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A Journal of Adventist History

Volume 16
Number 1

CONTRIBUTORS
clididtrge Michelle Abel is a second-year university student majoring in profes-
sional writing and history and looking to a B.A. degree. She moved from
waitressing at the Valley View Restaurant in the Warburton Health Care
Centre to a position as editorial assistant at the Signs Publishing Com-
Editor pany in Victoria, Australia. She has two younger brothers and two
Dorothy Minchin-Comm younger sisters, accounting for five of the grandchildren of Kenneth
Mead. Michelle is single, though she speaks enthusiarically about her
La Sierra University
boyfriend. Her hobbies include reading and writing, travel, and eating
Italian and Malaysian food.
Associate Editors
Ronald D. Graybill
Malcolm J. Bull graduated from Avondale College with a B.A. in
La Sierra University
Theology. Having served for a year as the island's pastor, his knowledge
Gary Land of Pitcairn comes first-hand. He has also ministered in New Zealand, and since
Sorry,
Andrews University photo not January of 1993 he has been the minister of the Moree, New South Wales,
available church. His wife, Glenysie Evelyn, hails from New Zealand, and they have
Guest Editor four children.
Arthur N. Patrick
Sydney Adventist Hospital

Managing Editor
Ella Lenona Coombs lives with her husband, Glen, at Balcolyn, New
Norman D. Ault, Jr.
South Wales, on the shores of Lake Macquarie. As a granddaughter of
La Sierra University
Maud Sisley Boyd, she has taken a keen interest in the early pioneer
history of Avondale College. Her husband worked as a government land
Editorial Intern evaluator, and Ella made a lifetime career of primary school teaching.
Kara S. Watkins Retirement now permits time for her hobbies of gardening, music, sewing,
and, as she puts it, "loving my granddaughters."
Layout and Design
Kara S. Watkins

Circulation Manager Laurence Gilmore served as a paramedic in the Australian Army Medical
Ronald D. Graybill Corps during World War II. As a young man called to pioneer mission
work in Papua New Guinea, he took his young wife June and five-month-
old baby to this isolated island country. Subsequently, he returned to
Managing Board
Dorothy Minchin-Comm
%OF New Zealand to work in several large city missions and to pastor. Later
he filled public relations posts in New South Wales, becoming the
Steve Daily founding editor of a monthly newsletter, Conference News. He has four
Ronald D. Graybill children and five grandchildren. In retirement he and June live in
Fritz Guy Balcolyn, NSW where they pursue their hobby of gardening.
Frederick Hoyt
John R. Jones Milton Hook, a pastor-evangelist in Sydney, Australia, lives in Wahroonga.
Stuart Tyner He graduated twice from Avondale College, with a Primary Teacher's
Kenneth L. Vine Certificate (1961) and a Theology degree (1964 ). From Andrews Univer-
sity he holds two degrees, an MA in Religious Education (1976) and an
Editorial Board EdD in Religious Education (1978). He has served as an elementary
Ronald D. Graybill school teacher as well as a Bible teacher at both the academy and college
levels. He and his wife Beverley served as missionaries in Papua New
Gary Land
Guinea. They have two sons, Andrew and Lauren. Milton enjoys stamp
Dorothy M inch in-Comm
collecting and walking. His interest in historical research and genealogi-
cal studies has made possible his contributions to Adventist Heritage.

Continued on next page
ADVENTIST HERITAGE f Spring 1993

CONTRIBUTORS

Robert K. McIver, along with his wife Susan and their two daughters Althea and Skye, resides at Avondale College,
where he is a Senior Lecturer in the Theology Department. Robert has earned several degrees, including a BSc from
Canterbury University, a BA from Avondale College, a BD(Honors) from London University, and an MA and a
PhD from Andrews University. Before joining the faculty at Avondale, he taught high school Mathematics and
worked as a Youth Pastor. His special interests include studying the Gospel of Matthew and archaeology.

Karen Miller is a graduate of Avondale College (B.Ed.). Having served nine years as a secondary school English
teacher for the Seventh-day Adventist educational system in Australia, she now works as an Assistant Editor at
Signs Publishing Company in Warburton, Victoria, Australia. She is involved in the production of three church
journals, Record, Good Health, and Signs. She is devoted to her family of two sisters, one brother-in-law, a "very
precious three-year-old niece, and her widowed mother. Her special interests include photography and travelling,
but she ranks writing at the top of her list.

Arthur Patrick, of Castle Hill, New South Wales, has behind him a rich history of service—first in pastoring, and
then in teaching in New Zealand and Australia. Since 1992 he has been Senior Chaplain at Sydney Adventist
Hospital. His academic record includes early studies at Avondale College (1954-1957), followed by an MA in
Theology and a MDiv (1972) at Andrews University. He took his next three degrees in Australia: DMin from
Christian Theological Seminary in 1973; MLitt from University of New England in 1984; and Ph.D. from the
University ofN ewcas de in 1992. His d issertat ion d iscussed "Christianity and Culture in Colonial Australia ..., 1891 -
1900." His special- interests publications on Australian church history qualify him well to be guest editor of this issue
of Adventist Heritage.

Gilbert Valentine, with his wife Gail and two teenage sons, presently lives at Newbold College, England, where he
serves as Chaplain and senior lecturer in Religion. His wife lectures in business Studies at Henley College. After
some years in pastoral and youth ministry in Australia (1969-.1974), he served as President of Pakistan Adventist
Seminary (1985-1990). He holds a BA from Avondale College (1968) as well as an MA and a PhD from Andrews
University (1982). A prolific writer and researcher in SDA history, his most recent book published was The Shape
of Adventism. Gardening, tennis, and music are his regular hobbies, but just now they are secondary, he says, to
"soaking up the beauty of England's historic homes, churches, and gardens."

clieritve
Volume 16, Number 1
Spring, 1993

Editor's Stump 3
Arthur N. Patrick
Dorothy Minchin-Comm

Photo Essay 6
Kenneth Mead: Michelle Abel and Karen Miller
Painting Pastor of Australia

Bookmark 10
Arthur Ferch's Journey of Hope Milton Hook

Medicine 13
Hospital on a Hilltop Milton Hook

Church Beginnings 30
Ellen White: Mother of the Church Arthur N. Patrick
in the South Pacific

History 41
South Pacific Historians Gilbert Valentine
Interpret Their Church

Education 46
Physical, Mental, and Moral Robert McIver
Education at Avondale College

Island Adventists 56
Triumphs, Tragedies, and Transportation: Malcolm J. Bull
AQuarter-Centuryon
Pitcairn Island, 1890-1924

Biography 70
The Sisleys: Ella L. Coombs & Dorothy Minchin-Comm
Lives of Sacrifice and Service

Adventist Heritage is published by La Sierra University, 4700 Pierce Street, Riverside, CA 92515-8247. Bulk postage rates paid at Riverside, CA. Copyright
1993 by La Sierra University. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: $12 for three issues ($18 overseas surface mail, $25 overseas air mail). Available back issues are
sold for $4 each. Subscription orders, change of address notices, editorial correspondence and manuscripts should be sent to: Adventist Heritage, La
Sierra
University, Riverside, CA 92515-8247. Adventist Heritage invites manuscripts. Each will be considered, but no responsibility will be assumed for unsolicited
materials. Adventist Heritage is indexed in the S.D.A. Periodicals Index, and is available from University Microfilms
International. ISSN 0360-389X.

ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring 1993

any interpretation must be (1993) published a best-seller. Hugh Mackay. 1788. was impressed 1885. W. a more comprehensive attempt of contemporary life in this country. During 1899 the Agricultural Gazette of New South aries paused briefly in Sydney Wales reported on a visit by a Member of Parliament before settling in Melbourne. Switzerland. A New Zealander now working in England. that this issue should include. one of the most acute observers in addition to narrative. THE EDITOR'S STUMP Interpreting the Adventist Past in Australasia by Arthur Patrick Guest Editor "The First Fleet" is the the United States before he led the pioneer band of universally -accepted name Adventist missionaries to Australia and New Zea- for eleven motley ships land. Campbell. continues to think of itself as a movement. and feature articles have appeared in other of W .W . and others to the institution which is now Avondale the capital of the colony (now state) of Victoria during College. In view of it is alive to the ongoing perspectives of a church which Mackay's emphasis on the role of values in a society. Almost a century later entitled Historical Sketches of the Foreign Mission of the the first contingent of Sev." in 1988. Prescott. The Shaping of Adventism: The Case in 1985. has this year at interpretation. Thus it is only recently that the Adventists by the new "industrial college" and by "some splendid celebrated their centenary (1985).S. Even so. The author. It is fitting. best illustrated by his 1992 volume from Andrews A special issue focused on the then Australas ian Division University Press. raphy with reference to the church in the South Pacific Adventist Heritage has been to the fore in helping Division. just before the specimens of young vegetarians" which he saw "run- Australians hosted a plethora of bicentennial events ning about. Seventh-day Adventists. it is appropriate for us to re-examine the ideals which Stephen N. then. Readers of Adventist Heritage will be intrigued by bered the centenary of Ellen Whites's arrival (1891) Gilbert Valentine's account of Adventist historiog- for a nine-year sojourn in the antipodes. The very next year (1886) Haskell described which brought the first Euro. issues. the church in the vast territory of the South Pacific Valentine's credentials as an Adventist historian are Division tell its story to the rest of the Adventist world. Haskell was a household name in caused our pioneers so early and so successfully to EDITOR'S STUMP 3 . Reinventing Australia: rooted in the documents of the past at the same time as The Mind and Mood of Australia in the 90s. the church's new missions in the Southern Hemi- pean residents to Australia in sphere for a volume published in Basel. Since then the Adventists have remem. enth-day Adventist mission.

Walter R. day Men: Sabbatarians and Sabbatarianism in England titled "Hospital on a Hilltop" recounts some of the and Wales 1600-1800. adja- War II. to pass on "the everlasting gospel . Late in the 1890s. Milton Hook focuses on the largest single. Arthur J. recently accepted for publication location Adventist institution in the Division. and tongue. their families. Old Testament scholar who also helped the prise which the Adventist pioneers began within Australasian church understand its heritage. But the States should express the gratutude of Australian and Australasian church owes a particular debt to Ellen New Zealand Adventists to those people in the White in view of her ministry here from 1891-1900. The church's past has an struggles during the early years of what is now the exciting future when it is on the agenda of those who largest private hospital in Australia's most populous lead us. Today it is a leading manufacturer such books as The English Connection: The Puritan of breakfast foods throughout Australia and New Roots of Seventh-day Adventist Belief (1981). their lives profoundly and her influence lives on ventists may not have coalesced as a movement. Ferch will be remembered as a brilliant Company grew from the fledgling publishing enter. Scragg as former Division president 4 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring 1993 . Tragically then create. The Signs Publishing which he edited. This process has been especially evident just before the publication of the third historical volume in the South Pacific Division. latest manuscript. and how Marmite helped it rise from three storys cent to Avondale College. Australian and New and kindred. she influenced Without Ellen White. the recent challenges to that role. and Christ's Object Lessons) were written in their countries. of history took on substance under the leadership of the Adventist ideas have spawned institutions which Division's field secretary. a centennial volume Robert Mclver's article on Avondale College ad. Northern Hemisphere whose ancestors transplanted In my article entitled "Ellen White: Mother of the Adventism into Australasian soil and nurtured its Church in the South Pacific. in turn. Ball. movement. the visible face of the killed in a mission-field accident on 5 September 1991. fostered. months of their arrival. Dr. and three symposia on historical issues. The Sanitarium Health Food The current president of the South Pacific Company was inspired by the philosophy of Ellen Divsion. became her neighbours. and her continuing significance. between 1985 and 1988. It is fitting keeping their Adventist faith alive and discovering that this issue of a journal published in the United the links between health and religion.L. have a responsibility of her early role. to every nation. The Desire of Ages. Ball's Zealand. All three of them. and people. for the public. Ferch. earned a doctorate in church White and informed by the church's experience in history at the University of London and has authored North America." I attempt an overview early development. Laurence Gilmore tells two human-interest sto. early Seventh-day Ad. now by Oxford University Press is entitled The Seventh- known as Sydney Adventist Hospital." Zealand Adventists will forever remember that Ellen White's masterpieces on Jesus Christ (Thoughts from the Mount of Blessing. We. with to ten in its early 1970s rebuilding program. state.develop a co-educational college in New South Wales. Bryan W. His article en. my maternal grandparents ries about the Hospital: how it was almost taken over and my widowed paternal grandmother were encour- by Douglas Macarthur and the Americans during World aged by Ellen White to move to Cooranbong. Scragg's vision dresses that task. amongst their numerous descendants.

Seventh-day Adventists in the South. England. Patrick's close. In this present issue. Dr. Australia. A note about the cover: Avondale's justifiably celebrated jacaranda trees bloom all around the college campus." Kenneth Mead. Ella Coombs' original story of her grandmother. And finally. familial ties with the early beginnings in Australia. flowering in early Battle Creek. combined with his scholarship on the topic. Pacific. Maud Sisley-Boyd. The best we could do was to make a deep "jacaranda color" the theme shade fix the issue. Guest Editor Arthur Patrick leads a contemporary group of authors in reviewing and interpreting the development of Adventist church in Australia. make him unusually capable in this task. In the picture department this time. took on a life of its own and became the saga of the Sisley Family. We regret that budgetary limitations forbade our offering you a full-color cover so that you could appreciate the delicate lavender shadings of the jacaranda blossoms in full bloom. Michigan. 18854 985. Enjoy another intellectual and spiritual journey Down Under. biography sometimes fills its cup and then overflows. to view this passage of church history with a warmly objective eye. EDITOR'S STUMP 5 . He is able. beginning in Tunbridge Wells. we present the "Painting Pastor. right to the door of historic College Hall. paradoxically. Most of the articles and pictures were then distilled from a new book. THE r DITOW5 57 C Down Under Revisited by Doro thy Minchin-Comm Eight years ago Adventist Heritage devoted an entire issue to the Centenary of the South Pacific Division of Seventh-day Adventists. you will observe. and ending in Avondale's pioneer cemetary in Cooranbong.

Work- appreciation to his Adventist heri. how. Wales. by Pastor Nelson Burns. he began to teach them at Manly Beach. money. PHOTO ESSAY The Painting Pastor of Australia by Michelle Abel and Karen Miller A "Kenneth Mead he should henceforth do nothing Original" graces a but preach the gospel when he wall in the foyer of went to his first appointment in the Victorian Conference office of public evangelism in New South the South Pacific Division." Meanwhile. est in theology. "I how to paint. however. Fine art and old feeling returned. and Ken Mead evangelism seem an unusual mix. "And some of them he naturally supposed that the most was interested in becoming a now paint much better than I do. "At that state I had no inter. where he spent two ment. a reward for listening to ing with his colored pencils. Pastor As an architect and artist. interesting things in life were being graphic designer and earning big That's very satisfying. high school Ken enrolled in a Syd. his father did teach him the an evangelistic program conducted moving. The Pastor Mead' preach. began to paint again—just for re- but art has always been an integral Now retired in Victoria's lovely Yana laxation on holidays. after. Born years." The spotlights had the boy thinking of a career in course at Avondale College in and big sound attracted young and art. camps. and Ken Mead found much scope ney art school. producing differ- 6 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. Countless Then one day on the beach. Sydney. Shortly there- Valley. His skills were obvious and old. ing with young people at youth tage—at least not initially. in 1923. make Camp lodge near the Snowy Moun. in 1956. Brought to a decision point in Ernie Steed had inaugurated a fast- ever. An. and drive a jaguar. Watching his fa. after finishing 1941. Consequently." tains. children now own a miniature he watched his five-year-old draw- painting. private to the public sphere. also in Victoria. though he had decided that for his creativity. money. ready to begin his The pastor does not owe his next project. He recalled all too clearly other hangs in the lounge of a that he had planned to use his art Seventh-day Adventist Youth simply "to attain success. The program ran for four years. 1993 . almost TV-type presenta- love of beauty. tion called "The Best Saturday ther produce lovely paintings soon Ken enrolled in the ministerial Night in Town." he remembers. Pastor Ken Mead stands at his part of Ken Mead's ministry. his talent moved from the front door." a "surfie" and shooting the waves. he did some work in the art depart.

These ing. teaching kids to paint." If there was success." successes foreshadowed Mead's arrival in the U. Back in Sydney in 1965. Michigan. he coordi." for the beautiful things of His to the South Australian Confer. successful media productions. to work with Cleveland in a similar Fine art. he accounts his accomplishments as minimal. ill health forced gram in Australia It began in the him to return to Australia after only eighteen months. creation. world" and divorcing ourselves concept with him. his evangelistic "black-white" mission in Detroit. he ill health forced him to return of living in "our own little took the "Best Saturday Night" home to Australia. Whether paint- back-drops for the show. with a seating ca- pacity of more than 5. Art and shows featured top Australian art." Perhaps he inherited this stance from his architect fa- ther who said. Some of the Although he has been from our community. Eighteen months later. "It all expresses my love together in joint fulfilment. Vandeman as associate director and faith and my appreciation When Ken Mead transferred of the telecast. exciting effects and painting Ken Mead came to the United Ken Mead's life. performance and cre- campaign in Detroit. it was attribut- able to the Lord's blessing and the many people "who were brighter than me. Later the "black-white mission" also ministered in Sydney. Mead not only recruited top busi- nessmen but also used the rela- tively new "walkie-talkie" commu- nication system among his ushers. involved in a wide variety of music help form the necessary ists. Then he joined time. To his States to coordinate the first ing. ative ministry have intertwined in ent. They packed the hall far five nights. "I am a Jack-of-all- Trades and master of none. PHOTO ESSAY 7 . Manufacturers Hall at the Sydney Showgrounds. It's the expertise of the Ken Mead coordinated an evangelistic crusade held in Melbourne in 1971 by evangelist trasdesmen that produces the build- Earl Cleveland. like the singer Harold Blair.S. Tap- ping into all kinds of resources. Unfortunately. but they're only scratches on a piece of paper. Mead has been no stranger to the lights and cameras of television. He worked with nated the introduction of George George Vandeman in introducing the "It is Written" program in Sydney and later Vandeman's "It is Written" pro. After working with Evange- list Earl Cleveland in 1971 in cam- paigns in Sydney and Melbourne. ing a program. however. "I can draw the plan. "It is Written. he never just fills in fervor and his artistic talents flowed Michigan. or stag- great satisfaction." He deplores the idea ence as Youth Director in 1961. served as the program's Associate Director in the States.000.

the toil of the man in the field. and the romance of a tall ship gliding into a bay. S ADVENTIST HERITAGE Spring. He has groafully captured the sparse gray- greens and browns of the Australian bush. 1993 . Both of Ken Mead's paintings show his deep insight into the traditions of his native land.

and involved all the local schools . 1. he still picks up hitch-hikers." his painting drew the highest price at the show ($750) . "Pastor" here refers to an ordained minister. years he has had three art exhibi. To his surprise and embarrasment . each person pulled out a small pink cape. While there. PHOTO ESSAY 9 . and the pastor received much media attention. "F Today. Despite his family's disapproval. Ken Mead lives in re. Mead doubted his work be only the faintest reflection of would sell. The paintings at each show). at the time it truly was a spectacular event with 2000 young people framing the sign and picture. secretary insisted on his entering a painting serve God's creation and then to into the Hobart Art Show. his desk in 1978. sales back into the youth ministry of the church. (Left) One of the first giant "flannelgraphs" or "grassographs" created by Mead in 1957 for anational youth congress in Sydney. his "It's so exciting to help them ob." In his less risky moments he con. (Left) In 1993. "I'm nearly 70 years old. event won the Australia Day Award for the rects all the money he makes from Yarra Valley . community tions (with between 3D and 50 organizations. what He has produced. It presented the heritage of both the school and the valley. Over the last twelve Warburton Adventist School. ridge.While the technique is now popular at the Olympic Games. He still loves people with a passion. Because painting show them that what we paint can was only a hobby. Mead organized a sight-and- tirement in the Yarra Valley of sound show for the 85th anniversary of the 11 Victoria. when he was president of the Tasmania Conference.. (Left) One of his own paintings hangs above ducts art classes for senior citizens. and emergency services. changing the color of the frame. He di. and no one has knocked me over the head yet. To the music of the bands and a voice from the stage.

The en. Adventism's multi-pronged encouragement he nurtured among may note. and religious lib- he edited the manuscripts. tist attitudes to trade unionism. OOKMARK.A. Ferch Journey of Hope by Milton Hook This paperback. drawing on his 1982 doctoral disser- Arthur John Ferch (1940-1991) Journey of Hope is a compila. evangelism is also treated. The reader field. a sam. tation. centennial Celebrations. in Hansen's overall view. but in reality some aspects of the conservative they are selected essays.__ Arthur J. is the com. Dr. Subsequent chapters discuss S. Both non-Seventh-day Adventist con- titles suggest that they are compre. Donald Hansen discusses the Aus. David Parker` is the only in the South Pacific: 1885-1918.D. Australasian Seventh-day Adven- Sydney as part of the Australian Bi. situation in New South Wales jection in wartime. pling of topics on the subject. History Symposium held in The opening chapter by Dr. ticularly his area of specialty (the combatancy and conscientious ob- sium and just prior to his tragic death. panion volume to Adventist History Dr. He discusses hensive histories. strand in Australian Protestantism. churches during the time between erty in the Pacific Island mission tire project is an example of the the two World Wars). Arthur tralian ecclesiastical scene. sub-titled some tacit contrasts and compari- Seventh-day Adventist History in the sons with the Seventh-day Adven- South Pacific. more par. 10 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. 1919-1950. tist church. 1993 . tributor to the book. tion of papers presented at the 1988 Seventh-day Adventist scholars. non- Ferch co-coordinated the Sympo. "worldly" educational degrees.

