim, I m'ust therefore choose another way of illustratingt more spectacular certainIy:,. 'but perhaps also more instructive, Instead of tl'rlC frictional machine a:nd Leyden Ja.fj I shall a.vaH mysdf in these ,expe[imenb~lJl an induction coil ofpcC:111bt properties, wh ich was described in detail by me in a lecture before the London Institntiou of Electrical Engineers" in feb .. , 189'2. This in.duct1on coil is ,capab~e of yielding: currents ot enormous potential differencescalternating withextreme mpidity.\Vith this, app:mltu$ Tshall endeavor to sho'w you th:rec distinct:' classes of effcct~~():r phenomena, and it is my desire tbat each experiment, whlle serving foe r1the purposes of mustratlQn~ should at the same time teach us some novel tm:tt:h, or show us, some aO'l,i',clas Fed: <of this, .fascinating science ... But before doing this, it seems proper and useful to, dwell upon theappa,ratus emp~o:yc!dt and method 'of obmin~n.g' the h~g'l' potentials and :high.frequenCj

currents which are madeuse of in these, experiments. '

ON 'THE, APPARATUS AND AtIITHOD Of CONVERSION.

l1.1ese high-frequency, currents are obtained ina peculiar ma~ne,r, The method employed was advanced by me about two years ago in an experimental lecture before the A.mer.ican I nsri tute of m~rical Engineers. A number of ways~ as practiced In the

1j4'. .1'. 'r:r" \ll..lJ

·r· .. "

s~,

i

laboratory, of obtaining these currents either from continuous or Jow frequency alte.rn,ating currents, is diagrnmmm,tically iindk,ated. ~n. Fig .. 1, 'whkh wm. be tater described in detall. TIle gene!f;aIplan .is to ,cbarge' condensers, - from a dlrect or alternate-current :SOU,CC(" prc·f:ernb1y of. h~gh-rension, and to disdl:JL.rge them dws[u.pt:hre1y while observing wellknown conditions, necessary to maintain the oscillations of the current, In view of the

FiB .. 1.

t-i 13

general interest taken in high.fre,quen-cy cur~ents and 'effects producible by tl~~~~ it seems to me advisab1.e to dwell at some length u,pon this method of conversion, In order to give }IOU 'a, dear idea of tbe action, I will s.uppos,e that a continuous-en erene geneeetor is employed, which is often 'very convenient . It isdesirable that the generator should possess such high tension as to be able te break 'th.rough a. small air space., ,If thisfS not the case, thenaux~I.iary means have' to be resorted. to, some of which, will beindicated s.ubseq_t)ent],y. \'V'hen the condensers are charged toa certain poten.tiaJl the a]r, cr insulating space" g.ive~ '~':;Ji}r and ZIt disruptive discharge occurs. There is then a sudden rush of current and gencnlIIy <1 large portion of accumulated electrical energy spends itself. TIle condensers are thereupon quickly charged and the same ,process is repeated in more or less rapid succession. To produce such sudden rushes ,of current it isnecess:Lry to. observe certain conditions, If the m~e at whicb the condensers are discharged is the same as that at which they are charged, then, dearly, in the assumed case due condensersdo not come irlto play. If the rate- of discharge be smaller than llie rate of dl:!l,rging, then, o::gain" the condensers C'J,:O!]1Qt p]~y an. important put. But if~, on the cnntcarj", r~'lIe rate of dlsmurging is. greater then that or charging, then a succession of rushes of current is. obtained. It is evident that, if the rate at-which the' energy is dlssipated by the discharge Is very much greater than thelC-=tt,e of supply to. thecondensess, the sudden rushes win be oompar.lith!cly·fcw.with. [o,oS·tlmc intervals between. This always occurs when a condenser of considerable capacity is charged by, means of ;(1) compat:.)t~vcly smnll machine. If the rates of .supply :ati.d. dis:slpaHon nrc not widely different, then the rushes of current will be inqu.ick:er S1JlCc.C'SSlOH1, and this the more', the more .ae.a:l.']Y eq,lI.Hll both the rates are, until. lim~t~t~ons. incident to each case and dependlng UpOfl a number of Ca,l];5Il!'S are reached, Thus we' are able to obtain from a continnocs-current generator as. rapid: a succession of dischargesas we like, Ofcourse, the higher the tension of rhegenerator, the smaller need be the capacity of the condensers, and for Ulls reason, principally, .it is ofad.v~nl'age to employ a generator of v.ery high tension. Besides, such a generatot' permits the attaining ,of gr-e,ater rates of vibration ..

. The rushes of current may be of the same direceion under the conditions before assumed, but most ,ge.nentlly there is an osciltation superimposed upon the fundameralal vibration 'Of dle current. When. the conditions are so determined that there are no osdnations.,~be current impuisesare unidirectional and thus a, means is provided of :tm!1sfotmlng a ccatianousoarrent of high tension, into n, direct current of ~,ow'C'r tension, which I thlnk lllay find employment in the arts"

This method of conversion is exceedingly inbcl'esHng and I was. much impressed by its ·.beau.ty when I first conceived it. It H .ideal in certain respects. It involves the cmployme,nt of' no mechanical devices of 3.:ny kind, and H aUows of obtaining currents of any desired. frequency from a:I1t' ordInuydn:uit,. direct or alterna:Hng. The frequency of the funda:rrncntaJ discharges depending on the relative rates of supply and disslparion CUi bere::tdiIy varied within wide limHs; by simple adjustm,ents of these 'quantjt]cs~.llnd the frequency of the: superimposed vibration by the determination of the apocity" self-induction and resistance of the. circuit, The potential of the currents, .:Lg,lh'li, m.ay be raised M higll as, any -insulntion . Is capable of withstanding sa.f:cJy by combining capacity and self-induction or by .indlldjon Ina secondary, which need have but comparatively lew turns:

As the con.dLtions are often such that the Intermittence or oscillation does not read.Hy establish itself. Cs.peciaUywhcn a direct current source ~s clnproycd,. it is of advantage to associate an interrupter with the U{, as I .ha.ve, some tlme ago~ .indicated ,the use of an air-blast or magnct~ O[ other such device readily at hand, -TIle ma;gnd is elllp~oyed with special advantage in, the conversion of direct currents, as ie Is then vcrycffcdive. H the primary source is an: 'alternate current ge'.nerato.[~ it .is desirable, ns I have stated on another occasion, that the frequency should be low, and that the current forming the arc be large, in. order to render the magnet more effective,

A form ...... ,t' .""L.,J.,"''''~'',,~,- ... ' .j..~.,!. '-,. - et ··h'·.~' ~- ',·b'·' , . 'f," "'" ,.:Ii ' .. ,- ... "",.,,~ ..... J!

orrn ""Jl S1Uql ulSu.n'tro_r Wl'~l.~a magne ' W ,I,Cunas neen O'l!.lna, convemen.li,.} ,an,a.

adopted after some trials, ,in the. ro.nversion of direct ru.rreats'pu:il:irnlady" is iUustrated in Fig. 2. N S are the pole pieces of a very strong magnet' whiCh. is ,excIted. by a,. coil. c. The pole pieces aeeslotted for adJustment and am' be f3JStened in any position by'screws I S1. The df$ch~ge rods it dv tl1iin~d down. on the ends in. order t6 allow a :C~05!e:r approach of the . magnetic pole pieces, ···paSsthrbiugl;t tBe columns of brass .lib1 and. are fastened in. position by screws .f2 .1:2' Sp:dn~ f '1 and collars c, tll are slipped on the rods:" the. latter serv_Ing to set the points of the rods at a certain 5u,irnble distance ;by

means of screws. sa .f:."p and the fo·.r.mec. to draw the points, apart, \'7hen it is desired. to start the. arc, one of the]nrge .eubber handles iJ. /;1 is tal)pcd qllid:rywi~tll the band, whereby. the points of therods . ate brought in cont~ct but ue mstandf separated by the spdn~ f '1" Suchan anluigeme'nt has been found to beeften ne(cs.sa.ry~ n,amdy in C3S.eSwhen the E. JI,{., F, was not ]:u-geenough to cause the dfscharge to break through the' gap~ and also when it was desirable to avoid short circnitingof thegenerator ·by the' meta[~ic contactof the rods .. TIle .ttl!?idity of the interruptions of the currentwith a =s= depends on. t~e intensity of the magnetic fieId. and on the potential . a.iff-crena: at the end. of the arc The interruptions are generally in such quick succession as to produce iJl, musical. sound .. 'Years ago it was observed that when -~. powerful induction coil is discharged between the polc'S of a. ==s llflagffct, the discharge pr-oduoes a loud noise not unlike a small pistol $11ot.. It was vagudy stated that the sp:uk was intensified by the p.rescrme, of the magnetic field .. !t is now de.arth$!: tIle ·discharge current, flowing for S()mC thhe~ was rntc:rIDpt~d a. great number of times by the mag;ad~. thus producing the sound, The phen.omeno~ is. especially marked when the r fielddn~nit cif a la:rg-e magnet Or dynnmo is broken ina powerfal magncH.c field. .

When the current through the gap is comparatively ~arge, Jtis of advantage to sllp on :tbe points of the d.ischarge rods pieces of 'VCC)! h.1!d carbon and let the arc p~ay bctw~en the <?-roon pieces.' [illS pre5,ef:\(e~. the rods, . and . besides has ~he advaatage of

~'·''''''Pl'''l'O jO~."", ""J[ 'i"."1"'''''' II· "'f;f"'l:' " ,,:,1...,. heat J.'" ''''''0'' conducted "'W"V as q' "1',.,..1-11:1' l!J.~r·o· u ,j')·hli-'L",

h..... •• 1:jo iU.,_ ...... "'1'''"'''' v'~,~ ...... :~ Uh.. . ",.", "" ." ••. i., ...... ·.u .·" .. u ..... '\! ", .1." .. ,li I ,~. -'f!,i'. "UIb

carbons, and the' result Is that a smaller E, h-1I. 1F.. in the rue gap is required to ma.int-:ain

a .. succession .or d.isdl:~trges.. .

Anot1::ter form of d.ischarger,. which may be employed wJth advantage in. some cases, is illustrated: in ·Fig. 5. In this: form the. di~i~hru'gemds d ill. pass through petfor,au.ons in a wooden box .D:! w.E.'lJfch ]s··thickly (oared. wifh mica. on the 'inside~'as indi(;:a:red by the' heavy,' lines. The' perforations; are provided with mica, rubes l1J "J1'1 of some thickness which arc pref:erably not in contactwith the rods d dr. The' box has a. coverc whrch is ~,[iHle ~arger .and descends on the outside' of 'the' .box, The spark gap js warmed by ::t small Iamp t <contained in the box. A plate p above the Iamj) allows th,,!· drarught to

.L~.1.1J

pMS only through the' chimney e of:. the lamp,. the . air e.nrbe.ting thrOiUgh holes .'1 0' in or near the: oobtom of the box and following the path .in:diC3.Jted. by the arrows. When the d,[smaryer is' In .. oper.ation, the . door of . the box. is . dosed' so th~t :th~ light of the arc is not v.~s.ibl:e outside. It is desirable t~ exclude the l~g~tas pe·cfectlJ as poss,~ble, as it intederes with s!om.e expedme'nts. This form of disdla.rger ~s ~impJe and ve'ry effective when propedyman~p.ulated. The air beIng: warmed to a c-ertain tempe.ra ture, has. its. insuJaHng; powe'c impru.l:',ed; it becomes d1ele.drkally weak, as it wCl,let an.d!. the oonseqneaoe is that the arc can becstablishod at .mum great~r distance, The arc should, o.fcoll.ll'se,. be suffkicndy .~nsu.lo.'l:ting to allow the dIschfugc topassthr.ough the gap diJrJlptifJcJy. The arc formed. lnl(!e~ such oondiilt:iQns~ when Iong~ may be made extrcme.ty sensitive, 'and tbc w·eak draught duo-ugh. the mamp chimney « is q_uit~ &Iltf~dent to produce. rapid intermptions .. l'hCE adjustment is made by lir.egulaHn.g the tempe1'aJmre and ve10dty of the draught. Iq.steaa of ~Us]ng die m.~p, it answeesthe pOlfooe to ]provide fOE' a draught of warmaic in other: ways. A _very simple way wh~ch ~;aS been practiced Jsto cadose the

. ,.".;. ~.;.. .'. tic ,~ ... :L~ ,·c;··"h· 'h~:" ~",.. ,o·n·· th e top ""·n· ·d·· L-:*"m, f· ...; I .]. :~:.". tic"

arc m a ~on.g VerIal!. l!<""PI:':~ W.h r~M"""", .. :'0- """'.' "'. 1L)\,!~,!Ifl..I', . .or reg:u.il~ng ~.1Ie

eemperatureand vdodty of the aircurrent, Seme provision had to be made for deadening

the sound, '

The air' may be rendeecd d.~elecfrkal~y weakalso by rarefaction. Discbarger.s of thIs . . kind have llkcw.~se been used, by me in. connection with a .. magnet. A large. tu~e lS fo;! tlhis purpose provided w.ith heavy electrodes of carboaoe . metal, between wbich the d.~sclla.rge .is m:l~e' t-o pas:St : the tube being placed in. :01 pow~dul magn.etk fiiCld. The exhaustion of the tube -is 'Mr[e~ toa point ~t which. the dj5cb~8e breJdo:s through le~siIYt

bu.t'. tbe pr,cssulIe.sholild be. more . than 7'5 milHmet:riestn!r which the o:rdinarytluea.d djsrnalg~ occurs, In' 'another :torm '0.£ d]sd:!:arger~ comb~ningthC' .features beiQre men:tioned~ the disch.ar,s,e wasmad.e to pass between: twoa;djustab~e magp,etk: po~,epj;eccs., the Sl)ac(~: between them being k.ept at' an elevated temperature,

Ushould.·~e· n~ma:rked bcre th~d when S:l.lcb~or interrupt~ng devices ·of any kJncl.t are. usednndth"e<.,plffents 8:repassed through. the primary of a. dis,mpthre' dis~:JlIrgc ro,~~, ~t is .. not, as :a rule, of advantage· 00 .produoe. ·it . number of inte'r~ptio'fls: of the current pet second .gre3.tc.r than. the fiarunu. f !eque~cy .ofvibrallon. of the dy.rw ... mo supply circuIt" whlch is ordln.atlly small, Itshould also be pointed out here, that whil~' the deviGes mentlened .In.oonnedion wIth the d.isruptive dlsd}.~r8e are oo.·vantagcous under

certain eendirions, tbey may ,be sometimes a source of b:otlb~e~as tllCy produce intermitten.ces and other lIfcgulal'lHes in the y ibcati,on. w,hkh ~t wocld be 'very ,deskrible

to overcome. " '

Thete~s" I regret to s:ay~ in this beaultifui me:thod QfcoO'.version, a defect, which fodunate1y ,is not vital, and w.hkb I have been. gtaduaUy Qiv,ercoming. I wm best caU attention to tb~s d.CECCit and .in.dicate a. f!lu,lHul line of work, by com,paring~he electrical J)lOC'(!'S$ with its mechanical analogue. The process ma,y be iUustmtcd in this manaer. Imagine ,3; tank with n, wide open,fng at the bottom, \vhidDJ js,kept dosed by spr,wng pressure, butso thalt it snaps off JII'(i:rlenlj whe.nthe liquid in, the tank has reached a certajn he~ght I:ct the fluid be5tll,pHed. 'to the tank by means oiapilli)c feedi 118 'at acertaln ratc. \Vhen. the critical .l1!ejgJlt o.f the ~~.q'Ulid is reached, ~he sp,ring ,give's way and the bottom of the tank drops out Instantly :the liquid falls through the w.ide open.~n8~ :ilnd the sprlng~ reasserting itself, doses the bottom a,gain. The trunk lis now fiUed,andaner a ,certain t1me .interval the same p:!:Qcess, is ((;p~ated,.It is clear; thnt if the f'ip~ fe~d$ the fluid. quickerifruan the bottom outlet ms; Q'pab~ie >ij.fmct,ting it' pass through" the bottOm. wiUl'emain . o,.f{ and the tank win still overflow. If tbe rates of :supply a,!:f,e exm;:t(y equal, then. the botrom Ud 'WtU remain part bUy open and no vibration .of the same and of the

1, 'de '~'m~ I'm- m 1[-" ieh if d 'j: ... ,. ' , , , n ' "t' . J:qtu·', rJoJ:um,n WJl.~,~gen.em~ ~y oceur; h~OU8~1 It n1lg . t, 1 starte '_ " ""' j some m.ea,ns., .out ,[[

the in,tet p~pe does not: feed the fluid fast enough for ~hc ouHetl, then there will be a['lI~ays vibmHon. As~[nj, in suchease; eaCh t~fi1e the bottom flaps up or down~ the spring: and the Hqwd. column, if the pliabiUty of'the sp[iog and the ineetia of the nlQvIng M)atts are prope.if.1y chQiS;en~W.m perform independent vibrations. In t)lJis analogue the nu[d ,may be mikened to electridty er ,elf(uica~ ellrerb'Y~ the roni~. to the coedeaser, t'he sp"tinS to the d lem.ectric,. an.<l the pipe to the condnrtor thronglrwhich electricity lis suppn~~ tOi the' oonde(}jet, TO' make thIs al"ullogy quIte ,(o,mpIe:te, itt 'is:, necessaryto make the assumptioe, that thebottam~ each elme it gives wa.y~ isknocted, vjolently agains~a ncn-elesticstop, this impact involving some ioss of ene.rgy;and that) besides" some d~ssipation of energy resultsdue to frkHona~ losses. In. theprecediag analoguethe Uquid is supposed to be uudera steady ,[If'essur,e. If t~e presence .of: the fluid be assumed to vary ,:rhyt'hmk~Hy~ th is may be taken as correspond ~ng to the case of an. Ollt:ern.a:t~ng current. The process is

then not qllit~ as simple t? consider; but the: adioa. i~ the sam~ inp.~indpmc," -

It: is deslrahle; in' order to maintain lhev,wbuHon econornicilHy~ to reduce the impact and frictional losses as much as possible . .As regards tbe; ~af,te,if, whkh in the clectricnl a.mdo_gueoorrespond to the Jesses due to the resistance of d~e clrcuits, H is impossible to obviate thern ent'lrelYt but they can !h.e: .[educed to a 1ll1nimJu,mby a prop!,r se:[ection of the dimensions of ~h~drcuIb and by U~e cmpIoym:e.nt of ~bin wndUCrn.t5 in. .t'h~, form of .stru~ds"But the loss o.f cne~gycaus;ed byd1c .first Dreru:in,,g' th rough of the d~electric .which In the-above example coeresponds "~O rhe v~oJ!,~n~ .knoc~ o(LfteboUofil against the ine~;astks'top - would. be more imponAQt ~:t9' ov:ercome.nt tbe mOJnen~ of the breaking throught the air space has a. very h~.gl~. [eslslhul:ce~ w~,kl1is plrobaJbly r,educed toa ve.rry small value when. the currenr bes rmd.le.d some sb:cngth~. and the space is brought to a higm.ll temperature, It' would. mrtJtcduHy d.imjn~sh th:C' loss of lenergy if d~e space were aIw~y.s, kept at an. ,exttemeIyMgh re.[_Upe:rature~ but, then there would be no- dismptive break, By warming, thcspa.ce modem.tely ~fmeans of a, lamp 'or orberwise, the economy as Em: as the arc i.s concerned is ~ensibly increased, But the lnagnet Of 9thciU' j:ntcf[up:Hn,g device does not diminish. the loss Inthe arc. Likewise, a. jet' of air on~y' fildHtabes" the carrying off .oJ the en~rgy,."Aift_ or a. gas ill general, behavcscU[iollsly in ;thi:s respect. \~'llJen .two bodies d!Ja;il:ged toa .",~"ry high pOitentli~;~ d~sd~arge d.is,rupHvely, througll an. alI' spac,e~ anf amount of energy Irlay be carried .. off by [~e air, This energy is ev~denUy dissIpated; b,y boclily carficrs~ in, impact u[ld coIHsiotl.a1. losses of :the .mo~c:cn[I2$. The exdlang~, of Jhe molecules 'In, the space occurs; with laconcelvable rapidity,. A powerful d]schtu~g;e . t~jflg- p,~,flce' between two e.~ec.tlrodcs,. they may [cma:[[Jj ent:irr:.~y cool, - ~.n d "ct

the loss in the air ,may represent any amount of- .ene~gy. It is perfectly practicable, w.~th v,ery g~·J.t: potential differences in. the gapi' to dissipate several horse-power in the arc of the di:sroarg,e without even n.oticing a small Increase in the temperature of the electrodes, All' the frictional losses occur then practka]1y in the air, If the exchange of the air. molecules js prey,ented, as by.,endo.sing the alr hermetically, the gas "ins,ide of the vessel is brought qukkJy to a. hIghtempeJr.arure, even with a very small djs!ch.aI:ge. It is difficult teestimate how much or the energy-is most in sound waves, audible Of not, in a powerfu] discharge, \When the currents throu.gb the gap' are large~ theelectrodes may become .rapidly heated" .but this isnot a reliable measure of the ,ene,1'gy wasted in the arc, as the ~ossthrough the' gap· itself may be <comparatively' small. The air or a .gas ~.!J generaJ ~s.~ at ord ina...ry pressure a:t least, deady not the best medium through which a. disruptive diSicharge should occur .. Air or other gas under great pressure is. ofcourse a much more s.u.itab~,e medium for the discharge gap. I have carried on ]ong~c-onrinucd experiments in. this dire(tio11~ unfortunately less practicable on account or the difficulties, and expense in getting ai.1: aader ,gre~t p,['essur,e. But even if t'he medium in ~he discharge space Is solid or Hqu[d~ still the 'same .. lm;ses~e place, though they. aregen,eraBy smaller" for: just as soon.as theaec is: established, the, solid or liquid is vnlatilized, Indeed; there is' no body known which would not he dlshltegnted by the arc, and it is; .an open question among scientific men, whether an .arc discharge GOuld. occur at all h~ the ;;1.[[' Itself without the partid,es of the electrodes beIng torn oft,. When. the current t:hrough the gap is very small and the' arc VCEy ~on.g, I believe that a relarively considerable amount of .:he~t .~s~ taken tlp,.In the cHs:iotcg.r,ation ·or the :clcdiodes,whkh part.ially on

tb is, acc~unt. may rcm2l:in quite cold. .

