1. INTRODUCTION
Rp XP
Some graphic and numerical methods of impedance
matching will be reviewed here. The examples given will refer
to high frequency power amplifiers. IND.
Although matching networks normally take the form of f
filters and therefore are also useful to provide frequency f
fS fP
fS fP CAP.
discrimination, this aspect will only be considered as a
corollary of the matching circuit.
Matching is necessary for the best possible energy
transfer from stage to stage. In RFpower transistors the
Figure 1. Input Impedance of RFPower Transistors as
input impedance is of low value, decreasing as the power
a Function of Frequency
increases, or as the chip size becomes larger. This
impedance must be matched either to a generator — of LS RBB′
generally 50 ohms internal impedance — or to a preceding
stage. Impedance transformation ratios of 10 or even 20 are
not rare. Interstage matching has to be made between two ZIN CC CDE CTE RE
complex impedances, which makes the design still more
difficult, especially if matching must be accomplished over
a wide frequency band. Where:
RE = emitter diffusion resistance
2. DEVICE PARAMETERS CDE,CTE = diffusion and transition capacitances of the
emitter junction
2.1 INPUT IMPEDANCE RBB′ = base spreading resistance
CC = package capacitance
The general shape of the input impedance of RFpower
LS = base lead inductance
transistors is as shown in Figure 1. It is a large signal
parameter, expressed here by the parallel combination of Figure 2. Equivalent Circuit for the Input Impedance of
a resistance Rp and a reactance Xp (Ref. (1)). RFPower Transistors
The equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2 accounts for the
behavior illustrated in Figure 1. QIN is an important parameter to consider for broadband
With the presently used stripline or flange packaging, matching. Matching networks normally are lowpass or
most of the power devices for VHF low band will have their pseudo lowpass filters. If QlN is high, it can be necessary
Rp and Xp values below the series resonant point fs. The to use bandpass filter type matching networks and to allow
input impedance will be essentially capacitive. insertion losses. But broadband matching is still possible.
Most of the VHF high band transistors will have the series This will be discussed later.
resonant frequency within their operating range, i.e. be
2.2 OUTPUT IMPEDANCE
purely resistive at one single frequency fs, while the parallel
resonant frequency fp will be outside. The output impedance of the RFpower transistors, as
Parameters for one or two gigahertz transistors will be given by all manufacturers’ data sheets, generally consists
beyond fs and approach fp. They show a high value of Rp of only a capacitance COUT. The internal resistance of the
and Xp with inductive character. transistor is supposed to be much higher than the load and
A parameter that is very often used to judge on the is normally neglected. In the case of a relatively low internal
broadband capabilities of a device is the input Q or QlN resistance, the efficiency of the device would decrease by
defined simply as the ratio Rp/Xp. Practically QlN ranges the factor:
around 1 or less for VHF devices and around 5 or more for 1 + RL/RT
microwave transistors.
f f n1
and X2 = R2 (R1  R2) = R1
fo fo 1
X1 ⋅ Xint
The normalized current absolute value is equal to: R1 Xint Xext Xext =
Xin − X1
I2 2 n
=
Io
(n  1)2 ⋅ f 4 2 f 2 + (n + 1)2
f o f
o Figure 6. Termination Reactance Compensation
X2 R1 C R2 C R2
Qo = = = n1
R2 X1
This will, however, be at the expense of poorer harmonic 4.1.2 ThreeReactance Matching Networks
rejection.
The networks which will be investigated are shown in
Example: Figure 9. They are made of three reactances alternatively
For a transformation ratio n = 4, it can be determined from connected in series and shunt.
the above relations: A threereactances configuration allows to make the
quality factor Q of the circuit and the transformation ratio n
Bandwidth w 0.1 0.3
= R2/R1 independent of each other and consequently to
Max insertion losses 0.025 0.2
choose the selectivity between certain limits.
X1/R1 1.730 1.712
For narrow band designs, one can use the following
If the terminations R1 and R2 have a reactive component formulas (Ref. (5) AN267, where tables are given):
X, the latter may be taken as part of the external reactance
Network (a):
as shown in Figure 6.