She documentation may be achieved has restricted her research to those only if some of Watson's corre- nationals who served in Papua. The imperative of the mission. Better sionaries in the Pacific islands. Fleet ship. Australasia's contribution to the One Australian of historical boat for the spread of Adventism Adventist mission thrust into Asia. children was unavoidable. H. The reader may wonder Two geographical areas— about the title and cover design. Pastor gether with a stylized First David Hay's chapter on Advent. But former General Conference nresi- tioned by name. L. own1988 book. for the forced him to concentrate on the Alexander Currie to write this es- boats' roles were as significant as post-World War I era. tory. fact that Southeast Asia was not details with D. to- ceive special discussion. Pastor C. is is a commendable start in a ne. The mean- service in the area together with ing of the title must be inferred the research incorporated into his from the sub-title. This vast topic is the constraints of the Symposium dent. Western Samoa and Asia—re. Some dependence on telephone in- has a special burden to highlight the tralians served with distinction in terviews with two of Watson's adult unsung work done by national mis. stature. and G. The green and gold colors. Watson. many Aus. now held privately. TheIsiesNoLonger Wait. The Past and the Presidents. is also among the Pacific isles is the subject Only passing reference is made to given special study. female contributor to the book. in the future. It spondence. the pre-1912 era when Australas ians done considerable research into this age of the boats in service are men. Noel Clapham discusses The book cover of Journey of Hope BOOKMARK 11 . A. deserving of an entire book. She Australasian Division. He has teamed up with Dr. the broader Asian mission field. Dr. A large percent. were deliberately ism in Samoa is written with the chosen to match the Australian benefit ofyears ofpersonal mission Bicentenary theme. Alan Smith has of another chapter. pioneered in Southeast Asia. released to historical researchers glected corner of Adventist his. Despite the say—which differs in a number of those of the personalities. Ochs' Jill Anderson is the only then under the control of the book.

Arthur and Carole Ferch relaxing at home. linked to a wider enthusiasm for the entire Old While Dr. Ferch was Chairman of the Department of The South Pacific Division tenderly remem- Theology bers Arthur John Ferch at Avondale College as a pastor-teacher from 1980-1984. Perch rests in the certainty of the Testament and the Christian gospel. He was as competent graduate of Avondale College (B. graduated from Medicine (University of published by Andrews University Press in 1983.. writing for Adventist periodicals as for highly- 1965).A. scholarly papers. and Andrews University (Th. and books which Dr. ar. his deeds and his writings con- Herald published In the Beginning (1985) and tinue to nurture the church to which he devoted Daniel on Solid Ground (1987). Carole Perch- his death. New South Wales) and Economics (Sydney Uni- But his zest for apocalyptic literature was versity). respectively. and Biblical Studies. Ferch wrote during the tor for the South Pacific Division in 1992. specialized journals concerned with archaeology 1973). was Andrew.D. Theology. —Arthur Patrick 12 ADVENTIST HERITAGE J Spring. while Signs pub. A Tribute to Arthur Ferch Arthur Ferch was born in Germany on 7 lished three volumes which Dr. Review and first resurrection. 1993 . was ap- more than sixty pointed Women's Andrew. his life so faithfully. His doctoral cently Carole and Arthur's sons. Johnson. 1979). Richard and dissertation.. The Son of Man in Daniel Seven. and whose dedication and Field Secretary of the energy were legend- South Pacific Divi. Ministries Coordina- ticles. one September 1940. the University of London (13. a counselor A broad range and chaplain at of interests is clearly Sydney Adventist expressed in the Hospital. ary within his life- sion from 1984 until time. A 1888 in Retrospect (1990)..D. Re- last two decades of his fruitful life. Dr. Honors. called Toward Righteousness by Faith: on an itinerary in Samoa on 5 September 1991. Ferch edited. and died in a car accident while of them.

The shoe-string budget was so frayed it could not support many labour-saving facilities. Se- ings in the same nior. and while this ber in the Hills dis- provided extra space trict west of Sydney. Despite the odds. tion (later called ter. These Sanitarium in suburban Sydney. the Summer Hill sanitarium could become a white elephant. Dr. inadequate in a very short time and some alterna- tive was quickly sought. for sale but the tion. sounded alarm bells health care. and The Sydney Sanitarium as it looked in the early 1920s Hornsby) were also everything associ. some of the denomination's leaders felt they should press ahead and build their tempts to institutionalise their convictions about own structure. Its chequered history reaches back into the 1890s when Australasians made their first at- ated with the care of patients. a church mem- street. Others. rent nearby build. MEDICINE Hospital on a Hilltop by Milton Hook T he Sydney Adventist Hospital is one of the most significant Seventh-day Ad- ventist institutions in the Southern Hemisphere. The expanding enterprise Finding the Right Place had forced the superintendent. It was MEDICINE 13 . These hired church leaders con- quarters all had in. because of mounting debts and warned that a large The hospital's predecessor. linen. to Sites were being explored as early as 1898. offered his orchard mented the institu. it physically frag. meals. became totally forecasters of doom were ignored. however. Early the fol- the nurses' strenuous lowing year proper- work load as they ties near the struggled up and Hawkesbury River down with buckets and at Hornsby Junc- of hot and cold wa. Edgar Caro. Charles Schowe. investigated. sidered it an unsuit- ternal stairways able site for a sani- which only added to tarium.

000 or more. and Clive. Union Conference at Cooranbong it was formally The owner. sanitarium on the hilltop would command a sunny During the 1899 session of the Australasian vantage point. would sell voted to erect a sanitarium in the vicinity of Sydney. Jack. Eastwood. On three Caro's grandiose plans for a four-storied sanitarium sides the land sloped away into fern-filled gullies. committee Wessells did most of the laborious search- For six months prior to their nomination many ing. A of one hundred rooms costing $16. Asquith. widow Elizabeth Evans. either of these remote sites was chosen. when region. It was hoped mains. the one hundred members Wessells quickly agreed to buy. including ones at Ryde. Friday morning. The present-day was so impressed with the venture he initially Wahroonga church approximates the site of this 14 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring. Sites close to the seaside at Manly and Bondi letters were despatched to John Wessells in South were explored. July 21. After checking factors ment of a similar sani. and looked at many properties the venture from its infancy. Dr. The John Wessell's Choke tually elected in April 1899. such as water supply. 1993 . A portion of Wessells left the sani. This was a spontaneous demonstration of also arranged to purchase from Joshua Johnson an their zeal for the project. Immediately after this agreement was reached on 1899. They were Pastor Despite the existence of the site selection Arthur Daniells.000 and became a member of the need feeder branches in Sydney and Newcastle if Adventist church. however. of his own money into his interest gravi- the Australian sani.800 cash and $200 in interest-free installments over twelve months. after consultation with some church leaders. He was soon presented with water were all compelling reasons to buy. businessman who had experience in the manage. Pymble and Wahroonga. $1. Radley's buggy carried Ellen White to inspect the proposed sanitarium bankruptcy in the face. roadways.conceded that a large sanitarium in the bush would donated $1.200. ready cleared and rica it was staring planted in orchard Mrs. and George Morse. site in Wahroonga. A patient of the Summer adjoining three hectare orchard and shanty for Hill Sanitarium. this bushland was al- tarium in South Af. The remainder was to be paid in pledged over $1. He preferred the north shore of Africa urging him to come to Australia and manage Sydney. tated more and more tarium as he had done to twenty-nine hect- in the South African ares at Wahroonga sanitarium. On October 31. paying a cash de- who were gathered at the report of the Australasian posit of $400 and finalizing the legalities in mid- Medical Missionary and Benevolent Association November. Left to Right: Alf. at the bargain price of $4. Wessells was a wealthy there. the three and its proximity to Wessells and his Ra4Jey children stayed by the carriage. two railway lines as family arrived in well as good creek Sydney in July 1899. but that on one of the higher did not eventuate.280 on similar terms. In November he loans. he would inject some and sunny aspects. Edgar Caro. In ridges in the Sydney actual fact. While the elders viewed the bushy hilltop. A site selection committee of three was even. tarium in his home access to gas country. Anglican minister John Geiss.

tionable bookkeeping. struggled for fruition despite area of the property. deeply in debt. and the interests. ness Agent for the Australasian Union For two years. became critical.000. instead of beginning the new building In the wake of signing the contract for the project with some cash reserves the initiators were Wahroonga property. Instead.early orchard. he was hale and hearty and took up his ing out to other cen. Caro in the same year saved the sani- tarium from the brink of bankruptcy. Soon after. Merritt Kellogg. sixties. he and his wife hav. battled to keep their November. Eleanor. Wessells. Edward Murfet. one less property and work the pretentious than orchards. Daniel Kress and the and with the war turning against the Boers he felt planned new sanitarium. The coming of John he should hurry home to protect his financial Burden from America in January. costing approximately bushland more than doubled the total $20. was accomplished Ellen White advised during the first half of against a brick build- 1900 except that ing. With his uncles killed construction of the first Sanitarium own institution solvent at the ex- fighting for the Boers in South Africa pense of Dr. Fred Sharp. and building super- Two caretakers visor with gusto. MEDICINE 15 . Tasmania. Murfet followed later with as Corresponding Secretary and Busi. This meant travelling the enterprise floundered in a mael- throughout Australasia and a division strom of political intrigue and ques- of his interests. he was elected each. duties as architect ters. and before the cash flow virtually paupers—indeed. Dr. Some years later addi. exit of Dr. For these The First Sanitarium reasons. 1901. 1900 and 1901. Conference. on the other hand. Their vision of a sixty-bed tional purchases of neighbouring sanitarium. Edward Murfet of Tasmania ing lost a daughter at birth in late gave a generous donation for the ager. He left Australia in March. plans church leaders voted for a three-storied to go ahead and build timber structure were immediately in order accepted by church to open by Decem. also. had advised it to Sydney in June. 1900. some significant donations. ber 1900. too. gave $200 tribution. this is the earliest photograph of the sanitarium building. Under construction in 1902. sanitariums be built in Melbourne and Geelong returned with his young Australian wife. Personal matters un. Ellen White recommended that Dr. Although he was in his mid- establish one ma in sanitarium firmly before branch. Little else Caro's tall dream. a medic and carpenter. He were employed to live submitted two differ- on the Wahroonga ent plans. Ellen The search and purchase proved White and an Adventist farmer in to be the high point of Wessells' con. the Summer Hill Sanitarium man- Mr. more donations and loans. leaders. Caro and settled him. 1900 after a term of mission would be wiser from a business viewpoint to first service in Tonga.

but they were not sure how they could get convictions.400 were laid without fanfare to accompany the char- in the summer of 1900/ ter of "The Sydney Sani- 1901. John train to Hornsby on Friday afternoons and 16 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring." When the Foreign Mission Board paid Kellogg Urgent calls for carpenters were sent out. stringent measures Association." demonstrating that the Building on Sundays stirred some local ani. eighteen months wages in one lump sum he used Many responded from Cooranbong. tional" and "unsectarian. and they were really not earning their Company have used up more than 2. experienced carpenters The Sanitarium's helping Kellogg were Fred Lamplough and Will purpose. When Burden ar. "We are at a workers alone.300 [$4. ary and Benevolent As- Charles Harrison was head of what had become boarded. Whether the argu. of 1901 as the scandal of the Summer Hill he added. directly Guillard. of the Building money." Police intended ing was also a bone of contention with Dr. ment would have survived in court will never be Pastor George Irwin." Conference President.400 debt became more evident. the charter read. The original plan Sydney Sanitarium as a was reduced to a two-storey sister institution in a building with a functional worldwide Adventist attic and an iron roof in. and other Avondale School students. tarium and Benevolent rived." The Australasian Union Conference Often they worked twelve hours a day on the immediately dropped the words "undenomina- project. Dr. The Adventist one. later. Many amateurs assisted. At first the only a large staff by 1926 sociation. point in this enterprise where we cannot go back to subdue noise on Sundays from that time on. and accepted wages for only forty-eight Merritt Kellogg reported to Ellen White. Sunday work was their donation Summer Hill institution and the Health Food to a charity. travelling by $200 of it to buy more building materials. humanitarian. and in no way. course is to push on at once to victory. institution was definitely to be identified as an mosity. without great loss and disgrace. Kellogg took extra care. admitted their dilemma when known for it satisfied the police and they left the he addressed the membership saying. By brella of the Interna- February 1901 the first tional Medical Mission- storey was up and weather. "The hours. Brick foundations Kellogg also sent $2. and benevolent. and the labourers were reported. issuing summonses. 1993 . for private profit or dividend paying Harlow. Charlie or indirectly. had agreed to work fifty-seven hours per Sanitarium's $2. Therefore. hence our only wards. week. however. Kellogg reasoned with A Series of Financial Crises them. Kellogg.600] living by working on Sundays. explaining that the sanitarium was to be for Building progress petered out in the latter half charitable work in the community. philanthropic." This char- were introduced to cut ter recognized the costs. Arthur Baker. This action reflected the attitude police visited the site on two occasions and took of church headquarters in America where the word- down the names of "violators. unsectarian. including Bert charitable. Harold Hughes. to any one. was to be "undenomina- Taylor. but Percy Mills and John Nichols came tional. His carpenters. network under the um- stead of a tiled one.

was visiting this much-loved changed their plans. 1942. On the following Sabbath to petition God TDS (Three Times Daily) to stop the plans and morning. buildings wherever these were needed. "That little gift is to stand as a witness to answered prayer sia." the male students. The little card. as One morning the telephone rang in Business Manager the first Public Relations and Fund Raising Officer of the George Adair's office and a voice said: "The American's have Sydney Sanitarium and Hospital. and walk-outs were all use. wanted anything. strikes. meeting in the it all came to the administrators. then chaplain. As the reality of Naturally the local church membership. and I. the most hopeless." old Chaplain Knight concluded. Burma. 1942. the capital of New South Wales. It was 1968. MEDICINE 17 . would not eventuate. Fiji. The present large WahroongaChurch and the Activ ides Center/ School of Nursing buildings were not standing in 1942. Pastor Knight. southwards in a relentless push with none to stop them. a day that the proposed military plans to control and occupy the Papua N ew Guinea. of Australia and sunk ships in Sydney Harbor. 1942) Douglas MacArthur. The card was headlined December. When the great Allied commander. He unfolded a fascinating story. told me. greatly loved by his staff. we should believe His promise. "Praise the Lord. knew what was happening. Knight to retreat from North Queensland and set up a "Brisbane Line. When in faith we take hold of His strength. and 9th) were in the Middle —Laurence Gilmore East. and the Solomon way back there in 1942. This was WARTIME! The Americans took over land and those he called "my boys." (now a Medical Ward patient). Pastor Knight was a man of deep faith in his God and Protests. acquistion. Papua New Guinea. student nurses. founded in Australia by divine guidance. a retiring somehow reverse man's desires and intentions. The sacred money. He will They had decided to take over the Sydney Sanitarium change wonderfully change. New "He Faileth Never. He who never fails was tested and Islands." It read. Prime Minister John Curtain readily acceded to his demands. and Hospital with its extensive estate in the northern suburbs discouraging outlook . quonset-type buildings and other structures." Pastor A. in part: Caledonia. encouraged the staff operates. W. General (Tested and Proved. Subsequently. Having asked according to of Sydney. For three weeks collection was taken up as an expression of gratitude for God's the staff prayed that the Seventh-day Adventist Church goodness and deliverance. In Australia." was heard on every side." Imagine the excitement around the San! former chaplain. while the 8th was incarcerated in the infamous Changi Prison in Singapore. New Zealand. June. Pastor Knight had a special card printed which carried selected America was recovering from the debacle of Pearl Harbor in statements from Ellen White's writings. old wooden building located where the present Medical Center and the business manager. and in particular by less. and Southwest Pacific. The Australian military was even prepared `San' in June. Australia's crack fighting divisions (the 6th. a glass book case was built in the Patient's Lounge with the That was a big thing to ask for in June. 1941. after the thrilling news had been announced. Their representatives carrying his signature. The Japanese military forces had been moving ever As a reminder of the experience and to mark the occasion.' The Australian His word. was given to me for the San and should had even marked out on the Hospital estate the sites for always be a treasured part of the Hospital's history. and press Federal Government had given full approval to the impending our petitions with a determination that will not be denied. They had bombed Darwin in the Northern Territory proved. 7th. the Americans were com- mandeering any buildings they wanted. sit-downs. Japanese war machine had consumed thePhilippines. It was decided to use the money would not lose ownership and control of the only hospital (about £50) for something permanent in the San. Only an under-strength and ill-equipped 1. Indonesia. The Great Deliverance of 1942 "The whole staff rallied as one person to pray three times infantry battalion was trying to stop the enemy at Kokoda. Malay. George Adair.

were admonished to Nettie Irwin. fully. Eleanor. hav. He was not as rigid. America in 1905.A." he moaned to Australasians.000. These funds furnished enough to complete Kress was a man of austere habits. two meals a day. trans- pay a second tithe for ferred from the Just before the opening of the San in 1902. Sanitarium had their pain taken away by prayer. Thank- superintendent. ing returned to America a few weeks earlier with Kress never dispensed drugs. as two trainee nurses Administrative Measures who objected to studying physiology on the grounds The Sanitarium administrative staff was en. attic. warning the first two storeys and verandahs. hour Sunday before Drs.000 loan to com. John Kellogg donated the royalties of his foreign to typical Aussie thinking. were intent on making Sabbath-keepers Sanitarium parlour on New Year's Day. separate rear building for hydrotherapy treatment and no liquids with meals. "The church is largely made up of people who gave over $4. 1993 . a more cheerful dress prevailed. that reliance on the prayer of faith would serve the 18 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. The plete the building. matron until the of 1902 were also used Irwins returned to to keep the building program going.picture. Pastor and Mrs. the staff posed for a group one year. charge as physicians. and tower. Conference Church members President's wife. The balance was met by are 'worthless' and 'unconverted'. and a advocating strict vegetarianism. treasurer.000. This amounted despaired of educating the locals to his own regi- to over $600. was absent. The second tithe brought in about cultivation of the germs which produce the gas and $3. tirely American. Church leaders voted Burden continued as to buy materials manager and his only as funds came wife. rather than take as secretary and a $5. his close friend.H. served in. Daniel and returning home late Lauretta Kress took Sunday evening. G.working a twelve. "contained . in addition to against the medical dangers of bicycle riding and the outer shell of the roof. Their Sab." This. of course. he A quiet dedication service was held in the alleged. Irwin. The Sabbath School offering provided lighten the bread. was completely $400. 1903. Even the architect and building ing black uniforms was also entertained. Dr.000.05 Building costs to the end of 1902 totalled of alcohol and other products resulting from the almost $17. Merritt Kellogg. Unlike the opening of some earlier Adventist health It was during the Kress era (when Pastor Ole institutions in Australia. however. and Kress often medical books sold in Australasia. Adventist ministers. and Lauretta Kress are seated in the second row. rather than health-reformers. Drs. second Avondale Health bath School offerings and third from the left. he said. Irwin Retreat and acted as for the second quarter are seated next to them. He was prone to the promise of work in his homeland—a promise cite instances when patients at the Battle Creek that proved to be empty. D. bread because yeast bread. He ate only unleavened rooms. no government dignitar. He and other benefactors in America men. Olsen replaced Irwin) that the idea of nurses wear- ies were present.

Fifty-seven-year-old Lewis Butler. A 10% discount was to the Sydney Sanitarium in the last half of 1902. that the British Medical per week. patient best. cents. so naturally the stricken man MEDICINE 19 . both members of the 1903 graduating nursing class. Toilet facilities were downstairs. A oddities were perhaps symptomatic of naivete. but such were at a premium. unlined iron roof. Front rooms from Butler's store. Hessian [burlap] was hung for anxious to attract. became tower were finished piecemeal from 1906 onwards. but a full examination including urine and The Doctors Kress had transferred with their blood tests would cost $2. All bathroom treat- trainee nurses from the Avondale Health Retreat ments were fifty cents each. doors. There was no The First Patients heating for winter.10. Since Lewis Butler was the Sanitarium's first patient. ill with rheumatic fever. For heating. however. offered to professional men. Kellogg and his carpenters Patients. on the other hand. the village store- This situation improved very slowly as the attic and keeper near Wahroonga Railway Station. costing up to $2 per week. and spread on the floor as matting. ("Bert") Thorpe and Lydia ("Lily") Williams. It room at the rear could cost as little as eighty cents remains a fact. tacked to the stark framework as partitions. indicating this as the These nurses lived in the unfinished attic under class of people which the Sanitarium was most spartan conditions. Their zeal is to be admired. A consultation and did not remove the Sanitarium from its black together with a prescription carried a fee of fifty list until 1912. and in summer the building The Sanitarium's first patient was an emer- became a sauna as the sun beat unmercifully on the gency case accepted before the official opening. were provided with were in the habit of buying many of their supplies tasteful rooms and kind treatment. wood-burning open fire- Association looked askance at what was offered places were located in the rooms. it is The first couple to be married at the Sanitarium were Ethelbert fitting that his wedding portrait should also be featured.

graduation class of The number of patients at the Sydney Sani- any one time during tarium also pro- 1903 was no more than vided missionaries twenty. Summer Hill Sani- Clara. The first slow in materializing. His thirty-two-year-old wife. a proximately seventy pa. these services were held outdoors until three weeks before graduation and this cast a note adequate facilities were built. balance sheets repeatedly showed a loss until 1912. Edgar Davey. and Louis and Lizzie it was the child of an Currow. served in overseas Patronage was very missions. Sara Young. It was something of a Sanitarium work. and soft Thursday evening. who tients was the maximum had served on number that could be ac. Kress. despite the distribution of attractive advertising ered. September 17. Weather nations despite being ill with tuberculosis. all earlier employee. in Tonga before 20 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. Bertha Ford. A gap was left in honour of Eva." practice walk for Lily and Bert because six weeks Three weeks after the official opening Dr. the weather was drinks in his store. than the rule in the early days. the small group down the aisle. the Butler family regularly worshipped workers. 1993 . had died permitting. Lily Williams led heart in the Butler family proved to be the harbin. Anna The First Nursing Class Nordstrom.was well-known to the little Adventist commu. followed by Sara ger of many more conversions to Adventism. When Avondale Health Retreat with Dr. the locals declared he had gone stormy. promotion meetings in Adventist churches. Annual Pacific Islands mission field. and Fred reported in 1906 that "about thirty have thus far Redward. received regular hydro. later they trod the same aisle to be married before Lauretta Kress delivered the first baby at the Sani. therapy treatments once the Sanitarium officially opened. Eva Hodge. Thomas Will. but on this occasion Maud (Cammell) Smith. Kress Young. and his wife. nity. products of the iam Palmer. would share the Sabbath School lesson Perhaps the highlight of 1903 was the gradu- study with her. Maternity cases were the exception rather in New Zealand. potential was used. so many did not venture out. ham. who did cards at the health food cafes and monthly health not enjoy good health. For years only a to the Pacific and fractionofthe Sanitarium's South-East Asia. Lillian. On Butler then threw out all the tobacco. Before selling the business and reopening at ence. In 1920 the Sydney San staff farewelled some of their colleagues off to the Rurutu Island and commodated. and Bert commenced to keep Sabbath as a result of our Thorpe brought up the rear. consisted mainly of Sanitarium Cooranbong. The audi- mad. Pitcairner. embarking to work at the Christchurch Sanitarium tarium. One of the nurses she befriended. The changes of of sadness over the gathering. minister to visit their home. therefore. and the subsequent These seven trainees had begun their course at the Bible studies resulted in their baptism. who had passed all her exami- on Sabbaths with the Sanitarium group. Ap. He responded to the treatments and recov. infant Reuben. They named their tarium training. Lillian eventually asked for a ation of the first nursing class at the Sanitarium.

consideration was given to em- Electric light was not installed until 1908. Java and Fiji. approximately ing which able pa. a nursing graduate in Hydropathic manager. for a decade. pearance. hoses and extinguishers were added. 1912. eighteen tients had been months before encouraged to do transferring to but which had the Adelaide proved to be gen. in 1905. ploying a third doctor. the main building received its first moa until she was felled by pneumo. soon the staff as an after. Elsie M. heavy work-load. These names saving devices were installed in the were among the vanguard of an army laundry. was employed because. Lauretta Kress suffered declining health sium. recarpeted and a Chinese gardener Pacific. Howard James sold the building was his practice at replaced by a cro. worked in Sa. Just erally unpopular. The courtyard between the rear of the building and the treatment The Kress Era rooms was paved and used as an outdoor gymna.training in Australia. a proper gymnasium before she and her husband finally returned to was built and doubled as a temporary church until America early in 1907. but his offer their stay. 1912-1919 and 1934-41. tion bore a very cold and stark ap- gapore. That is. But in 1913 the hungry typified an essential purpose of the timbers were painted grey with white Sanitarium. Edgar Davey primer. Institute. Only by gradual vegetables. Shannan. the stairs were ary nurses in Africa. so. The gardener returned to his home- degrees were some high priorities met. there hadn't been much success with growing major improvements in facilities. Fisher. a tennis assistant physi- court. Two years later. they were trimmings. Asia. land in 1921. later married George Teasdale. Instead. Bendigo in Vic- quet court in toria and joined 1913 and. Mr. cian in the lat- door activities ter part of 1905. The Thorpes later served had only enough funds for an oil in Tonga. Caro heard of these As incentives to persuade patients to prolong plans and made himself available. George S. matron from the hallways. Dr. These out. Fire escapes. real coat of paint. were introduced He remained for to replace garden.Mrs. These individuals. Dr. prior to the depar- MEDICINE 21 . business Lucy Harrison. Originally. who became principal of Avondale At the same time College in 1916. the institu- worked as a missionary nurse in Sin. especially. and the 19114923 and 1925-29. As she could not carry a 1912 when the first Wahroonga church was erected. some of the aging orchard at the front of was rejected. new linoleum was laid in of graduates who served as mission. Dr. from the out- Low patronage and nagging debt hindered set. The following year a means of introducing unbelievers to washing machine and other labour- the Christian lifestyle. Kellogg nia in 1906. and the iron roof was trained to use the medical work as a covered in red.