The [deal .medium for a discharge gap, ,should onJ}; CfdCMI and the ideal electrode should be of some material which cannot be d~s~ntegrnted.Witb smallcurreats ~hrou,gh the gap it is best to employ aluminum, but not when the currents are Iarge, The disruptree break in. the ai r, 01' more or less in any ordinary medium, is, not of the nature of a crack, but it is rather comparable b). thep.ierdng <of innll.unerabte bullets 'I:.hroug:h a mass offering great frictional resistances to theinotion of the bullets, this involving considerable loss or eoergy. A medium. whLdl:.wou!d merely crack when strained e]edrosmticaUy ~ and this possibly might be the case with a perfect vacuum" thatis~ pute ether -. would invelve a very .smaU loss in the- ,gap, sosmaU as to be entirdy' ne,gHglb~et at least thcoretically~ because a (rack flu1y _ be' produced bym infinite:ly. small displacement. In exhausting an oblong bulb provided with two ~Jum~nbm terminals, with the greatest care, I J1Iiav,e succeeded inp,['odudng such a vacuum that the secondary dischiarge of a disruptivedischarge coil would break db (up~ru.ve.ly ~hrou.gh. the bulb in the form of fine spark streams, 'The curious: point was. that the discharge would completely ignore the

t , ....... ;.,:..."15· ,_._,.:)1 ,"'t,·"rj,· far beh ~''''d the /:-"0' _r,I' ...... l·'·' m·' plates ... -hich .. "' ..... ~l 'i"", ~, .. ctrod es·

eJl,~U",~H~J., .nlil.t.lL "" .~.," , ........ , . , •• , •. ,c~.. '1i.\'V. U ... ~U u"' ·.. il(;l> .. ,'.. ..,n .. .. .. Jlll''-u. ""'" ,W.o. .....••

This extraordinarybigb vacuum could only be maintained for a "l,rery shOd whae. 'To return ro the ideal medium, th[nk~ for the sake 'of Illustration, of a. }:i,ieee 'of g]ass 0,:[, similar body clamped in a vice, and the latter, tightened more and more, At a. certain poin,t a. minute increase: of the ,pressure. will cause the glass, to crock. The ~oss. of energy involved .in splitting the glass may be practically . nothing, for though the force is great, the displacement need be' btlt extremely small. Now im~g:ine that the glass would posses,s the pLioperty of closing again pedectly the crack upon a minute dim[nuH.on o,f the pressure. This Js the 'way the die1ect.dc in the discharge spoce should behave. But inasmuch as there wOUi.id be always some loss in .the ,gap~ d1!c medium, 'which should be continuous, should 'c'Xchang~' through ~he gap at a. rapid rate. In the preceding example, the glass being perfectly closed, it would -mean that the dielectric in the- discharge space possesses a.-great insula.ting: powe~;the, glass being cracked, .it would,si,gnify that the medium in the apace is a .good conductor, The dielectric should vary enormously in. resistance by minute variations or. the E. M. F, U('OO'SS the discha.rgc space. th]s

L·,11'8'

oCG(};d~t~on is, atta,~ned, but Inan ,e::dr,emely imperfect manne,r~ by warmlng the air :space to ;11 certain critiQ,ltempem;,arure:! dependent on ili,e E. M. ,F. acrossthe g:arp~ Q,lI: by otherw lse ,im,palrin:_8 the iasw:atIn,g power of the a~r,. B:u;t as a matter Qf fact the~ir does never break down d,i!;rJ.tp'.liflctY1 if th.is, ~e;rmbe rigcm:msly lntefpre~edt' fO.f before the sudden rush ,of the ,cur,rerl~ ,ooUU'S:~th.e,[c' is ·oUways.a weak current preceding ~t" w.Mch rises fir.st gradually and thenwithoornpataHve suddenness. nat is the !Jeasofl'tYhy the Edt:: of dl;nnge is y,ery mUch greater. when glass, ,for instance, is broken tluough~ '[nanwhea. rue break tak~s pla.oethroug~ an alrspsce .of equivalent dielectric skre,nglh: As a. medium

. forthe. dis'iclifl:.rge spaoe~ a sol[d* «;'It even a" IDjqui~:~ would be' pre'.ferab~,e'thereJore, It is .somew.hat d.i£fidllt to, eoncelve of a solid. 'oodywhich would possess the property ,of dO!!l<!:ng i.n:stanUy after it hasbeen. cracked, But lit .H.qui,d~ espedaUyund.e.r g[,ed pressure, behaves pmCil:~ca1Iy like a solid" whUe' .it possesses the' l'!ope:rty ·of dosing -the crnck. Hence ~t was t]l;ougiht that a. Hqu:id ifls~llakor might be. more su[t"Jb~eas a d~d!ect(kthan air. Following: 'O-U~ this idea" a number of diffe,r·en[ forms of ,disdl.:l.:r;gers in "Ii'ihkh a; va,r~el:y of sudlinsu~;at(,lrS~S().meHmes, un.de.r g~ea[ p.ressu.[)e:~ werce:mplored.~ hU'e been experimented upon. 'n is thought s.uffid<ent:~o GweH. Ina f,ew words-upon one of the forms lexperlmeilted upon.. One: oE the$e diSicllargef.\1;~s - illustrated in .Fi~. 43: and 4b.

A hollowmetal pulleyP (Fig. 4ia)~ was fa:s:t~:Ilcdupon anatOOf ai whwdlby :S:lrltable means WM ·cOitatcd.a.ta eonslderable speed. On the Inside '0'£ the puUe)', but disc:cmncoted f rom the same, was, suppor~ i1 ~h~n disc h (wbldl .~s shown thiek .fqr the sake .of dearness), o-f hnrdlrubber in which there were embeddedt'W·o: metalsegmeats J s wLthmetaUk extensiocs <fJ, C into whi,d:ru. we.re sClcw1edc-mlducHng tcrmif.l,ahi :1 J< covered 'w.~th thick rubes: of hard mbber I t. The rubber cHsc .h w(th its: metallic Siegments J s, was finished in a laN1e,and its ,entire surra,e h~ghl:rpomhhcdsoasto offel the smanest :poss,ib~e frktLanal resistance to the motion througnafluid. In, the hoUnw ,~)f

Fjg, da,

f.lg,.t(b.

the ruU,~w an Insulat~:ng: Iiquidsuch as a thi.n oil WM' pou.red. so as to reach very .nea,[,!y to the ,opening left; in dleflan,se t, whkh W~ sctblvedt:ighHy on t~e fron[ side ,of the p1i.ilIcy.the't~rmjna1s .f J:~ were ecnneeted jo tb:e Ol)posite CQutIll.gs, .of a _ battery of ron.de!lls,ers so-that t,he discharge' occurred through the Hqu~d. When the .pu~]!el W~ rotaood;.tne liquid, was forced. against the' rim 0:£ tile pwleyand cons;.idcrable fluid prcs:sm:,c' resulted. In this simp~e way the disdlarge sa,]? was n~~.ed 'Wl:th .~ medium w.~Idl behaved practically like a soi~d, . which possessed theq'mdity of dosing instantly upon Hl:C OCCUJ'rCf!jQC' of t,he brcak,;l:nd. "l~hkh moreover was ~j~tu~atin.g throu,gh t~e gnp at a rapid rate, Verypow!e[fu~, effects were produced by d~s&a[ges of th~s: kind wifh liquid h)te~mprers" Q.f which a" number of d~fferent fQ,rm;sw<cre made, It was found that, as expected,. tt Ionger spark fo[ a g~vefi Ien,grh 'of wire was obhtb;u~ble ifithis: wa.ythan. :~y usIng air as an iotelt'm,1:1ng d.evice' .. Ge~eran, the speed, and thesefcee :a150 ,tbe:fluld pressure, ''WaS limIted bY' reason 'of the fluid f dctioll) in the f orm of discharger des>Cl'~bed~, bUilt thep,.rncHOl.U.y obmin:ab~.e spec'd, was more dun sulEident' t,oproduce a .nwnber of" b.reaks suitable .fo.r the dfctl~.ts ordinarily used ... In such . .w:nsbu1;Ces.the metal pl:l~Jey Pwas pl'o:v~ded with a lew pro,ffied;[ons inwudly,a:nd. a de:f.inIre numbee ,0'£ bre.aks: WM ,then.

L~J19

. produced whioh. could be computed from ,the s peed of rotation Qof the puUey., Expetiitl~f! ts were also at.r.ded on with liquids of cliffe',rent illsu[~tjnBPowell with the view of redudng the loss in thearc, W.hen.ul .~[lsulat]ng .liquid is mode,tately warmed" the loss in the arc is

diminished. '

A point 0,1 some importance was noted in ·expe"riments .with various discharges. of this kind .. It was. foundJ f.or instance, fha!: whereas the conditions maintained, in these forms were favorable for 'tb:eproducHon ~f a ,great sp.ark~engtht the current so. obtained was not best suited to the pr,()chu::[[on of ,Hght effects. ,E.xperienc.e- u.ndoubted]yhas show», that for such purposes: a. barmonic rise and falR of tlle potential is preferable. Be ~t that aso~t[d.~s, render:ecl. in.cande.s,ce.D~". or phcsphorescent, (l,t be lit that e.nergy is transmitted by condenser ,coating fhr-o~g'h the glass, it is quite ;cedain that a harn10nicaUyrising and faHing potcn:ti;(hl proouCes jess . d.estructive 3ction,and that the vacuum Is more permncnenUy maintained. This would be easily explained H H were ascertained th~tthe process soing ,on .in an exl,l:hUstcdvC'Ssd is ofan electrelyticnature,

In the diagrarnm,<'l-tical sketch~'ig; 1, which hasbeen already referred tD~ the eases which. are most like~y to be met with In practke are m.us:tmted •. One has at his dlspolS:a1. either dIrect oe altern.ating' currents from a supply station ... ]It is dO'!1.ve.n~ent loran experimenter in an isolated labO'mtoJY to employ a machlae G, such as mustrated, capable of .giving both kinds of cunents. In suchcase it .is abo p.ref.erable toO use a machine with mwtlple d[roits~, as in many experiments it 1:5, usefnl and convenlent tc have at one's d.lsposal currents of differentphases, In the sketch, D repr,eSients the direct and A the aI;ternating circuit, In ea.ch. of these,' three bmndl d.rcu[t's. 'are shown, d.~. of which are provided with double Iine switches s ."f J J J s. Cbu.slder flrstthedi.rl:ct current cenversion: la repr~sents 111e simplest case.Tf jhe E. M. ,F. of the gen.entto.t is sufficient to break th.roll;gftla. small air space, at Icast when. the latter IS wU:I.'.med. or otherwise rendered poorly insuIa,tlng, there is no difficulty in ma.inmfnlng a. vibration with fair eronom¥by j'udicio'Usadj'Ustment of the opacity, ·.seU~jnducdon and. resistance of the circuit L containing the' devices J J sn, The magnet 'N~ S, can be in, thiscase ady:anta~ust,

. combined with the air space. The discharger d d with. the .magn.et may be plaCed. either way" as il'ldicated by the full or by the dotted lines, The d.mtil 14 wi.thth,e ecnaeetiees and. devices is, supposed fa possess dimensions such as are suitable for the maintenance of a vlbratlon, But m.·o.a.Uy the E, M', .F.QO! the circuit OJ: bnmch. la wiU be something like a 1(10 volts or so, and in this case H is not sufficient so break thmughthe g:a. p. Many d.ificre'nt me~ns: may be used to r,e:medy this byralsing the ,E. M., F. across die g~p. The shnpl'e;st is probably to insere a Iarge self-induction coil in series with the circuit 1. \When the arc .is established, as by th,e discharger illustrated In FIg .. 2~, the magnet blows the arc out the Instant it is fonn~d, Now the extra current of the br,ea.k, beI.n,g of m~iSh It M,F .. , breaks througb [lire 8a.P~ and apath of-low resistance For the dynamo current being' again provided"~. there i~ a sudden [usb or current from thedynamo upon t~e weak;e~i:ng: ~,r subsidence. ~fl:he e':h:a .. current .. Thi~[; prnc,ess .jsr~pr:at:ed in rapid SUC-CfSS.H)n'j. and m this manner I have maintained o.sC.I..llat[Q,D. with as low as 50 v.clhs, Of even less~acEQSs the gap. But eonversier on this plan is not to be recommended on 3iOCOUllt of the too .henvy curreats through thcgap and consequent hCi.'I.ting of the electrodes; besides, the Irequendes obtained .in this wa.y are ~OW~ dwi~g to the hi.gh self-induction nCf(!SsarHy assodated with the circuit, It is verydeslrable [;0 have the .13. M. F, as high aspossible, first, In. order to increase the eao.norny of the ((l!fJlverl$lon~ and sc('ond.[y~ to obtiin h]g;h. frequencies. The difference of potential. in. this electric oscllladcn is, cfcourse, the equhrru,en,t of the stretchIng {orcein the mechanical vibration of the spring.. To. obtain very rapid vibration In a circuit of some inertia" a. great stretching Jorce OI difference of·potential .i~; necessary. Incidentally, when the E. lI. f. is ve'E,! ,grea~~theco.ndeflSe.r whid'l is usually emplo,y~d in connectioa with the circuit need bu~ have a small (ap~dty" and nn:anyothreradvanta_ges ar,~gruncd. With

a view ·of' rs[sing the E. M', F',to 3i. many times greater v~~Ju.e· than obtainab~e from old lna.ry distribu tion circui ts~a romting t ransformer g is used, as i ndicaeed VJt I 1 «; !f jg. It' or else a. separate hi.ghpa'kntial machine is driven by means of a motor operated from the genciator G. The Iateer plan 'is ill [act preferable, as changesare easier made, TIle connections from the h[gh tension winding arequite similar to those in branch~a wJth the exception that' a condenser C which should be adjustable. Is connected to the .high tension circeir, UsuaUy, also~an adjustable self-induction (oil in series with the circuit has. been e,mploy,ed in these experiments. Wben the tension 0 f the currents ,is very high; the magnet ordinad[y used in co,nn,ed]on with d'tc discharger is of comparative~y' SfiUU v~Jue, as it Is quite c<'!Jsy to adjust the dimensions of the circuit so that oscillation ,~s maiatalned .. The employment oi a s~ead,y R M·. P. in the high frequency conversion affords someadvantages over the employment of ahernating E. M. :F.~ as the adjustments arc much simpler and the action ·can be easier controlled. Ilut'l.mJortun~te~y one is Iimited by the obtainable potential difference'. Thewindiog abo breaks down easily in conseqaence of the, sparks which form between the sections of the armature or ccmmutator when a vigorous oscillation takes place, Besides, these transformers arc expensive to build. It has, been found by experieace that lr.ls best to foUow the pla[~ illustrated a;t rUa. In this arrangementa rotat[l1g: transformer gl is employ,ed to' convert the low tension. diced: currents into Icw frequency alternating currents, preferably also of small tension .. 'The tension. of the currents is then ralsed in. a stationary transformer T. The secondary s of thrs transformer is connected to an adjustablecondenser C which discharges through the g'.1p Of' discharger d .d~pl~ced. in either of the ways Indicated, through the pdmacy P of a disruptive discharge coil, thcIDligh ffcquency current being. obtahled from the secondary s of this coil, as described on previous occasions, This will undoubtedly be found the cheapest and 1l1:0St convenient way of ,convcrtlog direct eurren ts,

The three branches of the clrcuit Aliepres,cnt the' usual cases met in practice' -when dternating currents are converted .. In Fig. ,Ib a condenser C, generally of Iarge capacity. is connected to the circuit L eontaining the devices I I, m 1JZ. TIle dev ices in 'm are supposed to he ,o.f high self-induction so as to bring the Frequency of the, ,circuit more Or Jess totha:t of the' dynamo. In this instance the disc,harger'd; d should best have a nnmbe.r of makes. and, breaks pel: second equal to' twice the frequency of the dynamo, If not so, then it should have at least a number equal to a multiple or .even' fraction of :the dynamo frequency. It should be observed, referring to I b, that the' conversion to a high potential is also eJfcct~d when Ihe d~scharger d d;. whidris shown in thesketch, is omitted. But the effects which are produced by currents which rise' instantlyto high values, as in a d.ismptive di.scbar,ge, are ,etlt['rclydiffercnt from those produced by dynamo currents wh.kh rise and fall harmonically. So, for instance" there might be In a ,ghreaca.se a number of makes, and breaks at d d e.g.ual to just twice the fr~qu'e.ncy 'of the dynamo, 0:£:' in oilier 'Words; there may be the .srune· number of' fundamental 'Oscillations as would be produced without the discha.rge gapj and there might even not be any quicker superimposed vibration; ye~ the dlfferences of potential. at tl1JJ,{~ various points of the drruitl the impedance and 'Other pheaomena, dependent upon the .rate 'Of d1li:ln,get will beat no ,similarity In, the two casesvThus, when working with. currents dischougfng: disruptively, the element chief]y to be considered is not the fr·eque.llCY·; as a student might be a.pt to' believe, but the rateof change ;per unit of time. \Vith low frequencies in a certain measure the same effects may be obtained as with high frequencies, provided the rate ·of cbange Is sufficiently great. So if a low frequency current is raised to a potential of~ say, 75,.000 volts, and the high tension current passed through it series of high resistance .lamp filaments, the im,porta,nce of the Ia,rdi~d. gas:'su,uounding the fHrune'f.lt is deady noted, as. will be seen later; or, if $ low fr1cquency current of several rhousand .unpeces is passed through a metal b"r'~ strIking plu!flonlena' of impedance

L-12J

are observed, just as W lith currents of h ~gh frequencies, But it Is, ().f course, evident that with .]ow frequency currents it lS~]1l1po5$[Me to obtain such [a~es ·ofch:an.ge pet unIt ·o,f time as with high freq_uendes~ hence the effects produced by the latter arc much more prominent It is deemed iilIdv.isab~c to' make the pr.~c~dlng remarks, iaasmneh as many more .r,ecc.n:t:ly described effects hav·c· been ur.lwittJngly Identified with hjgh frequencies. Frequency 'alene Inrc,ality does no't meaa a[):ftlJ~ng~ e:!!:cept when. an und.tsmrbed ]'lIZI.rmonic cscillation is considered .

. In the bmnrn. IHb a. similae disposition t-o that: in .Ib is lllusteated, w.~th the difference that the currents disdl<1.rg,ing ·throu.gh the gap d tl are used. to induee eurrents ,in. U.le ;s,e(otJ:da.ry til ·of a transfermer T. In such case the secondary should bepro:vIded wirth an ad] ustable condenser for the .pn:u:pose of tuning it to the primary ..

Ub illustrates a plan 0'£ alternate currenrhigh frequency conv:e.rs~on whlehIsmest freqw:::n.Hyused and whid1t. is found to be most convenient. This plan .has been dwcU

upon in. detail on previous (j!ccuions ~m.d.· need not be desu.ibed here. -, ",

. Some (If these results were obb~ncd by the use 'Of a hIgh frequ,eru:y ahernat-ot.

A descriptioa of such machines wj[[ be feuod .~n my. o[.ig~n~~ pa_pe[ before the Amerj~n

I·, f El '_~i 'Ec ., dCI • • d 1 f fh . d· .~LI·· Th

nstrmte 0.' ..,. ectn~~U!. "u.gu:)eersl an: m peJ]o: .lea_ s or u;~at' pe:no" notaIJI Y J:1l .... e

Electrical Eng:ineer of A:fa:rch 18,. 189!.

Lwillnowproceed with the expenments ..

6N PHENOMlBNA P'RODUCEDBY ELECmOSTATIC FORClE

The f j rst class of effects .I .~ntcfid. [:0, show you ar-ecff.ects. produced. by electrostatic force, It is' the' force which gov'erns the motlQn of llleawrmh which causes them to colHde .and. develop the. ~ife ... swtaio~:ng ~nc.rgf ()f .. heat and li,ght; and which C:lJU5CS them. to aggr-eg~te' in an Infhruitcva.dcty of ways~ ~Gro![d~ng to N.-.tur¢'s Fanciful d.cs]g~~sJ and to £0. rm ac~ill these .'WCH'Iclro·-s :stoocrures we oercelve around - s·'t ':5 • -, fact .' f Ot.1'I reseet

. r .. '. _ _ ____u_ __ r __ _ u, '~" I~ In - ~ J tlL![,""_ . __

views. be true, the most important for,ce for us to OJns,iaer ~n NaLmre. As. the term. electrostatic .might impJ}!' ill. steady deCictic eendition, it should be remarked, that 1n t]l'::SC c;::~perhnentsthe force: is not ('O.flsirant,. but vades at a. rate which m<ly be considered moderate, about one million thnes a second, orthereabouts. This enables meto produce

many eJie~ which are not produciblewith ail. unvaryingfor.ce. r

\V.herli two oondlld~ng bodies are :i.n;s:ula,t:ed. aed electrified, we say that an electrostarle forceIs act]ng between dlC:fn,'Th.is force manifests itsd.f i!l<1tt:ractions'j [~pu]sions.and stresses in the bodies and :space or medium without; So ,great ma.y be the strain exerted in. the air, orwhatever separates the two conduding bodies, ~]lat ~.t, .may break down, and we observe sparksor bundles of light Of strenmers, as t~ey are called .. These streamers form abundanHy when H~e' force H].wu.gh the air js rrapidly varying. I will illustrate this a:d.iUrl:. or electrostaticfnrceIn a novel experiment in whlch m will empIoytbe .~J.1dt]dIon c-oil before referred to, The con is contained in a bough filled with O]~i and placed uncl(!r the table. The two ends or due secondary wire pass through thel:v.i'o thick -colw:nns of hard rubber 'U'hkh "protrude to some height above the table, It ws ll.ecessary to insnlate the cads or te:rmJna]s of tbe .secondary hea,vUy 'with hard rubber, because even dry wood is; by far too pcor :an insulator f'Or U'IJ.!!se cur;~:nt.s of eocemeus potenrinl differences, On. one of~11lic terminals of the coil, r h~v,e placed til ~ar&,e sphere of sheet brass, which Is conneeted to a~,a:r8er insubled. brass plate, ln order to enable me to perform the experirneots under cOFl:dItjnns~ whi(h~as you will sec, nrc mere suitable for this ,exper·i.men,t, I now set the' coil to work aDd. o:ppFo;].ch the free terminal with a metallic object held. in .my hand, tMs simply to avoid burns" A~"E :approochthe metallicobject to a. distan(e of cI.ght or ~en Indlcsta rorrcflt of furiousspsrks breaks forth From the end of the sec-on:dary wire, which Pa;$;5if'S throllBh

L-1.22

the rubber column, TIle' sparks ceasewhen the metal in m.y hand 'touches the wire. My arm is no~' traversed bY' . .i.powe:rfuj, electric current;; vlbrating at abeue the rate of one mimon times. a second. AU around me the electrostatic force makes itself felt" and the air molecules andpar6de:s of dust Hying ··;nbout: are acted upon and are barruTiJ~'ring vio,jc.nt~yag.ains't m,y body, So great is this agitation of the partjcles~th3t when the lights, are t'lifned out YOoU f1'1ny see streams of feeble light nppc.ar on some parts of my body. When. such a streamer breaks out on any part of the body.~, it prodacesa sensation Iike the pricking of a need~e.Werc the- .potenHaJs, suf{id~ndyhisb and the frequ,ency of the vibration rather row, the skin would. probably be ruptute,~ under the tremendous strain, a:n_d. the blood wouldmsh OU~ 'with gr:t:,at force in the form of Hn.c s'I?"ray Oil' jet so thin as to be invisible, just as, oil will when placed On the positive terminal of a Ho~t:z; machIne. The breaking through of the skin though it, may SJClCJIDJ iml)ossible ,it first,· would perhaps occur, hy' reason of the tissues under the skin being ineornparably better COn:ducl~lng. This, at lcas't~appear5 plausible, judging from some observations,

I can make these streams of l~ght visible to d,], by toudllng with the metallic object one (if the terminals asbefore, and aproachin,g .my free hand to the brass. sphere, which

Fig.s. is connected to die' second teeminsl of the

coa. As the hand is approached" the ar,[ between i taad the sphere" or in the immediate nelghborhood, is more v[o,lently aglrnted.~ ~nd, . you, see streams, of light now break forth from my. f.inge'l tips and from the whole hand (Fig. '5). Were .It-o approech the hand closer) powerful sparks would. jump from the brass sphere to' my hand, which might be injmimls. The streamers offer no ,partirula.t inconvenJence"exc:ept that in the ends. of the finger tips a - burningsensation is felt. TI'U~y 'should not be confounded with .t~ose produced by an .influenc-e machwne, because in. man; respects they behave diff.erently. 1 have attached the b.raSs sphere and plate to one of the tetffi]oa.ls in order to' Breve'fit the formation of vlsiblestreamess en tb~t terminal, .also in. o,~dcr to prevent sparks from jumping at ill. considerable 'distance .. Besides, U'D.C attachment~s, favorable for the working ,of the coil.