This compensation is applicable as long as XC1 = R1/Q Q must be first selected
XINT R1 R1/R2
QINT = or <n  1 XC2 = R2
R2 XINT R1
(Q2 + 1) 
R2
Tables giving reactance values can be found in Ref. (3)
and (4). QR1 + (R1R2/XC2)
XL =
Q2 + 1
AN721
RF Application Information
Freescale Semiconductor 3
POUT rel.
1.0
.9
.8
(b)
.7
.6
.5
.4
(a)
.3
.2
.1
f/fo
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
RG L RG Z(Θ)
C RL RL
(a) (b)
TRANSFORMATION RATIO n = 10
B
XC1 = B = R1 ⋅ (1 + Q2)
(c) QA
XL XC2
The network which yields the most practical component
values, should be selected for a given application.
R2 > R1
R1 XC1 R2 The threereactance networks can be thought of as being
formed of a Lsection (two reactances) and of a
compensation reactance. The Lsection essentially performs
the impedance transformation, while the additional reactance
Figure 9. ThreeReactance Matching Networks compensates for the reactive part of the transformed
impedance over a certain frequency band.
Network (b): Figure 10 shows a representation in the Zplane of the
circuit of Figure 9 (a) split into two parts R1  C1  L1 and
XL1 = R1Q Q must be first selected
C2  R2.
XL2 = R2 ⋅ B A = R1 (1 + Q2)
A A
XC1 = B= 1
Q+B R2
AN721
RF Application Information
4 Freescale Semiconductor
L1 Again, if one of the terminations has a reactive
component, the latter can be taken as a part of the matching
network, provided it is not too large (see Fig. 6).
R1 C1 C2 R2
L2 C1
Z′ Z″
R1 R12C1 R2(G2) C2 R1(G1)
Z′ = + jω L1  = R′ + jX′
1+ ω2 R12 C12 1+ ω2 R12 C12
R2 jω2 C2 R22 Y″ Y′
Z″ =  = R″ + jX″
1+ ω2 C22 R22 1 + ω2 C22 R22
ω2C12R1 jωC1
Y′ = G′ + jB′ = 
1 + ω2 C12 R12 1 + ω2 C12 R12
x′ = L1
C1 R12

R′
R1
R1
R′
1
Y″ = G″ + jB″ =
R2
+ jωC2 
jωL2
R22 + ω2L22 R22 + ω2L22
x′, − x″
x″ = R′ R2  R′2
B′ =  G′/R′1  G′2 B″ = (1/kR2  G″) 1/G″R2  1
x′
ω k =L2/C2R22
−x″ M
ω M′ B′
(f1)
N′ ω B″
R′
R2 R1 M
G′ or G″
G1 G2
Figure 10. ZPlane Representation of the Circuit of
ω
Figure 9(a)
AN721
RF Application Information
Freescale Semiconductor 5
The tworeactance sections used in above networks have the selectivity curve will be different from the curves given
either transformation properties or compensation properties. in Figure 14. Figure 15 shows the selectivity for networks
Impedance transformation is obtained with one series (a) and (b) when the source resistance R1 is infinite.
reactance and one shunt reactance. Compensation is made From Figure 15 it can be seen that network (a) is more
with both reactances in series or in shunt. sensitive to R1 changes than network (b).
If two cascaded transformation networks are used,
transformation is accomplished partly by each one. 0 + j1
With fourreactance networks there are two frequencies,
f1 and f2, at which the transformation from R1 into R2 is exact.
These frequencies may also coincide. 0.28 + j0.45 NORMALIZED IMP.