Over the next few weeks his eyesight. —Laurence Gilmore 1. With fading vision and severely swollen legs. Hospital administrators and indeed Division leaders all wondered what was wrong. residential and otherwise.' and all my questions have been answered. The story now moves elsewhere. 1993 . the Sanitarium Health Food Company. That evening. "We made it!" This event marked an historic day for the Seventh-day Adventist Church of the South Pacific Division. James Price. At exactly 11:15 p. Purchasing Officer John Sherriff. it contained Marmite. must not exceed a height of three levels. The architectural firm specialized in designing hospitals and all submissions were complete. however. Medical Director. Then . was it Providence or coincidence? That day I was wearing my badge given to all Australian military personel who served overseas. "Where did you serve?" he asked. More than one silent prayer went up that night. are built in the vertical plane for efficiency and cost-saving. The institution was founded as the Sydney Sanitarium and Hospital in 1903. Clifford shook hands with Bob Skinner. "Lobby! Lobby!" was the message to Dr. "Do you know who makes Marmite?" we asked. Dr. June 1. the motion to grant approval was carried by a clear majority. As ex-soldiers with these badges. and overall strength returned. Outside the Chambers an exuberant Dr. A Red Cross parcel from Australia finally reached this place of misery. 1970. For almost a century it had been policy that all buildings. he excused himself. that man was the foremost speaker. The Councillor was wearing a similar one. reserving it for those most seriously ill. Finally the Council advised that the proposed ten-level building was well above the the tree-line. At the next Council meeting. Still." Sydney Adventist Hospital was now set on its destined course. No cigarettes or chocolates. he faced a grim future. a small group of observers2 sat in the Visitor's Gallery listening to the debate. Repeated approaches and hearings before the Council failed. Architect Bob Skinner. the Australian POW sat in Singapore's hell-hole of Changi Prison facing inevitable death. 22 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring. the Hospital entertained groups and individuals—all talking about the new building and its potential. but they were not passed. defending our proposal for development.. "It's our sister institution. confirming our faith in God who still directs men's affairs and who works good out of seemingly impossible situations. and I say it needs full approval of the Council—and NOW! The surprise of the other Council members can only be imagined. As "God's Hospital. the Councillor seemed to be deeply and visibly moved—we could see that." Upon hearing this. Like all the others. Area buses still carry signs reading simply "San Hospital. This new hospital is essential to the community.m. and the Council told the Church to design a different structure. With a few more words and a quick look at the Hospital's plans. "I've been to the San. We're both subsidaries of the Adventist Church." even though it was renamed Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1973. however. He told us of his near-death experience with beriberi and how Marmite had virtually saved his life. he barely survived on a token of white rice. This POW received two teaspoons a day—a large dose. Bert Clifford. He lived. Dr. One day the Medical Director and I (as the hospital's public relations officer) were entertaining a Councillor who had been the most vocal opponent of the development. Instead. Modern hospitals. declaring. 2. we were suddenly on common ground and had a new starting point for discussion." I replied. Clifford and I saw our moment of opportunity. and Public Relations Officer Laurence Gilmore." he told us. a yeast extract rich in Vitamin Bt so necessary to fight beriberi. In the early 1970s the sketch plans for the new Sydney Adventist Hospital were presented to theKu-ring-gai Municipal Council for approval. Adventists were not accustomed to the lobbying process with all of its ramifications. cardiac functions. Bert Clifford. Dr. "In the Army Medical Services in Papua New Guinea. Many weeks went by with no word from the Council. One Day and Night in History Weak with beriberi. The medicos rationed this valuable food. "I was in Singapore and Malaysia.

Harrison. Bible studies. Dr. Rosenclahl (Manager). Elsie Shannon (Matron). Marguerite Freeman. cooking demonstrations and were meant to be entirely humanitarian. an adjunct of the Sanitarium tered to take up work with either was opened in "Como" cottage on the health food cafes. A requirement before they even started three years. years after his emergency surgery. row: Mrs. (Medical Director) . This relatively short- husband. Nurses who had com.ture of the Doctors Kress another suitability to home and foreign mis- husband-wife team arrived to re. they their training was that they sign a statement dis- canvassed health literature and gave home treat. sion service. soul-winning. Dr. with one week Administrators in 1920. location of this venture was soon klin and "Lala" (Sisley) Richards who transferred to North Sydney. Front Dr. Boyd. Their intentions ments. Eulalia Rich. a few corner of Bondi Road and Park Pa. C. England. claiming any mercenary motives.) Accepting a drop in wages. to equip the nurses for The Kress era is notable for an practical health evangelism. On November 8. L-R: Pastor W. moved away. Thomas Sherwin Front row: Dr. Dr. Then had briefly practised at the Leicester a short time later Starr himself Sanitarium. plus Sabbath duties. spend four months living at Bondi and gaining Much of their working life was therefore not simply experience in medical missionary work. In the 1934s some new staff doctors were aided. Back row. and the project was ards was a niece of Nellie Starr whose abandoned. or public evangelism teams. They were Doctors Fran. For easier access the place them . Back row: Carswell (Chaplain). that age of graduates remained to work at is. however. In effect the Gospel Medical Home. Some went to foreign mission fields. rade. Maguerita Freeman. church boarding Will Patrick in WWI uniform. The majority scat- 1906. the Sanitarium. was chaplain at the lived enterprise was an attempt. Mrs . (By this a routine of nursing but rather an evangelistic time the training course had been extended to witness. George. pleted two years of training were appointed to and others engaged in self-supporting medical work. Dr.R. important feature which represented Usually. Gilbert McLaren. Charles W. MEDICINE 23 . Sydney Sanitarium. super. Dr. Bondi. only a small percent- one of the goals of the institution. Other discussions on dress reform wherever opportunity requirements were that they be a mature twenty to arose. thirty years of age and strong enough to work a fifty- intended by the Starrs. schools. Thomas Sherwin. was a testing ground for four hour week.

From the same perspective many After her graduation Esther served as a senior nurse nurses cut short their training and took positions at and finally was appointed matron of the Sani- overseas posts just as soon as these were offered to tarium in September 1906. Esther courted any improvement. even moved to abolish gradu. leaving did not anticipate that the two little boys. 056"'"-im Sanitarium. 1908." He Christmas 1911. Esther began cal recognition and Kress neither expected nor sharing her duties with Emma Semmens. had sailed reflected the goal of training nurses solely for mis. to four years. for example. Alex. Howard Sanitarium would receive and Arthur. Kress placed little . in charge of the culinary depart- 1906. credit which could be used for who. In fact. Sherwin persuaded the minimum wage. we shall receive a premature death during no state recognition. had to be rebuilt service in South-East Asia. One was Anna importance on secular recognition Nordstrom who eventually had of the nurses' training.p i L. not hospital in 1910 under the even attending his wife's Private Hospitals Act. if Louisa Jacobson. Second and two nurses in the second class at third year trainees accrued a small the Avondale Health Retreat. In the Kress era there were forms and aprons. concurrent with the amount was divided among tithe. 24 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring. After the fire of 1919. when Alfred Semmens transferred from At that time the institution held scant medi. em- the Australasian Union Confer. so Esther volun- Later. Esther's sister.50 each week and the entire in 1927. such as their ankle-length uni. These attitudes merely Anderson. the Sanitarium tower barked for a lifetime of mission ence. after their graduation in board in times of sickness. Adelaide to be the new manager. What to do on a Saturday night in the 1920s? Try some exercises Doctors Richards in in the San Gymnasium with your friends. suffered faithful. not far distant when. First year train. funeral. then President of ungig nillm 11witil ment and then. Her deceased husband. 1904. room rent. in 1907. The ation services because he believed second was Esther (Kelly) they stimulated vanity. At the beginning of them. He prophesied before served as domestic matron and Emma as medical he left that "the time is matron. remained to work at the Like Caro. after Doctors tarily gave up her nursing George Sherwin and career at the Sanitarium Marguerita Freeman in order to care for the took over from the boys. and tuition fees. And $1. Their father registration as a private abandoned them. extension of the training course meals.as a holiday each year—all on a 1912. to New Zealand as part of the crew on the Pitcairn. received recognize the Sanitarium. 1993 . nurses were granted They were expected to have a State registration if they passed cash reserve for other necessities the government exams. Olsen. sion service. British Medical Association to ees in 1906.

Richards reported at Battle Creek Sani. Home duties allowed her moving machinery at the health food factory. Rather than Nursing was not for the return to her homeland Elsie faint-hearted. up to forty patients at tarium. Elsie. So also did Will Patrick. of age. to teach then served. Both The Shannon Wing. only eleven years. mer Hill Sanitarium but George died prematurely he said. Dorothy. It was then only once to America for a that the night watchman and holiday.The Early AUSTRALIA'S HOME OF HFAL S it tired at sixty-six years Challenges of sAN. one o'clock. balance the budget. to the right of the original San. patron- American. When Dorothy was older Elsie joined the staff on a Cooranbong church member who was rushed to a full-time basis. ceived her training Dr. This she met and married was the estimated George Shannan of number required to Hobart. with convalescents taking MEDICINE 25 . quarter of the patients. fractured his skull. IUlti1 . worked at the Sum. In 1929 it was found a skeleton staff of nurses re- her American certificate was tired and the main group re- no longer acceptable to the ported for duty. with her little daugh. Tragedy the Sanitarium with a rup- struck at Christmas-time in tured appendix and perito- 1910 when Dorothy died. mangled his arms and had two cember 1904 she was asked to return and work at fingers amputated when he became entangled in the Sydney Sanitarium. A relatively trainees hydrotherapy un. age was on a climb. A typi- matron. A worship State Nurses Registration and breakfast break oc- Board. returning in the morning. were Adventists. but in De. an Avondale School student who had ter. she re. A was opened in 1920. Having com- stayed on and when Emma mitted oneself to the course. went home to America. Hol- to do only relief and special nursing for a few years. she chores and treatments until stepped down. Holland. Shannan. followed by further continue as matron. In this capacity she cal day's routine began at six served until 1929. aged nitis. however. Dinner was ued. Semmens went to America in there was little respite from 1911 Shannan was appointed the constant duties.A. The Sanitarium's laundry staff circa /918 relaxed period followed til 1938 when she fully re. land made a good recovery. It was there the institution. These included Charlie of tuberculosis in 1902. As an By 1911. She contin. Her shock of Nursing Duties snow-white hair and Another name kind Christian man- of enduring charac. ner were familiar to all ter was Elsie at Wahroonga. Since she could not curred.

ing the aesthetic Shannon Wing. nurses returned.000. These building's insur- exercises were not ance cover was wasted. The alarm was sounded and Years of Growth all hands reached • r. tower was transformed into a visitor's lounge which tients was held in the opened onto a top parlour. under the tower. the precau- brink of disaster when tion was taken of a fire mysteriously building any fur- broke out in the oper. directly timber. some nurses rooms in the attic. operating theatre. were tossed from the windows. which had lit up like a huge candle. Pressure After the evening meal a short exercise could carry the water no higher. agement and staff to Immediately practise their fire-drills after the fire the very seriously. face of this room. the ments were given to insomniacs and to pa. and tients who had been admitted that same after. to over 1919. Sanitarium such a large wooden was installed on the building led the man." for The risk of fire in Sydney. either in the gymnasium or wrapped in sheets. Half an hour later all patients and The tower was quickly rebuilt. The tower. and the nurses continuing their round of At great personal risk.5:30 onto the roof and played water at the base of the pm on Sundays to Thursdays. Lights design. feet and made broader. The prize calves and milk cows once grazed in the shadow of the and their belongings. outdoors. ther extensions in ating theatre on the brick rather than second floor. 1993 . Classes for the nurses were held 3:30 . Further- was brought to the more. Early on the more than morning of January 10. the Sanitarium $44. doubled. using a new nurses not on duty were expected to retire. cated on the north- were hurried outside (Below) The San's dairy herd of Fresian cattle was maintained until the west side. and lack- 1970s. drama was over. Because the original one tended to sway in were extinguished at 10 pm. On Saturday evenings strong winds. Trees obscure the Shannon Wing within minutes. The large room under the On Sunday evenings a gospel service for the pa. (right) in 1933 the South Wing (left) opened to house new treatment pleted in 1920. where the fire had noon. floor balcony. Lo- The patients rooms. 26 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. plus surgical and maternity wards. By the time fire period was held in the gymnasium and treat. The first of such their prearranged posts extensions was com- (Above) Sydney San in the 1940s. brigades arrived from Hornsby and Chatswood.physical exercise. tower. the hosemen clambered duties. At 9 pm the night watchman and night crept along the roof timbers. A decorative lead-light Dealing With Fire incorporating the Hazards y initials "S. the new tower was shortened by six everyone attended a special class in gymnastics. were destroyed.S.

Approximately four hundred people. it was not built without some criticism. worked and later leased by A. and the project was rapidly became out-dated and before long they abandoned. Donations came in until by the improve the situation. The The Sanitarium Board then hired a solicitor to poultry run. free enterprise seemed to be the best solution. sat or stood on the roof as a brief service was held overlooking the surround- ing bushland. These accusations were answered in a pany was satisfied. they The culinary department was upgraded with a said. a new operating theatre. and By 1924 Sherwin had theoretically won the poultry all functioned at a loss in the 1920s. Ultra-conservative leaders balked at verted into a swimming pool. The $4. the project degenerated into a legal but then the project was stopped. Some church handle their rejection of the entire deal. candid statement published in the Australasian Other improvements included the installa- Record. Church leaders explained that patronage tion of a lift 'elevator] in 1924 so that patients did had increased. and Thomas Carr rented the dairy and number of accessories and because the Sanitarium vegetable garden. proved too much. and contrary to standard Adventist the additional equipment and the installation com- practice. would have to buy a better model. The remainder wrangle with those installing the machine. and better quarters for some of the female staff. Neverthe- members branded it as extravagant.grandeur of the original building. It aries had become urgent. dairy. just before the rebuilding project began thirty patients.000 was reached. The orchard.B. Even so. The of the orchard continued to be leased to Robert company was pressing for the installation of a Watson. vegetable garden. of the institution was hampered. not have to struggle up and down the stairways. However. Toilet facilities were fitted training institution.000 cost. The dam had to be filled in. It was a case. On May 3 the promenade was decorated with ferns and flags for the dedication of this new wing. the need for more trainee mission. MEDICINE 27 . orchard was uprooted to make way for a golf links. a denial of less. by the end of 1926 money was appropriated for God's will. This extension provided room for an extra The San in the late I 960s. Giving these auxiliaries over to was reluctant to agree. By 1930 a section of the end of the year a total of nearly $1. work came to a standstill. the dam which had supplied water was imperative in order to stem another slump in for the coal-fired steam boilers began to be con- patronage. it was a three- storied structure with verandahs. Sherwin argued that better equipment accomplished. The Sanitarium Board Sanitarium Board tried a number of strategies to voted to buy a unit. a bitumi- nous overlay for weather-proofing. It had a flat promenade roof with adamax applied. The debate about the X-ray. When this task was the 1920s. and the earning capacity was located in the centre of the original building. of expand or cease to operate as a missionary washing-up machine. for the top floor in 1926.S. The following year Harry Resistance to change was also reflected on Tempest and Ernest Baldwin modified the electri- other occasions. One example was some ongoing cal wiring throughout the building to enable a link- prejudice against the purchase of an X-ray unit in up to the city power supply. the high cost and argued that such equipment however. including local dignitaries and newspaper reporters.

were paid ten cents per November 10. Fifty-two hours were still required when with cork tiles—a first for hospitals in Australia. The named the Sydney Adventist Hospital. This fluctu." it was finally opened as 1925. but with these new additions the total bed sore and noisy annoyance to the patients that it was capacity for the institution now topped 116. pockets.Craig throughout the 1920s. with a quiet in-house cent of their wage had ceremony. Australian Broadcasting Commission's Military In the 1970s there also occurred a significant Band came to play in grand style. Known throughout end of the year. This time. tuition fees. Some rooms in the Sydney Adventist Hospital features a central original building had been transformed into office 28 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. and was re- dignitaries gathered for its official opening. and government hospital opened on June 10.1933. Eighty-five per. twenty-five in all. the wards. hour. homelands. text major changes have books and uniforms. Payment for overtime. doors were equipped with noise-reducing fifty. classes were not being held. and the corridors were laid gained. and a private tele- ing conditions. but it was paid as a lump sum at the pleted for more than a decade. to pay for tithe. reduction in the need for missionary nurses as The lower floor of the new section was de. on July 18. San. Friday afternoon. became such an eye. Two weeks holiday on It does appear. Regular rates were also modified in that time as "the skeleton. space. nursing graduates usually remain in the rooms. which outstripped available finances in the tough depres- was discouraged in the early days. that building costs full pay was granted. was set at eight sion years because the third floor remained uncom- cents per hour. fitted with special glass which admitted ultra-vio- ated in the following years. was available in each room. Second-year a surgical ward on trainees. full Since the 1950s board. Pacific Island territories became self-sufficient. over five its replacement with a multi-storied utilitarian hundred staff. copper plumbing and special non-slip floor tiling. 1944. The closed down in 1931. however. or forty-eight when State registration was rubber-roller latches. at times being set at let rays. been the demoli- storied brick and concrete annex to the south. taken place both to This left them with the physical plant about seventy cents and the services of- each week in their fered to the public. Features of these facilities were the all. which was subsequently demolished and mortar has struction of a three. for example. voted to ladies' and mens' hydrotherapy treatment Nowadays. 1993 . In Step with the 1990s Upstairs was set aside for medical and obstetrical Like any other institution of its kind. The sun-room was were reduced to forty-four per week. tion of Kellogg's original wooden building and eastern wing. church members. In 1925 the required working hours phone was at each bedside. 1973. Principal among The highlight of the many develop- development in the By 1973 the new multi-story Sydney Adventist Hospital dwarfed the old ments with bricks 1930s was the con. new wing was centrally heated. hot and cold water Some changes were also made to nurses' work.

the hospital has laboured to increase its professional and technological excellence. and the author's personal collection health in the shortest time. private letter collections stored at medicine" to "aid the sick to the most complete and permanent Avondale College.monolith offering the full spectrum of medi- cal services. Compared to its modern." of pioneer data. the Minutes of the Sydney San: to utilize all the "methods and appliances . Gradually. It is today one of the most highly regarded private hospitals in Australia. . high-tech operating rooms. the San's original facilities were quite spar tan The Sanitarium Maternity Cottage ("Bethel" ) . It has a wide range of specialties. Major sources for this article are the Australasian Record. Today it houses the Public Relations and Graphic Design Depts . since its open- ing in 1903. Preventive medicine or health education is still a feature. as well as nuclear medicine. Hydrotherapy is but a shadow of its former prominence. ultrasound and computerized tomography ("cat-scan") for soft tis- sue analysis. MEDICINE 29 . It has diversified into radiotherapy and oncology for can- cer treatment. . in rational Sanitarium Board. open heart surgery. built in I915. the Minutes of the Medical Missionary Com- mittee (Sydney Branch). the Minutes of the Summer The hydrotherapy rooms demonstrated the stated purpose of the Hill Sanitarium Board. its place being overtaken by mater- nity and surgical cases.

the primary between the best-known of the sources are abundant. S Warta for the voyage back to her home- Pacific Division. G. On istry was spent in Australia and that day the S. White. a segment of over- at Apia. months) of her 70-year public min- sion on November 27.' in spite of cogent reasons why land. Alameda paused New Zealand. facilitating the first visit cur. The time has 16. as she looked Research Centres around the 8. On December 3 and 4 cific sojourn and her death for the ship berthed at Auckland. friends from the Whites' was adopted and loved as the time in Texas. Ellen White quickly recognised during her years in Australia world. 1915. New coherent historical analysis to oc- Zealand. can be made without fear of contradiction. More than that. CHURCH BEGIN NINGS Ellen White: Mother of the Church in the South Pacific by Arthur Patrick H istorians face an ongoing challenge twoNorth American missionaries on the wharf. with reference to Ellen White. circa 1890s . When the Alameda moved to establish a headquarters sailed into "the most beautiful archive and then a string of Ellen harbour in the world" [Sydney. it was mother of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in almost nine years later when Ellen White boarded the vast area of the world known as the South the S. shells. 1993 . coral and handcrafts has elapsed since her South Pa- alongside. 1891. Ar- Although competent historians are careful ticles in reference works and the content of numer- about making judgments close to an event. it is now more than a hun. where she remained until her death on July this was unlikely to have occurred. it facilitated better access 30 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring.S. rated countries demonstrate beyond all question dred years since the widowed Ellen that she is a person who merits White (1827-1915) entered the serious study. or soon ous theses written for universities in widely-sepa- after a person's death. When in church's founders and antipodean 1972 the General Conference Adventists. White/Seventh-day Adventist New South Wales] on December Ellen G. Contrary to her earlier plans. where friendly Samoans seas service long enough to call for brought canoe-loads of tropical careful assessment. Sufficient time fruits. She Arthur and Mary Daniells.' One eighth (105 territory of the South Pacific Divi.2 come to analyse this relationship between Ellen A number of observations about Ellen White White and the church more thoroughly.