The streams ,of .light whiCh YOll have observed Issuing from my' hand arc' due to a pote,nthd .of about 200,000 volts, aJtemating in rather irregubr Intervals, sometimes like a. mali-on times a second. A. vibration. of the same amplitude, 'bnt fa~l.Ir' times as (sst, to maintain which over 3,000,000 volts would be.required, would be more than sufficient to envelop my body in a complete sheet o,f flame. But this flame 'Would not burn me ,u.p;, quite, contrnrHy', the probablH:ty' is; !th~t 1: would not .be injured in ,th.e least. Yet a. hundredth put of that enet:sy~otherwised.irected, 'would be amply sufficient to' kill a person.

. The. amount of energy which may thus be, pas~ed iuto the body of a person depends on the ,f, r:equency and potential of the currents,' and by maki~g both 'of these very great, a, vast 'amount of ,efie~gy may be passed into the body withO'U:t ,caus~:ng any discomfort, cx,cept perha PSi in the arm, which is traversed. by atrue eonduction 'current The' .ii!ieason }Vhy no pain in the body is felt; and no Injurious effect noted, is that everywhere,. if :a. current be imagined to fiow through Hle body~, the dir,c:-ctlon of .its How would be at J:'ight angles to the' surface;, hence the' body ·of 'the experimenter offersan enormous section to .the current, and. the density is v,ery ,sn~iU,. with tbe exception or the ann, perhaps, where . the density may b~ censiderable. But ,~f only a small fraction of that' energy would be applied in such a way that a enrrent would. traverse the 'body. in d1C' same manner as a -low Iteq:ucncy current, a shock would be received whidl migllt be

L-J23

fatal. A direct Of low frequen,Cf aiternalingrurrent.is fatal~I thlnk~ pdodpaUy because its. distribution ,through the body i~, not uniform, as it must divide itself in minute streamlets ,of gr~t d~n?ity, whereby some ()rgansarevitaUy ,injured. That ,such a proce$s pCCUfS I have not the least doubt, thcugh no evidence might apparently exist, .or be found upon. ,cxv:mh1atiOrt. 'The surestto injure and destroy Hfe)isn. continuous current, but the mcstpaiaful isan altemating current of very ,~:O:W freg51ency .. The expression of these' views, wh];Ch are the' result of long continued' experimeat and, cbservetion, barh with steady and varyirJJg currents,' ~s did.ted by the interest which is at present taken in. this subject, and by the manifesdy ermn?.!ous ideas which are dai1y pfopounded ~n journals

on thJssu.i?'j ect, _. .

I ,muy illnstrate an ,effect of the electrostatic torce by anotller st:rik~ng; esperimenr, b~t before, I roust 'call your attention to one or two '.fads. Lhave said be:ton~~: that when the medium between two _oppositely clectrifled bodies, is strained beyond .a - cerbUn lima it .g:ive$ ,way' and, stat~d in plpuhu m:aagu<1lge~.the o.Ppo$.ltel:;[ectdc ch;\rges unite and neutralize e.achot:he.r.Th[s, brertk~[}g down 0·£ the medium OC-curs .pI'llldpaUy when Hie force act~ng between the bodies Is steady, or varies- ~~.it a moderate rate, Were the varlation ~uffidenHy rapid, sud.lL a destructive break would ;not (!IGOlr~ no matter 1"1.0W g:r·eat the force, .for all the el':licrgy would be' spent in. radiation, convection and mechanical and chemiealaction. Thus the s{J.(J'rk, length~ or greatest distance 'livhic'h o..r:park wm jump between the electrified bodies is the smaller, theg,[eater the varialricm or time :C3~e o~f change, But this rule may. be taken to, be true only in a gene'fa]: waY:l.whie~.oomp.adng rates wh.icharcwide!y different.

I w~U show you by an eXiH~:rimenc fhe

cltffe.rence in theeUect produced by a ra.p',id~ ... vaqring and a ste.ady or mod.eratdy varying force, I have here two large cir:ud:ar: brass plates p p, (Fig.Ga ,and F ii. 6b) ~ , supported on movable insulating standson the table,

connected tu tlle ends ·of the secondary ofa ' •

coil .similar ;to the one used before, I 'place Frs.. ,601. t'ig..6b. .

the plates ten or twelve inches apart" and . .' -._ "

set the coil to work, You seethe wholespace bebween the plates, neadyhvo rnbic feet; filled with uniform. Hght,Fig. 63. This light is, due to the streemers yQuha.:ve seen hl the first experimenr, whichare now' m:uch.mo.r,e .intense. I have already pointed out the jmpodnncc- of these steeamers in commercial 9.pparutnsn:n,d, dl.~ir .s.t~U greater . im'po[.tan~' In some purely scientific invC'StigaHons. onc~ flIer are rowc.ik to be visible, but they always exist, consumir,lg !cneJrgy and modifying the: notion ofit11capl:ia[;abl1s. When rare,nsc~ as they ale, <]tp,reseul~ they produce ozone f~ . great quantity,. and, also, as Professor Crookes has pOinted. out, nitrous add. SO' q~lkk Is the (~cmirnlaction that if a ((IH~ sum as this one, is worked. for a. vcrymong tinle i.t 'l~.Ul make the atmos phere of t\ small

'.~oom unbearable, for tJ.1C, eyesand throat are attacked. But when moderately pf1oduGed, the' streamers refresh. the atmosphere won,.der£ully~ Iike a thcnder-storm, and exercises unquesdon.ablya beneficial ,effect

In this, experiment the forceaoting between. the .plates dl~ngcs in inten:sityan~ d.lrection at a very rapid rate, I win. now make the, f~re of change pet unit, t~me much smaller .. This I efi'ect by rendering :the dlsdiarges through the p,dmary ·of the' induction coil less f rcqtH!flt) and also by dil:n"Iu]shing: U~e rapidity of the vibration in the secondary. The former: 'result is conveniently secured by lo\V'c,dng the n. :ML F. over' the airgap In the primao/ circuit, the lattee by appro~cMng the two brass plates to a distance of about three or four inches,W.hen the coil Is set to work, you. see no streamers 0.1:' light between the plates, yet the medium between. them is undera tremendous strain, I. still further Ilugmen.t the strain by raislng _the E. ]\.of. F .. inthe primary, cirrult~ and soon. you ,see the

- .#

L-J24

<lir_-.give away and. the hall is iUuminated by a shower of brilliant arid noisy sparles, Fig .. 6b. These sparks wu.M be producedalso with unnrying force; they have been For ~any years a .farnilhu: phenomenon, though they were usually obtain,ea: from. an entirely different apparatus, In descllibiog these two phenomena so radically different .ie: appea:ranoe" I El3.VC rudvi:sedIy spoken of a "fceee'' ad[ng between. the plates. It would be In. accordance with the' accepted views to sa.y,. that there was an "aIk~'m,aHng .E .. M. F.", acting between the pbtes~ This term is q1uH:e proper nnd applicable in all eases where there is. evide1l~ ofat Ieast a Fossibility of an essential inte-r:dependenceof the electric state of the plates, or electric action in their n:eighoo.rhood .. But iE the plates; were removed in an. infinite distance, or if .at a finite distance, there .is no prohability or necessity whatever fo.[ su!Ch. dependence. I prefer to use the teem "electrostatic force," and to siay that such a force is acting around. esch plate or e.lect-dEled. insulated body in .general. There is. all .inQon venience In uslng: this; expression as the ~efm .inddenta[iy means a steady electric condition; hut _ a proper nomendature will eventually settle this cliff iculty.

Fig. 7.

Fig. Sa.

Fig .. sb.

-I now retern to the experlmenr tow:fdch.- I have alrea;dy aU:udedJ and with which I desire to Illustrate a sU:iking effect produced by' a Ulpid[y varyIng electrostatic force. I at:tach tothe end. of the wire, l (:FIg. 7), which isjn cocneetion wJth one' of the terminals of the secondary of the- induction. coil, an exhausted bulb b. TI.'lJlS bulb contains a thin rarbon filament .f~ whieh is: fastened to a. platinum wire 1V1 sealed ill. the gbss ::tnd Jeading outside of :the bulb~ where it connects to the wire I. The bu~b may ib~ exhausted to any degree attainable with ordfna:,ty a.ppa.r£lltu:S~ Just a moment before, you have witnessed the breaking down of the air between the charged brass p]:ates. You knowthat a plate of gLass, or any other jnsulatlng material, would bleak down. in like manner. Had I Hiereiore a metallic coating aithlched ~o the outside of ~he bulb, orplaced neat the same, and were this coating connected to the other terminal of the coil, Y0nl

. would be pr1cpared to see the glass give ,"way if thestrain were suf.fic;ienHy increased. liven were thec-oating: not connected t-o the other terminal, but to aninsulated plate, St1U,. if you have followed recent developmen ts; you would naturally cxpecta rupttu:e o,fthe g~;ass.

But - it w~n rerta,inly surprise you to note that unde.f the action of d'u! - varying electrostatic force, HIe glass gives: way when all' other bodies are removed f.tmn the bulb. In. fact. uHthc su.rrounding bodies we perceive llil.:igM: be removed to an infinit·e d~sbu!.ce without aJfecHng the resultin the sHghtest. When the coil is set to work, the glass is invadab]y . brokcnthtougb. at the--_ seal, or other aarrew d1a]1-fie~~ and the vacuum is -

quick~yimpiaiil\',ed. Such a damaging break would not occur with a steady force, even if till.! same were many times gre"il~e.r. The break is due to' the ·ag~ro.tion Qf. the molecules of the .gas withIn the' bulb, and outside ·of the same a. This ~gitation, w.hich .]$ g,eneroUy most viQlent in the narrow p()~n:t:edch:afinel near ~h~ seal, causes ~ l1eadng and I:uphlre of the glass.· This mpture would, howe'Vcr~ not OCOLU,'~ not even. with. aV01+ryin,g. force, if the medhan fjU~[Jjg the .runsMe·of the bulb, and tha:t surrounding it, were perfectly homogeneous. The break ComES much quicker if the- top of the bulb is drawn out into a fine fibre .. In bulbs used. with these ro.~Is such nan,;ow, po~nted "hanne]s WlU.l:st therefore be avoMed.

When a conduding body is immersed in :1[.1::1 -or sImH21r' .i.ns.ulatingmedlUnl, consistjngo,f~ 0.[ co.nts&ning, small .freely movable pQ:fUdes -capable o·f beIng- etectt'~.fi'ed:~ and when theelectriflcatioe of the body ,is made tO~U1de:rgo .. ~. very-rapid change - which is equivalent to sayjng that the electrostatic force ad'lng around. rhe body lS varyin,g in in~ef!:sity~ .=. the small part~ctes are aU.mc:tcd.o,nd repened~. and 'their violent ~:l1!lp!.:!i:Cjts ~g;n.inst ~he body may cause a mechanical m()t~Q.n of the ~atter.. Phenomena of this ildndare noteworthy, ,in<;!smlllchasth,cy have not been observed before with epparatus sudl as has been commonly .. 1mU:.SJe •. · If avery Ught conducting sphere be su;spt~naoo em an exceediog1j f~n~ wi[e~ a.qd Chillrged to. a steady potential, however ,.hlgh~ the sphere will remain ~:t: rest, EVfD. if.,thc potential would be rapidly 'lli!Lrying~ provided that the small pa.rtfdC;S. of matter, molecules or atoms, areevenly d [str.~buted~ no motion ·of' the sphere should result, But Ifone side or the c(J.n:dlJlcting sphere .is: covered. with a thick in$u.b::t~ng layc,r,. the im.pads of the pn.dides w.m cause tIle 'Sphere to m~)v:e a:bOUfJ genierally in ir:.rcg!LIlar: carves, [<iig. :Sa. In like manner, as I have showa .on. a· previous ocas[on~ a fan of sheet metal, Fig. .80'1' .oov·ere~ pa.ttl~Hy with .insula,ting ma.terial as indicated, and placed upon the terminal of th,e coH so as to turn .. fr!e.e~y ,on it!, is spun

around, -

AU, thesephenomena you have witnessed and- others which wiH be shown Iater, are due h) thepr~enoe {}£ a medium like air, and would not occur In a continuous mediu.m.,. The action c·f the ail may be illustrated stiU better by the fol1uwhlg .experiment I take a glass tube t~ .F.~g. 9~ of about an illC:ffil. in d[a:nn.ctcr,.wh.kh· has a pJa;t~.ntun wire tV sea~,ea i~. the illQw,er end) and .to- wldch .~s attacheda thin ]ami) filament f. ,I cnnnect the wire with the ~erm!na.l of the: coil and set. the coil to "-v,,)!l!~.The platinum wir,e is .now e].eot[~fied p~5it.lveIy andn.egaHveJy in rapid succession and [he w~re ~ndait mlls.ide of

the tube' is fitp[dly heated ~ by the impacts

of the pi'l.rti~les~. which .may be so v]o:~ent

as to render the {Ha:ment Inolndcscent. But

if IpolllE oi~. In ~hc tube~jwtas ~oon: as th"~'

wire is covered witb the 0]],. aU acH011l ap·. i=

p®icnHy ~<llSIC'$ and there is no marked evidence .of heating. The reason of this. is that d~e oil isa .pract.jpHy continuous 'll.'edium.. The' displaceJnCp~:s 'in such lit coati nu:OUS medium a:r1e.~ with these frequencies, to :l~n appearance incomparablly

smaller than in a]r.~. hence t~lC ~ve~~ perfenn- fIg. 9. Fig. 10.

ed . j n such a medium is. .mslgl:Uf~can.t .. But. - -

oil wound behave vctydiH,er.entlywith frequencies Jllany times as-great,. for ev,en. though the displacements he small ~ if the f.r,e-quengt were much greater, CCHlsidetflibie work uligl1! t

be perfo~n~ed in the ell. .. .

The ·electfQstatlcatt[t'ldIons ::md repulsicns between bodies of· measurable dimensions are) of ell the manifestatlons of d.'l is force, thefirst so-called ele,ctrh:aJ pllcnomena, noted,

L-125

• - .. I

But though they have' been known. to us for m-~ny centu:des,.the 'precise nature of th~" mechanism.' concerned in these actions is still uhkaownto us.: and has Doe been even q~it:'· s.atjs;fac~ori~y explained, W~at kind of mechanism must that be'?'-\Y/_e ~nnQf ~d:t?: won:dedng when-we observe t;wo .magnetsa,tt.rnd:~ng and. IepeUing"e;aCh-otne'l with :i. force' of hun~reds ·of pounds wHh appa:.f.enHy nothing bet;.veen them. 'We have _In' our'

. commercial dyms.mQs .: magnets capable of sustaining in' mld~ai.r tons ,of w,ejg~lt: Bilt what,. are even these; forces ;1dimg between magnets when compared with the tremendous attractions and repulsions produced.' by electrostatic force, to which there is appafcnt~yno limit as to intcnsHy. In li~~htrdng discharges bodies arc often charged to so high a po.tential 'tliat ;tbey:lI~ tbrown away with in~'Onoei:vaMe force and tOt.D. asunder or shattered Into fragmen ts, Stilleven -such effects cannot C<?mparc' with' the' attractions arid repulsions·.which 'CX[st' between dlarg~d. moleeulesor atoms, and whkh are s.uffiO~nt 00- project .them with speeds o.fmam.y kU.ometc·C's a second, SJO' that under: dj.'e~( vio-~~n£. impact bodies. a!,e rendered higl~~yjnCandes.o~'nt and file ·volati1iz·ed. It is 'of spec.,af interest for the. thinkerwho inquires into the nature of these Jorces to note tHat whereas the actions between Individual' molecuks or atoms occu.i seenling1y under any oo,ndit~on-s, the attmcrions and repulsions of bodies of measurable dlooc£ns.ions imply a m6dh~~il p,osscssinginsub,:ting.propcrHes. So, if aiti either by being rarefied 01" heated, is :rend~red' more or less cond1i.u:ting;- these actions. between two electrified bodies l?':ractica~lf'·c~ase·~.

while the a;clcions betweentbe indi.vid!Ual atoms continue to manifest themselves, '. :

. . "

.A n ,expe·.rimCIl:t· may' sene asan lUustrotion' and 'as a means of bringing out Oitllf,[-'

features 'of inte.f·est: Some time 'agoM showed that n lamp filament or wire m()unte:~, J.~. a bulb and connected to one '0£ the terminals of a lligh tension secondary cnit is ·~~f, sp].n.n[ng~ the· top b,f the filament gen,er.ally des;ct.ibin.g:a circle. This vibration 'was veri energetic when the- aii in tb;e bulb was at· 'ordinary pressure and: became less. energetiC when the air in the bulb was strongly compressed. It _ceased!. altogether when t11e··aii" was exhllusted so as to beeome compa.ratively good conducting. I - found at tbalt time that 110 vibration rook place when -the- bulb 'was v'ei'1·h~gb.ly exhausted .: EU:E .1 co .. njectured'

L·.~· ib -. t...· .. ~h· I' "b' d : 11..1' .... . • 1'- .] ~'I[ f" L~

tu~t t~le Vl'·r:v:tl.on wme ... ascnuea ro tHeC ectJ:os~bc achoJ:li. between t ae W· •. uiso .ul:t':

bu]b and the fjla.ment should take place also in a hig;h.[y exhausted bulb, To test. thxs under eond ~tiOflS . which were more fa vorable, ,a, bu[b .like the one in Fjg. "m 0.) was _ constructed. It comprised a g~.obeb~ in the neck of wbidl was. seal .. ed a plaHnwn wire tV carry~ng il. thIn lamp fll~ent t .. In the lower pad of ~the globe a tube t was sfMe.dso as to sur.roun.d the' filament. The exhaustionwas cat,~ied ~ £ar_ as. it was practicable with

the npparatus employed, . . ' .

This bulb verified my expectation, fo.r the filameni V?aS, set spinning 'wh~n, the current was turned oa, and becam.c·jocandes«ent. H also showed' anothie,[ i.nt-ercstiug 'feature, be,arin,g upon the preoodin8' I,emarks:~nam~Iy.~ when '~he· filament .had' been kept ~.n:ca;ndcsccn:t some timet the narrow tube and the sI)acc inside were' brought to an elevated temperature, and .. as the .~s .in. the tube then " became colldu~.ting" - .the. electrostatic attraction between theg[ass and the filament became very . we.ak: Oo.t ceased, and the fiJilmeat came to rest, \When it: came to, rest itwoul~ glow far more' intensely, This, was probably due to Its assuming the position. in the centre .()i the: lube where the: moleculae. bombardment was most Intense, ind also -partly to the' fact that the individual Jnlpacts were mO(l(!vioment and that no. part of the supplied energj was- converted ;iu~o mechanical movement. Since, in accordance with accepted views~ in th~s.expe.rjment the' .~n.cl1J]descen.ce· must be :aibt:dbuted ro the impacts of' 'the particles, molecules or etoms In' tbe heated' space, these partides most therefore; in order to expla.in such act]on." be assumed to behave as independent carriers .or electric charges immersed In an insulating medium; yet there is no attracrlve force between 'the glass tube and the' filameet because the space in the tube ls, asa whole, conducHng.

L·127

H is of some interest eo obseree in this connection that whereas the' atrraction between two electrified bodies may cease owing to the impairing of theins.ulating power of the medium in which they are immersed; the repulsion between the bodies may .. sHU be observed, ThIs may be expiruned in a 'i:,l~us,ibte way. Whe.n. the bodies are pl!]aOedat. some distance in a poorly' conducting med}uMJ such as sHghtly warmed .O! rarefied air, and are suddenly electrified, opposite electric charges being imp.arted to rbem, these (harges equalize more 01: less by leakage through the air, .B,nt if.tlllc bodies are sillulMly' - electlificd.,there· is. less oppodunit)i afforded for such dissipation, hence the repulsion c:ibserved in, such case is-greater than ehe attraction. Repulsive actions in a .gaseous mediumare nowev·et."as Prof .. Cmokes has. shown, eahanced by rnoleculae bomba.rwnent.

. .

.oN CURRENT OR DYNAMIC E1ECnnClTY PHENOA£ENA

So far, .I have consldered ·pdnc_ipa.Uy effects .pro~ucea by 2; va.eying electrostauc force in. an iflsu];atin.g: medIum,. s:ttch as a~r., Wh~.n. such a [DIce .~s, a~tin.g ujpon :;1 eonducting body 01 measurable dimensions, it causes within the samecr on its, surface, displacements of the ,electrldty~ .. and gives rise to electric currents, and these produce another kind of pberuo·men~ some of which I shan presently endeavor to illustrate, In presenting this second class ,of electrical effects, I willavail my.self princr.paUy _of such as arc producible w.hhout any return dJ.'cu.it~ hophi.8 1:0 interest yOll the more '~y presenting these phenomena

in a more o:r less novel aspect. -

It has been a long time customary, owing to the limited. experience with vibratory currents, to .consider an electric current as something. dradat]ng in a closed conduding path. It was . astonishing at firs:t to realize that ecurrent may flow ·through the conducting path even if I~e' latter be inten:upted,. and. it was .still more surprising to learn, that sometimes It may. be even easier to make a current no .. v under suchoondiHons thanthroogha dosed" path. But that old ide-a is. gradm!lly d lsappeadng, .. even among practiad

men, and wUf .soon. be entirely for:gotten. . .