For network (b) for instance, at point M, R1 or R2 is 0.1 + j0.16
Q2
(1 − j1.6) NORMALIZED ADM.
transformed into √R1R2 when both frequencies fall together. Q1
(2.8 − j4.5)
At all points (M), Z1 and Z2 are conjugate if the transformation (a)
is exact. b′3 b1
0.1 + j0.147 b3
In the case of Figure 12 (b) the reactances are easily, Q′1 (0.316 − j4.65) 0.316 − j0
calculated for equal frequencies: ∞
x4
x’4
1 + j0
0 0.1
x2
R1 n1 b′1
X1 = , X2 = R1 x′2
n 0.28 − j0.14
n1
(2.8 + j1.4) (b)
X1 ⋅ X4 = R1 ⋅ R2 = X2 ⋅ X3
0.316 − j0.465
Q′2
(1 + j1.47)
R1 R1
X3 = , X4 = n1
n R1 = 1
n( n  1)
R2 = 0.1
For network (a) normally, at point (M), Z1 and Z2 are
complex. This pseudo lowpass filter has been computed (a) X1 = 0.624 X3 = 0.169 X′1 = 0.68 X′3 = 0.215
elsewhere (Ref. (3)). Many tables can be found in the ( ( ( (
literature for networks of four and more reactances having B1 = 1.6 B3 = 5.9 B′1 = 1.47 B′3 = 4.65
Tchebyscheff character or maximallyflat response (Ref. (3), X2 = 0.59 X4 = 0.160 X′2 = 0.465 X′4 = 0.147
(4) and (6)).
Figure 13 shows the transformation path from R1 to R2 Q1 = 1.6 = Q2 Q′1 = Q′2 = 1.47
for networks (a) and (b) on a SmithChart (refer also to (a) X2 X4 (b) X′2 X′4
section 4.2, Graphic Design).
Case (a) has been calculated using tables mentioned in
Ref. (4). R1 X1 X3 R2 R1 X′1 X′3 R2
Case (b) has been obtained from the relationship given
above for X1 . . . X4. Both apply to a transformation ratio
equal to 10 and for R1 = 1.
Figure 13. Transformation Paths for Networks
There is no simple relationship for X′1 . . . X′4 of network
(a) and (b)
(b) if f1 is made different from f2 for larger bandwidth.
Figure 14 shows the respective bandwidths of network
(a) and (b) for the circuits shown in Figure 13. ATTEN.
If the terminations contain a reactive component, the −0
computed values for X1 or X4 may be adjusted to −1
(a)
compensate for this. −2
−3
For configuration (a), it can be seen from Figure 13, that (b)
−4
in the considered case the Q’s are equal to 1.6. −5
For configuration (b) Q′1, which is equal to Q′2, is fixed −6
(b)
for each transformation ratio. (a)
−7
−8
n 2 4 8 10 16
Q′ = n1 −9
Q′1 = Q′2 0.65 1 1.35 1.46 1.73 −10 f/fo
.3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9
The maximum value of reactance that the terminations
may have for use in this configuration can be determined
Figure 14. Selectivity Curves for Networks (a) and (b)
from the above values of Q′.
of Figure 13
If R1 is the load resistance of a transistor, the internal
transistor resistance may not be equal to R1. In this case
AN721
RF Application Information
6 Freescale Semiconductor
REL. ATTEN. L2 L1 C1
2
1 R2 C2 R2
0 (G2) (G1)
−1
−2
−3 Y″ Y′
−4
R1 j(ωL1 − 1/ωc1)
−5 (a) (b) (a) (b) Y′ = G′ + jB′ = 
−6 R12 + (ωL1 − 1/ωc1)2 R12 + (ωL1 − 1/ωc1)2
−7
−8
−9
Y″ = G″ + jB″ =
R2
R 22 + ω2L 22
+ jω C2  L2
R 22 + ω2L 22
−10 f/fo
.4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 G′
B′ = ± − G′2
R1
Figure 15. Selectivity Curves for Networks (a) and (b)
1 L2
of Figure 13 with Infinite R1 B″ = (1/kR2 − G″) −1 k =
G″R2 C 2 R 22
As mentioned earlier, the fourreactance network can also B′
be thought of as two cascaded tworeactance sections; one
G2
used for transformation, the other for compensation. G1
G
Figure 16 shows commonly used compensation networks, M′
ω B″
together with the associated Lsection. N′
The circuit of Figure 16 (a) can be compared to the M
threereactance network shown in Figure 9(c). The difference ω
is that capacitor C2 of that circuit has been replaced by a
LC circuit. The resulting improvement may be seen by
comparing Figure 17 with Figure 11.