Bottom: The third church took 18 months to complete and was dedicated on 14 May. both countries tended to distrust the nation which ingly beyond dispute. a wooden structure built in only 51/2 weeks. except for the year 1893 when she This more ready access to the church's ministered in another British Colony [New Zeal- memory-bank has sharpened the problem for the and]. Since then 1. Great Britain epitomised God's ideals move on coherently with its mission. 1892. The dedication. 1'1 Top left: The first SDA church in Parramatta. Prizing their Scottish. Welsh. Although researchers now have many English heritage. The Wesleyans. and historians. 1988. to a significant body of primary documents. followed an evangelistic campaign led by Robert Hare and David Steed. Five of the and that the Adventists were a regrettable and CHURCH BEGINNINGS 31 . the essential data is increas. The arguments which are least in dispute are as follows: Research Centre for the South Pacific Division opened in a five-room section of the Avondale Five Roadblocks to Success College Library on 22 February 1976. Top right: The second church in Parramatta wok three months w build and was dedicated on March 7. 1891-1900. with all of the facts and which satisfy the variety of were in many respects theologically nearest to the groupings which have developed in the church.4 Adventists. for instance. on December 10. The far more demanding had developed from the rebel colonies on the far task is to construct interpretations which accord side of the Atlantic. Ellen White lived as an American in a a great deal of serious investigation has been under. the most ardent Protestants in more facts to assemble. 1937. Only as consensus is achieved can the church however. British Colony [Australia] during most of the years taken. Irish. They were confident that as a nation.

made a noticeable impression in Australia during the r oN )ANIElt AND THE . the age understood as normal for female retirement in Australia. In The cover for Uriah Smith's Thoughts on Daniel and her sixties and seventies. soon become a new and greater Ireland. The Wesleyans wanting to make a lasting impact in the lands were sure that their brand of Christianity was "Down Under. Although a minority of them which she regarded as "quite a humiliation. a sort of "promised land" in which cal infirmity. The which led the church to adopt her as its active Roman Catholics believed that Australia would mother. • impact upon the religious life of Australasians -•••• - during the nineteenth century. ahead with some of the most ambitious projects of her entire career. It was." destined to succeed in the glorious federated na- 5. Jessie Ackermann. surely Ellen White should Revelation. and write no more than a few lines a day. Ellen White was a woman. as the Alameda neared Samoa on its way from Honolulu. Indeed. Ellen White should have come to the South Pacific with a British accent.5 It is 7-7 _ • clear that North American Christianity had some -. she functioned in ways actively opposed to such a religious stance.6 3. they thought. The Anglicans were led by an Sometimes she had to be carried to the pulpit. Most females in nineteenth-century Aus- tralia knew their place and kept in it. She returned to the United States in time for her seventy-third birthday. In 1891 Ellen White was well past 60. not places where important deci- sions were made and implemented. an experience Australian society. The home was their sphere. Even more importantly. not as a retired grandmother. ists ridiculed the hopes of all three of these denomi- millennialist to a society in Australia which was nations. The secular- more serious problem: she came as a convinced pre. she marked her sixty-fourth anniversary on the day North Americans celebrated Thanksgiving. 1993 . to be readily accepted in the religious climate of the 1890s. Christendom.annoying incursion from the United States. ardent archbishop committed to "Christianising" where she preached sitting down. she should have been born male. 2. If Ellen White was to influence significantly either the local Adventists or their society. Another Chris- tian woman from overseas. During much of 1892 her right arm Irish saints and scholars would lead the church to was so painful that she could move it only below recover the role which it had enjoyed in medieval the elbow. written in response to questions on prophecy. as they did the expectations fostered 32 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring.1•0 years Ellen White was here. have been starting to relax rather than pressing Colporteurs found it to be a popular seller. But Ellen White was beset by an even tion which their eyes of faith foresaw. 4. Instead. At times Ellen White suffered severe physi." An during the 1890s were seriously involved with American female retiree in uncertain health would eschatology. but her efforts were soon forgotten. they held to a pre-millennialism which scarcely be chosen by any informed committee conflicted with the Adventist view. But.

she intended us to become responsible adults. discovered Ellen White's Sydney home several years ago. By the be extended. dictments for supernaturalists like those who pro. 1894. but until ing her stay.for country life. a crisis would occur at and airy. "John Watson. she described it as "a pleasant An Inevitable Crisis and convenient house [with] rooms [that] are light Inevitably. raised by Fletcher."' Too often. in a Now restored. amongst them this gem from Education: "Every human being. CHURCH BEGINNINGS 33 ." Cooranbong. Kellar: dated October 25. Robert Brinsmead throughout the 1960s led a claimed a cataclysmic Second Coming of Christ. She lived her e from December 25. Then The list of historical Brinsmead changed his reasons why Ellen White's theological stance. we ex- pected Ellen White to tell us what to think. therefore. During the mid-1950s a confer- ence president M. Ellen White purchased a property close to the site in the church. By contrast.W. More Christianity. There were local difficulties in the member of the Parramatta and Granville Historical early-1930s when a respected leader. The ministers departed over issues similar to those unbelievers also saved some of their harshest in. power to think and to do. cizing the church from an cific should have been a opposite vantage point non-event could readily during the 1970s. Norfolk Villa on Prospect Street.S. Along with the many positive results of these circumstances was a problematical one: the Australasian church be- came highly dependant upon her. she devel.? faction which criticised the church severely. 1895 about 1970 the problems until August. Sydney. In a letter to Dr. and even to read the Scriptures for us. Greive) and a number of his amongst the other segments of Christianity. Fletcher Societies.S. early 1980s. W. But she tran. created in the image of God. chosen for Avondale. We learned by heart many choice statements. was home to Mrs.A. White and her household from 18944895. aped a strong relationship with these new believ- ers. left the church. Harris spiritual sense. N. importantly. Thus she came to influence the infant church as a mother does a young child. is endowed with a power akin to that of the Creator—individuality. as the small These stirrings Adventist membership caused serious stresses "Sunnyside . when she returned to the U. . Beginning in reaction to Greive.W. (inset) an Adventist and some time. 1900. Always restless was multiplied by five dur. criti- sojourn in the South Pa. She gave us such certainty during the decades of our spiritual adoles- cence that we tended to overlook the implications of some of her plainest counsels. Park. Australia. and outside of Adventism and bonded quickly with the then beyond the param- 500 believers in Australia eters of evangelical and New Zealand. Brinsmead's scended the disadvantages changing ideas took him which beset her. however.

At a critical moment a serious biblical question was posed by Desmond Ford in California on October 27. His doubts were even on the lips of many who were not his followers. So. Next came disquieting rumours that Walter Rea. it imperiled as she was drawn to the centre of its was attacked overtly before the decade closed. But. and considered Ellen White answer appeared in the Sydney. As lads they knew first-hand the kindness of their Division paper on December 10. Yet this process was made necessary simply "What does Ellen White say?" During the by the long accumulation of folk-lore. Almost immed ate ly the Australasian church gave what seemed to be an official response when a The three Patrick sons. White: Prophetess of Health) which raised questions about her writings on health reform. Ellen White's response may have been to repeat her last could always be parried or contained by an appeal to words at a General Conference. the perplex- 1970s it became principally "What is Ellen White's ing questions posed by people critical of the church. the church was forced to draw increasingly on the arsenal of trusted weapons it had long prized for settling skirmishes. Ellen White. Understandably. there was discussion about the historical substance of The Great Controversy. Her long-established role Pacific church saw its relationship with its mother was challenged incipiently early in the 1970s. left co right: Charles. Thereafter the you the Word of God. 1979. and Mary Danielle 34 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring. Then came the disturbing book by Ron Numbers (Ellen G. Robert Brinsmead was on the intellectual pendulum-swing which denied all he had earlier affirmed about Ellen Arthur G.9 Perhaps." In any case. a theological spark in the former was to ignite an inferno in the latter. Given these circumstances. neither the rank-and-file nor The New Conflagration the church's leaders welcomed the difficult chal- This time the assault came on multiple fronts. William. its well-used methods were less effec- tive than they had been formerly. had she been present to ask. "I bommend to the authority of Ellen White. was charging Ellen White with the extensive use of unacknowledged literary sources. neighbor. 1993 . authority?" Instead of questions about whether and the sudden availability of primary sources. Even more perplexing. lenge to redraw the officially-accepted portrait of The standard issue for most Adventists had been Ellen White. late in the 1970s. so strong was the current of change in the Adventist community. the South situation altered rapidly. a pastor in California. controversy. cheese should be on Adventist tables and whether Adventists should vote. California and Australia are both subject to the effects of wildfire. White. only a spark was needed to ignite a conflagration.

He heard her ers like A. White and his Australian wife in 1896. They sing favourite hymns while she raked leaves in the much preferred the Ellen White of J. So. many Adventists were psychologically dale College. John lived in "Sunnyside" for months as one of Ellen W. At Cooranbong. Their English independence was overwhelmed by her kindness. and a cow so his young prophet who had been well known to earlier lead. she sent a basket of eggs to the widow's cottage. Seated: Ethel White's family of helpers. Standing: Mabel. and he was deeply moved or that of A. let me confess to a dual bias. powerful witness to the integrity of the message national ham radio operators and jet aircraft and which she professed. John lost his employment because he kept the seventh-day Sabbath. CHURCH BEGINNINGS 35 . A once found a destitute man sheltering under the significant group rejected Ellen White. It is already clear that White at the 1898 Brisbane campmeeting. There she lent him a tent to live in unready to acknowledge the godly but fallible while he built a home. Early in their Adventist experience my maternal grandparents." photocopiers. similar experience. En- three options were preferred. holding the twins. She gave them clothes for their children when. Until his death in 1946 he disquieting evidence which did not fit within the believed intensely that Ellen White's life was a long-cherished rubrics. tional—perhaps even sentimental—attachment strated such resilience during the recent crisis? to Ellen White. Prescott.G. age 14 - fledgling institution which would become Avon- Indeed. a long process involving the constructive transfor. came to know Ellen White. Washburn.C.W. mation of ideas seemed imperative. with her three boys.'° This was the age of inter. My widowed paternal grandmother shared a ity spread so quickly through the church. Amelia's three small sons positions which projected Adventism as a cult. Their as she prayed in the family circle and preached in illusions. Daniells. But.T. John and Charlotte Pocock. move with his family to Cooranbong to work at the age 10. After being nurtured in the The smoke from that conflagration has been faith by A. family could be nourished with milk. never before could rumour and real. The boys ran home and brought these also repudiated the Seventh-day Adventist the man their entire Sabbath treat—a whole egg Church or even Christianity itself. So the ques. grounds of "Sunnyside". were confronted by massive the Avondale church.S. A Dual Bias Before I list my set of answers. Amelia experienced a pervasive sense of peace as tion posed at the outset of this article has now she read The Great Controversy and listened to developed two dimensions. Later she invited him to May and Willie White. from each lad. Amelia Patrick met Ellen dissipating for a decade. from both so enthusiastically accepted during and after her sides of my family I grew up with a strong emo- nine years in Australasia? Why has she demon. however. Jones before his apostasy. They evange- lized their neighbours enthusiastically and success- fully with her books. during a time of financial depression. Some of the truest couraged by Ellen White to move to Cooranbong believers steeled themselves against the new evi. Amelia came to know the dence about Ellen White and retreated into a lifestyle and attitudes of the church's mother at first ghetto of denial. for others. and Ella. Why was Ellen White Ellen White's talks at Avondale. some of Dora Creek bridge. Daniells and W. When Ellen White heard the story.G. sometimes reverting to sectarian hand.

My ing nation still dominated current conclusions about by frontier attitudes.'z Arthur Daniells. prophetically as no one else could do. Ellen White fos- honed by a long dialogue tered a set of compelling between family sentiment ideas amongst her con- and historical method. must not be allowed to diminish the accepted by the Australian church as a symbol of significance of other stalwarts: Stephen Haskell. who was willing to surrender the heads of crete came to portray something of what it meant 36 ADVENTIST HERITAGE Spring. the Sanitarium Health birth as a movement. Most Australian the cow's head in a bail historians are known to be and tying its leg with a skeptics rather than believ. Both the Pocock and Patrick families pioneer Adventists. The Pocock sisters. Cooranbong and the train stations at Dora Creek and to stir the imagination of the message. 1900) and Bertha health care and witness- (b. the people of an emerg- tion their assumptions. Ellen White was ers. emphasised. that is. an than adopting the "bar- institution within easy driv. and "Willie" White amongst them. Adventism par excellence.'3 Ellen White have been 3. Bertha married William ing with literature. the sort of down-to-earth tians. cause them to dig deeply caught by the significance of "the blessed hope" and into their pockets and to "the third angel's message. May (standing. Thus she was however. This recognition church. My other bias derives her chickens so broth from long years trying to could be made to sustain understand Australian his. an eyewitness of what God Food Company. May was a graduate of Sydney Sanitarium and Reasons for Success married to Pastor E. and a person equipped to speak to us of Ellen White as a powerful source of motivation. a co-founder of the the Signs Publishing Company. are woman who appealed to trained to thoroughly ques. and did in those formative years. Those who are Chris. These were why did this diminuitive lady value-centred. who University of New England trained cows to stand in Armidale and then The while being milked rather University of Newcastle. So temporaries. barous practice" of the ing distance of Avondale Australians—confining College. involving become so endeared to such issues as "true" edu- South Pacific Adventists? cation.L. with the help of The eat "Advent is t" food." We knew before she perspire freely as they built structures which would arrived that Ellen White was a first-generation grow and multiply and become impressive institu- Adventist. Minchin. health reform. 1993 . Ellen White identified with the ordinary But some of the principal ideas which she people who had heeded the extraordinary Adven.b. Timber and bricks and con- flowers. a family too prejudiced to tory. We are a people Morisset. Sydney Adventist Hospital. like all historians. fruit and church in Australasia. rope. They 1. Ellen White Patrick and operated a horse-drawn taxi service between were concepts big enough epitomised the truth. 1902). to grew dose to the White family in Cooranbong. a participant in the sacred pain of our tions like Avondale College. when combined with the sacrifice and tist message. She was a practical prophetess who toil of others. developed the visible face of the was interested in growing vegetables. 2.

and Baby Christ our Saviour. 1900. Jesus. Arthur. The church listened to her because her the South Pacific Division. 5. vasive sense of gratitude to their au- thor. Thoughts from the Mount of Blessing. includ- CHURCH BEGINNINGS 37 . died for us. knowing and ever-authoritative Ellen White. Because we were not testimony carried convincing credentials. as in her copious writings. Standing left to right: Ivy. '6 the immediate future. 11-14). however. All the classic symptoms of lived amongst us from 1891-1900. 4.to be a Seventh-day Adventist. age. Christ's Object Lessons. they wreaked severe core of the matter can be put very simply. volumes brought us face-to-face with Seated left to right: Will Patrick. In her life. 1892. but in the their long-held and cherished concept of an all- interim we had created a problem for ourselves. quired careful sorting and interpretation. into the open a large quantity of data previously From that time He has showered spiritual gifts unknown even to serious students of Ellen White's upon His people to equip them to continue His life and writings. 1896. Yet these discussions brought God incarnate. those By early 1982. Perhaps Adventists' lives have been shaped by The Desire of Ages more than by any other influence out- side the Scriptures. gender. Patrick family circa 1934-35. The fact that Ellen White was church's world headquarters. in her frequent Implications for Today talks and sermons. and infirmity) which beset which continues to be on the church's agenda for her. A fifth reason gathers up these others and gives them potency. damage amongst us. male and Prophetic Guidance Workshop convened at the female (Joel 2:28). Ellen In short hindsight. it was as though a a spiritually-gifted person who focused on "the huge box of new information cards had been dumped truth as it is in Jesus" was far more significant to the on the church's corporate desk.'4 Thus institutions became enduring remind- ers of Ellen White and her ministry." The names of four of the books published during her Australian years suggest her central focus during the 1890s: Steps to Christ. Alice. the questions raised about White was accepted by the pioneer Adventists of Ellen White since the 1970s seem to be crucial for Australia and New Zealand as a spiritually-gifted her continuing influence in the church throughout person. grief were painfully evident in the church. a process tionality. rose and ascended. The Desire of Ages. ministry (Ephesians 4: 8. Bertha Pocock-Patrick. Moreover. '7 a person source of ultimate control over both their personal different from the flesh-and-blood individual who lives and the church. These cards re- young church than any of the disadvantages (na. Joseph. 1898. when the first International gifts are poured out upon old and young. Together these The William N. and gave us a per.'s Many in the church expe- These five reasons remain as compelling in rienced a form of bereavement due to the loss of the 1990s as they were during the 1890s. Wanzlich. Ellen White was a warm- hearted evangelical Christian. The ready for them. and Mrs. and Over time we had constructed an Ellen White who the consequent removal of a pervasive yet valued met our needs as we perceived them.

We are currently allowing our culture to reavement. But some of those leading the *The interpretation of history. it is directed toward a specific goal. Reversion. those who have grown up estranged from the *The ultimacy of Jesus Christ. claimed that the new evidence and thought of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. to our age. anger. peaches and potatoes. Some of the questions which I asked of this church faces in the 1990s is in the attitude of the masterpiece were no doubt important. for every generation must irrelevant in the Tight of now well-known facts. detailing the way in which Ellen White's writings formation. exemplified a mature delight in the entire world of nature. *The winsomeness of God. and Ellen White can help implications of the evidence and to give construc. Also. Ellen White Division during the last two decades of the twenti- 38 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. but too many of them present generation of young Adventists. 1993 . First. Essentially it is the miracle occur on the way into or the way out ofJericho? I asked countless questions on that level.ing the frustrations of denial. The life and discontinued. Bible there are copious notes made with a mapping pen in Indian ink. Were there two demoniacs or one at Gadara ? What sive reassessment of Adventism in general and was the sequence of the events in the life of Jesus? Did this Ellen White in particular. Christianity is a church were themselves in a process of bereave- teleological religion. Second. Probably most of us church's mother. viable new patterns of thought. ing fuller exploration. have not yet been able to fully implement Ellen White's far- reaching injunction that "of all professing Christians. All ment. future write about Ellen White's role in the Sev- first things and last things. In my first wide-margin The response with enduring viability. stated on page 22: Jesus came to reveal to us the God whom One of the greatest challenges which the to know is to love. us to discover and articulate the way in which the past reveals tive leadership in the discovery and adoption of the purpose of God for the present and the future. Sev- mulating a comprehensive new picture of Ellen enth-day Adventists should be foremost in uplifting Christ White and her ministry!' Recently this author before the world. spiritual and prolonged the problems associated with this be. often seemed too difficult or too terrify. with a compelling sense of mission. We are exposed Ellen White and her ministry as a great still in the early stages of making this relationship understood deception. We have not thus all such investigations should be prevented or yet maximised the significance of our heritage. it was difficult to quickly grasp the history is moving toward that end. on the life of Christ assist our understanding of the four ing to attemp0 since it called for a comprehen. raised questions which should not be asked.19 comprehensive interest in this theme would speak powerfully Our lethargy in creating a coherent alterna. We have yet to fully implement Ellen White's counsel by making the Bible our sole rule of faith and implied that the new research and discussions practice. the issues which invite greater emphasis!' They these suggestions give a hint at the avenues invit- are quoted here in the language of their delivery. tive to the traditional picture of Ellen White has *The link between health and religion.23 leaving the church entirely."25 suggested. some of which are quite church's constant task. teachers authentic voice of Ellen White could make us the head and not the tail. especially were outside of its purpose or what could be expected of it. to recover the pastoral support to be given to ministers. the other ex.24 I now reformulate its religious tradition for itself if it is to believe that the essential theme of The Desire of Ages is clearly adequately "own" its faith. doctrine. even to pansies. and depres. Rejection. some of While such a list could be expanded readily. How will historians of the *The link between cosmology and eschatology. Prophetess though she was. There was an urgent need for sensitive edge ahead of us in some aspects of this duality. to an interdepartmental consultation at the South Pacific Division headquarters. The doctrine of creation has enth-day Adventist Church in the South Pacific powerful environmental implications. Trans. physical well-being. Step-by-step the church is for. writings of Ellen White are inextricably linked with the history treme response. A recovery of her sion. a cause for disregarding her writings or in the church. and members. and *The dynamic nature of Adventism. Thus the two *The primacy of Scripture in the formation of extreme responses flourished. Gospels.