If I connect an insulated metalplate P, lliiig. U, to one of the -tcr:mlnals T of the induction - coil by means of :l wife, thoug]:'lI this. plare be vcry well insulated, a current

_ passes through the wire w~en the coil -.

is. ser to work.. First .JI 'W ish to g[ ve you evidence that ~hc.re is on. current p.assing through the cQunect[ng wire, An obvious way of demonstr.a:.t~:n.g th is IS to .l nsert between. the' eerminal oi the coil and the insulated platea vcry

thin piaHnmn OJI" german silver w ire f'

"lg .. Ii.

ta and bring: the latter to incandescence

or fusion by the current T.his requiresa rather large plate of else current impulses 'Of verybIgh potential and frcqu,e:ocy. Another way is to· t-al...e a coil CJ l~ig. ~ 1, containing many turns of thin insulatedwlrc and to' Insert the same ]0 the pathof the current to the plate. ,\V"hcn I coooect. one of the ends. of the coil to the .wire leading to another insu~;dcd plate Pi" and. its nrher end' to theterminal 'T 1 of the induction c-oil~and set the latter to work, a 'CUrrent passes through the inserted coil C and. rheexistence of the current may.be made manifest .in various wa:ys. FoI' instance, I Insert an iron COre .i within the coil, The current being one of v~ry hJgh frequency., wilt if it De' of, some s.trcngth, soon bring the iron core to a noticeably higher' temperature, as the hysteresis and cU.[.rent losses are great with such high frequencies .. One mjg.ht take a core of :S:OlT~C .

size, laminated 0;' not, it would matter ~itde;. but ordinary iron wire ",] .. th Of ~~-th of

. .' . l5 8 ..

an inch thick is suitable foe thepurpose.While the induction (oil [5 working, ::1 cwrent

traverses the Inserted coil and only a f.~w moments are sufflcient to bring the iron wire J. to. an elevated temperature slunc:ient to soften. the sealing wnxr, and. cause i1L pa,p~r washer p fasl;en.e,d by it 00 the Iron wire to fall off. But with the apparatus such as I. have here, ether, much more' interestiog, demonstrations of this kind can be made. I have a secondary 5, Fi8~iIl2, of coarse wire, wound upon a ron simHar to the Hrst.· In. the preceding experiment the curreat through 'the' cO.H C, Fig. 11, was very small, but there being rnany nuns 31 strong .heating effect was, nevertheless, produced in the iron wire.

. Had .M passed that current thw;u,gh a

conductor in order to. show the h.eatin,; of the latter; the current might JtaVC been too small fo produce the effect desired, But with this coil provided witb a secondary wind ing'~I can now transform the feeble' current of hi,gb eension whidt passes through the .primary p. into a strong 'secondarv current of low tension, and this current 'will quite certainly do what .1 expect. In a small glass tube (1, Fig. 12), Lhaveenclosed aeoiled platlnum wire, w, this merely in OHler to protect the- wire .. On each end of the glass rube isseeded 'a terminal of stout wire to w~.'9J.id.l. one of the ends of the p!at.inurn. wire U"J is connected. M join the terminals of the secondary coi~ ·t:a these terminals and insert the primary Pi' between the insulated piak P1, .. ana thetennlnal T1 .• of the induction coil as before, The latter beill.g set to work, instantly' th.e platinnrn wire U! is rendered

incandescent and can be fllsl~cl!.evcn. if it. be. very th~d,..' ."

Instead of rhe pbtinum -wire I now take an ordinary 'O~volt 16 c, p. lamp, When I set the induction mil in .operation. the lamp filament is . brought to high.inClDdesceu.cc. His, however, not necessary to use the insulated. plate, tor th'Q lamp (l~ F~g.. 13) is rendered incandese,eIttc'V'en if the plate P:L be discoeaeeted. The secondary may also 'be connected to. the prImary as llJdkl1tf'd by [he dotted ~[ne in FIg. 13, to do nway 'mot-e or less with the electrostatic induction 0,[ to modify theaction etherwisc ..

. I m;:L.y here caU attention. to a number. of Interesting observations with the lamp.

Plrse, I disconnect one of the terminals of the lamp from the secondary s .. When the' induct-ion. coH plays, a glow is noted which fills the whole' bulb. This gkrw is due to electrostatic inductwon.1t increases when the bulb is grasped with the hand; and the capacity of the experimenter's body thus added to- the secondary circuit, The secondary, in effect) Is equivalent to a . metallic (:oa:rins~ which would be placed near the:· p~~O}ary . .If th.c·scoondaXY;!J..r itsequlvil]cnt:;.

the (G~tJng, WCH~' placed symm,ct!iknUy to the prjmary~ the electrostatic induct" ion. would be nil under ordinary conditions, that is, .. when a primary return drulit is used, as both- halves would neutralize- each other .. The secendary is in Cactplaced symmet.ricaUyto the pdm;ary~ but the ~acHon 'of. both halves of the Iattel'~ when only one' 'Of its ends; is connected to the induction eoil, .is. not C'x3,cUyequ:a]; hence dedrostatic inductio.n takes place, and hence' the .glow in the' bulb, I can n.e!l!rly cqu;t~i:ze the action of both halves of theprimary by connecting the other, free end of the same to the insuia.ted p]ate,as in the preceding experiment. \X'hen the

L-128

Fig. 1.2 .•

Fjg. B.

L~12.9

plate Is conheded~ the'·glo'W.d.hiap~cs. Wi,tTI a:. 5n~~t~~er .,plate ... it would not ent[rely disappear and . then it would contribute to the.~righmes:s of the filament when the" secondary is closed, by warming the a~r in the bulb ..

, Te demcnstrate another .hlte'te..sting feature, I haveadjusted the coils used. in J. certain way. I fiestccnnect both the terminalsefthe ~:amp 00 the second;aryJ one end' of the p,dmaIY being connected to thetermiaal T'l oftbe induction GOB. and the other to the insulated plate P:ttl as before, Whel~ the cur,rent .is turned on" the lamp g[cPNS brightly,. 0$ shown In PIg.' 14b, in which C is ,1 fine wire (oil and. s a coarse wire seQOlfDdary- wound upon it, If 'the tDsuhlte,d. plate "P 1 is disconnected, ~eIving Que of the' ends a of the Pl'ooary

,Insulated. the filament becomes .dark '. '

;.)r gc:~eEally ,~t d!m.i.nishes in bdghtness

(Fig.:l:Aa) ." .. COlmcdlng: aga] nthe pLate 1\~. sad .ra.Ising the f reque.acy of " t , .' .'. , ]I'...~ ~.",';1-.'"' ·fe ilament . uite me current, iI, m~e l.JI"lC L~~. ~ q

dirk or bareJyred (F.ig. "150). Once more I w 1]1 disconnect the plate. DOle will of COULfSe' infeil:' :that when the plate is· discormceted, t'he current thl'ou.gh t]n,e primary will be weakened, that ~herdore the E.M.r; wUl fan irithe seoo:ndzuy ;J~ and' i11.at the bJ:'ightness- of the hm:1P wHI dimin lsh, 'Thb .might be the case a~d the result can be secured by an ,easy adjustme'nt Q{ the 'CO][5; also by vary Jog the f reque.ncy

and . potentl:!.] or the enrrents, !ut it, is perhaps of greater Interest to note, that the lamp increases ill bri,ghtness; when the plate .is d isconnected (Fig. 15a). In tllis case aU the «w.crBY the prirnary recclves is now sunk in~o~t. like the charge 6f a biRttczy in :nn ocean cab]e~ but mast of that e'.nergy is reeovered ~oough thesecondary and used. .~~ lightth:~ lamp: The CUt rent tnIl,Versulg the prun.;!l:,ry IS strongest at theend b which iseonnected to the

terminal T ~ of theinductioncoil, and ~:nmJnlshes., in stte.nglh wwards the .remote end a. But the dynamic ind.!J,Ctive ·effect exerted upon the ;slocondary s ~s. ~QW graber' than before~ when the suspended plate was connecred to the primary. These resiU~t:s might have beenproduced byn,. number of COl:l!l.SC'S. for .iinstmce) the pl:li:tc P l! beIng connected, the reaction from the coil C may be such as to ,cHminJsh the potcntiaiat the 'term ln~l Tl of t~1c' iodtK!l:iofi ,coil,' and d"le.rcfo~e weeken the cnrrent through the' p,dm~ry, of the mil C, Oil:' the d[scorinec~lng of the plate mar diminish ,~e'capadtycffectwith relation to the primary, of the b:ue.r coH.to such an extent tba.t the current through It Is diminished, though thepoteTIt]tI.~ at the terminal Tl 0,£ the induct.ion coil may be, the same or e v en higher .. O,thil;' result n'l:ight hav:c been pcoducedby thernangeof phase of the primary and secondary currents ~nd. consequent reaction. But the chief derermini og factor is 'thci relarion of the sdf~indJuction. and capacity of. coil C and ,p~;ate Plt, and the frequency of thern:rr,,"~nts.· The'gr,eOi,trer brj,ghtn.ess of the filament in Fig.]lSa~ ~s~ boweve.r~· 'in paIt due to th.c heating of the rarefied gas Inthe lamp by electrostatic .~ndu,ct.i,Qn> which, as' before Icmarked!t~s gre=t.ter when the suspended plate is disconaccted.

F~g. 114<\, F,~s:. L40.

. i.-I):O

StiHanothe.r feature or SOOl!C interest I may here bring to you.r attention, Wh.en the insulatedplate is disconnected and ~he ,siecDnduy. of the (oil opened, by a.pp:roacb~ng a snlaU .ablec;!; to the sieoon~ary, but v,ery small spa_des an be draWflJ._from ,~t~ ,sho~,mg thatthe e]edwlSrntk induction is s.maU in th.is, case. But ·upon the sem.nd~ be'!.ug dosed upon itself 0,[ fhrough the lamp" the f.namei~!tgnowing b.r.!ght~.y~ strong sp~!ksare obta]n'~d.

fll.1l'ID the sicc:onduy •. The electrostatic

, - loduct.lO'fli. is now much greater, because .

. the dosed s¢cofldary determines a greater now ,of current through the prinla.ry nne. principally through that half of .It which is; connected to the· induction. coil. If now the bulb be graspod VI ith the hand; the ca.paK·ity Of the :s,~con.d;.'l,ry with!n:;fercnc-cto the p,rim.ary is au.gmented by the expe~r .. imenter's body and the~uminosI:ty of the filament is IncJ!'cased, the mcandescence now be.i,ng due pa.rt~y to the flow of current th.:rougl'.l. the fi~arnCflt and .. partl y to the molecular bombardment' of the m.rcficdgls in the bu [b.

TI'lIe pr~~dingcxper hncots wiU ha veprepared one lor U~c next loHow" ing resulrs of interest, obtai.ned in the course ,of these in,vcs:t"ig:lHons. Since I can pass a current through an insulared wire nl.cflcly by cDnnccting QrJ{! of Its ends to the source of electrical energy, S[fJ;CC I (l1i.n induce by i~ another current, magnd:izc an iron core. and, in short, perform ~n operations :CIJS tl'lou,gh a return dr(~lit" were used; dead}" .1 an :1]50 drive :a motor by the aid. of o:nJy one wire, On.ii. former

oeeasion I have described a simple form oi motorcoroprising il:. single: c~c[tin,g ,ooiltan

- iron core and. disc. IF]g,. 1,6. illustrates a modified way of operllting such. an dkmate cur cent motor by currents in duced in a transformer cocnected . roone -lct1d~ and several otherarrangements of drdlit's for operating: a ce[tlllin class of aHerna~lngmotors founded on theactioa ofcurrents of· dIHe:ring' phase. In· v]cw of the fr(~s:cnt state of the art it' Is t~ought sufficIent to desrribc these ir~gem.e'nts In <"I. fewwords 0(.1[1. The di~gtoi:m, .

. Fig. 16 11., shows apt:imaror con)?" CQfU1oc,ted. with one of its ends to the line L .~e.[ldjng f con}, a high tension transformer terminal T r- In indncUvc r~[;;IHOfl to this prima ry P .is; it secondary s of coarse wire in the: cil'cuJt of which is a (oil C. The currents ind~cod in the secohd.iry energize the iron core ,i~ whim. is prcfefIl.abIy~ but not n.ecessarily,· subdivided~ aud set the .m~bd disc d in rot{1;UQn. Such amotor, M2lS d.i:ilgrammatkaUy shown ,~n.Fig. 16 II., has been. called n "magnetlc lag motor", but this" expression may be objected to by those who. attdbu~f the rotatlon ,of the disc to eddy currents clECt,dating in .minute paths when the core i ls; finaUy subdivided. Ia ordee to opcra,tc such a motor. cffedlveIyon Ute' pbn .indkated, tile Frequencies should not be too high". not more than .(o,U1' or Hve thonsand~ th.ough the rotation ~:S' l)r-odu(C'd even :w:jth ten thousand pCE. second, 'Of more,

Pis. 1153.. F~g. nb.,

L-IJt

In Fig. 16' L~ a motor MJlhavIngtwo energjzing- circuits, A, andB, is d.hli.gro.rnnla.t~ iOlll]y ,indIOltccl. The dr,ruit A~s connected to. the line L and in . series with litis. a primary P, which. illity have its free end connected to an insulated plate P'll' such oonn.eaton being· indicated by thJC:i. dotted lines. line other motor drriJitB~scollnectedro -the. s>eoondary s which is in inductivifl relation to the pliMUY P, When. the traoSf~)fmertcfm~,mu Tl is alterna.re~y electrified, currents traverse the open line I and. also. circuit" A . and" pdllilLary P. The cureents ·throo.gh the latter induce secondary currents in the' d.f!cult; S) which p~ss throu_gh th.c e.n:erg~zing coil 'B <0:£ . the motor .. The' currents through the secondary Sand' those th.rough the prhnll}" P differ in phase 90 de'g.rees,or neirly so, and are capable ofrQtathJ:g an a,rmatur~ placed in inductive relstion to the circuits A and D.

m. c. F·'·~' '16" 111"1' ..:>. similar 'm', otor -M··- with two energ J:dng' cir ... ·rt ... A· . and B, ~·s.

lI.:I1 . !.g.. . ,l/I, ,., ' l...... ..~. '3··· -- "'.Y , -~:. ",., .. o.,,'\,!'''_>l. ·1 "" ,. 1.'"

illustrated .. .A primary P, connected withone of jts; ends to the~~ne L has a secondary S" which is j}reicrably wound for a. to.le-rob.]y high .13. M·,.'.; .. and. to' which the two , energizing circuits of the motor .are. connected, one d]r,octly to the ends of the sccnndaty OlI1.d tbeother through a, condenser C, by the actio!1l. of which. the curreats traversing the

circuit Al and ]3..11 are made to differ in phas,e. .

Fig., 1,7.

FI.g. 16.

Fig •. :18.

, In Fig., 16 IV. ~ sHII another arran!r.ement· is shown; .MJ1j this easetwo pti;ma:ries" Pl,and. P2 are (onn,ectoo to the line L, one th"rougha. .coadenser C -0£ small capacity~ and the other' d.ir~ctlf' The primaries are provided' with secondaries Slulia Sz -wh[d~ are in series \v]th the energlzing ,circui.ts,. A2 and. 132 and a mOiror M3~ thecondenser Cagain serving to produce the ,iCiequisik' differeece in the phase oitbe currents :traversin.g

:,;i. ""I, .. '.-",'. A ..• ·~'t·h· ~ .. " with /""" :',._ "' '-",' -: .~~ ~i~,.~-

me mo~ot CU'CUJ.",S._ S SUOll P Me motors WI il.wiCD or more Cl\lClU.1..;) arc now weUKnOWo.

In the art,. theyhave been here illustrated diagrammatically. No diffioohy whatever is found in operating a motor in the manner ~[ldkat~d~Q.r'jn simH".[ wa.ys; and altllcmgh such experiments up to this da.y p«sen:t on~y scientific interest~ tJ.leyn.lay at Oil. .period not'

far dlstantJ be carded OUit with pOOiOlJ objeets in view, -

It is thought~ useful to devote here a few remarks to the sub ject of operating devices of all kinds by means ,of only one' ~e.adjng wire, It is . quire ahvI0ust fha,t when high~ f requcncy currents are made' use of,gcound connections ate - at Ieastwhen the E .. M.. F, of fheQlue.l1ts is great ._, better than a return wire'. Such ground connectloas are Obje.r:1Gr Ionable with steady or low frequency currents on account of destructive chemical :adions

o( the former and dlsturbi~g influences exerted by both on the ndghboring, circuits; but with high frequencies, these actio~s 'p11l'tk~11lf. do not exist. Still; even ground connections becomesuperfhious When the E. M. F. is very high, for .. soon.a condkion ~s reached:lwh.en the current may' be passed more eOJnomicaUy through open,tnan through dos.ed.~ conduetors, Remote as .might .seem an industrial a.pplkation of -sudi

. s~ngle wire transmission of energy to one not experienced in such lines ofexperimenr, j t wiU not seem so to anyone who for some time has carried on investigations of such nature, Indeed .I cannot see why such a pEaoi" should not be practicable. Nor should j t' be thought: that for carrying out such a plan currents of vert high frequen.cy are' expressly required" for just as soon. as, potentials of _ say 30,000 voles areused, the single wire transmission .may be eff~cte,d with. low freqlJelld~s,and e)rpe{~.l1lents have been made by me from which these Inferences are made,

. When the frequencies are vcry h~,gh it has been found .in b:hor:arory pra.crle,e quite e~y toregulate the effects in the manner shown in di:ag.t.un .F iig. 17. Here two prlmarles P and P 1 are shown, each coaaected with one of its· ends to the line L and. w~~th the other' end to the condenserplates C and C,·resJ)ccHvely. Near these are place~ other condenser pl:l!tes C1 and C1, the former being connected to the line L and the latter to an insulated farge'E' plate Pi" On. the primaries are- wound secondaries S and 5t) of (O'aISe wire} connected to the' devices d' and 1 res pe:ctively. By varying f the distances of the ,condenser plares, C and ell and C and C1 the. currents J;hro~gh the' serolld:~ries Sand S~ arc vtllr1-~,d in intensity, The (urlous,f~:Mutc. is ~tllic grCai~ se~si~iv'eiJ1~s, the :~liffit~'s.t change m tIle d~stanc'C of the plates prcducing considerable vananons mtlb.e mtenstty or stren.gth of the currents. The sensitiw,eness may be rendered extreme by making the frequency such, that - the prirp..-uy itself) w itboutany l)]ate attached to its free end, satisfies, in conjunction with -the closed secondary, the condition of resonance. In such condition an extremely small change In the ,capacity of the Free terminal producesgreae variations. For instance, I have beenab]e to adjust the conditions so that the' meteapproach of a pe'r8on to, the coil produces a considerable change in the brightness of the lamps attached to the secon~,aty. Sum observations and experimenl:s l:i005(58:" of course. at presefit~-,~~efiy sde~Ufk jjfit,erest~ but they may soon become of practical~mportance'.

. VerY hi'g1:{frequenc~ts are of QOUfSe not .pradicabli;: with· motors. on account of the necessity of employing iron cores, But 'one may usc sudden discharges of low frequency and. thus obtain certain advantages of hlgh.frcqueney currents without rendering the iron core cnth'ely incr.pable' of following: ehe changes and without entailing a verygreat expenditure of ·energy in the core. I have found it quire practicable to operate with such low frequency disruptive disd'Huges, of con.dense~s. a]ter~at~.ng-cu.rrent DJlotO[S. A certain class of such motors which I advanced a few years ago, which contain closed se,c'Ond~1rf ciecuits, will rotate. quite v.igo.ro'llsly .. when .. , the discharges are directed through the ,~xdting coils, One reason that sueha mowe operates so well, widl these discharges is that the difference of phase between the, ,p:dm..uy and secondary currents is. 90 degrees~whkh is g,encraU.y not _the case 'with hi.trmpnkaHy risjng: and falling. curreots of low frcquenry. It might not be without interest los-how an, experiment with a simple motor of this, kind, inasmuch as it is commonly thought that disru.p:t~ve discharges are unsuitable for sud) pm])QScs., Dl!C motor .is; illustrated .. in Fig. 18, It comprises a. rather large' iron core i with slots on ~e top .into which areembedded thick copper washers C C. I~ prQ!xim.ity, to the core lsa freely-movable metal disc D. 111.C! core is provided . with a primary 'exdt.tng coin C11he ends 4 .and. b of whi~ ace connected to the terminals of the .s~Ilda.ry S o.f an or;~iruuy transformer, the p.rhnary P of ~e latter being connected to an aJternaHng dist:r.ibuti6n circuit or generatcc G.of illow or moderate frequency. The termiuaJs ,o·.f the st;OOndary .S are attached to acondenser ·C which discharges through an ::Iir ~'1.p d _,d "which may. be placed in series or shunt to tl1C coil Cl- \When the conditions arc properly chosen tbe disc D rotates '\v.ito conslderable effortand the: [ron core; docs .

L-.133

not 'get 'very·pe.rceptiMy hot. With Oll.rrenl;s' from a h~gh-frequengr al~emator,. 6n the contrary .. the coee gets rapidiy' hot and the disc rotates with a much smallereffort, To perform the experiment pmpe.dy· it should be fifSit :asceitained that the disc D' is not, set in .. rotation when the discharge is not OCcurring at d d. It is preferable to use a Harg.e Iron core and. acondenser .of large capadty so as t1J bring the superhnposeG qui."'cker oscillation. to avery low pHdl or ,to do" ;away with it enti.rely. By observing certain, elementary rules I have also found it practicable to operare. ordinary series or. shunt direct .. current motors with such disruptive d.i5char:ges~an~ . this", can. be done with or without a rem rn W1.:!:c'.

IMPEDANCE PHENOMENA

Ame>ng the Vfrt.10uS .rutre.ntpheno~meru1 observed, perhaps t~e most interesting are those ofhnpedance 'presented by conductors to currents yaryinS, ara rnpid rate, 1n In,}, first paper before ~e Amerkanlnstitute of Electrical :.Eng[flee~"'S~ I have' described a few striking obse~Hon.~. of thrski.nd .. Thus I showed ~at when. such eureents or sudden dischu1!:ge"sare passed .through a thJ& metal bar: there may 'be points on the bar only a few inches apart, whi~ have a suJfici'ent po~ential diff ere-nee between them to mainta.lfi at bright iricandesrem::·e an ordinary fHameBe lruTlp, E have also described the cnrious behavior of rarefied g.:l!$ surrounding a (onducto.r~ dille to such sudden 'rnshes oJ current. These pheno~en<t: have since been more care;iuUy.sttidJed and. one or two novel experiments o~ this ki~d are deemed of sufficient interest ·to be described. here.