B
AN721
RF Application Information
Freescale Semiconductor 7
bandwidth change is not significant as long as short portions 1.0
of lines are used (Ref. (13)). n=4
0.9
4.1.4 Matching Networks Using Quarterave
Transformers 0.8
At sufficiently high frequencies, where λ/4long lines of
1 2 3
practical size can be realized, broadband transformation can 0.7
easily be accomplished by the use of one or more
λ/4sections. λo/λ
Figure 18 summariz es the main relations for 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
(a) onesection and (b) twosection transformation.
Figure 20. Selectivity Curves for One, Two and Three
A compensation network can be realized using a λ/2long
λ/4Sections
transmission line.
4.1.5 Broadband Matching Using BandPass Filter
Type Networks. High Q Case.
(a)
The above circuits are applicable to devices having low
R1 = nR2
input or output Q, if broadband matching is required.
R2 Z R1
R1 Generally, if the impedances to be matched can be
Z = R1 R2 = R2 √n =
√n represented for instance by a resistor R in series with an
inductor L (sometimes a capacitor C) within the band of
interest and if L is sufficiently low, the latter can be
(b) 4 incorporated into the first inductor of the matching network.
Z 1 = R 13 R 2 This is also valid if the representation consists of a shunt
4 combination of a resistor and a reactance.
R2 Z2 Z1 R1
Z 2 = R1 R 2 3 Practically this is feasible for Q’s around one or two. For
higher Q’s or for input impedances consisting of a series or
at A, R = √R1 R2 parallel resonant circuit (see Fig. 2), as it appears to be for
A large bandwidths, a different treatment must be followed.
Let us first recall that, as shown by Bode and Fano (Ref.
Figure 18. Transformation Networks Using λ/4Long (7) and (8)), limitations exist on the impedance matching of
Transmission Lines a complex load. In the example of Figure 21, the load to be
matched consists of a capacitor C and a resistor R in shunt.
Figures 19 and 20 show the selectivity curves for different
transformation ratios and section numbers. RG
Exponential lines
MATCHING
Exponential lines have largely frequency independent V ZIN NETWORK C R
transformation properties. (LOSSLESS)
The characteristic impedance of such lines varies
exponentially with their length I:
Z = Zo ⋅ ekl Figure 21. General Matching Conditions
where k is a constant, but these properties are preserved
only if k is small. The reflection coefficient between transformed load and
generator is equal to:
ZIN  Rg
Γ=
ZIN + Rg
1.0
Γ = 0, perfect matching,
0.9 Γ = 1, total reflection.
The ratio of reflected to incident power is:
0.8
Pr
= Γ 2
n=6 4 2 Pi
0.7
The fundamental limitation on the matching takes the
form:
λo/λ
AN721
RF Application Information
8 Freescale Semiconductor
1 Thus, devices having relatively high input Q’s are usable
ln
Γ for broadband operation, provided the consequent higher
attenuation or reflection introduced is acceptable.
The general shape of the average insertion losses or
π attenuation a (neglecting the ripple) of a lowpass impedance
S=
RC matching network is represented in Figure 24 as a function
of 1/Q for different numbers of network elements n (ref. (3)).
ωc ω For a given Q and given ripple, the attenuation decreases
if the number n of the network element increases. But above
Figure 22. Representation of Bode Equation n = 4, the improvement is small.