tist History (Washington. 1991." Record. Vol. 1992. the 1970s and early 1980s Australia: Selected Catholic. The term "Australasia" is used in this article synonymously pp. and merged into a dialogue. It is exciting to ponder the possibilities for 207-218. CHURCH BEGINNINGS 39 . pp." Record. 1896.. The dynamic woman who stood references. Letter. church Hagrstown: Pacific Press. Theses and Major of our identity? Research Papers Related to the Seventh-day Adventist Church (Lorna Linda: Loma Linda University Libraries. 7. when a 8. Ellen White's enhanced role in the South Pacific 4.: Ellen G. 1891. 307-326. p. December 10. 10." in our past history. R. That period was sity of Newcastle. The Journal of Religious History. The University of New England. pp. August 8th and 15th.. . 14. 1983) "helped us [South Pacific Adventists] take a giant step forward in grasping the leaders and specialists in redrawing a composite meaning of our past. "Ellen White in Australia. Papua New Guinea Adventists in the South Pacific: A Review of Sources. November 26. White Estate. 56. had been transplanted from the Northern 1986). November 2. 17." See my review in Adventist Heritage. and His teaching Inspiration: Ellen G. Wesleyan and may come to be understood as a final adolescence Adventist Perspectives. 2 (Fall 1985). and append left Australasia.D. 586-7. tries. No. December 12. and Adven- that of the non-Adventist churches in these coun. new generation is reaching adulthood. thesis. Tallest Poppy. 1891. The article presented ten Ellen White quotes was it more important to remember some of her drawn together by the Ministerial Association Secretary of most-quoted yet often-neglected words:" "We have the Division. 15. 7. For more comprehensive readings see the much taller than her physical stature amongst our bibliography by Abella and Schwarz. White. pp. Education (Mountain View: Pacific Press.7 of my dissertation. p. pp. developing Not One Pillar to be Moved. and demanding set of circumstances. Olson. Anglican. the region has more than a quarter-million toward Ellen White to their new converts.000 of whom are in the home to Patrick. Or. Vol. bases of Australia and New Zealand. "Shifting Views of forget the way the Lord has led us. Duffy." Adventist Review. 11. 1 (Spring 1992). See A. and Pitcairn Island in the east. 6-7. 1991). 7. pp. and comprehensive picture of Ellen White? Will Vol. 1970s and early in the 1980s. pp. nothing to fear for the future. and Robert W. a more mature relationship with its mother. See my articles entitled "The Problem of Our 2. Adventists. McAdams. 1. For a documented review of the substantive issues. The church p.1900" (Ph. White Studies in the 1970s. "The Heavenly Sanctuary .C. Vol. The publication of Arthur L.N. involving lay people. May 16. Ellen G. 3 (June 1987). 27-41. White's Ellen G. 1984). W. December 29. 9. C. The Australasian Adventist faith.Thus the endnotes cite a number of my articles church as we approach one hundred years since she which explicate ideas treated briefly here." Amidst a total population American missionaries who passed on their attitudes of 26 million. The Methodist. No. No. For the 1894. and updated periodically. 62-64. This territory is bounded by Antarctica in the ministry in Australasia see my article. 1891-1900" (M. The Univer- of the church in the South Pacific. Taylor Seventh-day Adventists. Periodical foundly. 1988). 6-7. Hemisphere and must to be acclimatised to a new 5. "Christianity and Culture in Colonial ture to that of the family. is now in a new phase of its experience. Dissertations. See the bibliography compiled by Gilbert Abella understanding of our heritage is to lose a clear sense and Vera May Schwarz. see Donald R. Taylor well emphasizes the role of the with ''South Pacific Division. See The Weekly Advocate. End Notes 12. 1979. Western Australia in the west. I have explored this theme in "Ellen Gould probably reached its most difficult phase late in the White and the Australian Woman. See the "Pioneer" section in Adventist Heritage. except as we shall 10. they see that we understood clearly that to lose an 3. 4 (March 1980). cf. as turbulent as a family crisis sometimes is. White Estate pioneers influenced the developing church pro. To understand the context of Ellen White's 1. "Seventh-day south. the long period of that acclimatization 6. D. 1991. 10." and Kiribati in the north. No. 15-25. Never pp. to change from the metaphor of agricul. 13."' Spectrum. like Articles Concerning Inspiration. For documentation see chapters 2. Litt.eth century? Will they chart a conflict which White: The Australian Years (Washington D. the collection of articles made by Roger Coon of the Ellen G. p. 1903). 594-5.

enhancing Ellen White's future role in the writings as "canonical" raised painful memories amongst South Pacific Division. dated 15 June 1992. another article needs to 19. with the hope that creative discussion will be 18. It must be stressed that Ellen White sought decided to aim the production at this group rather than advice about agricultural methods from local people who the older generation in the church. See his unpublished paper. Australia and New Zealand. Lynden mine largely what kind of picture we end up with. "The way we interpret Ellen White's writings will deter." 23 May 1979. the are usually more open to heed her distinctive convictions. therefore. 14 December 1992." released in 1991. 16. this study prefer an inclusive definition of the term. The result is the demonstrated knowledge and experience. See "A Prophet for Our Time. The scholars engaged in 1915)." Both terms are appropriate. in particular Pastor John Gate. In planning a video to highlight the centenary of Ellen White's arrival in the South Pacific. and farmlet. pp. 23. I wish to acknowledge the constructive com- are near to the publication of two volumes. Dr. 196. It should be added that this article South Pacific Adventists. Evangelism As Set Forth in the Writings of Ellen G. It may be that a range of models will be necessary to adequately portray the events which took place. Australasian church without including the recent period. Dr. Letter. way we interpret Ellen White's writings is largely deter. 92. Fritz Guy has cogently outlined the procedures which facilitate the process of transformation. Dr. they evangelical Christian.pp. orchard. 7-10." Psychology Today. pp. Allan Lindsay. They 27. "The Future of Adventist Theology: A Personal View" (Berrien Springs: Andrews University. to fail to do Pelikan." has only addressed the situation in the homelands of Adventist Review. and Pastor Ron Taylor. page 32 which shows that Ellen White did not claim to 15. Hundred Year Recall. Dr. John Gate says: Milton Hook. Glynn Litster is is summarized in typescript. 4 June 1992. but without the Was Written. Jesus Through the Centuries: His Place in the so is to consign the church's mother to an undesirable History of Culture (New Haven and London: Yale Univer. September/October 1992. Gate to Patrick. any interpretations stated or implied herein are mined by the way we appreciate the way she received her my sole responsibility. drafts of this article. Some participants in the historical events explore her role in the Pacific Islands. it was 40 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring." 25. See Jaroslav sions will be revised with the passage of time. See my article. The 24. Beverly Flanigan's use of the term "transformed outlook" in "Forgiving the Unforgivable. 42-53. "Does Our Past Embarrass Us?" in White) had as they implemented ideas which Ellen White Ministry. Life Sketches (Mountain View: Pacific Press. Lucas: An Evangelical History Review. 1993 . p. White/SDA Research Centres. p. 20. The church through twenty centuries has two decades is to run the serious risk that one's conclu- constantly done this with Jesus of Nazareth. The address entitled "Ellen White in the 1990s" 14. cal in Australia: The Case of Ellen White in the 1890s. I have. "How The Desire of Ages founding of institutions was a group effort. term 'evangelical" is useful in view of the current research 26. As we show other Christians the extent of Ellen White as "a Christ-centered Christian" rather than as "an White's agreement with cardinal Christian doctrines. 21. Robert McIver. 1985). p. a dictionary of ments made by a number of people after they had read evangelical biography and a history of evangelicalism. 1946). She also Adventist Media Centre production entitled "One employed Irani James to supervise the work in her garden. No. "An Adventist and an Evangeli. pp. In his review of this article. demonstrating the role which others (like William C. 12 (December White (Washington D. my article. Dr. Note have been quite different. Some would prefer to describe Ellen 188. Pastor Keith Parmenter. wrong. The current research by Dr. Olson. into Australian evangelicalism. 1991). limbo. 16-18. However. and the Rogers. 22. 1980).' Thus Gate emphasizes the importance of equately with Ellen White's role as mother of the both the doctrine of inspiration and biblical authority. See Robert W. a Shelf Document available motivation provided by Ellen White the outcome would from the Ellen G. Cf. chosen the risk of being proved sity Press. Pastor John Shaw. know the order of the events in the life of Christ. Cf. Trevor Lloyd.: Review and Herald. Roy Adams' recent discussion of Ellen White's stimulated. question the appropriateness of bereavement as a symbol of the church's experience. It seems impossible to deal ad- information. 8-11.C. April 1991. To interpret events which have occurred within the past 17. long fostered (like the importance of health foods).

self-evaluation. and the publishing ing numbers of the Waiter Scragg of books. and write but invested significant amounts of money ose bi-centennial celebrations occurred a mere in the process. and historical photographs. flood of research and a series of books involving the tion began in 1788. actively encouraged these historians to research The respite was short. The nation's European coloniza. anecdotal approach and with its faith-affirming nity they provided Adventists for serious intro. semi. Scragg. The volume adopted an value of this trio of celebrations was the opportu. labours of no less than 35 different writers. found a ready market amongst church HISTORY 41 . early 1980s increas- duction of documentary films.L. however. Said Australia. events that included re-enactments. All year long reports of the happenings. church leaders felt secure enough to church's weekly paper. a coterie of trained long commemoration with an imaginative array of Adventist scholars. HISTORY South Pacific Historians Interpret Their Church by Gilbert Valentine T he 1985 centennial of the birth of the spection and critical Adventist Church in the South Pa.' Some church members were no doubt glad in the process of reflection. ministers had gained post-graduate qualifications. for Australia's grandi. seemingly ad infinitum. public meetings. that the church not only besides history. dinners. church's teachers and historical snippets. the Adventists' historic Min. dominated the pages of the Furthermore. press conferences.' chronicled the church's beginnings Beyond the nostalgia. schools. During the 1970s and nars. the lasting in the South Pacific. narrative. It is to the credit of the for the arrival of December and the discovery that Division's administration. the pro. then called the Australasian invite a number of non-Adventist scholars to share Record. found ready to hand conferences and institutions joined in the year. local interest in writing denomina- So history occupied centre stage yet again. The tional history began five years prior to the centen- South Pacific church now celebrated with the nial with the publication of the first full-length wider society and extended the focus to include book on the subject. In truth. The cific Division was celebrated with task of appraisal zest throughout the region. under the leadership of there were other important things to write about Walter R. neapolis General Conference convened in 1888.' The encouragement produced a three years later. Ross Goldstone's The Angel both its local heritage and the Minneapolis event. Local churches.

larly the indigenous Maori population. was commissioned as director of an abled it to contribute to the shaping of public editorial team. group on the larger New Zealand society. biographies of "legendary" church leaders replete In a fresh approach to understanding the with faded photographs which give the volume the church. The first of these. denomination in New Zealand. a land where Adventism found its place amongst a story traced in Glynn Litster's paper. Pomare many of which are full-page. although Adventism's particular apocalyp- tic emphasis set it in fierce dispute with other revivalists. would make a useful the public schools were three social issues the volume for introducing the church to the non. Jackson docu- sented at scholarly conferences marking the vari. volvement in New Zealand politics. Sixteen writers contributed ar. According to Peter Lineham. It is profusely illustrated with over of Sir Maui Pomare. yet written in a readable and illustrated in G ilbert Valentine's study on the work enjoyable style. 1993 .4 and that the three decades of the movement's edited by Peter Ballis. of greatest growth.H. church vigorously addressed. He points out that Adventist public on the occasion of the church's rather than giving it an "other world" orientation. In 1983. Published in 1985 as a "coffee table" book. A one-time Adventist. The volume population largely comprised of first or second generation English immigrant settlers. All were established features of religious life in the 1880s. Historian Noel P. this population was already familiar with itinerant evangelists. policy. The book is an plies the methods of the science of demographics to excellent public relations volume. is further 1985 is authoritative. Lineham argues that the prophetic movements like Adventism were some of the most interesting and distinctive forces in nineteenth century New Zealand. particu- Seventh-day Adventists in the South Pacific 1885 . medical doctor. Prohibition. focuses primarily on the social reformism (1886-1918) were also its period social dimension of Adventism in New Zealand. Ballis's own essay looks at Adventism's in- Arthur and Carole Ferch 42 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring. Clapham. In and Out of the long to the lowest socio-economic levels of society World: Seventh-day Adventists in New Zealand. econometrics professor Fraser Jackson ap- comfortable feel of a family album. ments the fact that New Zealand Adventists be- ous centennials. the first Maori to train as a 450 black-and-white and full-colour photographs." "revivalism" and prophetic preaching. The impact of Adventism as a minority ticles. schools operated by the church in New Zealand. Kellogg at the Battle Creek of the work is the inclusion of numerous potted Sanitarium in the 1890s. Adventism's apocalyptic perspective led it into time chair of the Avondale College humanities reacting to developments in society and thus en- department. These same decades of social The first two of the eight articles are by non. the Division leadership de. long. cided that something more comprehensive. the "sawdust trail. A distinctive feature trained under J. yet military conscription and the issue of religion in still on the popular level. the study of the growth and distribution of the Four other books consist of papers first pre. centennial.members. activism also provide the background to under- Adventist academics who chart the socio-religious stand the rapid growth in the system of church environment in late nineteenth century New Zea.

sources HISTORY 43 . Even involvement in the shaping of Australian church with its inadequacies. Daniells.6 They nevertheless fill in impor- secretary of the Division.as one re- edited by Arthur Ferch. for example. White_ Both papers endeavour to deal respon. Limited availability of. socio-political and cultural environment. The thirteen papers Like Ballis's work. focuses on theology. to have learned of the Two of the studies fill important gaps in the church's rationale and its policy in this area. Sydney. success in the Pacific in transforming local "pagan" Five of the papers investigate the growth and cultures and indigenizing the faith. issues and the various occasional alliances with while another is an anecdotal narrative of the other liberal and secular forces in society that the church's use of expatriate Pacific islanders as mis- Adventist church entered into in pursuance of its sionaries in Papua. who at that time was field viewer observed. period 1918-1950. is the weakest. Walter looking at the history of the church during the Phillips provides a perceptive analysis of the reli. with the exception of a gious climate in Australia during the 1880s. Following a in the Pacific is largely a listing of schools and thematic pattern roughly similar to Ballis's work.G.and it is with W. the revivalists and visiting evangelists. training institutions. Again. Adventist History held at Macquarie University in and Adventist mission in the Pacific islands. by Milton Hook. is little paper by Arthur Patrick clarifying the manner in more than a boat-lover's catalogue of nautical which Adventist theology shaped the church's information drawn with few exceptions from the involvement with the social issues of the day. Fetch's second historical volume. with a review in this issue) is a collection of papers pre- particular focus on the role of A. by Gilbert Valentine.C. but tend to concentrate The other three centennial monographs are on details at the expense of analysis . The third book Australian church. It would have been helpful in social agenda. examines Dan iells' was different about the Adventist approach. with a paper by a non-Adventist scholar. The study by Denis Steley on religious liberty and plant of Adventism found soil well cultivated by Adventist mission in the South Sea Islands. (see Milton Hook's book the growth and development of the church. the sented at the 1988 Bi-centennial Conference on nature and growth of the outreach of the church. Hope. New South Wales. know the practice of other mission bodies and what One. on Adventist theological education Monash University in October 1985. Another par. Journey of gious. published in 1991. hoped that much more oral history will be recorded examines Daniells' complex relationship to Ellen before the significant remaining eyewitnesses die G. Another is a number of studies look at these particular social Who's Who of Australian missionaries in Asia. One paper for example.concludes with a study by Denis Steley which sibly with recently released archival materials and attempts to account for Adventism's remarkable issues that at the time were still quite sensitive. this paper high- structure and his at times very tense relationship lights the importance of oral sources . The article. The other. presented at a centennial conference held at for example. Two deal with Adventist tant pieces of the picture of the development of the history in the South Pacific. or access to. last section of the book dealing with mission is also ticularly helpful introductory study is an insightful its weakest area. White. to still incomplete picture we have of A. however. apart from Denis Steley's helpful insights concern- Symposium on Adventist History in the South ing the reasons for the church's lack of progress in Pacific: 1885-19185 contains the seventeen papers some island territories. this volume also begins pick up the story where the earlier book left off. A pages of the Australasian Record. the tatter piece.G. out. the volume is organised in four sections: the reli. Daniells. The last section of the book. expansion of the church.

H. published in mid-1992 Three papers look at Adventism and social with the support of the South Pacific Division issues. Published in the June 1987 and society. The Seventh-day Adventist Heritage Series is a tance of conservatism in the Christian church in creative attempt by Milton Hook to provide a Australia. membership from 6. For anyone seeking to understand the Adventist church in Australia. and non-Adventist con. is intended to make it tion to labour unions and the legislation of com. Several papers. topic of study.' Patrick's Hansen taking a critical look at the place of the article skilfully maps the contours of Australian Christian church in Australian society during the Adventism and is an illuminating introduction to period between the wars. reflect a growing maturity of thought and self-understanding in the church that is gratifying. Daniells Patrick's excellent bibliographic essay "Seventh- was evidently a problem for several writers. the literature. thirty-two booklet series.000 to 15. Ross Goldstone's study of evange. they are essential resources. Education Department. Arthur A. it was nevertheless a period of Towards Righteousness by Faith: 1888 in Retro- rapid growth. This talist strand in Australian Adventism. Journey of Hope is marked by an even greater lack of evenness in the quality of writing and research than was evident in some places in the first volume. such as the biographi- cal study of C. use in college and high school religion classes. Two papers set the scene. Gary Krause history.G. Of the three monographs the one by Ballis is the most coherent. Rather. The booklets deal in an attractive lege as it grappled with the issues of government readable style with the Pacific Island groups as well recognition. day Adventist History in the South Pacific: A The more significant contributions in Review of Sources" was written primarily for non- Journey of Hope. Two other scholarly works on Adventist his- tory in the South Pacific should be noted. Peter Ballis deals with the church's opposi. as the Division mainlands (Australia and New sented the church with difficulties in its relation. as in the earlier volume. tributor David Parker documenting the impor. the booklet format allows teachers to attitude to war and Trevor Lloyd provides an choose those booklets relevant to their particular intriguing account of the trials of Avondale Col. 1993 . it represents an attempt to con- 44 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring. however. with Don issue of The Journal of Religious History. could have benefited from more substantial editing. With restricted mission field school bud- examines the ambiguity of Australian Adventism's gets in mind. All three. Zealand) and their institutions. possible for students to study authoritative local pulsory unionism during the 1930s. If the period between the Wars pre. ship to the state. spect does not address Australian denominational lism during the period documents an increase of history.000 in Australia and New Zealand alone. Watson and David Hay's account of the church in Samoa. are those Adventist scholars who may be interested in re- that deal with the interaction between the church searching Adventism. Parker's account should be of interest to resource history of the South Pacific Division for American readers puzzled by the strong fundamen.

Veneered Infidelity (Napier: law" in Galatians 3:19-25. No. 1979. Also edited by Arthur photographs.) recounting contemporary Adventist scholars agree completely the story of the Adventist church in the Hawkes Bay district of New Zealand. The South Pacific Division supported the at a centennial celebration of the event at publication of three of the books and financed the conferences at which the papers were first presented. The Adventist Association of Business and understand the need for "reorientation" required Professional Men also assisted with the costs of publishing in the expression of Adventist faith in view of this volume. Knight's critique of Hook and Hortop defends a separate as George Knight seems to understand. 3 (June 1991). 139 pp. It followed an man Young's review of Adventist exegesis of "the earlier work by Goldstone. pp. 14. Sohmer's book review in The with the theology of the leading "reformers" at Journal of Religious History. It could be The perspective offered by Hook and Hortop is argued that the underlying optimisim about human nature undoubtedly conditioned by a reaction to the le.tribute to the debate over soteriology within Ad. "Seventh-day views and Kerry Hortop deals with the teachings of Adventist History in the South Pacific: A Review of Jones. Peter Ball's was pastor of the Adventist churches Waggoner-Jones. will continue to be relevant. 26.) Smith and Butler. inherent in the American way of thinking has colored galistic understanding of soteriology that perme. Both papers represent a perspective that Sources" in The Journal Religious History. 1980. Sanctification but as necessarily distinct from it. with neither the Smith-Butler camp nor that of 4. No. American approaches to the understanding of soteriology ated the public presentation of Adventist doc. justification is logically prior in the "ordo ars. The most inter- 3. See Sarah H. trines for decades until at least the late 1960s. p. 3 sees Justification by Faith not as "separate" from (June 1987). 1985. changing circumstances. Two of the papers deal 6. salutis" but not chronologically or experientially 8. 307-326. also makes it of great value to Adventist schol- this view. February 1992.8 Wesleyan synthesis that is more the "Wesleyanism" of Wesley's descendants that of Wesley himself. Milton Hook deals with Waggoner's 7. with its distinctive mes- sage. Macquarie University in Sydney. as it enters its second century.) was published esting contribution of the book is probably Nor. Fetch. were presented as a series of centennial lectures organized Arthur Patrick offers a useful sociological by the Hawkes Bay Chapter of the Adventist Association perspective on the role of Smith and Butler in the of Business and Professional Men in Napier during conflict as forces for "continuity" were unable to October 1984. The maturing of outlook and the ability to look at itself critically. The 48 issues published during 1985 featured over scholars on the issues growing out of the 1888 108 historical articles and published over 160 historical Minneapolis Conference. He notes that while The Daily Telegraph Company. Ministry. Notes ventism by offering perspectives by Australian 1. 5. surprisingly. HISTORY 45 . has not lost its vitality. predisposing it to a more semi-pelagian Wesleyan har- mony. evaluating its self-understanding. Published under the full title. by the Signs Publishing Company. 178 pp. on balance they tend in the Hawkes Bay area of New Zealand at the time. Vol. p. In however. give promise that the church. 16. Minneapolis. Its comprehensiveness. 359. The to favour several of the positions advocated by papers published as In and Out of the World (Palmerston North [New Zealand]: Dunmore Press. This collection of recent publications clearly indicates that Adventism in Australia. Patrick's article is intended as a guide to non-Adventist historians. Vol. the volume comprises five papers presented 2. The Angel Said Australia (190 pp.