Referring to FIg. 19a, B unci ]131 arc . very stout copper bars connected a.t: ~heir Iowee ends to plates C and C]!~ respectively, -of a rondeoser,tncoPl)()site plates of the la:tt.er being connected to the terminals of the secondary S of a high~ten:5i:ofi transformer, the primary P'of which is supplied with aXternat(]].g ctlfIe])ts from an ordinary low-frequency dynamo G or distribution circuit, The. condenser discharges. through an adj ust!b[e gap d (1_ as usual. By establishing a rapid v~brat[pn it was found quite easy to perform the foUbwing Quietus: experiment The bars Band ,B]! were joined at the .to_p by a low- ' voltage Iamp 1.;1): a little: lower was placed. by,:means of damps C C, a 50-volt lamp 12; und still lower another lOO..:vott lamp i1.; and. fLn:;J:]].y~ at a. certain d1stance below the latter lamp, an exhausted tube ,][" By c,u:efu]Jy determioing the positions of these devices [·t was found practkable to mainrain them all at their proper iHuminating power. Yet they wereall conaected in multiple arc to. the zwo stout copper bars and required widely differeatpressures. Thisexpe.dmentrequires of course some Hme for adjustment but is

quite-easily performed, ,

In .Figs. 19ba:nd,. 19C;! two o.there~pe:rimen.~_s are .iU.ustrnt:ed which, unlike the previous experiment, 'do no!: require verY carefnl adjustments. In :Fig,. i9b~ two lamps, l]and. 12, the former' a 10o~vol1 and ,tbe Iatter a 50-vo]t are p.Jaced in certain pos~Hons as; indicated, the IO!)=voQ1t .lamp bei:ng below the 5'DEvoIr lamp. When the arc is playing at d 4 and. the sudden discharg,~~ are pessed 'thr-ough the. barsB Hb the 50-volt lamp will, as a rule, bum. bdg:htly~ or at least this result iseasily secured, while the loo-volt hUiJl) .will burn ve.ry low or remaiuquite -dark" Fig.19b. Now the bars .B Dol may be jolil.ed nt the top by a thidi cro .. ss bar U_2 and it is qui~e easy" to maintain the: 10o:"Volt

1 .n : m· ,": .'110 f·· ~, c: l.d·I~""_1"'I"'W";'f .whll rh, · ,,-;fII·.Vn]t· lnme re l"'~'" dark '1[;", 1('1" ·:Ttc·c - :-"'''1' l~

.~a p ~h, ,Uu .m ~ .... lr v .. 'r_ .. __ n .e I~ -" V _ ..... lIdl1:1.~ len ""~U.. uaI. ~ ,.t.- ~g. . :7 .... , .il::se .I\."U ~s,

as I ha;,:e pointed o~tp'revIously~ should not be consideredto be due exnc.HY.to frequency but ruther to the time rate of changewhlch may be great~ even w.ith low frequencies. A great many other results of the same kind, equallyInterestlng, especially to those who are only used to manlpula:~e stea.dy Qnren.t:.s,· m;ay be obtained and they afford procious du.es in investigating the nature of electriccurrents,

.In the _preceding experiments I have .drea.dy h~d occasion ·to show some H,ght phenomena and .it w~uld. now be proper to study these in parti.QtlIa,[;but to. make thIs ~llvesHgaHon moee comple:te Ithi~k it necessary to make first a. few remarks on. the s:ub~ect of e.~.ectrk~i resonerice which has to be always observed in carryin.g ,ouJ: these experiments.

I I

I'

ON ELECTRICAl. I~ESONANCE

The eUects of resonaace iu,e', belng more and more noted by ,eng:incers and, are becoming of gre.aet impo,d]l.nce in the pmctkal opemHon ,of a.ppatatus of ",JI kinds with a.~tcrnatjng rnrrents., A fe~' general r:emZhrks may therefor·e be madeconcerningthese effects, It ]s clear; that if we succeed in employing the: effects of resonance practically i11 the operation of electric devices the return wire win, as" a: matter of course, become uaneo;ssa:ry~ £Qr the, electric vibmtmQf;l. may be oo[lvey!ed wHhone. wire just as we.11 as, rtl\d sometimes even beU~r U.lan~ wi,th two .. Thequcsticn first to answer is, then~wheth.c:r pu.oc rcsonaace effcclts:l[c produ.dble .. Thco.1"Y and. experiment bod.l show d.'l!~\t such is im.possib~!C in .Nature) for as the oscillation becomes mOI'C and. more V(goroust fh.c: losses In. the vib,r:.at.lng bodiesand environlng .medj,ampidJy increase and necessarily check the v.ibrfl.tJ.on. which otherwise would go on increaslng forever. It isa forh]:]l:l~e circumstaace that pure 'resonance is' .notprodudblct fOf if it were there is notelljng what dangers .mIght not lie .in. wait fo.r the innoeent .experimenter., But to a certain degree resonance' is l)rQdudbIe~ th:ema8nitud.~ of tn.e .effects being limired by the impe.[£eCtClO~dudivil"Y'

L-135

and imperfect _c:!astldty of the media o.r,grneraUy stated" by f,kt[onal losses. The smaller these ··~osSie.s~the more strjjJ;iing are fhe eHects .. The same is ~he case in mechanical vibration, A s~out steel ha,r may be set invibration b:y drops of water ,{aUing: 'Upon it-at proper Intervals; and. with g~,a$s~ wbich is more perfectly elastic, tine resonance effect ~s still more remrulblb[c~ fora goblet ro,ay be burst by sInging into ita note of the proper iP~t(h. Theelectriea] resonance is the moreperfectly attained, the smaller the resistance orfue impedance of dle conducting ~th and. the more ,perfect ~he dielectric. In a Leyden jar dlsd1.argJng through :a. shod stranded cable o.f thin wires these requiremems aee probabiy best fulfi11ea~ and the resonance effects are ithe:refor·e ve.rJ prominent Such is notthe case w idl dyn:l:rno machines, tr:ans.~orme.rs and their cireaits, o.iI:' with commercial appal' .. ~tus . in. genecal .in whk:ih the presence Qf iron cores ,oo.mp,Hca.tcs the . actlonor r€.riders, it impossible. Inregard to leyden j:ars WHEll w.hicbreSJonance -effects a.re{requenl:~y demonstrated, I would. SOl:Y that the effectS, cbserved are oHen~lJr.ibl#rJ.d but: are .seldom (luQ' to trne resonance, foran error is ·quite easay' made in. this respect. l1~Is may be' lmdo'Ub~edly demonstrased by the foUow,ing e~pe,r[m;ent. Takc~ for~nstance:~ two marge insulated metallic plates or spheres whkh ]I shall des]gna.tc A and! B; place them at a certain small distance np~:rt and charge them from. ill frictionrl,! 0'[' influence machine to a pctentlal siohi,gh th;tt_ JUSi!: a. s~jght increase of the difference ofpat~nt~a~ between them win cause the small a[l 0'[ insu];ating spare to break down. This is easily reached by mak!Dgl f:ew preHmIaary trlals, If nowanother plate - fastened on an ,i nsu~utinghandle and conn.ected by a, wire to One of the terminals of :!\ high tension secondary of an ',induction coil, which is maintained in. ;~lCtfon by an alternatnr (prefen'lbly high frequency) _. is epproacbed to one of. the charged bodies A or B~ . so .as to be nearer to e,[thcf one of them, the d.lSlCb~rge w~U ,~nvudably OCCU:i between. them ;at l-e;lstit w.in) if the .potcnti~n of the ceil in connection . with the plare Is sufndcntlIy~ high .. But the explanstion of dlis will siQorDJbefound in the fact that the approached plate aees inductively upDn the bodies A and B and causes aspark to pass between them.W.he.i:l. this S'f:ll"k occurs" the charge:swhIch were-prevIous].y i.mpaded to these bodies {rom, the influence machine, .. must needs be lost, since the bodies are brou.ght in. e~edricilJ conned· ion dUlJugh thea-!c formed,. Now thisarc is formed. whether there be resonance or not, But even if the spark would not be produced, stillthere is an :J!JternatingE. M. F.. set up between ,the. bodies when the 'plate is. brm.~ght near one of them; . therefore the :a pp:roach of the 'pbte~ if it does notalwa}l's actt41lny~ wm~ at any rate, tend to break down the air space by 1nduct~.veact~oil1., Instead of the spheres or pb~es A and ]3, we ma:r :t;ru<e the' coaHngs of'a Leyde'.n jar -wi.th the same result; and j,n.p1aceoof the machin.e~ -. -. which is a high frequeocyalternator preferaMy, because it~s more .suimbte for the experimentand also for the argument, = we' may take another Leyden. Jar or bn.tte.ry of jats. When such jars are discharging tbro:u.gha circuit of'Jow .resistulcc the SUllie is traversed, by cuerents of very h.igb. f.[cquency. The ,plate 11~,ay now be' coooected to one of the e,(la:tings 0,[ the second jar, -and when it is brol,gnt near to th.cfir5t jar just previou$]Y- ,ch:ar:g~d to it highpcrtent[0lI1from an influence mechlne, the result .is; the same as before:, and t~e first: jar w] ~ ~ d ]sc~a.rge thmu8l~ i1 smnll air space upon the' second ocing caused to discharge. But bot.h. 'jars a,nd their circuits need not be tnnednny closer than. a basso 1'.00.( undo .~s 'to the note ,Produced by-a. mosquito, as smaU sparks win. be pr"Qduced through the: a,ir spa(je~ Of at least ,the latter will be considerably mort! strained owing to the s;etting up of analternating E .. M .. F~ byrndt~ctlon~w.hkh takes place when one of the jars begins ~odisi(hargc. Again nnothcrcrror 0·( a sim,i}a.r nature is qu ite c-rulHy made, If H::e circuits of the two jars ale run pa.m.Ueland dose togeth.er" and the e~pe:rIment hes been performed of disd~a!gingone by the o:ther~ and. now a coil 0 r wire be .added Co one ·.oi the eircuits whereupon the experiment does not .secceed, the eenelusion that Hl~S is due to the fact thnzthe c1rC!!D:its are now not tuned, would befar f mmbeing safe .. For the two circuits act as, condenser coaUn.gs and the addition of f~le

coilto one of them is, equivaJen.t to bridgh1g. them, at the: point where the .~qil .isplac~d~ by a small condenSf.r" and the effect of the. ~aUer mrght be t()pr~v,ent the spark fm:m jumping: thmtl;g~the dEsdial'se spnce by dim~nishing tll.e alternating: E. .M~,F. octin,g: ac.ross the same. AU theseremarks, and. man.y morewhich might be: :added. but for fear of wanderIng too far from th.!e Stl.bjetit~ ate made 'with the patdonnb~e intention (If cauNoning the un5~s,pecting :stpde~t~ who .m.lgh:tgaln an entJ:H.~ly unwarranted opinion (Jf his skill :at seeiageveey experimentsuceeed; but they are in nO. way thrust upon the

• d' 1- cbs' . - -_ - -

I -_, '" -,.. -'! ,- . ~ " '- ," ~ ;I' I " :1' 1"-" _'.' l .~, "" 'i' "' ," . ':''

expe,[Ience _ ,.as nove .,.., el'vatmns.

In (l1~der ,to make reliable ()bSiel'~a.Uons (If electric resonance ef fects if.: is very desirable, if not necessnryttoemploy Olin, a.It~rnato[ givingcu'c.rents which rise ana fall harmonically, <'IS in working with make and break currents the observations are not always trustworthy,' since many phenom.e.n.a,. which depend. on the tate ·o[ ,change, may be produced with. widdy different frequeodes, Ev·enwhen Q1a;kjng such observations with an alteraator one is: ~i?t to be mistaken, When a dr("Uit Is co'nnected roan aJternatof t~e,[e are an Indefioite number of values fer capacity and seU'.~nductJ,Ofl.whidl~ in oofljunct:io.llj. W~.U sat~sfy the coadltien o·fresGoaocc. So there ilLle~n mechanics an infinite number of tuning forks·wh.idl will' respond to a note of a certain - pih;:h~ or [9<lqc;d sprin~which have a de-iinitepedod of vmbr.a,tion. But the rcsqmu:u:e w·m be most perfe<:t~:y a~t:tained in tha:t casco in whk:h the motion is effeoted with 'the ,g[eri:~est freedom, Now in mech,artks" c-nnsid.er,ing the v,[br:ation in the common medium -.that j:s:~air '-. _ it~s of co.m,pamtively litHe impo~tam:e wbethe~ onernn.ing fork De' somewhat la·· et t'!~;'tn :anoithe,r~ becaWje the losses in the' air are not vc.ry oonsidccah',le. One- miil.y~ _ course, enclose atuning fork in an ,eihauSited vessel and by HrllS .r.ed.udng the air resistanceto a. minJmrun ·obta..inbetttr .reson~.ntacHon. Still the diffc[.enoewou,M not be very gr-eatEdt It would m.1.k.e ;agr'eat" diffe:retl<le if .the tlJn.~ng .fo.rk were immersed. in mercury . .Intn.e 'elect:ria.m. viHmtio,n it is of enormous impor;lan.c-e to arrange .the conditions- so, ,that the' vib~Hon ],S effected.: \V.~th, the g~e,atc~t freedom.. 111C .magfd:tud:C' (')i ithcrcson;aflCC' ~ffect depends, under otherwise equalcond~;tlonSl on the' quanWiY of ,:eIectridty. se;t inmotion 'or on the st~ength. pf the coreent ,d:l,'hl'en tlhOOUgll the cIrcuit. But t'he cit(uitopposes' the passage of ,the, curreats by reason of its impedance and therefore, to' secure the best ad~on it is; necessary to' reduce thehnpC"clan.ce to a minimam. n is .imposs.ih~e to overcome' ~t .entl:rely~lbut m,er'C;j]y- in P·<1l.{t, for the: ohmic resistance cannot be overcome. But when t~e fn~qll!e.ncy of 'the impulses is veoty g~eat~ the now of the CW":r{!I1[ ~s pmctkaUy determined by :self-induction. Now Sielf-induction can be OVl!.[CQmc· by cOfJJJb.blln8_lt 'wJth (npacity.. Uthe rdaHon between these Issuch, thatat the frequency. used they annul each othe.f"that is, have - such values tiS to satisfy the (ond iHop, ·of reseaaace, ·and the gr,earestquanHtyof eletbd.dty is made _ to flow through the external drooit~, rhen Hre best result ~s obtruned; It is . simpler and. .sater to J oin. -the coudellSier in series: with the self-induction. Itis clear that in such combinatjons~he,r·e win be, fo.ra given .frequency,. and considering only ~he fundamental 'vJbrotkIU. vuilues: wllk'h wHn g.i.v.e th.c best result, . with _the .oonde~e't in shunt tOo the sel f-inductinn coil; or course more such. values than with the: ccndensee inse·des. :Bu.t p:ra't~.cal conditlons determine the ~elcctIon.In nice bUet case in pelf~tmif:i'8 the experiments one may rnke asmaU sd.f~in~~u:t~on and a large apacity'or a small capacity and a larg.e' sdf-.indt"[cHon~ but .the· matterrs p,re'f~rable!, because it Is inronvenien.tto adjust a. Jar:ge capacity by :smaU. ·:s,t~ep~,. By taking a (oi~ with a vel]' ~a.rge sel f-induct~o:n t'llC cr,it~ca1 cap~dty is reduced to' a very small value, andthe .capad~' of theceil Itself lTh'ly be sufficient It is ,e=rusy,. cspcd~Uy by observing !Centaln a.rtifkes" to wind aeoil -through whid" the impcd:lnce w111 be reduced to thevalue of the. ohmic resistance only; and fOE"a:nycoi~ t'he-re_ is, ·o-f course, a frequency .it' whkh the maximum current w~U be made' to ,pass throtl&h the coU. The obst'rva!tion ,or effi'le relation between self • .indl].ction, 'G1.pad~ and f.lieque.ncy .ws hcco.ming- mmpOfimnt in . the (:l,pe.ration o;f a~tema~ rnrrentappara:rus~ such as transfonnersor motD~s~ became by a jud icious determination of the elements the e.mp~oy'meDt of auexpensive ecndeeser

L~137

becomes nnn,ecess:ary. Thus iii: is possibl,e to pass. tnr,oogh the roils of an a~ b;:rnatfn,g current ma,to-,r under' ~he no[ma~, working conditicns the requ~red CtI,rrent witb a. Iow R M. ,F, ;.1:itd] do. awn, entireKy with the false current, tHldthe larger the motor, the easier su.ch a plan becomes. p'cact]cablle; but it ~s ne,cessary for t'h~s to emp~oy oirrents of

very -high l)otential or,.high frequency. . .

". In Fig. 20 r. isshown a pla:n which has been followed in the study 'of ~he~esona::nce effects by means of ahigh frcqt.te.ncy alternator. Clt~sa coil of mafio/lutns~wh]rn is divided into small separate sections for the purpose of adjustment The final a:djustment was made' someetmes with a fe'lo'fl thln irQ.n wires (:t:hough this: is fiat ahvaysadvisabIe) or witha dos~\d_ secondary. The coil C1 lscoooected' witb one of i~ ends to the 'line L from the alternator Gilnd with the otherend to one of fE'iepIat,es C ,of a condenser Cc::]~ theplate (C1) of the ll~H,el' being connected tc a much -r~rg~r plate Pl" In' tn[S mann~~ bothmpadt:y a":d 5eJf~indu~]on were adjusted t<)SUIt .Hle dymlrtlO frequency.

As: 'regar~sthe _rise of petenrial .tllmugll!esona.nt acHon~ ·of course, thoo~tkaJIy ~ It .may amount to anything since it depends on self-inductiona:nd resistance and. s'ince these may' have' any vaJue. -But. In practice one is, limited in the seJ.ection 'of these vajqcs and besides these, thc.re are other limlting causes. One may start 'with" say, 1",000 volts and raise the E. M .. F. to .50 times thlt value, but anTe C~UU10t start with '100~OOO and. raJ,s;c'it to ten, :t:iIIlCS that v,aJue, becnu:se' of the losses ill the media which 3,,00 g·re3.t"t especially i~ the' frequency~s high. It $ha~[c~ be possible to s:t;lrtwith~ fOI'~Dst~nceJ' two

Fig. '20 ..

. _. . ~ .: . .I.,r. . I

volts fro rn 'a-' h il" O:>J.. "'C' ~'o'w c[i .. Gu cv "'1'·~"'· ~,-t ,,,,t:' Q, ··d·IJI[li"....,.,." .<11 nd "'~ .,,,,,,, ~~,,._ 'E' 'M--' r.7"J"'\ rn 'a- .; --

\- l·~ .. ,. .so'" ~ 1.1._ ,~ '!or~ ~J ~.~ .!.~ 'J''''''''''ciI- '..... ,~ ,. ~h..., .1-:' •. ~'" _.i. _"Y

hund!'~~ tlmes that value. Thus coils of the l'£oper dimensions might be' connected ,~ch

_._ ith -' 1- - .. ', . of its e d' ,j..- ~iLe· '.- ",,' '-. f,......,· - -' -,' rt;, .~. ,., _ " 'f-L, " - ]I!' 'M·;· F"'; d ~t: -' .... 1

ytl u. on y one or IS e,nlQlS ~O "'~~_ mams: I. ..... m a macmne 0 J,!:]Wc., •... 'J. an ,. i,JI.I.OU&"l

the circuit' of ~hc: m::liC:h.ine WQuJd .not be closed in the ordinary :acceptartc.e of the- term, yet themachine .might be 'burnod out if a F~'O'pe! reSQ,DJUCC effectwcna:la be obtained .. ]I have ~ot b~ei?ab[e: to, produce, ': nor . have .1 observed. with currents fr-o,m.a dynaJ];,!;o, machine, .such great rises ofpotcntbt It: .~s possible, ]f noeprobeble, thM wi.thwrre.nts ebtaincd ,f,[Q.,IUn:ppan:tus· conit~irdng iron the d~shU'bing jnf~uen,cc of ~:he Jatter is the cause "tb'at these theoretkal lli)ossibiHtics cannot be: realized, But if such is the case ~ 'attribute it so]e:ty to the hystercs,is :8.nd Foucanlt current losses in the core, Generally ;t was necessa:.11Y -to transform up'Wn:rd~ when the E.M. F.was'Vcry fow~ nnd usually an oid~oti.rY' ·form of .~!1ducUon. co.lf was employed" but sometimes :thea.rmngemcnt Illustrated in :F~g.·, 20 II.~ has been found to he conveaient. In thjs: case a coil C is made jn ZL gteal many se,(tjo1lS~, a few ofthese being used as a. pEima~. ·In. [his manner both p.!]nuuy and secondary are adjustaMe. One end of the coil is connected to the lihe~ L] from the alt.e.rnator~ andthe ether l inc 'L is mnne,cocd eo the intermediatepoint ()l the cei l, Such a, coH 'with_ $djust'able primary and S'e(Dudary will be found also (On ... enient in (!.xI,crime.ots: with the disruptive discharge.. When true resonance - is obtained the top of the wave musr of course be on the free end of the callas, foil' Instance, at the terminal .elf the phosphorescence bulb B. This is ea.sHy rccogniz.ed by observIng the potential of a _point

en tile. wi.r-cu) near to the coU. .

L-138

I.n connection with resonance effed:s and theproblem of transmission of ,en,ergy O,J~f ~ singleoonductorwhk'h. was p.rf'vious.[,y co{lside~ed) I would say afew 'Words, 00 a sub}6ctwhidl consmntly fUIs mlj" tt""t,oughts and whlch coaoeees jhe welfare of all. I mean tb.e transm~ss:ion of intelHgible sig,nall) or 1?ed~a'ps even power i/O a~y distance without theuse of wires, I am beco'JJlil1g daily more .convinced! of the practicability of

"']-. " '-b' "".,. e-.· -:" " d ~-h'oug' .'.~. 1r k '1]' O:''i/F fu llw .• 'eU ·.th.·.··:r.~·· d.!l~. :p.~. r,e. a .. t.' . .m,. :.<lI.. J'. or~ihr .. o.f.~· "'." .dcn.t~.·fic:.·.' l.n.en

Il ,1C SC Cu~. ~~n.. '~" " ~~, ... , ,. . '. ,. _. . ~~ u.. e< .. . ..... ~l . i;.1.. . '.

will not bef((!ve that such eesultscan be practical If a~dimmed,i3l'b:dy realized, yd: I think ~haJ all coasiderthe develepmeats in recent years by ~ f]!umoec ,of workers to have been s~1ch, as tOC'JlCQUl'a.ge thou.ght and experhnent in. this dlrectlcn, My convkU,on has giown so .strong~ that I ~() longer look upon ~n~I$. plan of energy or. in,wUigence transmission

~s .• a. '.' ·m., ..... e .. re .... d_. ... ~l,e.:o.r.e ....•. l.~r .. ca .•.. ', 1 •.... P ..•.. - .... OS~.i.b.' .. ,i ... l.~i._.,.,' .• b •...•. u.t._.'as.'.: ... ' ... a .....• S.~ .•. dO.'.'.U. s. p .... ~.~.~ . .Ie. -.n'.' .. \i.U.,.'.,'.' ,.~I.~e. c ..... t.'.,n.'.'ca.. I .. ,~n.~.' •. J".'.:' e.~e ... ri. ~g ..•. ~ .... ,:v. 11.'.' ..•. i.d •... , must be carriedout some day. The idea ,of tfansmdhng 1l1{eU~g~-n(e ·~ti:th_out, wires ~s: ~he'

natural outcome of the mos':- ·ecent results o.r electrical invest~,wttion;s. Some enthusiasts have expressed. their bellef .tha'tt~lephony to an.y dismnoeby in.aUctlon th.[!\"ougb the all" jspos:sib~.e. Icaaoot s,t~e'.~ih my'~magi"nation 50. far, bu!t .1 do- firmly believe dlat mt is

.' pIiictirnb~e 't'o dis,wID by means, of pow{!rful macl1iOlesth~ ~d~~t:rCl~tatk ~I'Jod~dQnof the' earth and thus trsnsmit .i:n~enigjbte signalL.a.nd perhaps, ~)owet.In. fad) what .is there aga,i~slt the QrI:y.wng out ,of such ~ :sdlcwnc UV'C" now kno,w ~hat c]cctric- vmhmtloJ1. nlJ;ay be U";rulsmiUed. d1.rough .• :l; sjng[c CQadil;ldor,Why then not b"y toa.vai~ ourselves of Uu;! ea:rth for this pUfposef~e need not be frightened., by tb.cidea. of distance. To ebe w,earywande.rer roun.tmi the mUe'~ posts the ~a.(thm.a:y :~ppeaJ;v\l;!ty b,:fge~ but to thOil ha;ppiest of all men, the 'astronomer, whog a zesat the. heavens and.. by . their s~nndafd jud,ges the magnimde, of' our globe,. ltappearsvery small. And. so I ili~nk ,it .must seem to thee[ecbrk",i3in~ for. when he considers the speed with 'which. an electric disturbance Is propagated thro:ugn tbeearth all his ideas of drsmllCC mu:s;t to'm.ple:t'e~y 'vanish.