For a given attenuation a and bandwidth, the larger n the
The meaning of Bode equation is that the area S under the smaller the ripple.
curve cannot be greater than π/RC and therefore, if matching For a given attenuation and ripple, the larger n the larger
is required over a certain bandwidth, this can only be done at the bandwidth.
the expense of less power transfer within the band. Thus, Computations show that for Q < 1 and n ≤ 3 the
power transfer and bandwidth appear as interchangeable attenuation is below 0.1 db approximately. The impedance
quantities. transformation ratio is not free here. The network is a true
It is evident that the best utilization of the area S is lowpass filter. For a given load, the optimum generator
obtained when Γ is kept constant over the desired band impedance will result from the computation.
ωc and made equal to 1 over the rest of the spectrum. Then Before impedance transformation is introduced, a
conversion of the lowpass prototype into a bandpass filter
π
 type network must be made. Figure 25 summarizes the main
Γ = e ωc RC
relations for this conversion.
within the band and no power transfer happens outside. r is the conversion factor.
A network fulfilling this requirement cannot be obtained For the bandpass filter, QlN max or the maximum possible
in practice as an infinite number of reactive elements would input Q of a device to be matched, has been increased by
be necessary. the factor r (from Figure 25, Q′IN max = r ⋅ QIN max).
If the attenuation a is plotted versus the frequency for Impedance inverters will be used for impedance
practical cases, one may expect to have curves like the ones transformation. These networks are suitable for insertion into
shown in Figure 23 for a lowpass filter having Tchebyscheff a bandpass filter without affecting the transmission
character. characteristics.
a a
2 LOW−PASS BAND−PASS
a 1
a max2
a min2
a max1 ωa ωo ωb
∆ω
a min1 wc =
2 ∆ω
ω ωo
ω1 ω2 r=
∆ω
Figure 23. Attenuation versus Angular Frequency for C 1′
Different Bandwidths with Same Load
L1 L3 L 1′
R5 R5
For a given complex load, an extension of the bandwidth Ro C2 C4 Ro C ′
from ω1 to ω2 is possible only with a simultaneous increase 2 L 2′
of the attenuation a. This is especially noticeable for Q’s
exceeding one or two (see Figure 24).
ωcL1 1
QIN max = L1′ = r.L1 C 1′ =
Ro ωo2 L1′
dB
ωoL 1′ 1
4 QIN max = C2′ = r.C2 L 2′ =
Ro ω o 2 C2 ′
3 etc.
n=2
a 2
3 Figure 25. Conversion from LowPass into
1 BandPass Filter
∞
0 Figure 26 shows four impedance inverters. It will be
0.1 1 1/Q
noticed that one of the reactances is negative and must be
Figure 24. Insertion Losses as a Function of 1/Q combined in the bandpass network with a reactance of at
AN721
RF Application Information
Freescale Semiconductor 9
least equal positive value. Insertion of the inverter can be (4) Convert the element values found by step (3) into
made at any convenient place (Ref. (3) and (9)). series or parallel resonant circuit parameters,
(5) Insert the impedance inverter in any convenient
INVERTER EQUIVALENT TO: place.
C In the above discussions, the gain rolloff has not been
C
1 − 1/n 1/n2 − 1/n taken into account. This is of normal use for moderate
bandwidths (30% for ex.). However, several methods can
be employed to obtain a constant gain within the band
a) nC C despite the intrinsic gain decrease of a transistor with
frequency.
Tables have been computed elsewhere (Ref. (10)) for
n:1 matching networks approximating 6 db/octave attenuation
nC C versus frequency.
Another method consists in using the above mentioned
network and then to add a compensation circuit as shown
b) (1 − n)C (n2 − n)C for example in Figure 27.
L2 C2
n:1
L(1 − 1/n) L(1/n2 − 1/n) R = ZIN = CONSTANT vs. f.