"' At least this reason- College logo from 1922 ing was self-evident to Ellen WORKERS G.' This article examines unashamedly comfortable in the countryside. and Moral Education at Avondale College by Robert K. They expressed these at some length in Sociological Goals their letters and their writings. These goals touched every aspect same way it should continue. mental and ORISTIAN (1907) Australian Missionary moral. of Avondale students' existence: their social life. 1993 . education should be. intellectual. and how they should be achieved. and no fac- some of these goals and methods. Mental. McIver Because humans have Tide page of physical. The Avondale possible. and 46 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. New South Wales. In Australia.spiritual."' ELEVENTH ANNUAL ANNQUNCEMENT Late nineteenth-century Australia provided Cooraahvag. EDUCATION Physical. AVONPAIL5CuiggL of The mary object of education AvonrIAlp should be "to develop and School for FOR Christian train every part of the be- Workers ing—physical. The early pioneers of Avondale had clearly and their physical. the 11th TNE annual mental and social aspects. the original participants to speak with School for Christian Workers could begin in the their own words. and spiritual devel- defined concepts of both what the goals of true opment. White and the group of American educators working with her to establish a school in Australia which could serve as "a pattern for other schools which shall be established among our people. there was no established curriculum to be changed. allowing. and with particular clarity in the "Calenders" and "Announcements" The early pioneers at Avondale were of the fledgling school. a new opportunity to apply lessons learned from A USTRAL1A close observation of early Adventist education in 1907 the United States. as far as ulty in place to resist those changes. it announcement is self evident that the pri.

to make ladies and gentlemen of them of occupy his mind. brain. the good. The student dormitories were called homes try. sphere. Right: An aerial view of Avondale College as it looks today. The "Old Dry Log" has witnessed many baptisms. . and heart. Left: A panoramic view of Avondale Missionary College in 1921. ."' For these reasons the Avondale School of Every effort was made to create a family atmo- Christian Workers has been located in the coun. sports and holidays. and where true eight. where God's pure air is and students alike. where the tilling of the soil with the preceptor or preceptress who "lead their is better for muscle. ate together at tables seating sweeter than on the city streets. where the beauties of nature are more elevating or residences.' The students were expected to develop their characters through the fruitful lessons of Below: Dora Creek has always given Avondale its special character. hard-working. actively promoted both its way of life and its values: manhood and womanhood and the love of Christ may develop in our children's hearts under the best possible conditions." teachers and young men and women from the towns pupils work together.4 There was also a strong egali- Too often it is considered impor- tarian impulse: tant by parents to send their children from the country to some large town where they may learn its "polished city We have no servants. and find that "God- and teach them "country ways": in fact. Right: The first church built at Avondale (1897). and to develop his faculties."6 The whole College. EDUCATION 47 . appointed labour is a blessing to man. thrifty type ." but at this school we desire to take that "labour is ennobling. teachers ments. and every evening residents met than the works of man. than amuse. . to strengthen his body. families in worship. but believing ways.

Right study. .' The "Old Chapel. . and serious Seventh-day Adventists in the United States. 48 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. established among our people. "which dates from 1898. the College drew on is still in use today standards of conduct established already amongst physical labour. and reading matter were also part of this and amusements are the curse of the Colo. . was judged by her to be a hindrance to the extended using materials from the demolished Avondale Health Retreat.the first I /lilies' residence. Amuse- ments are not to be a part of the educa- tion given to students in our school in this place. In this and other areas. Right: Preston Hall was built next to Bethel and housed women students until the new Ella Boyd Hall opened. One thing is to be The Preceptress will insist upon a change of dress whenever that worn is Below: In 1935 Haskell Hall. the Men's residence. Games conduct. tradition. and were required of students: nies. spiritual enrichment. 1993 . was built in /896-97 plainly and decidedly carried out. Bethel Hall. not through frivolous amusements: from earliest times these have found a troubled reception amongst the Australian youth at The school in Avondale is to be a Avondale. and they must not be allowed in our school here . High standards of dress. who have repeatedly shown inclina- pattern for other schools which shall be tions to be sports-minded.

In 1896 Metcalf Hare built the launch advertisement . Bottom: By 1913 a sleek passenger launch was plying Dora Creek's jellyfish-infested waters.7CC • Avondale. Middle: By 1921. EDUCATION 49 .404:1 • I. At the turn of the century the Left: "sawmill-turned-health-food-factory" was served by boats on An early Dora Creek. Above: Two early scenes inside the Health Food Factory . it was powered by two rowers." which has the corner on Australia's AboveTop: From the start. the food factory had expanded considerably.•A M.00.4. 4. consideration at Avondale. They forecast the current success of the "Sanitarium Health Foods. In lieu of an engine. school industries were a prime cereal market.

Old Avondale Days
leo. 4.1(2
/y6kia a wad alaid ealfe/ie efie Sa/t4a/4 Salm/ g e4a4e4 Se4ake 7A, eae-le
Add is ae /so d dealA di deee'ad as Add a8 401f-94 dle Sala
Add aIde MOM leads we Sara /Aem aed4i lei die aze.48 eladd 4asa
ow-4 &le kle4ew4a weiie aded, w aiele4 wra 1944 a.,iacA aiad
Heeded karat& a if.c4 maordea glideifh .Z a m 19/4ar Awe
aeS4ekol wi/4 & 7eadoe.zd wea4c4ei c&eao hug powpd 6 Itie GSAlota
Sr /4 r.S'ekaztg af4aA Se4exice. Sala frIkle 60,ff Ornkeled aSewicerweg
dire drag camp gwe egch,lati ie ileeiel4e: dte chA.e4 deimum eaos/d cad
a a. st Rie a/le eega4e1 Sawed aew desoe6we ow /4e gatiovw woad
mince /4e Aza#Ide4 //fai akaaearal me eawdzi dre coidodeideeiara
Y /44d alwow /e1 pad- we id/wad drama plawit /die/ 461a4
r Nwdowd Hal crew a1 L/60.4 I ae 6 664 ke..4 6 dwe &wed
424ea lhowelak roadda e 4 a Saareci p/ace ad we iwel we:/4rue kikel 6 ilte.2a44
Aleddeofa.
74eize wad wo. 4ozeg/41, wo,a egivia.d wit4 wavdc/4 &tiffs
6 didlaidre peace e AI .164. claim ard petwrakei . 64. cz."67,aeu /dicl 6 pidow /die/
use kas a14. datoA &Vial cloadqe wow caw A/4 paadeked
i/ coal 4rwe dew 4ea4 /di:c/ aid daw Aoio ea/ma/4 d4e wevekel pi
//iis ea/4e adatidial wIfele oda61a w park coa/.4eitaa akosett ag . . .

The above is an undated fragment of a manuscript written by John Pocock not long before his death in 1946,
evidently prepared for one of his talks given in the Avondale Village Church, or perhaps to the students at AMC.
After their conversion in 1892, John and Charlotte Pocock lived in Arcadia, near Sydney. It was a time of
economic depression; even as a skilled tradesman John lost his employment when he accepted the Sabbath. He
worked intermittently at Cooranbong until 1899 when, at the invitation of Ellen White, he moved his family close
to the Avondale College for Christian. Workers. Ellen White loaned the Pococks a tent for the family to live in
while John built "The Haven," the house in which they spent the rest of their lives.

50 ADVENTIST HERITAGE /Spring, 1993


to IIlig FAA npol.,

SANTARRIM
HEALTH moo co
THEAX-NrALE
oraprEmnic WRNS

att JCITI7Y. IrTv10.
prynrrec.nurl
NOM,IMPAIRS

Above: An advertisement for Avondale Industries. Clockwise
from Right: Avondale's press proved to be a "growing
enterprise" in 1907. The press not only served the College's
needs but printed tracts for the mission fields on these three
"modern presses" ;The carpenter's shop inl 908; The carpentry
class provided class instruction as well as much of the school's
furniture; The school barn, shown here in 1903 , offered
students the opportunity to work off their tuition, thus achieving
the College ideal of living "debt-free"; The blacksmith's shop, in
1908, had three forges, three anvils, two vises, a drill, and
many other "tools-of-the-trade."

EDUCATION 51

best health. All students are expected to of fruits and vegetables; bread-making in
dress plainly. The wearing of jewelery, all its branches.
and unnecessary ornamentation, are not
in good taste here, nor in harmony with
the wishes of the Managers....Students
Examinations will also be required
are not permitted to read or have in their
in the science of house-keeping, which
rooms, novels, story magazines, or other
will embrace the following subjects:—
reading of an injurious character.'
Sweeping, dusting, chamber-work, etc.
Every young lady will be expected to be
Physiological Goals
a competent laundress; she will be re-
While the estate was under development,
quired to be able to do good work in the
students had often worked six hours a day, with
washing and ironing of all kinds of cloth-
studies taking only two hours of their time,1p but by
ing and house linen.
1901 this had dropped to
between 2.5 and 4 hours
per day. Lady students
Useful manual will be examined in
labour was considered general sewing, cut-
by Ellen G. White and ting, fitting, making,
her followers to be an es- and mending of all
sential component of any kinds of ladies' and
balanced school program. children's garments.
The early Announcements Special attention
carefully document the will be given to hand
establishment of the or- work, patching and
chards and vineyard, the darning. Students
The Avondale College faculty in 1919
gardens, the diary, the will be taught to cut
printing shop, the sawmill, the brick factory, the their own patterns.
health food factory, etc. Training was provided in
these and other areas although on somewhat gen- Parents can readily see that it will
der-specific grounds: be an advantage to their children to be
educated in this way, and the homes
have been established for this very
Ladies who complete any depart-
purpose."
ment of the school work must be pre-
pared to pass examinations in the follow-
Intellectual and Spiritual Goals
ing subjects: Preparation, cost composi-
The intellectual sphere was expected to re-
tion, and dietetic value of hygienic foods;
volve around Scripture:
table service and care of the dining-
room; the making and care of fires; care
of the kitchen, and appointments; dish- The Holy Scriptures ... should hold
washing, measuring, principles of boil- the first place in every educational sys-
ing, steaming, stewing, baking; cooking tem, for the foundation of all right edu-
of grains; preparation and preservation cation is the knowledge of God. Higher
education is that which placed the Bible
as the very foundation of all education....

52 ADVENTIST HERITAGE Spring, 1993

There is no special position, no tual and physical aspects of every
phase of human experience, for student. Each of these areas re-
which the study of the Bible is not SC
ceived significant amounts of time
Dalip programme.
an essential preparation!' each week. A daily program was
(10 Clog61)
published in the Announcements
For many years, for example,
S7vur Nave (I.
between 1903 and 1916, and the
ir.bmrid
world history was studied an as ad- i(BOil7111o.
Int. C
bivr.l. information given there and else-
junct to biblical history. The history
1.11.41.1M. Ex.. as •
il • r.111 TAIL. 04... Fri.). where in the Announcements re-
L. Thum}
of Mesopotamia, Egypt, medieval veals the following result. Each
•• r 31p 3WilrlaMOI.Y)

Europe, and the papacy were studied
• • o .t, 3.1.7Olilil five-day week was organized in a
because of the light that they threw way which allocated the follow-
-. !Am. vin Uhl {i3

upon the interpretation of biblical Mili
...VS 11..0) ing number of hours: 9.75 to reli-
prophecies, particularly those of
131.14.4 Ssuiv
Ru-rigxa gious exercises (including morn-
mrs 0.. ,

Daniel and Revelation—the Bible ing and evening worships, and
books studied first by all College chapels), 22 for classes (includ-
students at least till 1903) Biology ing 1 hour to spelling; 1 hour to
and astronomy illustrated the won- music; 5 hours to industrial train-
Avondale students followed a stringent ing; and 15 hours for academic
ders of creation, God's second book.'4 daily program, with each moment
Other concerns in the curriculum study); 11.25 for study, 12.5 for
planned. Before this 1908 programme,
centred on such areas as spelling, "lights out" occurred at 8:45. work 36 Saturdays (observed
arithmetic, bookkeeping,'' as well strictly as Sabbaths) were devoted

Some of the band members are shown here in forma/ attire,
as part of the 1921 graduating class
The 1920 Australasian Missionary Brass Band

as the strong stress noted already on the develop-
ment of the practical skills necessary for physical to religious exercises and evangelism, and most
labour. Sundays were spent in a physical labour program.

Application What of Avondale Today?
There was a definite connection between The early pioneers who established the Avon-
these goals and the actual program of study insti- dale School for Christian Workers valued hard
tuted at Avondale. The avowed goals of the work, sobriety, thrift, corporate worship, and self
institution were to develop the spiritual, intellec- improvement. They promoted a lifestyle and atti-
tude well attuned to the needs of the membership

EDUCATION 53

the demands made upon them as homemakers and supporters of their husbands as With change comes the searching question of they moved to establish their new faith in new authenticity. White. The modern world in which Avondale's gradu. young They fitted their graduates with ladies are no longer taught the skills necessary to move into dishwashing. with its essential mission? As it looks to the future. But then. Perhaps the most comprehensive account of the establishment of the The domestic science building. hospitals and lege has become a true tertiary schools. Time above generalist skills. known as "The Laurels. mental and urban. and the ability to turn academic curricula of the Col- their hand to a wide variety of lege has become more demand- tasks. 2. and the ance." Avondale school is the unpublished dissertation by Milton where Miss Walker shared her knowledge 54 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring. 1993 . ates find themselves is much different from the Avondale must continually struggle to find how its Australia known by Ellen White and her co-work. significant part of its member. which had a standards. p. The young men housekeeping. 9. The population of Australia is now largely every part of the being—physical. Ellen G. physical.of the late nineteenth-century demands placed on Avondale Seventh-day Adventist church to meet ever higher academic in the Antipodes. As society has changed so ship living in rural Australia. Today. has Avondale. moral—should express itself in the curriculum and Saxon). either. In order to provide the would be made of them as they specialization needed. This is not an easy task in today's complex world. mental and spiritual. program. MSS 92 (1898-1901). and which stresses the whole- ness of the individual—social. The young ladies were Miss Catherine Walker (1879-1963) served ing of the students at the ex- equally well prepared to meet Avondale as a home economics teacher pense of other aspects of the for many years. 1901. cooking and their society. as have the directed toward providing at Avondale a spiritual environment which places the Bible at the centre of the curriculum. basic perspective that education is the training of ers. They learned self reli. the letters and writings of the early pioneers of Avondale show that they did not find the task easy.Fifth Annual Announcement of the Avondale School for Christian Workers. now as to lose connection with its authentic roots. teaching institution. Has the College changed so much areas. Endnotes 1. and creative energy must be the general population has increased. Specialist qualifications are now prized the environment of study which is set up. the Col- built churches. and is no longer mono-cultural (Anglo. By and large they were equipped with practical and share the same classes and occu- intellectual skills which pations as do their male class- matched the demands which mates. The educational level of must be allocated.

pp. 13. to describe the school/college. MI: University Microfilms International. 1963) has a chapter Education in Australia and New Zealand. 1899. 7. Ellen White left visitors but little else other than the possibility of conversation Australia in 1901.39. 167-211). White/ EDUCATION 55 . 1983). Manuscript Release No. 9. 308-21.. Bible chronology. Ellen G. edited by Noel Clapham of the Bible was felt in almost every subject taught. Ellen G. p. 8. The Avondale School for Christian Workers: Four- teenth Annual Announcement. or Handbooks at different times in the history of Avondale. 42. Bible (Warburton. 4. DF 170-c. Avondale). A. Prospectuses." Adventist Heritage. 11. Bible arithmetic. SDA Research Centre. No. able." in Seventh-day Adventists in the 14. pp. May emeritus) began work as a history teacher at Avondale in 1947. Gilson. An extensive collection of origianl primary documents is available at the Heritage Room of the South Pacific Division of Seventh-day Adventists. Bible music.Cf. student at Avondale.1910. . The South Pacific Divi- sion Heritage Room at Avondale has copies of the Announce- ments for 1901-3. their functions were the same. 171. This is described in college Announcements at least until 1921 (the 1922 and 1923 Announcements are not available. 143-65. White/SDA Research Cen- tre. Ibid. nearly complete minutes for both the College and the church administration throughout the early period. Avondale College). White/SDA Research Centre. emphasis supplied." Cf.G. Announcement . The Australian Years (Hag. The earliest existing ex- ample is the 1899 Calendar (DF 170 in the Ellen G. White.. p. 1936). Bible erstown. and Prospectuses from 1908 onwards. Hook also provided two shorther acounts of the establish. "Principles of True Education: Extracts from the Writing of Mrs. 1978]). These documents were called Calendars. Calendars. pp. "Avondale College. 26. 10. See also Arthur prophecy. Gilson also collected key primary documents dealing with the establishiment of the school.. "The History of Seventh-day Adventist Zealand" (University of Melbourne. and 27. .. L. ment of Avondale: The Avondale School: A Holy Experi. dealing with the history of Avondale (pp. but great attention was paid to her written opinions. Ellen G. 3. "The Avondale School. 34-45. Bible doctrines. 20. history of Avondale. "In our school classes the predominating influence South Pacific: 1885-1985. which he kindly made available to the 15. 4247. 6. Gilson entitled pp. 4. [1985]). p. passim. 12. 1948 and has a manuscript in preparartion dealing with the Cooranbong. Bible history." writer. . Vol." p. 1901. 5. 41-42. Bible geography. which holds. 13. Daniells. MD: Review and Herald.and a nearly complete set of Announce- ments. 17. In "Old Avondale. 5. Bible hygiene. 1899. R. Announcement . 1978) [Ann Arbor. Goats. 1910.. The Abiding Gift of Prophecy so on. Piper (speaking of his early experience as a (Mountain View." Avondale Far and Near. missions. In 1908 the principal's office offered two classrooms chairs for White. p. Bible literature. pp. This comment is found in the section entitled. Despite the different names. #7912439. VIC: Signs. Vol. during the period when Ellen White Noel Clapham (now retired from Avondale as senior lecturer was there). esp. Ibid. "The History of Adventist Education in Australia and New 16. 7. Announce- ments. Calendar . and list the different courses offered. 22. . Ibid. which are bound in two vol- umes (available at the Ellen G. 18944900" (Andrews University. Calendar .G. p. p. and the matter is absent in the 1924 Announce- ment. pp.. The Announcements for 1904-1906 are not avail- ment.. and Bible poetry. pp. "The Avondale School and Adventist Educational 9. 37. The unpublished MEd thesis by W. Hook. Spelling drills were regularly scheduled.H. among other things. CA: Pacifice Press." A.On bookkeeping see Hook. White. 553. 1 (Spring 1982). p. 34-35.

The story of the parcel of tracts sent to the island by James and Fiji. outward and return cessful visit of pio. Tonga. Not visited numerous other being on any trade route. Tragedies. because trans-Pa- response to Tay's report cific transportation was a to the General Confer. On White and John Loughborough in 1876 has often each of the six voyages they called in at Pit- been related. It was launched Pitcairn Island easily be- and made its maiden came a priority. islands in French Pitcairn Island was espe- Polynesia. lands. as well as Norfolk Island and New Zeal- and. Therefore the decision was 56 ADVENTIST HERITAGE Spring 1993 . each of its six voyages between 1890 and 1896. the Cook Is. the islands of the Pacific.' time had come for Then there is the missionary outreach into story of the mission ship. getting to ence. Bull T he saga of the early Seventh-day Ad ventist presence on Pitcairn Island has frequently been told. The mission ship Pitcairn which called in at Pitcairn Island on cially difficult to reach. lism was practically impos- ued on its voyage. Tay ten years later on Pitcairn had been seen when the entire adult by the church as an indi- population accepted cation from God that the the Advent message. MISSIONS Triumphs. real problem. j ourneys. Samoa. and Transportation: A Quarter Century on Pitcairn Island. hence evange- before the ship contin. Eighty-two States for the Pacific is- people were baptized and lands and none made a the church organized regular run. Pitcairn' built as a Also. 1899-1924 by Malcolm] . neer missionary John John Tay's success I. They sible in the region. Few ships voyage to Pitcairn Island departed from the United in 1890. Over the next ten years the Pitcairn made five further voyages across the South Pacific between San Francisco and Auckland. We also cairn Island on both the know about the suc.

That between Pitcairn and the outside world were rare schooner. fulfill the need for visiting time they reached Pitcairn. As the reaching the islands with missionaries ships called so infrequently. how- including the minister sent to baptize the Pitcairn ever. on the Pacific Ocean are so increased and extended that almost all parts of the A Ship of Their Own island field can now be reached much These problems started the Pitcairners think- cheaper than by a sailing vessel!' ing about the possibilities of raising enough money to purchase a small vessel of their own so that they could carry the produce to market in French Whereas this transport situation held true for Polynesia and thereby raise enough money for their most of the South Pacific. who was Captain Griffiths F. isolated position as before. provided an opportunity for ship-missionary islanders. ety. however. work. The few ships that did call. the islanders also relied upon these infrequent Massachusetts: visits to raise some funds for missionary work and to sell their tithe produce. day Adventist Church. and spasmodic. was lost at sea with all hands. the same could not be tithes and provide an opportunity for evange- John 1. in its six voyages. When thePitcairn left for Pacific. A tenth of all that grew It is the opinion of the board that to in their gardens and on their fruit trees was continue to run the Pitcairn from San stored in the tithe-house and taken out to passing Francisco is a most expensive way of ships in an effort to convert it into cash. much of the food and supplies. Consequently. sion Board made a report to the 1899 General Living as they did in a virtually cashless soci- Conference Session meeting at South Lancaster. After a long voyage across the Pacific. Tay. and South Pacific. Adventist missions in the Far East the Pitcairn in 1890. the island was left in as The initial decision was to purchase a ship. Jones. accepted the reading matter which the Pitcairners By the end of the 19th century conditions in distributed and thus learned about the Seventh- the Pacific had changed. pioneer missionary Pastor Andrew J. Only then did the Adven. the tist church decide to build their own ship which seafarers were quite sober and responsive by the would.J. Means of transportation spoiled before it could be sold.' the last time in 1899. Shipping contacts the Phoebe Chapman in Honolulu in 1888. MISSIONS 57 . the Mis.made to procure a ship to commence work in the said for Pitcairn Island. He lost at sea on the ill-fated voyage of Welsh mariner pioneered many re-turned on the first voyage of the Phoebe Chapman in 1888. This to Pitcairn Island in 1886. A. Cudney. Cudney. They happily Pitcairn as well as the other islands.

many was it quite un- wanted to know worthy of the when it would re. with its famous Unaware namesake ended that the ship had there. self. on Pitcairn's rocky shores. Not only been sold. the ity of leasing a ship. nothing came of the idea. 58 ADVENTIST HERITAGE J Spring 1993 . Polynesian Mission. Cambrian. taken name. shows the view of Adamstown from Christian's turn. but this was impossible new schooner to serve the is- due to the heavy seas. seen in the upper left corner. lism in the nearby islands.M. The captain hoped to run Pitcairn.S. He also considered the possibil- The voyage safely made. Mangareva with a local mer- edly brought them closer to chant. almost 300 miles to the west. the Second but ing the previous the similarities decade. inTahiti. unexpect. A learned. his ship ashore to save the there was talk of purchasing a crew. but there on July 19. he realizing their ambition. Such a vessel. Hence Cave. purchase of a 15- Russell McCoy ton cutter at the spent some time cost of £218.000 in "Chili coin" (Chil- Pyrenees. the $4.This photo. arrived off Pitcairn ean pesos).H. had a Russell McCoy offered to pi. Pastor E. The people on Mangareva. 1900. Gates. Meanwhile. ably influenced The ship was by the visits of named Pitcairn the Pitcairn dur. was no one McCoy discussed The large white-roofed building at the center right is the new two-story church. with people who lent by the Brit- had been favor. is anchored in Bounty Bay. coast. 1906. who was in charge of the Eastern A Pitcairner named J. however. contrary lands around Tahiti and Pit- winds and Pitcairn's rocky cairn Island. It had already been burn. Although the with a fire smoldering in the merchant offered to con- cargo of wheat and barley in its tribute toward the cost him- hold. ing for fifteen days and was and McCoy had to think of threatening to burn through the another way to return home to deck. crew beached the ship. ish government. at qualified to take this stage stilt under construction. H. promise from the General Con- The Landing ar Bounty Bay Only the bravest and lot the ship to Mangareva5 most skilled mariners attempted to land their ships ference of $500 for the project.000 to four-masted British ship. were suffering from acute The Pitcairn II food shortages themselves and were barely Early in 1902 the British Consul in Tahiti able to feed the arranged for the crew members. would cost $3. the matter of transporting An emergency situation cargo between Pitcairn and in November.