Apolnt of g:r,~t imp(H:tancc' WO,\)]~.d. be flrse to kno,w W~\~l is the' caplildLy of 'the ea.rtb? and w.ha:t ,charge does it cO'o,htln.lf electr.me,d?· Though we ha~c no posi tive evidence of I. roru:rged hodyesisting in. spac,e witb!)u~· other 0p.po5.He:ly electrified bodies, be~ng near, ~here is a fair pr()b:l.bi~~ty that the Cftr~h is such a body!, for by wna.tcv,er process, it W01S separatled from other bod.w,es,~· and. this is .the aoc-eptedv,~C!' of its ,orjg:(:I) - it must have retained ct -charge, as, ,occurs in aU process~s Qf' .m'e,chnnlcnl sep~raHoo. If It be',:a charged body In:sulawd in 5pa:~e lts ~ffiladly should be' e~trcme,~.y smal I\~ less than. one .. thousandth of a fa,fad,Bu~th-e upper st~ata of the a~.f are conducting, and so, p~fha,ps. is the medium In free space beyond the atmosphere, and these may contain. an opposite chrurg~~ Then the ,c;apa:citymlshtnc :inoomp~.n,bly g:reruter. In any case It is ·01 the gr,ea.test: i:mpodwnce :ro get an idea. of what quantity of e]edridty the' earth contains. n is diffku1t to say whether we shall ever acqu]lrc this necess:a1y kDOWJ:cdge~ but there ~s hope thai!: we' may!. and tbatt is, by means of ,eIe-ctrknn resonance .. Ifever we ean nsoennin llI·t· wha.t pel'loel the ~,rth·s ch:u:ge, when. dj:sturbcct 05id~~a~es 'w~thl'espe(;t to an OPPQs.it.e~y electrifled system. or k[~;ow]]J circu.itt we s;lua.U know .a: factpossl b~.y· of the g;r,eah:-st Importance to the \v'·elfare of the human race, .M propose to seek fer the period by me-·ans of in electrical osdUatOi',.l)ta SQ:iJ,tceor a.]bematif[ge'~ectrk:' aU.r·ents, One of the terminals ,or d~e source would beceanected to- earth as; tor jnstance~ to the city w,atcr mains, the other to an ·insu1~tedl be dy' of large snrface, ItIs possIb!:c' fha:t :t.he o"ute.:r cQndu,ct.~ng nlr st:rata, 01'" f t~ sp:ace~ contain an opposlte (h~!ige and tha:t,.,toge:llier with the earth, they form a condenser ofvcry marge capacity., In surh ense theperied .of vIb:taHofi may be vc'ry ~ow and ~nalte[na[[~8 dynamo machine might serve to!' the pu.rposc of the exper~ment. I ·wmddthc~. transform the Cllr.r,t:'nt to, a. potential as :high ;);S. It would be' {:Cund. possible and. eenneerthc ends or the high tensi:Qt1JJ- ::H.?lcond.uy toO' :the ,gfo,lluld.and, to the Irn,sula.te.d body. By v-arying: the frequency of the alrr,ents and! clircfuUy observing the pot.enHal of the insub:ted b.ody and wa;tchlng for the disturbance at:

various neighboring pcintsof the earth's surface .resona.nce' might be detected. SnouId.~ as the m<iljor~ty of sch~nHfic men in aU prob~hHity bdicvct• the pe~~od be extremely smal], then a dynamo machine would not do and a l'r?pet ,er.ectn,cai.OSCln~boll' WQ~Jd have to be

produced and perhaps i,t might not be possible to obta.m suchlrapu.! .

vibrations, But whether this bepossible or not" andwhether the earth contains a charge or not, and whatever lllZty be itsperiod 'of vibration, it ce[hlin~y is possible ~. - for of th[s we have daily .ev.rdellce -.-'. to,prnduccsom:c· electrical disturbance sufficieatly pow,erful to be perceptible by s:uit:JIbl(' instruments at nny pohlt of the earth's surface.

Assume thata source of ahernating currents be connected, as ~n F~g.. 2l~ witi'. one of its terminals to earth (conveniently to thewater mains) and with the otherto a body of 1a,r_ge surface P. When the electric oscillation is. set up there will be a movement of.'Clectrkity in and out of P, aod.aJtcrnaHng eirrrents wm ,P:l:SS throughthe eart~" con.verging to, oe dIverging from, 'the' point C where the ground connection is made. In this rrm.nae~ neighbodng points on. the earth's snrface within it. certain radius will be distuebed. But 'the disturbance win d~minish with the distance, and the dIstance at which the effect will still be perceptible will depend on the ·qulllntl~y of d:ectddty set in mo Han. Since th.e body P is Iasulated, in order to displaeea considerable qllantity:~ dllc potentid of the source must be .e'xccs:ih~c~ since ~:hcre wculd be iimitl1.tions:as to Hie surface of P. The ciO.!.ldhi.ons .Ul~g.ht be adjusted so that ~he g,cnerator or source S will set up th·c. same electricel movementas tbough. its cirrullt were dosed. Thus it is cCftninly' p.ractwahlc

to [rnpress an electric vibration at leastof a certain low period upon ~bc' ,earth. -by meanS of 1,wper machinery,j.it wha,tdistance such a v.ibtat.io~. m[gh~ be made pc,r()cptible call on~.y be conjectured. ] have on. another occasion. cons,(dcrcd the question how the earth might beha.v,c: to electric disturbances. There ,~s no doubt that'~ since insudl an. experimene th,e clc(trica.~. densl'o/ ZIIt the surface CQuM be but extr,emcly s:m,nn (,on.siac.ring

the size of the earth, the air would not ad:: as a vc.ry distnrbing fador~ and

thC.te would be not .r~uch ,encr¥Y .. ' lost dUoo,.ug~.' .. '··.'le. :acb.~?no .. '."f,' {he' ai~~ 'W .. Jd.C.h.· would be the rose if the densfty w:eregreat. JJhco'!ret~Q'l.lIy, then, Jt ,cQuld

not:requ~[.c .a grc.at amount of energy to peoducc a. disturbance 'pC'rccI'tibIc

.at ,gre,at d[stancc, OJ even all overthe surface ,of the globi.1 Now, lit Is quite

certain thet at any point within acertalnradius of the' strorre S a.pEoper.ly adjust.eds¢jf~induction and apacii~ devke can be set in action by resonance,

But not only ca~ thIS! be done" but anothe,r source S~, Fig. 21~ s.imlhlr b) S~

or any number of suchsoorces, can be set to work in sjnchron ism with tile

Iatte.[~ and [h.c' vibr,at[on thus Ii:lt,ensified: and spread 0,'11'::.[ a large area, Of

.:it flow o.f electricity produced ~;.rfr.GJn the source SlU the same be of

o'pposIte' ~~~l~$i: .to t.~c .. ~ollE~e S.I think. that b~yond doubt it !s possible to

operate eiedru::d devices in a cy tllI'Ou,gh the ground or pipe system by resonance from an electrical oscillatoe located at a ,cenba.n po,]l1t'. But the ,. ~ . ~ pHl.cHrnl solution of this ,pmMem would be of incomparabiys.I.naUe,r benefit "l !CO' man than the r,eaUzation. of the scheme of hansmit~ing int,eUjgence~

ceperhapspower, to any dis.tml.lCic through the earth or en.vironing medium. fig'. 21.

If this io; at aU possible, distnnc~ does not fI1CiUl anything. Propezapparatus

nlust first be produced by means of whidl, the ptobI~tn can- be attacked and i ,have. devoted much thought to .. this subJect .. I '.' am firmJy eonvinced Ulat i: can be done and ~lOpC that we sh:dl live to sec H done]

L-139

I '

I

I

ON THE tIGHT PHENOMENA PRODUCED 'BY H~GH~FRBQUENCY _, " . CURRENTS OF H1GH .POTENTiAL. AND GENERAL REMARKS, RELATING TO TIlE, SUBJECT'

R.emrnIng. now' to d'le li.gh,t effects whj.d}, i~ has been the chief object ro' i~v~sti,g.ate, ~t is ltbought p:foper to. divid.e these effects .into four classes: L Incandescence ofa solid. 2. Phospho,res.cen.re. ~. Incandesceace or phosphoresceece of .a ,flll~ef.led . .gas; and 4. blmlnos]ly produced in a gas a~ ordlmuypressure. The first quesHon ,~s;: How are these luminous. effects produ(ed? 111 order eo answer this ,,);uestton, :3.S siiHsfaarorlly as: I am able to do la. the light 0'£ aocePbed viewsaadwith the experience ~cquired, and to add some h~tetfs.t·bo th~s demonstranoe, I shall d'\veU here: upona feature which I ,c-OM(der of great impplrtan.oe, . inasmuch ~s i!~ pcomises, besides, to Ul.I:OW :a be:t~er ~igh~ upo~the narur,eof ~Qst of the pheJlom.e'~aprod:u,ed by higl:'ru~frcquency c,lectrkcunents. I have on other OCCM]OLl;S pointed out the gre,at im,poitance of the presence of the care/Ied '. ga.::h (lratornlc medium ip g€neral~ around theeonductor thlough which eltematecurrents of :high "irequeng .are pas;sedj, :a§ !e;g~[.d5 the beating of the cond.ucto,r by ,thecunen.ts. lI{y experiments, described some ti.mC;lSQ:) have shown that, the hlg:heit" the .frequenqr' and potential d[ff,er~n()~ of the currents, th.ernote impo,Eta:nt becomes the rnr,eiiea gas in. wh,k~h. the c.onduclw.r is j mmersed, as; :a ra!Clto,r of the hea t,i, rD;,g. The PQ~~'.flHaI difference, ll~.we'ver~~s~ us I fhc.n pointed out, a mote important clement than the frequency,. When. both of these are suffIdcllU.y hi8h~ the h,eai~h"lJg ,m~y be almost cntir¢ly due eo the presence of the rarefied gas, Th.e experiments to .foUow w.iU show the im,pottancc of the' Eare.fied gas~. oe, gen:em].].y', of gas ·a:t oldina9" or. otffile.[ pressure Ml'egl1fds the lncandesc--e(l!cc or othe.:.- luminous: eff.r:cts produced bY' currents 'Or this kind .. ,:

1. take two old~na.ry 'O .. vole 16, C. P. ill amps, whichare In. ~f,e'!y respect alik~~ with the ,*c{:.ption~ that onebas been openedat the top and the air has, f~Ued' the bulb, while' the ~cir is at the' 'otdinarydeglee of '~hausti:on ·o.f roun.me,rcI~l lamps, Whe~ i attach the .l~rutI,p whkli ,is exhausted to the terminal of :thie 5!eoond~ty' of the c~a, whkh I haye ,already used) as in e;~ped.mefitsIUustf;lb~\d III Fig. l;a. fG.rinst~:uce~ Md. turn ~ on the rurrent~· the filament, as you ha v e before seen, cO'mes~o h.igh:. i.nad!?!t!Soena:::. 'Wo'lilcn I attach the second .r~mp, whi~h ms lined. with. ak~ instead of die fO.rIDIe.E~ . the fwlamentstillglows" but milch. less brightly. This experiment .~ Uush-;ates only in part the tmt_h. or the smtemenm before, made. The imporronce of the fnam~nt's.be~ng immersed. in rarefied .s,a,s is .plainly nat'[oeabl!t,! but O<l't to such a degree as mig)ht be dlesh:able. The re~$on is th,aJt the secondary of this coil ~ wound .for low te.[]siQn~havIng 0.0.1,1.500 turns, and the potentIal dUference at tl.lJe terminals .of the lamp is th~~eJoresJjllllL W ereI to take another (DH with many mote turas in the .sc(on~atjl the ,e:ffOOl: would. be increased, since it depends p~ftJa.ny on ~hepoten,t,(a~ difference, as bcfo.r¢ r-cma.rk~d. But. since the effect likewise depends on the ft,equlency~ itmn.y be propedy stafe<3that it depends un the tIm.e rate of the v\l!dation. .o'l. the potentia~

" dif fe~fen(c.TI1!C gr(~ate!l' thIs 'lIada:tion~ rIle more important becomes the gas as 90 e~emcnt of hcati:ag. I COla produce a much gre.1.~crr.a~e ,()t variaJio·n in nnother w"Z!!Y'~ "Wrl"lJk.h~resj(lcs~ h~s . the -advantage of "d()i~g !14W.ay ,vith the objectioas, which m[,ght· be made 1111. the experiment just sho:wn~ even if boththe lamps were .(onn.eded inser;~es Of mllUj'p~'~' arc tothecoil, .n,am~~y, t;:h<'ht in coos!cquen~ of tile f:emctio[l,s :existiugbetw"ee.n the p,rimary and secofldary co1.[tne .. conclusions .are . rendered. uncCfe\1~n.Th.i$ result J sct-u'rc by cha,rging. fr·oman. ,ordinary [,mnsformer which is fed from the alternating- earrent sU'p'p~y: :sta,tion~. a battery of coodeosers, ·aD:dd.i~iCh<lrg~.ng ~h.c laUe~ dI.rect:ly through ::D; circuit Qf small s;elf-jndl1(it:ion~ as before ~nust~ared in Fi£, .. 19a., 19ba:n.d 19<:.

In ]fIgs. 22a, . .22b and 22c~ tbe ,heavy co,PIler bars . .BBJ[~are cnnnected to the opposite QO;lt[UgS of <'I. ba.ttc'g1' of condensers, .or genci1:aUy in .such, wny, d~.lt the hIgh frequ.etu:y Or

"'n1CP'''' d··J"""h·-:O".i"I\'" r made " "'v'" I' ,tIL... ''1' t·· .~ ..• ' .. /io< . .,_.J'." .. - "'0-'--']11.

"' __ Q ... n . --,",'''~''''~.5'':S "'_'" ,a ',", !.i.V !!.I,ra. ersc .uem. ..IlOO.l1nec. )!:lrs~ an ofUlmlfY ;J .-vo .. ",

L-141

incandescent lamp to the bars by means .of the damps C C. 'The discharges being passed' through the lamp, 'the filament is rendered i~nde.scent; though .t~e current through it is 'very smaU~ and would not be ne.adfsuffir].e~t "'t~ p.roduce 21 visible. effect underthe conditions of ordinary useof the lam,p'. Instead. ~f this I now ~Ua& to. the bars another ~amp exactly like the First, but with the seal broken off;. the ,b~b beiu,g: therefore fi.~]ed with' ttir at ordinary pressure. When. thedi&~.tig~s are directed thfO~~. the filament" as before; ~t does not become incandescent. Bcit [Qe result .~8ht 'still be attributed to one 'Of the many possible reactions, I therefore connect both, ~the. lamps, in multiple areas illustrated in Fig. ~2a,.Passing the discharges through both tb~ )aml's. a.gaJn the filament in the exhausted Jamp I glows "very brightly whH~ that in tbe n~n;o exhausted lan1p.t 1 remains dark, as ,Previously. But it, should not be ~th()ugh:t t_hat the latter i~mp~$, taking only w sm~H fraction of the 'ener:gy supplied to bqlli the .l~mps; ,09 the' contm£YJ It m~y' consume a considerable portion of dlecnergy and it. l)lay_ooco~e even hotter than the' one w4ich bums brighdy'. In this experiment the po~:enHa_l difference atthe terminals ,of. the lamps varies in. .sign thcor,etka]]y three .to four million times« . . second, The: e~ds of the' fib.m.c·i)~arcco.nesponding].y clectelflcd, a,n,(;i the gis. in, the . bulbs .is vwoE,entry. agitatedan~ a Iarge portion of . the' supplied energy !~ thus converted into heat, In the non-exhausted btdb~ there being a few million. times: more gas molecutes. than in the e.ma.tastoo. one, the bombardment; which is most violent at t~e endsof th,e.

- Fig. 2:2a,. '

Fig, 22b.

Fig. 22c. '

filament, in. the neck of the. bulbi consumes a 1a~SC' portion of the energy without p.rodudn,g any visible effect, The .r,eas?n is that, there being many molecules, the bombardment is quantita:~ively considerable, but the individual impacts are 'not 'very. violene, as the speeds ,of the molecules are compa,r;3ti,vely small owing to the small free path. In the exhausted bulb, -on the C-Ollta.ry, the speeds arc y,e:rygre:ht~ end the Individual impC!c1s are v,~olent and thc:rCforebeucr ad~pt-ed to produce n visible effect. Besides, the' convection ,of heat is gll'cnrer' Jill the former bulb. En. both the bulbs the current ttav~fslng' the fil~ments Is: v,cry smaU,: il~compatabJy smaller than that which !they' C"cC]uU'e on an ordmary low-frequency circmt, The potential difference, however, at the' ends of the Filaments is vcry grca:t and might he !)os:sib[y .20~OOO volts or more, if tlte f Hnments were straight a nd ~hcir .~nds fa r ,aport. In the o,d] nury Iamp a sparkgc.ne raUy occurs between rhc ends of the filament or between the plafinum wires 'outside, before such 3: d[ffercnc-c of potential au); be reached ..

. . It mJght;be. o_b_j-e~~:'~d t~a,t in ~.'~ ,exf,erimerrt before shown the lamps, being il!l multiple arc., tile exhausted lamp rrught take a much larger current and that Ule effect observed might not be exactly attributable to, the actiOn! of the gaS in the' bulbs, Such objections win 10-5e much we~ght If J connect the lamps in series, with the same resuft, \'(I'hen this Is done and the-discharges are dleected through the filaments, it is again noted that the filament in the non-exhausted bulb ,il remains. dark, while that in'the exhausted one' (I) glows even more intensely th~ll, under its normal conditions ,of

,

worldng,.Fig:.22b. A(cord~r.lg rogener.al ideas the current through t'he filaments should now be tbe same) were it not modified! by the pres,cnce .of ~CB3::S around ~bc' .f~~aments.

At this Juncture I may point out another in~eresti.ng: feature, which iUustrares the effect of the· n.teofchange- of potent~al of t~ecutlents. ] will Ieave the hV·Q lamps. cenneered in series to the~ bars .BBlI!' as 'in the previous experiment, Fig. 22b,. but will p'cesendy reduce. ro,n.sid:er~.bly. the .. f requency of the ruucntst which .. W:lS excessive in the exper.~ment just before shown. This ]I m!lly do by inserting a self-induction coil in. the p<.i!th of the d.isch.atges~. (If by a:ugrtl,ooting the capacity of the condensers, When ,I now' P(l!SS these low~f[eque]"JJcy discharges through thelamps, the exhausted lamp.J ~gaJn is; as brjght as before; hut it is' noted also tH:il.lt the' non-exbausted lamp .llg)OW.S, H10Ugh not qu:ite as intensely as the other. Redo.c~ng the current throllgl~the Jamps~ I ~nay bring the filament in the btter lamp to redness, and, though the filament in the exhausted lamp 1'. is b:right. Fig. 22c, the deg~ee oJ its incandescence .is: much smalle.c ~hanin

Fig. 220, w.hcn, the currents were of a much higher frequency. .

In these ,experiments thegas acts .i n two opposirewnys in determln i ug H".!!c degree of the incandescence of the f]~arneri.ts. that is, byconvt'{tiooOilnd. bombardment. The h~8hcr the frcquencyand. potcnti.aI of fh,ccurrcfl~s,. the mcre jrnportant beccrues tbe bom.dardment. The convection en the contrary should be the smaner, the h]ghcr the frequency. \;{Ihc1.1. the cuncuts arc steady ;thcre~s pr.l~:tkaHy no bombnrd men t., and convection J.nay ehcrefore with such currents also consider;1lb[y Jnoo[fy rhe degree of lnC::I,nde.stcnoeandi produce results similnr to, these just before shown. Thus." if two lamps ex:act]:y .allke, one exhausted and one not exhausbcd~afe connedctl .hl muHjlli~k arc Of seeies to a. d.ire(t:~cui-rc:nt machine, the filament in itbiC !lon~aha!us:led lampwill require a ooillJ!iidfI'ably gt-eater current tn be rendered in,candes1cl:nt.This result is entire1y' due tGoon.veai.on, and the ,effect is the more prom.IJ1J.ent the th.[nnc[·· the filament. P''9fe.ssorAYliwn· and Mr, Ki~Bour some too.eago published quantitalt~vc results oor.u:~rning the ~hennal emiss.~vity by .rad.iatwona:nd .convection inw.Mcli the effect wiln thin wires was de.a:rlyshown. This effect. may be strikingly illustrated- by pieparlag :l number of sma] 1,. short, glass mbes,eadl O')ntaintfJJg throughi,t.s, ax~s the thinnest obt:linable· ill'la~:inum wire. If these tubes be' ]~ighlye::lh;lus~ed~. a number of them. may be Con neeted ~n multi ple arc to a direct-currcnzmachineand ~11 of the wires may be kept

fill< .' .,..... .' des ""'·- ·c'" 'wi"h, .5' 1'"',:111 .. · ·r~''''''ii}r t::~"i"c fL.- *' . An .~ .. _ .. "l ~. . "".l .... , . '-;14 c· c' ta ~ - 0'[

.'11. UlJ!...,fI. .... ~ n"" ..... ;!,! .. hL .. "".[ _f""fll. ~~~,n '~n.;1I .. [i_'lu[re,u ~DrenGlc,r .1ncanillC'Sttn. .a SUlQ C

one of the wires if the tube be' not exhausted. Could. tbe tubes be :so·bighly exhausted tha,t ·oonved;[on would be nil, then the relative amounts of beat:gi ven off by convection and l';Jl!d~at1on could be determined wl.th.out the difHa.ditic$ atlt(ndiogth~rmal quantibtive

.. measurements. If a .source of electric Impulses, of .high freq.ucncya.ndv~.ry high po~et.ltial isC'mploy~dta still ,g~,eater number of the tubes may be t:at;:enand. the wires rendered incandescent by acurrent not capaMc of warn'lingpe.:rceptibly a. \vi!l.'e of thesame size

. d i ,. d , d"h -. '11 f h

-"1::-':-';-':" "':,1' --" _I"· _"11,1- I.~--·,,~ :'1,-,-- :_. '-,~,_'_ ',I-:!"_I"" .',,- ,'.', -0'-,: I: I' ';,-;-' -:- '~I:- ':": - -~'I

immerse m.au~ at Of. Ul!:lry pressu,H~, 3J1J . oon.veym,Q' t e energy to .9._-" 0 t. em.