R1
L1C1 = L2C2
c) R R1 = R
L/n L
L1 C1 ωb2 = 1/L1C1 = 1/L2C2
(HIGH BAND EDGE)
n:1 Q2 = ωbL2/R = Q1 = ωbC1R
L/n
L
d) L L
1−n n2 − n Figure 27. RollOff Compensation Network
AN721
RF Application Information
10 Freescale Semiconductor
Z0 = Rg/2
Rg
Rg
RL =
4
Figure 28. 4:1 Line Transformer Line Transformer on P.C. Board (Figure 29)
The low frequency cutoff is determined first by the length 35 µ
of line, long lines extending the low frequency performance Cu 66 µ Ribbon thickness
of the transformer. Low frequency cutoff is also improved Electrical tape
by a high even mode impedance, which can be achieved EE3990
by the use of ferrite material. With matched ends, no power Permacel New
is coupled through the ferrite which cannot saturate. ISOLATION Brunswick
For matched impedances, the high frequency attenuation ISOLATION Cu
a of the 4:1 transformer is given by:
EPOXY 0.2 mm THICK Figure 30. 4:1 Copper Ribbon Line Transformer
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
35 µ with Ferrite
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
in mm
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
15 22
Cu
10
61.5
68.5
Line Transformer on Ferrite (Figure 30)
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
STICK ONE AGAINST THE OTHER
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
4.2 GRAPHIC DESIGN
The common method of graphic design makes use of the
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
It is applicable to all laddertype networks as encountered
in matching circuits.
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
algebraic addition of reactances (or susceptances) to a given
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉ É ÉÉ
start impedance (or admittance) until another end impedance
(or admittance) is reached.
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉ É ÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉÉ
Impedance chart and admittance chart can be
superimposed and used alternatively due to the fact that an
immittance point, defined by its reflection coefficient Γ with
ÉÉ
Figure 29. 4:1 Line Transformer on P.C. Board
respect to a reference, is common to the Zchart and the
Ychart, both being representations in the Γplane.
AN721
RF Application Information
Freescale Semiconductor 11
Z  Rs γi
Γ= γr + jγ i +1
Z + Rs b = − 0.5
Gs  Y g = 0.5 INDUCTIVE
Γ= b<0
Gs + Y g=1
b = −1 γr
1 b=0
Rs = = Characteristic impedance of the line −1 +1
Gs SHORT b=1
OPEN
More precisely, the Zchart is a plot in the Γplane, while
CAPACITIVE
the Ychart is a plot in the  Γplane. The change from the b>0
g=0
Γ to  Γplane is accounted for in the construction rules given −1 b = 0.5
below. g>0
Figure 31 and 32 show the representation of normalized − Γ−PLANE
Z and Y respectively, in the Γplane.
The Zchart is used for the algebraic addition of series Y
= y = g + jb
reactances. The Ychart is used for the algebraic addition Gs
of shunt reactances. 1  γr2  γ i2
For the practical use of the charts, it is convenient to make g=
(1 + γr)2 + γ i2
the design on transparent paper and then place it on a usual INDUCTIVE
Smithchart of impedance type (for example). For the  2γ i
b= g
addition of a series reactor, the chart will be placed with (1 + γr)2 + γ i2
“short” to the left. For the addition of a shunt reactor, it will
1  g2  b2 CAPACITIVE
be rotated by 180° with “short” (always in terms of γr =
impedance) to the right. (1 + g)2 + b2
γi  2b b
γi =
+1 (1 + g)2 + b2 RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
x = 0.5
AN721
RF Application Information
12 Freescale Semiconductor
Secondly, one must choose the operating Q of the circuit, The collector load must be equal to:
which is also related to the bandwidth. Q can be defined at
[Vcc  Vce (sat)]2 (28  3)2
each circuit node as the ratio of the reactive part to the real or = 15.6 ohms .
part of the impedance at that node. The Q of the circuit, which 2 x Pout 40
is normally referred to, is the highest value found along the
path. The collector capacitance given by the data sheet is
Constant Q curves can be superimposed to the charts 40 pF, corresponding to a capacitive reactance of 22.7 ohms.
and used in conjunction with them. In the Γplane Qcurves The output impedance seen by the collector to insure the
are circles with a radius equal to required output power and cancel out the collector
capacitance must be equal to a resistance of 15.6 ohms in
1 parallel with an inductance of 22.7 ohms. This is equivalent
1+
Q2 to a resistance of 10.6 ohms in series with an inductance
of 7.3 ohms.
and a center at the point ± 1/Q on the imaginary axis, which The input Q is equal to, 1.1/1.94 or 0.57 while the output
is expressed by: Q is 7.3/10.6 or 0.69.