she arrived in Mangareva ( in the Gambier Group) Eventually Pastor Cady was able to return to to discover that all were quite safe and had departed for Mangareva on a French missionary schooner Pitcairn only three days earlier. Pitcairn II a French scientist to another island. who had sailed on the Bounty. have the boat recaulked. Traveling in a French schooner in search of sighting of the cutter?' him. The crew miro trees would be used in the future to supply left him on Pitcairn and returned to Mangareva to wood for the celebrated Pitcairn carvings. poultry. made an eventful Captain Jones was able to voyage to Pitcairn to visit train the young Pitcairners in the church members. or even at George Warren. but the cairn II during the next year. who had had been serving the past year as been working for some time a missionary in the Society Is. The photo seven-ton cutter. coconuts. only vessel available to Born sailors. fresh wind. bound for Tahiti. Pitcairn for emergency supplies. lost their way and had called in at taking up residence in an old. continued to transport the dried ba. one evening in Papeete led to In October. Alice. and other The mission schooner Tiare up. they all fell MISSIONS 59 . They found the waterless island about fully reached Pitcairn in the leaking boat—which 120 miles northeast of Pitcairn. rat-in. three weeks later. Although they refused to take him Captain Jones arrived at Pitcairn any further. falling asleep on watch. A chance encounter6 Tahiti to be sold for tithe. thirty feet dates from 1906. One of their first voyages took After praying earnestly them in search of Henderson Island (named after about the ship and receiving the Lord's assurance Captain Henderson who rediscovered8 the island that "I will be with you all the way. sailing before cairn II had one dangerous failing a fair. On one occasion the as captain when Captain and Mrs. Mrs. Thursday October to Pitcairn was a small to their seafaring ancestors Christian II is holding the walking stick. Jones opted to belonging to another denomination.the cutter through to Pitcairn products to Mangareva and Island. who Pastor B. Pastor Cady held meetings in the Tahiti that the Pitcairn II and her husband had church for the two planned weeks and then con- been lost at sea during a storm in the Tuamotu tinued on for a further seven weeks—still with no Group."9 Cady success- in 1819). on a little steamer. they doubtless make the 300-mile journey owed their fearless disposition Moses Young and his wife. he The Pitcairn crew of the Pit- set out for Mangareva. They had a bad habit of prised to find his wife awaiting him.' dent. deserted house. He was much sur. Jones in about two weeks. French chartered their boat to take Jones returned to Tahiti. They had stay on Mangareva to await his return. while at sea. he was able to complete the same day and was impressed to his journey on a French man-of-war return immediately to Mangareva. a Pitcairner. long and eight feet wide. After quickly reloading the boat. He the skills of navigation as they reached the Gambier Islands accompanied him on the Pit. took over the helm.J. 1903. Its good stands of had to be pumped out every two hours. Captain Griffiths F. Cady. promising to return in Meanwhile rumors reached Mrs. fested. On their return voyage to pick him nanas. in Tahiti as mission presi- lands. Jones .

R. without a sign of their They travelled on the Torch. The John Adams when the helmsman and the entire crew fell asleep. a new and sank suddenly. Built in 1864. All three were able to tiO Iiiiiiiii1111111111111 311111 11111% The Pitcairn mission house shown around Pitcairn Island's church until 1907. Cady returned to Pitcairn for a Caught in the heavy seas. crew were left swimming. a small gunboat. 1111111 41111t ' Pitcairn's Parlaiment House and church. J. swimming back to the Pitcairn II ment generously informed the Pitcaimers that in shark-infested waters. an untimely end. Since Cady held meetings and visited the people. 1904. they were not required to repay the loan advanced In similar circumstances. Pitcairn. Three their small. •'11. Pastor B. accompanied by Mark Carey. the govern- almost their lives. riding out a storm. The ship was approaching home on the evening of June 12.N. the Pitcaimers were without a both only a little younger. 60 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring 1993 . as sketched by Lieut. of those he visited were Thursday October Chris- tially afloat. One unfortunate member of the crew. The courthouse on Pitcairn Island. . The surprised. and Moses Young and his wife Alice who were Once again. the cutter turned over visit in 1907. I/ came to for the purchase of the ship. which also served as the Pym. asleep and were almost wrecked on an island they means of access to the outside world. flat-bottomed boat was still providen. the tian II. complete with oars and a bailer. now-awake school techer for the church school on Pitcairn. IN. They lost their dinghy and learning that the cutter had foundered. ship. in the early twentieth century. it was the turn of the century originally an Anglican chapel. went down with the ship. in 1898. Upon had never seen before." the oldest man on the island (aged 88). public hall. survivors were able to row back safely to Pitcairn. which remained at anchor for four days while Samuel Coffin.

Unfortunately. it had taken several years to build. it was found necessary to form an English-speaking church in Papeete about the £124 donated by friends in England and America. the dreams of the Mission were fulfilled with the purchase of a 25-ton schooner. including Mark Carey. it was sometimes used for the church and the ground floor for Sab. Russell McCoy re- turned with it and spent some time working as a ship-missionary in Papeete. It was also used to transport several remember John Adams. would run between Papeete. the Tiare returned the able to dedicate their new two-story church. The British ling toTahiti on the Tiare and quite a few stayed government had contributed £150 to add to the in Papeete between voyages. by timber taken from local trees and hand-sawn with way of payment. 1908. Expenses neer from the Bounty. thatch-roof building Mangareva. It delegates to Pitcairn. Russell McCoy joined the ship as the where John Tay had preached over twenty years ship-missionary. The new boat. making a number of voyages between Pitcairn and Tahiti. The Tiare In April. As a number of Pitcairn islanders were travel- that a new sixteen-ton cutter had been purchased by the British Consul in Tahiti.600. " for about $1. 1908. the upper floor was the Pitcairn trips ran at a deficit. passage money. island produce for the Tahitian pit-saws. Built by the islanders themselves from of food and clothing to Pitcairn and took back. market. the Tiare. The urgent need. named the John Adams. Pastor Cady was also Later that same year. As feet wide by seventy feet long. The first trip brought back The church school budding at Niger several delegates from Pitcairn Island. renewing the link between the two islands which the mutineers of the Bounty had once so assiduously sought to destroy. Tahiti. necessary to operate the Tiare as a trading vessel bath School. and Pitcairn Island several times a year. remained for keeping communica- The interior of the Niger church schnoi MISSIONS 61 . the small vessel was condemned as unseaworthy and was later sold at an auction for £60. of the Tahitian delegates to Raiatea. however. Thirty.'3 The vessel served the Mission and Pitcairn well for over two years. the last surviving muti. among the islands of French Polynesia for a consid- Pastor Cady also informed the Pitcairners erable part of the year. were well covered by income from freight and ing in the Lord. While on the island. via the islands of Tubuai and replaced the old. The schooner brought supplies earlier. All continued rejoic. tion lines open between Tahiti and Pitcairn and for opening up new work in other islands of the Eastern Polynesian Mission. The John Adams made its first voyage to Pit- cairn and back in mid-1907. dilapidated. Tithe produce was also carried for sale. to the Mission Session held at Raiatea in June.

i5 below the Square where the church was located. This time near the Landing. The pastern Perhaps the big- Polynes ian M iss ion was gest changes on Pit- always on the look-out cairn Island itself dur- for missionary workers ing this period came among the Pitcairn about as the result of members. Shortly afterwards Often all the mem- the Tiare was sold. pered spiritually. The tithe-house was WHEREAS the prevailing conditions relocated to a site on the main road (then called and restrictive laws in the Society Islands Coconut Grove) about 100 yards from the Square. houses The two-story church budding on Pitcairn. and in the prayer meet- ings prayers are offered Spiritual Growth until called to rise. and bers of the Sabbath Pitcairn Island was once School attend. RECOM. gardens were living conditions of devastated. Although and were easily able to there were no inju- adapt themselves to ries. A view inside the second-story church room 62 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring 1993 . languages of Polynesia 1911. the loss would not be due to the forces of nature_ The church roof was soon replaced and the In the plans and recommendations made at the school continued to operate in the ground floor 1910 session of the Australasian Union room while the new school building was being Conference the following action was taken: constructed at Niger." days are having a good attendance. completed in 1907. 1913: interests thereof. almost half a mile away. The church was on the top floor On July 7. All the religious MENDED. they could which swept the is- readily learn the native land in September.year 1910. 1910. In more cut off from regular social meetings from contact with the outside fifty to sixty-six testify world. trees were up- the sometimes rough rooted. having been erty. The church school building and the tithe- thoroughly overhauled. Russell McCoy reported in a nomination and with advantage to the letter on August 26. were destroyed and house of worship for thirty-seven years. painted and furnished with house at Shady Nook were flattened. great damage was the Tiare left Tahiti done to church prop- once more with stores for Pitcairn. make it impracticable to run a mission boat Through all of these changes the church pros- in harmony with the principles of the de. Seasoned a terrible hurricane sailors. while Sabbath School was held on the ground floor. that we meetings held on the sell the mission Sabbath and other schooner. The roof of a new set of sails. remained a the Pacific islands. Little did anyone know that her the new church building was torn off and found days as a mission vessel were numbered. Tiare.

there are a few The Papeete church in Tahiti. MISSIONS 63 . Cooking was done outside. it was still too rough to come Because news travelled slowly to Pitcairn. and twice and joined in with the a week they have islanders in their annual Bible readings in the campmeeting. He also to different families led out in the Lord's twice a week in the Supper for the first time evenings to have fam. making Pitcairn Island an important also prepared a number of candidates for baptism. and these proved a great blessing for all who both graduate nurses of the Sydney Sanitarium and attended. it was October before they first heard that as had to land at the Western Landing at Tedside and a British colony they were officially at war with make the arduous two-mile walk along rough track. changes to the way of life on Pitcairn Island. both old and young. You since their inception in must not think that 1899. They reached Pitcairn via Tahiti and The year 1914 brought two events of world- Makatea. . in over twelve months ily worship."'7 at first the Canal was used only for naval traffic. the and of a preparation to meet the Lord. in time.m. to Adamstown.m. Some may think all have consecrated it strange that such a themselves anew to small island. They were Pastor and Mrs. built by Pitcairners in 1910.. . Instead. how- ashore at the Landing in Bounty Bay." Pastor opening of the Canal now meant that the island was Adams reported. arrived off the island. with two large tents erected for the ways of sin and folly unto God. The Campmeetings people here are trying had become a regular to help one another feature of island life as never before."" adults' and children's meetings and a large group of family tents. Adams. Hospital. and 6:00 1913. it later Assisted by Fisher Young. would need who need the grace of a campmeeting but ev- God in their hearts. Germany and Austria. but we trust an d pray ery year they would meet high on the plateau of that they too will soon turn from their Flatland. revival among the Pitcairners were true: "The About the same time. stopover point in the mid-Pacific. and delays in shipping meant a severe lack of The Adams were to find that the reports of a supplies to the island for several years. were the first new members on the island for sively busier with the addition of a baby son. and Panama. where they joined the Hams teal for a wide significance that would. one church.m. they ever. The resulting infrequency across the thousand-foot high ridge. He shipping. Paul. p. with only God. school house. The church officers go some ten years. R. bring great very rough voyage into head winds and heavy seas. Meetings New missionaries arrived late in August. the new Panama Canal Spirit of the Lord has been working upon their was opened. "All. were held each day at 5:00 a. Although things of God. are almost mid-way on the great circle route between seeking a deeper and richer experience in the Australia and New Zealand. M. The thirteen who were baptized on November 3. Life for the Adams family became progres- 1913.. 1:00 p. The Although the sea had dropped a little when they first of these was the outbreak of war in Europe. Pastor Adams had was used more and more by both cargo and passenger sixty children to teach in the church school. Whereas the mutineers had sought refuge hearts and arousing in them a sense of their need on Pitcairn in 1790 due to its extreme isolation.

this feat was accomplished. December. The work is the church members were slow on account of lim- growing spiritually. however. from the few passing ships. Only a few days out from Mangareva they Conference for missionary work in the islands. Adams reported: Brother Adams said that every We had an anxious time the day the time we asked the Lord to open the way. In fifteen feet wide and was rigged as a schooner. the boat- With only two buckets of fresh water left and 64 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring 1993 . paint. them almost 300 of their hard-won miles south Despite a sharp earthquake. the Mes- senger set out for Mangareva that same afternoon. and food shortages early in 1916. 1915.R. as well as coal peared since the outbreak of World War I. although her false keel was somewhat damaged. were obliged to tack the Messenger for the next Apart from timber from the local trees and plenty twenty-one days. Con- ran into heavy weather and contrary winds. We and seventeen more bap. The timber was all felled high on the island and The Messenger Pastor and Mrs. the twenty- discuss the problem. Pastor Adams was Island and the outside world had not improved able to secure other materials. In deciding tobuild a boat. pitch and iron. a real step infaith. and ited facilties and materi- their experience in the als. z° produce continued to accumulate in the tithe. a long spell of dry again. which they named the Messenger. It was feared by some he felt impressed that we should do that it could not be done. When the storm blew out. He felt more and more impressed that we should build a small boat for this purpose. but erate with the Lord to get this store [of this can be repaired.with teaching the school building continued. the church members After a week on the island. they were within weather which prevented their planting their gar- 300 miles of the island of Raivaevae. dens. oil. Adams had to be carried down Shipping connec. We have had to make Lord was the best it had nearly all our own nails. They were still 200 miles from of willing man-power. they continued on to planned to donate it to the Australasian Union Tahiti. stated that: was launched. They arrived four days later after an easy voyage. Under her outside by the end of their careful nurturing. nevertheless some work of faith—that we must coop. this week. A report of the meeting five-ton boat. They struction of the boat was. first-aid tor Adams wrote: "The and Bible classes. the Pitcairners met together to After a year of strenuous construction. bolts. The finished vessel was forty-four feet long by house with no way of turning it into cash." tithe goods] away. boat was launched. nails. they had little else by way Tahiti when they ran into a hurricane which blew of other materials. Tithe for the forge. and with work of the schooner is yet another c a mpme et ing moving along nicely. Mrs. " With George Warren at the helm. M. hope to finish planking tismal candidates."" been for years. since the sale of the Tiare and had virtually disap. the hill and sawn by tions between Pitcairn hand. including rope. Pas- and night classes.

sixteen days later. was to care for the and heaving seas church. however. with some success in distributing the papers and ished to learn that the boat had cost only fifteen was able to give several Bible studies by showing shillings (less than $2) to build. In one such voyage (May." MISSIONS 65 . The Messenger. hard work." the Mission wouldn't need it themselves. Two horses landers a week earlier which were on board but had be en becalmed had died from star- only sixteen miles from vation. She was able to limp back to Pitcairn Tahiti? The decision made by drawing lots was to where she underwent lengthy repairs. it was against pointed as the school them. Pitcairn. Adams started thrown overboard. The ship had they had run out of been sighted by the is- food. the crew met together to discuss and Mangareva and other nearby islands after that first pray about their next course of action. that the Messen.their food supplies (by then chiefly pumpkins) The Messenger made several voyages to running low. Pastor Lyndon had to inform them. was destined never to reach home. kept and. He met donated by the Pitcairn Islanders.000 miles had taken them about forty-five Fisher Young chose to accompany the group days. from whence he could supervise the becalmed for four days. Walter Fisher Young was ap- blow. post-hurricane sailing. French and Tahitian which Pastor Adams had left dent. which was reached in only a week's until early the following year that she was ready to pleasant. that were sold before his departure. or (c) make straight for damaged. dona. fifteen or ger arrived back at. (b) call at the Austral Group 1919). (after looking up the passages in his own English tions from passing ships and personal sacrifice. and their the island. they remained Mangareva. Bible first). weakened the boat. packing for their de- A small boat was lowered and was rowed to the parture for Mangareva. including his own. the vessel ran into a gale and was badly for water and provisions. Pitcairn.24 While tor and Mrs. about 1. After a week on Mangareva the voyagers set they felt that it would be better used for a regular off on their return journey. four-and-a-half badly. Should they eventful voyage in 1917. they had to wait another distant island to alert the Pitcairners to the ship's four months for a ship to take them to New Zeal- plight. the head el- strong head-wind der. When the wind did start to work on Pitcairn. was offered the schooner as a mission vessel behind nearly two-and-a-half years earlier. Those on the Messenger. It was not sail for Tahiti. It was not until and it began to leak June 4. It had' been them the texts in a Tahitian Bible he had with him constructed mainly on prayer. Adams were to be relocated on still within sight of Mangareva. Lyndon. in order to distribute the large pile of tracts in When Pastor F. he was aston. When they months after its depar- finally sighted ture. The slow teacher and Fred progress into the Christian. All of the Bibles. Although The mission ship Messenger carcasses had been Mrs. Rather. the Mission Presi. meanwhile. The journey of relaunch and make another voyage to Mangareva. Pas- ever. (a) return to Pitcairn. E. how- connection between Pitcairn and Mangareva.

the constant but the third was headwinds was Missionaries with the SDA missionary schooner Pitcairn. Alphonso Christian.. one who assisted in the rescue of the crew.M rs.J. struck by a huge simply too great. Seated left to right: Moses civilization. atrocious. She was a terrible job. little mourning for their ship. life on Pitcairn was much quieter than in previous years. Mr. in Fiji) who was It appears making abrief stop that the vessel was en route to En- lost due to seawa- gland. Two ships were approaching the island but when it showed signs of filling with water. wave and hurled Mrs. cairn church members with a floating mission- When the islanders attempted to bring relief field. they from opposite directions. Simon Young. J. the Messenger had sunk. was not quite as complete as in the A group of Pitcairn men in the early 1890s . the island had now become an impor- Young. They distributed tracts and papers and sang to the stricken vessel. Stanley Young. Left to right: Mrs E.H. Read. Thursday October Christian II. they could not find it. The sea ter rusting the iron conditions in nails which held Bounty Bay were it together. From being an out-of-the-way outpost of Gerard Christian.Gaces. Provi- hymns for the passengers. with a heavy nose. the severe able to make a safe strain on the ship passage through brought about by the raging surf. A. A. It had beenfurther weak.I. later explained: "Before we reached Bounty Bay. Read. dentially. For countless passen- gers the sight of the lofty ramparts of the isolated rock was a welcome break from the monotony of weeks of the pumps working day and night to prevent them- limitless ocean. Although they praised the Lord for their deliver- ance. r E. and tant stop-over for both cargo steamers and passen- Russell McCoy. past.JI . withter- ened by the dam. however. and good riddance. 66 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring 1993 .T ay. rible breakers roll- age caused by the ing in from the storm a year ear. Two lier. ay. Onboard the Ionic was the trans-shipped the cargo and crew and cut the sinking Governer of Pitcairn (the British High Commissioner ship adrift. resulted later " was persuaded to turn about and rescue the in a double tragedy for the island and for the crew. G atos. 1921). a steamer passing Pitcairn three days One such occasion (June 14. They eventually had the Messenger under tow. however."16 Tragedy With the Messenger gone. Standing left to right: Alfred Young.H. and she went just as fast sideways as for'rard.J. The isola- tion. ger liners in the mid-Pacific. Pacific. Fred Christian. there was. These visits also provided the Pit- selves from drowning. V ieder Young. On that final longboats were voyage. church.

he begged his family and friends to pray that answered the call and made the long voyage from God would let him die. crushing Fisher under one of our workers every two years the keel and breaking his back."" islanders as they ministered to their spiritual Like a ship without a rudder. M. and it was thought Pitcairn and the large tithes and best to haul it back into the boatshed. his suffering being so In March. Just at that that all was well. Lyndon to write: "We do not skids and fell into the water next to the advise placing a European worker boat. a large number of church members remained faithful to God and The islanders were especially grateful to be loyal to the church. He received short visit. This period was perhaps the able to participate in the Lord's Supper for the first nadir in the experience of the Pitcairn church. Bible yet. on the Remuera. was picked up by the There had not been a pastor on Pitcairn since surging waves and thrown against the boat and the Adams's left at the end of 1917. instant. The regular mail from all over the harbor. Then. Tempta. Robert Hare great. The hour or two later. but think that a visit Pastor Robert Hare boat again and slammed it back onto should be made to the church by its keel again. Alphonso Chris. At last. Pastor and Mrs."29 tian. if possible. He also made arrangements for the coming Sabbath services and "An Inspiration to the Island"—at Last for his Bible class. rushing to assist him. Fisher Young slipped on the E. Hare's teaching.at the rocks on the other side of the Polynesian Mission did not fully harbor. Although in indescribable agony. 1924. Also the pastor led out in Regrettably. it makes one feel as if tion and sin took their toll. The next wave picked up the on the island. This led Pastor F. the men rushed to indicate prosperity and a sense across to haul it up higher. New Zealand. the leaders of the Eastern MISSIONS 67 . and as a result a number one does not know the alphabet of the of the church members were disfellowshipped. the Eastern Polynesian two fearful gashes on his head and never regained Mission received a letter from Pitcairn. many of having Brother and Sister Hare here the weaker members and the youth lost their mo. offerings received and reports of When another wave lifted the boat the annual campmeetings seemed onto the landing slide. dying shortly afterwards. They are ers. time in over six years.3' for the Lord." appreciate the problems Pitcairn More huge waves threw the boat was facing. Young's tors began to realize the spiritual plight of the mind was clear. Everyone loves him.3° to the salvation of his children. He asked for forgiveness from any Pitcaimers and decided that their request should he might have wronged and entreated them to see be granted at the earliest opportunity. even for a then onto some rocks in the harbor. When sitting under Brother tivation and slipped out of the church. with us. lost their love an inspiration to the island. He passed to his rest an Wellington. although still attending church. E. Without strong spiritual I have no words to express our joy in leadership and without a resident pastor. McCoy wrote: church struggled through a very difficult period over the next few years. It was an consciousness. Then. the leaderless needs. in 1923. Nonetheless. appeal from the church for a representative from The others carried the mangled body of their the Australasian Union Conference to be sent to church leader and school teacher back to the them as soon as possible. His dying words: "Safe in the Hares seem to have made a big impression on the arms of Jesus. the administra- village. Oth.