I may here describea result which Is .stm more in.tC!resting,. and to w,hich .1 have been Jed by the observation of these l)henomen~.E noted Uu.itsm.aIld.i.ffe.rcnce.s in the deus~ty of t~e air produced :;1. considerable djff~ren,re in .the degree of incandescence ofthcwircs, and I thoU81"lJt U~)t~ since in n tube·, through whlch n hrmlneus- discharge is p01sscd~ tbcg~s is genfmUy .n,o~t ,oftmlform density" a vcry thin wire contained in t~e .... tube mig~t ~e rendered incandescent at cfdainplaccs. of smaller cl.ensity 01 the g.as~ wl'ule it would. remain dark alt the places of gEc~ter density. where the conveetioa wl)uld. be .gI",earer and thebomba.rdn~enit less .. intense; Aocpcding!y a tub~· I. w.asp[.~pated~,as nl~stratcd~nF]g,. 23,. which contained t:luou.gh the mlddle ~vcJ:y fmeplat.muul wire w. TI~c robe was exhausted . toa moderate degree and itwa') found that when ,it was att~:IiC~hed [0: the tcrm.~nal of a h~gh~rf~qu,ency coil ehe pIa:dauJU" wire rl~ wou.M indeed, OeCiO.mC incandescent ~n patches, as JUust·r.ated·in Fig. 23,. Later a number·of these :tubc$ whh one or more wires wc:rc·prept'l.rcd, each S.I.10\ving this rc.stl~t. '~he effect

L~143

was best noted when the striated discharge occurred in the tube, but was also produced when the striae were pot visible, sho'Wo"~ng that) 'even then, the gas in the tube waS! not or uniform deos]ty. The position of the striae was generally such, that the rarefactions corresponded to the places of .i[J.QJ;ndescence or greater brightness on the wire rd. But in, a few instances it was noted, that tIle br igh t spots On the "IV ire wert covered by the denseparts of the striated dlsdrargeas indicated by ,I in fig. 23, though the effect was b~l[dype~(eptib[e.. This was - ex plai ned . in a. plausible way by assuming._ that the - convection was not wide[y different .in the dense and rarefied places, and that the bombardment was greater on the, dense places of the striated disch;u",ge. ~t ISJ In fact.

ofteo observed in. bulbs,. tha.t under certain conditions n thin wire is, bwu,ght 't-ohig!lec incandescence when the air Is not too highly rarefied .. This is the case when the potenJt~al' of the coil is not hJgh enotl,g;t) for the vacuum, but the result may· be attributed to l'llany ,hfferent causes" In an cases this ('!U.lOUS phcrm~li.,enou. of .incandescence disappears wheri the rube, or rather the wire, acquires d.uougho'ut a. unl form te.mpetature.

Di.s::rega,rdin,g now the mod.jfy.ing effect of convecticn there are then t:w-o dist:inc:t causeswhich determine the incandesceocc oJ awire or filament with vary~ng currents, that is, conduction current and bombnrdrnent, With :steady corrects we have to de01~ on[ywiith the former of these two causes, nnd the hC!ath1g: effect is a min~inum. since the' resistance is ,k:ast to stc:1dyHow.Whe.n. the current is a Y:I,rying one the resistance 13 greaeer, and hence thehc[I;ting effect is increased .. Thus If the rate ,of changeof the rnrrent is very gr.c~Jt) the resistance nla:y increase to such an extent that the fihunent is brought to Incandescence with inappredable currents, and we arc able to take .1 short and thick block of carbon or other material and bring it to bd:g:ht incandescence with ? CU[CeI1iJt incomp'ml~ly. s.~n~[.[crthan .. :hat requl.red to bring to the same degree of incandeseenee an ord!ln'<l.E)'" tnm lnmp filament 'w~ili a ,steady or low f[eqtH~:iI];CY eaerent. T~is result is important, and illustrates how rapidly our views on these suh}~cts arc:

l.-144

cffilan.ging~ and. bowquicldy our field of knowledge ~s extending. in the-art o.fincafldesCien~ light]ng,. to view this [(,"Suh Jn one aspect: only~. it Eus' been (ommon.~y considered <1S anessential requirement for practical success, that the lamp filanrent should be thin and of h]gh res.istance. But now Woe ilmow that the: resistance of the filament to thes~e.ady' now does not mean anything:; .thefihment .miglh~ as weU be shcreand thick;. toe if .it be immersed in tarefied gas ,~t w~n become incandescent by the pass:;!,gc of. a small currear, It aU depends .,.on the f!re<]:uency and, ,potential ,of the currents. We maY' cDncl.uclc' from this, that it wculd be of ndvnnbge!, so far 00 the Iamp js considered, to cmp~oy high frequenciea for ~~ghth:JJgJns they,aUow the usc of short and thick filaments. -and

smaller currents. ' ,

If a wire or filament be immersed in a homogeneous medium~lU the lu:!ating is due to true condu.ction current, but if it be enclosed in. an cxnrl!l'I$~ed vessel the ,oond~tjons are entirely different, Here the gas be-gillS to act and. th.chc.at:l~g effect 9£ the condllctjon current, as is shown in mRny experimeats, may be vet:y' smaU compared "i'idth. that 0·£ the bombardment. This is; especiaUy the case if U~e circuit is .not do~e~ and the potcnt~als, aee of eoursevery bfgb. Supposcthat a fine :filament enclosed. in an.: exhausted vessel be' connected wU:h one ,of .its - ,ends '00 thee~.[~imd of a high tension toil and w!:th its other end ~o a. far,ge insu.latoo p~ate..~h(Jugh du~ drw~t is,· not (~cis_ed~; tbe faament~ as I have before shown~ is brought to incandescence, l~ . the frequency .':~nd l'otent'~a1 be comparatE.v,ely low, the filament is. heated by the current p.a.ssiag th'P01lgh it; If the fr(~quC'ncy and, poil:e.ntJatand pldne:lpftUytne matter" be: incr~ru;ed~ the .l.[tsuJaJed plate need be but l'lery small, or may be done nwn.y with efitLr~ly; stitE the fl1~ulient will becemc incandescent; pr~Citicany an t"H~hc~Hng behlg then due to the bombardmen t.. A practical way ofcom.blnl:ng both the ,eficats ,of coriduct'i.Q!1L currents and OOmbaldm.ent ,]s HUustraled ~n .F1g;. 2,4~, .~n which an ordimltq' lamp is shown ,provided with a v'cry"min, filament w.hich has one o.fthe ends (~·f the laue.t conneoted· fila shade serving the. purpose of the insulated plate, and the other end. to' the re.rmirial of a hi;g4 tension ;sQur'Ce. It should not bethought that only rarefied gas is an ,im,pD.:ftant fado~ in ,the heating of a conduetor by varying currents, but gas: at ofd~na:ry pressure'.may become,~mportanti if the poi~entia~ diHe.r·enceand fr,eque~cy, of d-w(!; -currents is excessive, On th~s. subJect, ] have already stated, that when a cendncror is 'fused by 'ft. stroke of l(ghtn~ng) thecur . rent thw:ugh It may beexc«din,gJy small, noteven ;sufficient to' heat theQol1dudorpc~cc.ptibly~ were

the matibL~::r immersed lrl: a 11omogenoott5 m~d(um. .: -', -

,Fwm the pE'C(cding it is de.ar d:mt when a conductor of high resistanceis counected tothetetminals (:If a source oihIghfrequeocy cerrents of .hlSh po bent ial, there-may occer considerable dissipation of energyt. p.rinc.ipally at the ends 'Of, ~hc: conductor, Jn wnsequen~ of th.eactioo of the gas :suUQufidli1g the eondaetcr ... , Owing to' tbis~ the, current th.r,otlgh a section ,of the conductor ,at a po~int midw'ay between its eads nuy he much: smaller than tbwugllc a section near fhe ends, Furthermore, the eurrent passes ' prindpaUy thro,ug1h the O'l1te;f portions of the condu.ctor,. but this effect is' ~to be' diS.tinguisl'l.cd fr,om the' skin. effect as o,fdjlla:rllyjnterpr,eted~ for' the iattt:['WOuld, (~~ should, occue also in 9, continuous i!]:conlprc,ssjbIeJ~cdjlnt If a. gr,ca:t lt1::my .~uca,n;deSccllt lamps are connected in series to 3l source of. such cnrrents, the lamps at the, ends' may burn bdghdy) whereas those ~nthem[dd~e may remain entirely dark, This is due p:dnd pally to bombudmcnt~as before stated, Buteven if the currents be steady) prqvided the dfUetcnce olf potential is ,\H!'ty gr'eatt the "mamps at the end will burn mete brightly' ~h;!m fbOcse iff the middle. In such case thc,re' is nothythmkal bomha[d:lnen~,. and the result is produced enti[~Jjr by leakage. This ~eakage 0.1' dIssipo:Hon into space when, t11e tension is high,. is considerable when ,i nca.n.de.scent lamps are. used, and still meee ccnslderable widl arcs, for the Jetter an like .n~un'es.Gen.era.~ [y, of course, the dissipaHon l,s mum smallee with. stea.dy~ than wHhv:u'Ying~ currents.

L-.145

I bavecontrived an experiment which [llustrates in an Intercst.ing manner the effect of ]at,era~ diffusion. If a very long tube is attached tothe _ te'.tmin~l Qf a h~8h .lIequency .. coH, the IuminosityJs ,g;ceat.est near the' terminal and falls off gladuaUy towards, the

remote ,end.Thjs is mote marked if the tube is narrow, .

- - - .

A small tube about one-half Inch h'i diameter and twelve inches long (F.ffig. 2:5)~ has one of its ends d.rawn out into a fine fibre f ucadyth.ree feet long; The tube ]8 placed j n a brass socket T wh lch can be screwed on. the terminal TIL of the .~ ndu-cth:ul witTIlc dis,charge passh1g through the tube first mum.ina~es, the bottom of the same.

:FIg. 26

whid.1 is '0£ comparatively large section; but through the long glass fibre the discharge cannot ,pass. But gradua.lly therarefied gas inside becomes warmed and more conducting and the discharge spreads into -the g[ass fibre, This s'1?"r,e,lld.[ng is so slow, that it: m.ay take half a minute or more untll the discharge has worked tluough up to the top of the glass fibce, then prcs,enting. the appearance of a strongly luminous thin - thread. By. adjusting the potential alt' the terminal ,the ],~ght may be' made to travel upwards at any speed. Once. however. the glass fibre is heated, the dIscharge breaks thr,o;ug'h its entire length .[llSlanUy. The interestingpoint to be noted. is that, the higher the frequency of ~he' currents, or in other words, the greater relatively the lateral diss,ip(ltjO!n~ at a slower rate mar the light be made to propagate through the fibre, This experiment .is; .best performed with a h.igh[y c~ha:ustc:d and freshly made rube. Whe~n. the tube bas. been. used for.' SOO1C time the experiment often fails, It is possible that the gradillZlil and slow impairment of the vacuum is the cause. This slow propagation of the discharge through a Vf!'ry narrow glass tube corresponds exactly to the ffOl)agation of heat through a. bar warmed at one end. The quickc·r the heat is carried u:way laterally the longer time it will take for the heat' to warm the remoteend, \When. the current of a low frequency coil is, passed through the fibre from, end Ito, end, then the lateral dissipation is small and. the discharge .!nsta:u.t1y b:eaksthrougha]mo\5t withoutexception ..

L~146

A ft,er these experimeatsand observations which. have shown the irnporeance o·.f the d~scontinuityo.r atclln.k structure ,of the medium and whkh '\vHI serve to explain, in a measure at least, the nature of the four kinds of light effects produdble with these currents, I may now give you an. illustration of these effects. for tile sake of interest .Imay do, th~s!n rt: manner wh.kh to many of you might be novel, You have seen before

, . th 1 . "k' b d b f a sinal

that we may now convey .' ne e ectnc v.~iUrabon to a: . 0 y .y means o· a sm.g~e· WJ,l'C 0',1'

conductor of any kind .. Since the human frameisconducting I m~y convey the vibr-ation

through my bo.~y.. . '

First, as. in some previous experiments, I connect my bo.dy with one (I·f the terminals of a h~gh-:tensi()n transformer and. take in my hand. an exhausted bulb whicb contains n small carbon button mounted upon :11. pla.:tinunl wleeleading to the outside of the bulb, and the button is rendered incandescent as. soon as the transformer is set to work (Fig. 26) . .I may place a conducting shade on ehe bulb which serves. to iatensify the action, but it is not necessary. Nor .is it required ~hat the button should be in conducting connection

Ft~. 27.

Fig. 28.

with the hand thr.ough n wire .[[C',ading through the glass:! for su.(fj·dcnt energy may be transmitted tluough. the' glassitself by indluctive!' action to render the button incandescent.

Next I take' a hi.g:hly exhausted buJbOOli1lbining a strons;]y phos,phoresc~nit body', above 'wh~dl is moanted a. small plate of aluminum on. a pln.Hnwn wire leadin.g· to the outside, and the currents flowing through my bod¥ excite intense phosphceeseeaee ~n the bulb (Fig.' 2,1). N·ext again I take in my hand a simple exhausted tube .. , and .. in t!he same manner the gas jnslde the tube .is rendered highly incandescent or phosphorescent . (Fjg. 28). F~na1ly" Im<1y take in my hand. a wire, bare or covered with dlick insula;ti.on~ it is quJte .immaterial; the dectrkal vibration is so intense as to cover the 'wire with

a luminous film (F~g. 29). . .

A few words must now bp devoted to each of these phenomena. In the first place, I will consider the incandescence (lEn button 0[' of a .so~ia in .gener,al, and dwell -upon. some factswhidl apply equally to all thes·(: phenomena, It was pointed out beforethat when a thin conductor" such as :l Iamp filament, £0.[ Instance, is connected with one of its ends to, the' terminal 0'£ a transformer of bigh tension the Filament is brought to ~ncandescence' pardy by·3., cenductioncurrene aad partly by bombardment .. The shorter

. and t:hkker the {ilruncn.t the more imporbne becomes the Tatter, and finally,. reducing the filament to a men!' button, all the heating must .practkaUy be aUribntedi to the

L-147

bombardment. So in the experiment ~efor,eshown~. the button is rendered incandescent by the rhythmk:al impacto.f freely movable small bodies in 'the bulb. These bodies may be the molecules of the residuafgas, particles of dust or lumps torn from the electrode; whatever they. are, it Is certain. that. the heating ,of the button js essentially connected with the pressure ,of such freely movable partidest or of atomic matter In general in the bulb, The heating is the: more intense the greater the number of Impacts per second 'and the greater the en.ergy of each impact. Yet the button would be heated. also if it were connectedto a source of a steady potential, In such a. case electricity would be carried. a~:ay from the button bY' the freely movable carriers orpadides Hying about, and the quantity ofelectridty thus carried :away might besuf.f.kient to bring the button to incandescence by its passage through the latter, But the bombardment could not be of great importance 'in such case .. For this reason it would require a. "ompru:ativeJy 'veq ,great supp[y of ~nergy to the button to maintain it at jncand:esc,ence' with a steady potent[al The higher the frequency .of the electrlc Jmpulses the' more

Fig. 29.

FiB. 30.

Fig. 31.

economically can the button be' maintained at incandescence, One of the chief reasons why' this is so, is, I believe) that with impulses, of W!ry ,high frequency there is less exchange ot the freely movable: carriers around the electrode and this means, that in the bulb the heated matter is better confined to the neigbborhood of the button. If ~ double bulb" as. illustrated in Fig, 30 be made, comprising a, large globe B and, a small one b,each ro,ntaj[l]!ig, as US,Uo,[ a filament f mounted on a platinum wire' wand. WIt it' is found, that if the filaments f f 'be eX'llct.[y alike" ~t requires less cl1·ergy to keep the filament in the globe b at a certain degree of incandescence, than that in. the globe B. This. is due to the confinement ofthe movable parddes around the button. In this ,CMe i:t is a [so ascertained, tlliD:.t the f ilarnent in the small ,globe ,l; is less, deteriorated when maintained a certain length ,of time at incandescence. ntis is a necessarY' consequeace of the fact that the gas ,in the small bulb becomes s:trongly heated :md therefore a very good conductor, and Jess work Is then performed on the patton,. since the bombardment becomes less intense as the condurti vity of the gasincre~s.es;. In th~s. CQDS trueti on, of cou rse, the small bu I b becomes, very hot and when it reaches an elevated temperature the convection and radiation on the outside increase. On another occaslon I have shown bulbs in ~11kh this drawback was largely avoided . In these Instances a very 51.naU bulb" containing a. refractory buUon~ was mounted in a Iarge globe and the S.P.1CC between the walls of both was highly exhausted, The outer large globe remained comparatively (001 in such constructlons, W,hen the largeglobe was on the ,pwnp and

,1..-,148

the vacuum. beeween the walls maintained pe,rmanent by the colltinuom . action ·o·f~h'e pump~ thecntee ,globe would remain g_uiteoold~ whife the bUi~tofli in the small bulb was k,ept a.t' .~.ncandes(lence. But when the sed was made, alld the button in the small bulhmaietained Incandescent seme length of tim.e~the farge gloDe: too would become warmed, :F.mmthis I conjecture ~:hat: U~Cl!iOUS spilce (as Prof. Dewar finds) 'cannot

h ..._ ·r·· _ f· '..]1' ~ ~u

convey eat, rt sssomere y m vrrtue 0',' Qut.l'ap,g,ymOhOn hltoUg~~ .sp-a(eo[~ ,general!Y

sp~ing" by thcm,ot]on cf the medium relatively to us, fo.r a, permaaent condirioa could not be maintained without the medium being constantly renewed, A. vacusm cannotta.cooraiug ito all evidence, be _permanently .malntaineda.round. a hot body.

In. these constructions, before meneioned, d.ue s~"tn bulb ,runs,~de wo,uid, at least in the' first stages. prevent al] bombardment agaJns:t .the oo.te[ large g~obe'. It occurred to me then to. ascertain how a metal sieve would behav,e in this respece, and several bulbs, as Illustrated ill Fig. 31, were prepared for this .purpose., In a globe b, was; mounted a thin filament f (0.[ buUan)u,pon. a p,hlHnut.n wiretu passing eheough aglass stern and Ieading to the .outs~de of the globe', The filament f was surrouaded by a metal sieve s. H was found in experiments-with such bulbs that a sieve with wide meshes apparently did not in th.e sl~ght~st aHoct the bombardment agaInst theg1.o1Je v.When the vacuum was higb.~ the shadow of [h.e sieve was ,deady projected against the globe and. the J,atter would get hot in a short while, In some bulbs the s,~e:vc J was connected to 31 platinum. wire sealed. in the g~ass.When tMswir,e was ooan~wd to· the ot1""er terminal of the indu.ctionGoin (the E, M. F. beingkcpt low in. th.is.case), or to an Iesulated pb.tc, the bombardment a,gaiflst the outer glo~,c b was dimin.~shed.By taking a sieve with fine meshes the bombardmentagainst the globe l;. was always d.iminished) but even then. if 'tile e·x.htmsHon ·wns. carded very iar~ andwhen the potentIal ,of the trn.nsform.er was very high,. U'DJe' globe b would be bonwWlirded and beated qU~c'kly). though no shadow ,of the sieve was vjsjble~owing tot-he smallness of the meshes, But a gless tube or otiJ.1cr continuous, body mouatedso as to surround the. fjlament, diJd ,ent~.rely cut off the bcmbardment and fora while the outer globe h would remain per£ectly cold. Of course when the g~:a$s tube was sufficiently heated the bombardmerll: :ag.ai~st the outer g]obe could be noted at once. TIle ,exper1ments wall these bulbs seemed to show that the speeds of the projected molecules -or partieles 11I1U51: be considerable (though quite insignifka:lltwhenmrnpilired with t.hat of]]gM)~ otherwise it would be diiffadt to understand how thcyoould traverse <'I. fine metal sieve without being affected, unless it 'were 'found that such small pactid,es ec ntoms cannot be acted upon d.lmcdy at measurable. distances. Inrcsard to the speed of the projected atoms, Lord Kelvin has recently estimated Hat· about one kHo'mctrc a. second or tllereahOUitts. 10 an cedi na:ry Crookes bulb. As the potcnHn]s obtainable with a disnlj?ti,vc d:iscl1JMge oo~n arc much higher thnnwith Q£cHoa.ry co,.i[s, the speeds must, of WI,H:Sie, be muchgreate,[ when the bulbs ar-e I.rghted from .. such :L coil. Assuti.1in8 the speed to. be f:IS high as five kilometres a:n.dlmifonn through the' who~e tr.aJeowry, as it should be in a vcqr .h~gh[y c:dlOlusted vessel, 'then. if thealternsteelectrificatioas of the ele·ct:rodewou]d he of it freq,uency' of ri vemillion, ~he gIea:te;s:t distancea palt[de couldgct away from the electrode would be one millimetre, and if it ~ourd be acted upon directly at that disteuce. tbe exchange ()f e~,ectrode matter o~ of the atoms would be very slow and there would be practically nn bombardment ;ng:tinst d1C bulb .. ThisaJt_ least .should be so" if the ncth)n of an e.lectrode upon the atoms of the res~dua1 ~. would be such. as upon electrified bodies wbkh we can perceivc.. A hot body enclosed in. i'l.n eXhausted bulb produces always ato,mic bOifllba.rdm .. ent, but a hot body~i~S, no dcfinjh~' rhythm,. lor· it,smok'c\l~es perform]

v.~bra:tions ·o,f aU kinds, , '

If a bulb containing a button or filament "be exhausted as, hig.h as is posslble with the g:r~a:~e5t care aihd by the use of th~ bes~· .' artifices, i~ is often observed tll~t the d[scha.r:ge cannot, at first, break throu.gh~ but, after some time, Prob.1b.~f in consequence

L~149

o.f some: changes withIn the bulb, the cHscha:r;ge finaUypasse'5 through and the button is rendered incandescent. In fSiict,. it appears. that tbe higher the degree of exnaus:tion the easier is the incand.escence pmd.uced,' There seem to be. no othet causes to w.hich theincandescence m{gh.t be attributed in such case ·exo~JPt to the bombard ment or s.lml1a.r action o,fthe .resfdual~~ or- of 'plrtkles of matter in gencllilt But if the bulb be exhausted with thegreatest care em these 'play an important part? Assume the vaeaum in the bulb to be toXe.rably'pel'tect~ the gIea.t~nt-e[~st then centres in the 'question,: Is tfIG medium whim pervades . a;~1 space ,oifi:t~nuD'Us. or atomic? Uart.ami,c,. tlte'fl! the 11e'at.ing of a conducting button or fHament loan exhausted vessel m~ght be due ma~ge,~.y to ether bombardment"a:n.d then the heatIng: 0.1 a conductor iagenera] ·through wb ich currents (If hIgh frcqu..ency or. high potential' are passed must be-modified by the behaV1()r of such medium;' then also the .skin effect,the ap.pa~en.t increase of the ohmic resistance, etc., admit, p:uHaIIy at least, of a ~iff.ere.llt exp~afiaHon. .

It is certaInty more in. accordance with many phenomena observed with :high.frequency currents to hold tffilat!~lspa.ce is perva~ed with Free atoms, rather fl~an to assume thJ;t It is devoid of t1lles,e~aJ:!~ dark and cold, for so. it must be, if filled with. u continuOllS medium, since in .such there can be fJ.e.~~het heat nor might Is then efle:rgy transmitted by independent carriers or by the vibration ofa continuous medium? 'This important qu.esHon -~s; by no means as· yet positively answered, But mose of . the (,:1 feces wJ1-khare here ccnsldered, cspedaUy dJC; Ii,ght effects, incandescence, orphOGpJlo.!escence~ involve the presence of free atems and. would. be impoosib]e withouttllcse.