the church in planning to be baptized at the end of the Pitcairn passed through difficult periods as well as campmeeting. October 15. Pastor Hare the Baptist). hour later.m. two more were baptized the next day. It lies about 300 miles west of Pitcairn Island meetings. pected arrival of a ship on the second day.The cutter never reached either Mangareva or Bounty Bay Tahiti after leaving Cady on Pitcairn. 8. The Society Islands are a group in French Holy Spirit was Polynesia and include the main island of Tahiti. comed into church fellowship. 1957). who had either stumbled in their seven busy months is still remembered as one of relationships with Christ or had never been bap. 1899). Henderson Island was first discovered by the On Wednes. ing their decision 10. 4. however. the captain being unaware that it Isaacs. Its main town were studied at the in Rikitea. at the Landing. Due to Adventist Heritage Vol. the 65 new members were wel- first hour of school each day. In 1819 it was rediscovered by the H. The Week of Prayer paved the way for the Pastor and Mrs. 1790-1890.30 a.m. Mangareva is the largest and only inhabited island phetical subjects in the Gambier group in French Polynesia. Review and Herald (October 3. The evening meal was followed by a 2. John 1924.. and another Bible study an First Hundred Years. 1606. Seventy-five land five days later. Vol. Harder. Both 4. Never again. 7. 40-56. October 3. evident. 17.m. The afternoon. The campmeeting commenced on Friday would they experience such depths or truimphant evening.m. leaving behind a vigorous and members formed the nucleus of the church and happily renewed church behind. End Notes It continued with a children's meeting at 10:00 a. programme started with a devotional meeting at 5. 5.S.m. In the years that followed. January. "The Story of Pitcairn Island. General Conference Bulletin. including a had already been named Henderson Island. I (Summer. it was still known as bands and wives Elizabeth Island. 19 (June Hauling a longboat from a boatshed rebaptisms. No. 2 (Febru- ary 17. 1984). and the and is the nearest inhabited land. 2 (Fall. Norman Ferris. 8.m. and was dates at Down named after that ship. A short time later it baptized 63 candi. No. Harry P.the Week of Prayer—three meetings held daily. General Conference Bulletin. for baptism while watching the others being bap- The adults met at 5:30 a. was sighted by the American ship Elizabeth. When first number of hus. later spiritual high points. the greatest triumphs of the Seventh-day Adven- tized (due to the years with no ordained minister on tist church in Pitcairn. No. 1979). while the young people met during the following Sabbath. 1909). a Bible study at 11:00 a. Apparently it went 68 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring 1993 .' This programme was interrupted with the unex. at Flatland. followed by family prayer and breakfast. No. a young peoples' 1. lighting difficulties. they retired to bed at 8:00 p.. Vol. Their visit of many others.m. 6. at 5:30 p." Adventist Heritage. 24- practical and pro. "Religion on Pitcairn Island: The service at 1:00 p. Their tightly structured daily 20th-century. 3. Ballis. Ferris. Spanish explorer Pedro Fernandez de Quiros in late day. deep moving of the 6. Along with Oeno and Ducie Islands. Mak.. Hercules and named after its captain.M. See Fred M. the island) commenced studies with Pastor Hare.. "Pitcairn: Ship and Symbol. Vol. 6. 9. He called it San Juan Bautista (St. 322. as well as five 9. Hare returned to their home- reorganization of the church. visited by the Pitcairners in 1851. and again in the tized. 3-15. 8." final meeting for the day. the plateau above heights as they did during the first quarter of the Adamstown. it belongs to the Pitcairn Islands group.

there today. 8. Letter. 8. 18. 1916). 1917). In the genealogy. He was usually known by his nickname. British government) was built at Pulau. The grandson of Fletcher Christian.Tiare means "flower" in the Tahitian language. start a church on Mangareva. 1917. The chronometer and other essential items were a the Seventh-day Adventist Church has never been able to ftirther £31. Young left a wife and four young children. Australasian Record (March 12. One young man. 20. and Fisher published in the Australasian Record (May 16. Union Conference Record (November 7. 1923). although there would be no loss of life of cargo. April 14. 19. 2.The actual cost of the Tiare was 8. donated £100. 1920. 1910). as the official owners. 8. the man identified as James Edson White is actually his father. 11. CORRECTIONS We apologize for the following errors inadvertantly published in our last issue. Alphonso Christian left six children. MISSIONS 69 . 4. Young had been told in a dream that the ship would never 15.Thursday October Christian II (1819-1911). Fred Christian. 2. injured and required careful nursing for several weeks 17. Every 29. and another £12 went for change-of-owner. White should read "1854-1937. 3. 1922). 1916) 8. Young 28. The Australasian Union Young had told him that one of the reasons the Messenger Conference. Journey to Pitcairn. was severely 16. 13. "Enice Gould" should read "Eunice Gould. Australasian Record (June 23. 1924). Extract from a letter written by Sister H. present location of the mission house completed in 1962. Islander to accept the Sabbath during the visit of John I. In 1948 a new school (administered by the return. their plans were changed and they never 12. and the old school 25. usable scrap of iron was melted down to make the nails. and there are no members ship expenses. Even the Adams' stove poker was made into nails. Australasian Record (October 30. 1916).Australasian Record (January 19. 86. After the Adams's return to Australia (via New "Duddie. was the first Pitcairn launching of the Messenger took place on January 15. returned to either Mangareva or Pitcairn.down at sea with all hands on the return voyage. building at Niger was demolished." and the small photo above the name "Burleigh Salisbury" is his brother. Australasian Record (November 12. 22. An elderly Pitcaimer told me in 1984 that Fisher from the sale of the John Adams. never returned to Pitcairn was that some of the crew had 14. 21. followed by later payments of £166 (partially met by £54 24. Sydney Christian. James Springer White. 30. used money from the sale of tithe goods for their own uses. Australasian Record (December 4. In spite of this and other efforts over the years.000 francs or 23. 15-3: On page 5. Homer. Tay in 1886. £313. An initial payment of £190 was made. 31.Australasian Record (November 24. 27. 61. The Niger site is the 26. 210." Zealand). Australasian Record (June 5." the dates for William C. A good likeness of Burleigh can be found on page 7. 1913). before he recovered. 1914). Francis Patrick Clune.

Maud was just 11 eldest son. John. began to JA ES IAN'. 1993 . He wanted America. himself lived and died in England. Richard. John. Cook several pioneers to the early Adventist tist literature back home to England. purchased for Captain Cook's had planned to sell the fam- missionary work among the ily business. The interested in the preaching of Joseph family were much impressed with John Sisley. scattered parts of the world They He arrived in Convis to find were a devout "dissenting" family. With no idea of seven children in Tunbridge Wells. John and the farm home of Susannah's cousin. and the second son. to see the New World. Coombs and Dorothy Minchin-Comm I n mid-nineteenth century agree. sell the 70 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. take his wife and heathen. John. For many years. set off across the Atlantic in ful careers awaiting them in widely 1857. Sr. His It took four years for James and Sarah Lane. while she became Susannah to make the final nity until finally they had to famous for her pumpkin pies. in went about rearing their family of Convis. Jr. saved their pennies in a "ship Fascinated with the tracts bank" until a vessel could be that John had sent. Soon he was sending Adven- the missionary stories Dr. the chain of events he was beginning. Jr. wholly unaware of the color. Along with other chil. trine that had so captivated When only 16. South Seas. He would heed the "Go ye" call wanted them all to learn the of Matt 28:19 for the rest of strange new Adventist doc- their lives. BIOGRAPHY The Sisleys: Lives of Sacrifice and Service by Ella L. brought to their church from the movement in Michigan. years old when she arrived in crave adventure. Michigan. stipulating that he must go to England. though he Two years later Father Sisley died. (1805-1859) gave Bates. JAWS LINE. public-house for teamsters. the John. Kent.' The vision never the five remaining children faded and those children and move to Michigan. Susannah Sisley quietly Sarah Lane and her husband. he ran a parents resisted his importu. came to dren all over England they America to join his brother. Sr. that his relatives had become very not fearful of innovative ideas. MPS. decision to move.

after 10 years' service Michigan.The young men invited their widowed Lancaster to organize a Tract and Missionary mother and siblings to Society.family business. I hope that you will At sixteen. So. built in 1869 Founding members wagon-load of Battle included James and Sarah Lane Creek young people widow. enplaned boards pro- mother to bring them to America." At the time there were very few holi- day and no stated vacations. brought these children they camped in the woods. White preach. The Lord has shown opening of Battle Creek College (where they lis- me that every one of these children will tened to Uriah Smith's Bible lectures) and the become a worker in His cause. Ellen White family in England. where vided backless seats under the trees. she asked for six months "vaca- tion. The them feel at home. Be. sheets (which could later be turned to domestic to be with us here in Battle Creek. She has and John and Mary Sisley. been strict Sunday- All of this meant parting keepers. and book a members.the transtion was forever from friends and not difficult. Maud's enthusiasm for missionary join them in Convis outreach increased. Along with a timber This mother is a The Convis church.' creation of a Literary Society now broadened the young people's intellectual opportunities. she turned to her campmeeting held at assistant and said: Wright. It was a practical measure. the tithe system remained a vivid memory in joining a small group of less than 5.00 a week. and the con- they could receive an education amongst gregation sang a cappella. an hour). where they pitching "tents" made of learned about the seventh-day Sabbath. Battle Creek where there tended a campmeeting would be proper work and where they heard Ellen school opportunities. and remembered the first when they came into the Seventh-day Adventist meeting.000 Maud's mind. but by September Sunday mornings for talks. An annual BIOGRAPHY 71 . Sabbath-keepers. right) and Richard (far When Stephen Haskell came from South right) . he asked the home. All of their supplies had to be carried from fore Father Sisley died. Either James or Ellen White came to the editor's room on John was first to believe. She did so in the Review office (working for ten cents in 1863. not At right: The Sisley easily evaded. The inauguration of the entire family had become Sabbath-keepers. Maud went to work at the Review give them a warm welcome and make & Herald Publishing house for $6. By the soon encouraged Susannah summer of 1863 the newly Sisley to move her family immigrated and newly from the Convis farm to reunited Sisley family at. John (near Sunday morning to receive the tithes. She had seen Maud Sisley always this family in vision. A collector came around every brothers. use). At the campground. all the way from England. Having always passage to the New World. Michigan in 1868.

about the time Elsie dining room table. Young Charles An- music.church picnic (with a "hygienic While kneeling in dinner spread upon the grass" and prayer about seven o'clock swimming) was about the most one evening. The navy beans." usually sold for cattle feed. very next morning she received the letter asking dlings. along with meagre savings to be squandered on Elder and Mrs. H. ing and addressing was done at the In 1877. In Novem- They had no money out of their ber. decision to go was neither easy nor Susannah Gower Sisley. Loughborough sons in Michigan sent for Maud to help in his pioneer 72 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. devout Adventist. about 12 x 12. J. the girls were only a year apart in age and shared a birthdate. Food The first Seventh-day Adventist foreign mis- cost them each about 25 cents a week.) They had no now found that I had not instruction on how to do this but made the wholehearted depended on "the Lord to show surrender that I thought I us how to do it. "Are you willing Maud spent her "vacation" to do anything that the Lord in Newark. She wrote: to America. often thought I was willing (Colporteuring as such. Occasionally a her to go to Switzerland. Soon she found everywhere they went. 1993 . at which time Their spartan diet consisted of she made a full commitment. Maud received daughter because of her ill health. N. herself part of the mission family in Waggoner arrived in Springfield. seeing herself vember 25. Here they set the type for his tent meetings. . Maud Sisley. was girls gave him enthusiastic support in the office. Then. had gone to Switzerland them stamina enough for walking endless miles. question. Fold- the tent. Maud Sisley Boyd until midnight. J. I heard a voice anyone thought of doing in this distinctly asking me this line. had not to do anything . Ohio. When J. Andrews met scattered tracts and pamphlets them in London. They helped with French tracts.' with Miss Elsie wants you to?" At this time Gates. The girls rented a "arraigned before the Judgment small attic room (with cooking seat of God. farmer would offer them fresh vegetables. or "mid. distributed invitations. J. Making the the mission family numbered eight. N. 1877. dried apples and cornmeal. Andrews. No. [But] I yet been defined." Good friends." she wept and prayed privileges) for fifty cents a month. and drews took the forms into the city talked with the ladies who came to and back again in a handcart. They lent out books and from Boston. but it gave sionary.N. When Andrews Gates had to return home because of returned to Battle Creek with his illness in her family. the Basel. William Ings. One room. a student from Battle I had been a member of the Creek College who was fired up church for ten years and had to distribute literature. had. As a widow No two of them were related or were automatic. just three years earlier. her first mission call. joining her two elder In 1879. sailed car fares. even though she was a she moved her family from England of the same nationality.

Ella and Ethel. the Boyds went to Cape Town. Boyd." their mothers then lived with the 1 The road beyond "Amen Boyds. her brother's family. tried to turn around for her. now aged 17. Charles' mother. In 1898. Between 1883 and 1887 they served in the meaning to Maud for the rest of her life. On that Sabbath.A. Long ago she had horse shied at a fallen tree in the promised to go wherever God sent Ellen White's home . they lost the event in a letter to her son on December 3. arer she taught in Brisbane and Tasmania." to the school. Shortly after their arrival. and some chairs. As president of the Ne. and they be safe and manageable. Ethel. in re. Hurlburt-Boyd. little daughters joined the family.14 ly eir6 )1 Ella Boyd. England. comers. Miss Sarah Peck. Maud was not to be left alone had built across the creek. braska Conference. Robinson. marry Charles L. Both of awkward. she joined months later she returned to the United States to G. On of Sabbath-keepers there. along the order of the day. had dinner at Willie White's home. Susannah. though returned to America. Australia. but backed into the creek Cooranbong Adventists BIOGRAPHY 73 . Strict economy was still Sunday evening Maud Boyd's daughter Ella.A. Ellen White wrote of covered with cloth. As they he passed away in 1899. She graduated frffut the reacher training tat course in 1902. So. along with Elder and Mrs. der Haskell and the school boys ing. their youngest child. 1899. Charles' 1899: "The buggy was drawn by a horse thought to health finally gave way. Rachel Gate" led into a mile of bush. Otherwise her Gates with them from the White home. furniture consisted of kerosene boxes tastefully "Sunnyside. accompanied her mother to the "new school" at Avondale. accompanied her. Maud possessed a bed springs. the next year. Here two On their common birthday. approached the bridge which El- Widowhood notwithstand. . the new- D. the for long. took Elsie a folding organ. Her mother. Charles.. and her daughter Ella. tent meetings in Southampton. Irwin's party bound for Australia. in response to a call from a company Sydney.1." path. an travelled from church to church in his covered accident occurred which would have poignant wagon. served as a popular meeting place for home. with another friend. died shortly before bordering Sandy Creek. presidency of the North Pacific Union. While in Cape Town. having just come up to Cooranbong from South Africa. Maul's daughter. These two pictures show her during her time of mission service in Tonga. accompanied by Maud."Sunnysicle . Six sponse to Ellen White's specific request. her friend Elsie Gates arrived in Sydney with Then in 1887. November 25.

-. buried in Asheville. Ohio.1454. 1993 . 1900 and the carriage rolled over her. She was buried on Monday Newark. She was dead. Australia also held an attraction for her niece where Elsie Gates was drowned 74 ADVENTIST HERITAGE I Spring. she is also memorialized on the grave stone tii jilrnimpJ of her husband. Maud went on to share in the puzzling decisions as well as the marvellous experiences connected with the founding of that school. After nine years. Ella Boyd and edition of the Advent Review and Sabbath Herald. North Carolina. She everything possible to restore her." Elsie Gates was just 47 to save herself. and did health). in the Avondale Cemetary.. informing readers of Elsie's unfortunate death. the rest of her family were dead.131 1y ir/xt aaruprnwr . Sarah Peck was thrown out onto the bank A notice appeared in the January 30. Ella scrambled out and ran to Ellen White was thankful that "the angel of the school to call the men. Maud Boyd and her dear friend from the killed her. Her brother Richard came out at Ellen White's request to teach English at the school. So without success. He helped Maud with the care of their mother. were thrown into the water. Susannah.1. preceptress (dean). 1. It is Ellen White concluded. While Maud Sisley Boyd lies at rest next to her mother. We think that the shock years old. Afterwards. '.4PPiPT. for she had made no struggle glorious immortality.FSI!Y Bird) maw Wm. As a teacher..10P Pi . • 11 1115k Charles Boyd. however. some 15 feet deep. instead. "We have laid her away believed by all that she did not die from for a little while. God must have worked their deliverance" by sav- ing Miss Peck and Ella Boyd.4 short Sabbath day to share together. As for Elsie Gates. Maud accepted another call to do Bible work in New South Wales and Victo- Ella Coombs standing near Sandy Creek. she had long struggled with a "lung difficulty. ria. went to Java—where he died in 1920. and matron at the Avondale School. days had only been given one afternoon. till she shall be called forth to a drowning. having interested several other couples in doing further pioneer work. Richard." In about three minutes they had the Only the day before she had spoken of the fact that body of Miss Gates out of the water. until she died in 1910 at the age of 90. Susannah Sisley. apart from her brother and his wife (also in poor They carried her to the school. but dreaded suffering from a lingering disease. Elsie Gates.

NSW. "Seven Little Sisleys. p. as a result of their work. Ellen White's predic. Vol. Thus. Her daughter. Those stalwart pioneer women would have liked it that way . Starr) and took up Bible work in Massachusetts. Europe. Australia. 1-3. No. The last 17 years of Maud's public service were spent as a Bible worker in the sanitariums at Loma Linda and Glendale. When she died in 1937. she was buried in "God's Acre. Notes tions about the Sisley children were 1. Ellen White." (File W2 -03-99). Ella. Cited in Ella Robinson. Cooranbong.Nellie Sisley (later Rockwell). an Australian. In 1911. Nellie (Mrs. who References came down from Battle Creek to serve Personal letters. . New Zealand. In her almost 70 years of service to the Seventh-day Adventist Church. 1899. 1937). she returned to Australia to live with her daughter. To "Dear Children. and at Longburn College. "Early Experiences. 132." in Stories of my Grandmother. . 5. Wahroonga. 4.B. The sketches of James and Sarah Lane and the church at Convis are taken from the History of Calhoun County. Letter. 41. Letter from Sunnyside. and Mrs. beside her mother and near her dear friend of her youth. Paap. Avondale's newest Women's Residence. Michigan (1830). Sydney. (Monday. December 3. G. 3." Australosian Record. Ella Boyd Hall pays tribute to its namesake's dedication to church service (above). England. Finally. Ohio. Only years later did Maud Sisley-Boyd discover that an Adventist church had actually been founded in Newark. correct. Maud Sisley. Maud Sisley-Boyd witnessed the beginning of Ad- Two Sisley sisters: Mrs. and remained behind. Later she taught in Tonga June 7. Maud Boyd Australia. Elsie Gates. Ella Paap. Edson and Emma. 23. California. and her family in Parramatta. Maud returned to the United States to be with her ailing sister. Nellie Starr (left) and ventism in America. as the first church school teacher at Maud Sisley Boyd. meanwhile had married Leonard G. BIOGRAPHY 75 . Africa. 2." Avondale's old pioneer cemetary.

Jessie (Grandma Sisley holds their baby. ca. Milly Baldwin (1845-1930) m. the girl in the center. Harvey G. Lane William A. Stan. left to right: Charles Boyd. sitting by the post is Frederika Sisley. in front of Eva is her mother. in front of her sit the two little girls . Martha Lockwood. the men to the right are Wilburn C. taken at William C. Jennie Hill Alton Men on the porch. Herbert Lockwood. just above and to the left of Martha is Susannah Smith. MD (1834-1921) m. and Susie Sisley. in the front row) . and Frederika Sisley 's home. is Alice Sisley. Lillis Wood Starr. at C. Lyndon. John A. her husband. Wilton Lockwood. Cornelia Cook m. Maria Potter Ill. m. standing by their bicycles: Dr. Sisley Family Portrait. Sisley and Clifford Lockwood. Mary Histed m. Lane (1837-1913) (1840-1913) (1842-1907) Lane. Elizabeth Histed Sarah Finch (1810-1905) m. 1993 . 1890s. in front of Herbert is his wife.Josephine and N ellie Sisley with their mother. the boy is Holly Murphy with his sister Grace. and Evangeline Murphy. in front of Wilton is Eulalia Sisley. Lucinda. Thomas Finch Richard Gower m. L Boyd 's right are Ella (in light colored dress). 76 ADVENTIST HERITAGE / Spring. in front of Eulalia. James Lane (1807-1880) John Thomas Charles James Lane Caroline Lane Edward F.

MD Ella Boyd Died of TB (1875-?) m. Don Duffle (1920. Asa Lockwood Died of TB missionary (1850-1932) m. Maud Nellie Martha (1841-1890) Sisley Sisley Sisley William (Mary) (Ellen) Sisley m. 1843-1898) Starr m. rn. (1878-1955) Genealogy compiled by Glenn and Jean Davis. Lucinda 1873) Lockwood Children: (1876-1880) rn.— m. James Glen m.R. The Sisley Family Tree 1 John Sisley m. MD Nellie Nellie (1869-1869) Papp Children: m. Murphy (1883-1951) (1878-1956) Adopted m. Finn (1870-1939) — Josephine m. White "Lou" Smith — Evangeline Aurora (1853-1896) — Bessie Kathryn (1866-1934) Eulalia. Harold Coombs Clifford Densmore Sharp (1872-1944) Halcyone Sisley (1922-1987) William A. Leonard m. Franklin m.) tn. Eastman House Child: (1851. Frederika (ca. Orville (1881-?) Susie Ella Rockwell Adopted Herbert C. (1873-1873) Wilton A. W. Asahel Smith Pioneer Sisley (1851-1937) (1854-1934) m. Mary Birch (1843-1902) (1844-1851) (1846-1921) (1848-1932) Conqueror Sisley Sisley isley (1838-1878) — in. (1838-1924) (1846-1884) to Java . Charles Boyd m.-Sept. Battle Creek MI BIOGRAPHY 77 . Claud A. Ethel Boyd Alice m. Joseph R. Susannah Gower John Sisley Susannah Elizabeth Richard T. George Fl. George B.1915) (1854-1944) Frankie (1868-1869) Willie (Aug. ? Johnston Papp Delmer Eugene Richards.