In re8~a!dbO t:he ~n.OlndeSice.n.ce ofa refractory button (or .f.~~ament) in an exhausted receiver, whtch has been one of the subjects of thts investlgatlon~ the ,chief experiences; wh [en ma;y serve as a guide in (onstCU((idlg such bulbs" ma:y be summed up as follows ~ L The button should he assmall as possible, spherka,~~. of a srnopth or po,Hsh:ed surface, and of relcacto'.ry matc.[]aI whk"b w.ithstands ,evapo-};,ationDest. 2. The 5.u.ppottofrhc button should be very thin and screened by an. alumlnam and m lea .~]lreettas, ] have described on anothe,r occa:stoo. 3. The exhaustion of Hl~':~u[bshouM be as hlah as possible, 4 .. The frequency of the currents should be as high as pmcHcable. '" The

.cuereots should be of a h~rmonk rise and Fall, wlthout sudden lOb~J'1'UptlQns. 6. The heat should be eonfined to tt!;c bnttnn by indosing the same in a small bulb or. otherwise. 7 .. The space between ~e walls 0.£ d,e small bW,band the outer globe should be b~gh]y

exhausted. .,' .

. Most of the' consi4e-';3tionswhich, apply, to the im;a.f3.dcsiCCnce 0.1 a so.nd JUSlt considered may likewise be appl ied to phospiJwtresceJlJcC'. Indeed, in an ~hausted 'Vessel the phosplioresoence Js, ,M a mle, primarily exdte:d by. the powleri'ul beating: n.f. the electrode stream of atoms againsttlle phos_phoresacfilt hody" .Ev-en in. many cases, where there Is noevidence of such a bombardment, I ,think tha:c phosphorescence ws excited by violent impacts of' ato.ms~whkh ale not nccessad1y thrown ioff from the electrode but are acte:d. ilpon from the same inductlvelythrough the medium or through 'Chl~[}S '0'£ ather ait:Olus: That mechardad shocks p:~ay an important part in exdt[ng: phesphorescence in ~ bulb may be' seen from the following e:<pedment.. If a bulb, constructed. as flla,t illustrated in .Fig. 'lO~ be taken and. exhausted with the g:teates.t care so U1.aot the discharge cannQ:t pass" the .tilal:nent f acts by electrosta"tWc. induction ~.pQn the tube t and the latter is set In vibration, If the tube obernther wid.e~Uibout an inch 0.1' sn, the f~~ament .illZly be so powerfully vjhrn:ted. that whenever it hits the-glass tube it c:xdtesphos~ phorescence .. Bur the' phQsr~hQ:rcscence ceases when the' .fHarncnt comes to rest The, vibration can be arrested a.ndagain started by varying the frequency offhe rur.ren.ts. Now the filament has its own period of vibr~t.iG)n~ and if the' frequenc.y of the currents is su,ch th;)J;t· there' .~s resonance, lit is easily set V']bmHllg~ though the potential of the eurreats be small, I have often. ,observed that the filament in .~he bulb .is destroyed by such. mechanicalresonance. The f.Hamc·.ht vibrates, as a rule so. n,p.kUytha,t it cannot be seen

and the experimeuter may at first be mystified. Wbe.n such an ex:pcdment as the one described. lsmrefuHy performed, the potential of the currents need be extremely small, and for' this reason I infer that the phosphorescence is then: due to the mechanical shock of the filament a,gairlst the glas;s) just as a is produced by stfikh~ga loaf of ,s'ugar with at kn ife, TIle meeha .. n ical shock produced by the projected atoms is easil y noted when .3: bulb containing a button is grasped in the hand and the current turned on suddenly, I believe that a bu[b could be shattered by observing the ('onditions of resonance.

In the experiment before cited it is, of course, open to say~ that the glass tube, upon coming in contact with the iUament" retains acharge ,of a oedain sign upon the point of conta(r. If now the filament :agaio touches the glass at the same point while' it is opposit,~]y charged. the charges equalize under evolution of light. But nothing of importance would begained by sud} an explanation, It is unquestionable tb~t the initliL charges given to the atoms or to the g:[a:ss .play some part in exciting phosphorescence, So, for iostance, if a phosphorescent bulb be first excited. hy .3., -high f rcqueT1C}' coil by ,con!1ecti:og itto onc. of the terminnls of the bt:tet and the degree' of luminosity be' noted, and then the bulb be: highIy charged from a Ho.lt.z machine by aU:Ilching it preferably to the positive termioal of the machine,' it is found that when the bulb is again conaectcdto the terminal of the high frequency coil, the phesphorescence is far more in~ense. On enothee occasion I have considered the possibility of some phosphorescent phenomena. in bulbs being produced by the Incandescence of an inflnitesimal ~U\yet On the surface of the phospborescent body: Cedo.i.n1y the impact of the atoms is powerful enQugh to produce intense incandescence by the conjs[on:s~sinoe they bring quickly to a high temperature a body of considerable, bu~k._If any such effect exists, thenthe best s.pplia(lCe for producing phospborescence .in a bUlb; whlch we know so fae, is n disrllpt~'!i'e dlseharge coH 8~v,inB an enormous potential with but fevr fundarnental discharges, say 25,-3,0 pC'r second, just enough to produce :l continuous impression upon. the t:y,e.. It is a fact that such a coil excites pbcsphorescenoe under almost any condition and at all degrees of exhaustion, and I have observed effects which appear to be due to, phosphorescence even at ordlnary pressures of the atmosphere, when the potentials are e.;!:trcmeIy high. But if phosphorescent light is produced by the equalization of charges of .electrifled atoms (whatever ,this may mean ultimately), then the higher the frequency of the impulses OJ:: alternate deadHcations. the more economical wiU be the Ii~ght produociora. It is a ~ong knowlil. Mdl noteworthy facttlha:t aU the phosphorescent bodies are poor eonductors 0'1 electricity and h¢:a.t~ and tha:t :aU bodies cease to emit phosphoresoent light when they are broughtto a certain temperature. Conductors on. the contrary do not pos~ess, this quaHty. Tberc are but few exceptions to' the rule. Carbon is one or them, Becquerel noted that carbon phcsphcresces at, a ced~do elevated temperature preceding' the' dark red. Thls phenomenon may be cMHr observed. in bulbs provided with a rather large carbon electrode (s:ay~ a sphereof six mill imetres diameter). If tbecurrentis turned on after a few seconds, a snow white film coven the electrode, just before it,gds dark red, SimiIa.r effect's are noted with other conduct,ing bodies, bttt rna ny scientific men will probably not attribute them to' true phosphorescence, \,'1hether true Incandescence has anything to do with phosphorescence excited by atomic impact or mechanical shocks sHU remains to be decided, b~l:t it isa fact that all co,nditiofis~~ which tend to localize and increase the heating 'effect at the point of impact, are almost inva.dably the most favorable lor the production 'Of phosphorescence. So, if the electrode be' ve.ry small, w.hich. is equivalent too saying In general, tha,t the electric density isgreat; if the potential be high, and if the gas be 'higMy rarefied" an of whkh things imply high speed: of the projected atoms, or ntntrer, aI'.Id collsequcntJy violent impacts - the phosphorescence is ,",ery. intense. If a bulb provided with a. large and small electrode be attached to the terminal of an. induction coil, the small electrode excites phospcres-' ccnce w,hHe the large one may not doso, because of the smnUer e']ed.tic dens ity and hence

. .

L .. 151

smaller speed of the atoms. A bldb provided with a. large electrode may' .be grasped with the hand 'whf[e the electrode is: coaaected to the re,r.m.ina:,~ of the coil and it may no~ phosphoresce; but if Instead of grasping the bulb 'with the hand, the same' be touched with apointed wire, the phos phorescence at once s preads thm1lJ:gh the hulb,because of thcgrc;at density at the point of mntact. Witll low frequendes itsecms that gases of

8', eat,., a :Offi,i,:C,', we, jgh. ',t" ex, c,~,i t,.e n"l~r,"~, j,:fl~ensc ,1'.' h,' ,os,ph.Gr,'. escenc~ ",t.', h.,'an ,,'~,ho, 's, e of, sm, allr.,.r," ,'~", ':, igl,l, t., as for mstance, hydrogen. WIth h[gh fre(_]uenCle5, the observatioesare not ~ffjjC'(ently

re,Hub.lie to dra,w a conclusion, Oxygeut ~ is well-known, produces exceptionally strong effeds, which'may be In part due to dl!cmicalaction. A bulb with hydrogen residue .. seems to 'be most ,eas,Hy excited, Electrodes, which are mosteasily aeferiomreq produce more intense phosphorescence in. bulbs, but the coaditicn ,ws; not permanent because of the .impairment of the vacuum and the deposition of the electrode matter upon. the phosphorescent surfaces, Some "Ifquj,ds, as oils, for jnstmnce, produce ma.gnUkent: 'effects of phosphcrescence (or fluorescencei'), but they last only a few seconds. So If a, bumb hasa trace of 011 on the' walls and theeurrent is turned on a . the ph ." resoenee Ofi~Y persists for ill few moments unt~r the oil is ~rried away.' Of'aU ies so far tI::ded~ sulphide of zinc seems to, be the mast ,snse,eptibic to. phosphorescence. Some samples, obtained through the~dndo:~ss .of Pmf.. Henryhl Pads~ wereemplejed .in many of these bulbs, One (),.f the defects of this sulphide is, that it loses its qu.ality, of emitting Hght when brought to a tem,pemture which Is by no means hi.gJ~. Jtcan therefore, be used only for feeble intensities. An observation which might deserve notice ~s~ tha,f! when vJolenHy bomb.ardCid (rom an. rd.umlnum electrode it assumes a black roJOf~ but singulnrly,enough, it retums to the Qriginal 'ccndition when it C(lO~S down.

The most important fact arrived at in pursuing ir.lve.sti,ga:[[ons in: this direction is) that in all cases it is n~ss,ary~ h~order to excite phQspho,resc,ence with a minimum, amount of c,nergy, to observe certain condiHons.Name.[y~ there isnlways, no matter wbat the froqu,e.ncy of the currents, degree of exhaustion. and character of the bodies ~n the bulb, a. c-edninporenHal (assumrng the bulb excited from one krminal)or po'tentiOllll difference (assmtl.ing the bulb to be exCited. with both terminals) wh~ch produces the _ mostceoaemica! resuh, If the potential be increased, considerable ,ene,rgy may be wasted. without p.rodu:ciflJg any' more light~a:n.d if it be diminishcdlthen agai~ the IJghtprodud.ion is not as ecoaornlcal. The exact coadltion under whkn.lhe best result is obtained seems to depend on many things of a d~fferent nature) ann it is to be yet investigated by otherexperimenters, bu,t it will c_crr,ain.lyha:ve to he observed when such phosphorescent bulbs: are' operated, If the best r€'suhs are to be obtained.

Coming DOW to the most ! nteresting' of these phenomena, the Incandescence or . pbosphoresccnce of gases, at 100w p:H~S:SU res _ or :ilt the onlin ary pressure of the ntmosphere, we must seek the explanation of these JlhenOlnena, in the same plitrHuy causes, tll:at' is, in shocks or .Impacts of then-toms. Just as molecules or atoms bc.aHng upon iL solid body excite phosphoresocnce in d.1JiC same or render it incandescent, so when: coUidJng among themselves they produce similar l,h,enomena,' But this is a. v,cry' insufficient explanation and concerns on]y the crnde mechanism, lIght is produced by vibraticns 'which go on at a rate a[most .h'l,oonceivaMc. If we com pute~ from the cnergY' contained iEli. the form of known red ]aH~~:5 in a defln lites p~c-e the force which is necessary to set up such ra pld vibrations", we find, that. though the dcos]ty ,of the ether be j:nc(U'l~parab]y :H.na~lc'r than. that of <'In.y body we know, even hydwgen, the force is something surpasslf:lg comprehension, \Vhat is this fo;rce~ which in, mechsnical measure .fnay amont tothousands of tons per siqunre inch? It- is; d,ectrostat~c force in the light .of modern views. It is impossIble to conceive how a body ofmeasurabledimenslons - eould becharged to so hIgh ,a, potenHal that the .fo·roe would be sufficient to pr(Iducc' these v.~brntions.Long before any such charge cculd be .jmpatted tD the body it would he' shattered into atoms .. The sun emits light and heat, and so does an ordinary flame or Incandescent filmuent, but ir!l

t-is:

neither of these can the force be ,accounted for if .H be assumed that it, Is .:lSsoda·bed 'with the body as a whole. Only in one way may we account tor it, namely, by Id~ntifying it with the :a.tom. An atom ,is so small, th3it if it be charged by corning in contact: 'With. an e1ectrifiedloody' and the charge be: assumed to follow the same ,~;aw 'as i*~he case 'Ol.f bodies of measurable dimenslons, it., must retaina quantity of e[cdrkity which ~s, fuU), capable of a.(:c:ob.n.ting for these forces and. tremen.dous rates of v.~h!ation. But the atom beheves shlgulady in this respect ~. it, always takes the' same "charge''.

It Is very .Iikely thatrcso~ant v~brationplays. il most: tmportan:t part in all .man.~festaHon$ of en,ergy in nature, 'Throu,ghout ,spa'ce aU 'rnat'tc[£ is vib.ratin.g, and all rates of vibration are represented, f.rom. the lowest .mhskal noteto theb.ighest pitch of the ,chemlaIrays, hence an atom, er complex ,of atoms, no matter what i ts periodt must find a vibutilln with 'wh~ch it ,is In resonance, '\'1hen we consider the 'enormous rapidity 'of the' light vibrations; we realiae the impossibmty' of produd.ng sumvibr,ntimls diredly with any appar:atus, of ll1!easurable' ~Un.~nsions" and we' . 'are driven to the .Q.n~y possiMe means of attaining the :object'of sett~ng 'Up waves of li:,gbt by erectrical means and ec-o.nomic.aUy,. that is; to affect the molecules ora-roms, of a gas) to cause them to collide and vibrate. We then must' ask ourselves - How Ci1l1 free' molecules or atoms be

1"f·-.,3, a.~.cectl:Q •

It is a .fad tbatthey an be affeded. by. electrestatic force, as isapparent in many of these experiments. By 'varying the elcctrostatk force we can. agitate the atoms, and cause them. to ,oo.m.dc a(:compan~ed by evom.utlon ,of heat :1lJ;n.d l~t,. It .is not dem'Onstrated beyond doubt that 'we can affect them otherwise. If alum Incus disdl~ge is produced in a dosed exh:tus.t.ed mbe', do the atoms arrange themselves in obedience lo'af.l!Y other but, to electrostatic fO'I'Oe actIng In straight ·lj nes from atom to atom? Only recently I investigated the rmitual act[o'~ 'between two drcuHs, wi,th. extreme rares .of vibration. W.hena 'batte.ry of a few jars (& c.c ,rIF~g. 32), is discharged through a.prlmary P 'Of low resistance (the connections being as illustrated in. Figs. 19a:, 19band 19c}~ and 'thef.re'quenq of vibr:ation is Inany millions' there are gi'Cait dUfcren.ce,s of pot-entiat between points on the primary not more than a few inches apart, These d~ffe.l1',ences may be 10,000 volts :per inch, ~.f nOll more, takIng the max~mum value of the .E ... M. F a. The seconda.ry S is thereforeacted upon by e~ecit.rosffit.i.c indudion~ which is In suchextreme cases of much 8L'C,ater itnpor:h1J:ncc' than the electro-dynamic. TO' such sudden impulses the primary as we] 1 aJS the, secondary are poor ,o'ndudDrs:~ and t-herefore glfeat differences of poten:tiaJ! .may be produced by electrostatic induction between adjac.en.t points on the secondary, Then sparks may jump between the wires andstreamers become vIsible in the dark if the light of the di~CJharg~ through the .s,parkgll,p d ,d be carefully exduded . .If now we ,s-ubstitu,te a dosed vacuum tube for the .metallic secondary S~ the differences of :potenHaI produced! in the rube by electrostatic induction ff\"Om the 'primary are fully 5ufHd,en:tto excite potitio;ns .of it; but as the' points of certain. diHc£eJ1CeS of potential on .the_P,l'imilry are not fixed, bll~ are generally OODShUlt[y chcinging In positicn, a lu minous band is produced ,wn the tube, apparently not t.oud:ling the 8lass~. as .it should, .~f the points of maximcm and minimum dilEe'renees of potential WCi'C fixed on the primary, .1: .do . not exclude the pos.s.ibi~ity of sucha 'rube being excited only by ,eleotro-dynamic inducHon) for very a;ble physicists hold this vi,ew';bu:t in my opinions, there is as yet no positive proof given that atoms of a gas in a closed tube' may arrange themselves in chains under "the action of an electfOimotiv,e impuls1e :produood by elect.to-dynamic indu,e;tian .~n the tube. I have been. unable so .fax to produce striae in..n. tube" however long, and. at 'whateverd;eg-rec of exhaustion! 'that is,. striae at. right an.gles to. the supposed direction of' the disohars~ or the mds of the tube; Dut I, have distinctly. observed in a large bulb, in which a wide luminous band was, produced by- passing a discharge of a bat1tery tllrough ~ wire surrounding the bulb, a circle of feeble luminosity between two luminous bands. cec ,of which was more intense than the other. Furthesmore, with my

L-153

present experience I do not thin_k that sucha .gas discharge .in a closed tube caa vibrate, that is)v]brate as a whole, I am convinced that no, discharge through a gas can vibrate. The atoms of a gas behave very curiously in respect to sudden electnc impulses. The gas does not seem to possess a:ny appreciable inertia to such impulses, for it is a fac:t, that the higher the fr,equenq of . the impulses, with the greater _ freedom does the discharge pass through the gas. If the gas po.s;s·esses no inertia then it cannot vibrate, for some inertia is necessary for the free vibration." I conclude hom this that if a lightning discharge OCCUrs between I:\vO clouds, there am . be . no oscillation, suchas would be expected, cOllSid.ering the capacity of the douds .. But ,if the Hghtnrng discharge strike the earth" there is always vibration ,_ in the earth, but no·~ in the doud. In a gas, discharge each atom vibrates at its own rate, but there is no vibration of the condUCting gasJeous mass as a whole. Thls is an important consideration In the great problem ·of producing H,ght economically, for It teaches _ us that :bo reach t11~S result we must use Impulses of very high frequency and necessarily also of h(gh potential. It is a fact that oxygen produces a more intense light in. a tube .. Is it because oxygen atoms possess som.e_ inertia ~nd the vibration does not die out instantly? But then nitrogen

FIg· •. 32:.·

should be as goodt and: chlorlne and vapors of m.any other bodies much better than oxygen, unless the mag~ctic pIOpe[ties·~f the latter enter prom.inendy into, play. Or, is the proGCSS in the tube of an. electrolytic nature? 1\{any observaticnscertainly speak for it" the most important being tho:t mattee is; always carried away from the electrodes: and the vaoium in a bulb cannot be' .perma.nenUy maintained, If such p.1'Ocess takes place in reality, then a.galn must we take refuge in high frequencles, io',[, w.lth. such. electrolytic action should be redq~e.dt~) a minimum, if not -rendered entirely impossible. It is jrn undeniable, fa(:t that with very high frequencies, provided the impulses he ,of harmonic nature, like those obtained from an altcmatar, there is less deterioration and the varna. are more permanent .. ·With disruptive discluttgc coils there are sudden rises of potential and the vacua are more qukkly impalred, for· the electrodes are deteriorated in a very short time .. It was observed in some -farge tubes, which were provided with heavy carbon blocks .B B1, connected to platinum wires 'ttl tVi (:l!S m~strabed in Fig. ;;'3), and. which: were employed in. experiments with the disruptive dischar~ instead of the ordinary air gapt that the carbon. p.artiCles under the' action of the powerful magnetic: field in which the tube was placed. were deposited in regu.lar fine l 1 Des in the m[cldIe of the robe:". as iUustrated .. ·These lin~s were attr.ibuted 'to. fhe deflection or distortion of the discharge by the magnetic field, bu.t w.hy the deposit occwred. prindpaUy where the field was most intense did not appear quite dear, A bct of interest, Iikewise noted), was tha,t' the presen.ce of a strong magnetic field increases the deterioration of tile electrodes, probablv by reason of the rapid llltermp;Hons ~t produces, whereby there is acrunUy a h~ghc.f

E .. },f. F. maintained between the electrodes.

L-154

Much. would remain ro be sa~d. about the Iuminous eHccts produced In gases at Jow Of ordinary pressures, WIeh the pr-esent expeJ:iences before us we cannot. say that the essential nature of these cha,rmingpherD)1:m;lena, .is sufficie'ntly known, aut, ifil.vest~gatkms .in thIs direction are beIng pushed with exceptkma1 ardor" Every line ,of :scientific pursuit has Its fasdnaHonsj but electrical InvesHgatlon appears to poss.essa pec.uliar attraction • .f0·1 theE,e ,is noe=<per.'~m,e,Dt: OIOOsc.E'vu:tion of :an-y kfn.dJ. i:ll tl\e domaIn of this: wonderful science which wouM not forcibly appeal to iUS. Yet to me' It seems, that of iII the many maeveleus 'things we observe, a vacuum tube~ e:xc~:t"ed bya]:1Jj. electrkimpulse from a 'dIstant sour'D!, hurst:~ng: forth out of the darkness. and j]JuminaHng the room with .its betllutiful light, is as 10'vely a phenomenon as cangreet our eyes. :Molci.nteE,ecSting sHU~,t appC'lts when, reducing the fundamental d rs:ch~rg:es ac~D:SS the ,gap to a very small' n.umber and

waving the tube aboue we produceall kinds of designs in Iuminous mine'S .. So by w~y of am.usement: J: take a strn~.ght .iOf.lig' tube, ora Siq'l1.."lLre one, or a. square attached to a strn..t;ght tube"afil.d bywhidlng thenl about in the hnnd, ]I imitate th,e spokes of a wheel, a Gramme winding, a. drum ,winding), an :altcrnatc current mot-or winding, etc (Fig. 34). Vi:ew>ed from a distance theeffect IS weak and mud} of its beaJuty is mosi:~ but being neal'

OE hoMing th.e tube Ill. the hand, one cannot resist its charm. .

In presenting these ins.t;g(l~,fican.t results '.1 have not a:Uempte,d roa.rrangeanG <::0·, ord~na:te- them, as: .would be p,r,oper in. a strictly scientific invesHgatiof.lJ• in which every s'l..wc:eedingr(!'Sult should be n I '.:, seqlllen'ooof Ute' preceding; SQ that it rnlght be guessed in advaaee by the car reader otnttentive listenet. I :have preferred to concentrate my _energies cl-dcfly upon ad va.ndng novel facts or ideaswhich mightserve as: su.gg,est]ons to others, and this maysetvc as aaexruse for the lack of harmQny.11u::

explanations of :the pt",enomena have been siven in good fait,til and. in thespirIr of a .stUdent plepwed to find that they admlt of a better lntelpretation. The,rc can be no great harm in a student taking an erroneous view" but when great mindsc'rr, the world must

d~rly pay fot their mistakes, ..

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