Q=
x
=
2γ i
γ r2 + γ i +
1 2
=1+
1
.
It is seen that around this frequency, the device has good
r 1  γ r2  γ i2 Q Q2 broadband capabilities. Nevertheless, the matching circuit
will be designed here for a narrow band application and the
The use of the charts will be illustrated with the help of effective Q will be determined by the circuit itself not by the
an example. device.
The following series shunt conversion rules also apply: Figure 34 shows the normalized impedances (to
50 ohms).
X 0.022 0.146
R ≅ R′ X′
0.039 0.212
R′ 1 R
R= G′ = =
R′2 R′ R2 + X2 NORMALIZED INPUT IMPEDANCE LOAD IMPEDANCE
1+
X′2
Figure 34. Normalized Input and Output Impedances
X′ 1 X for the 2N5642
X=  B′ = =
X′2 X′ R2 + X2 Figure 35 shows the diagram used for the graphic design
1+
R′2 of the input matching circuit. The circuit Q must be larger
than about 5 in this case and has been chosen equal to 10.
Figure 33 shows the schematic of an amplifier using the
2N5642 RF power transistor. Matching has to be achieved At Q = 5, C1 would be infinite. The addition of a finite value
at 175 MHz, on a narrow band basis. of C1 increases the circuit Q and therefore the selectivity.
The normalized values between brackets in the Figure are
VCC = 28 V admittances (g + jb).
0 + j1
RFC
L4 PARALLEL CAPACITANCE C2
Q− (b2)
C1 L3 0.039 + j0.39
CIRCLE (0.25 − j2.5) 1 + j1.75
(10)
(0.25 − j0.42)
RFC SERIES
50 Ω 50 Ω INDUCTANCE L3 SERIES
C2 C0 C5
(x3) CAPACITANCE C1
(x1)
0 0.039 + j0.022 1 + j0 ∞
2N5642
Figure 35. Input Circuit Design
Figure 33. NarrowBand VHF Power Amplifier At f = 175 MHz, the following results are obtained:
ωL3 = 50x3 = 50 (0.39  0.022) = 18.5 ohms
L3 = 16.8 nH
The rated output power for the device in question is 20 W
at 175 MHz and 28 V collector supply. The input impedance 1 1
ωC2 = b2 = (2.5  0.42) = 0.0416 mhos
at these conditions is equal to 2.6 ohms in parallel with  50 50
200 pF (see data sheet). This converts to a resistance of
1.94 ohms in series with a reactance of 1.1 ohm. C2 = 37.8 pF
AN721
RF Application Information
Freescale Semiconductor 13
1 Rated output power:
= 50x1 = 50 ⋅ 1.75 = 87.5 ohms
ωC1 30 W for 8 W input at 175 MHz. From the data sheet it
appears that at 125 MHz, 30 W output will be achieved with
C1 = 10.4 pF
about 4 W input.
Figure 36 shows the diagram for the output circuit, Output impedance:
designed in a similar way.
[Vcc  Vce (sat)]2 100
0 + j1 = = 1.67 ohms
2 x Pout 60
SERIES INDUCTANCE L4
(x4) PARALLEL CAPACITANCE C5 RFC2
0.212 − j0.4 (b5)
(1 + j1.9) C6
AN721
RF Application Information
14 Freescale Semiconductor
% Acknowledgments
PIN = 2 W The author is indebted to Mr. T. O’Neal for the fruitful
70
discussions held with him. Mr. O’Neal designed the circuit
60 shown in Figure 37; Mr. J. Hennet constructed and tested
1W
the lab model.
50
η 40 0.5 W 6. LITERATURE
30 1. Freescale Application Note AN282A “Systemizing RF
20 Power Amplifier Design”
2. W. E. Everitt and G. E. Anner “Communication
10
Engineering” McGrawHill Book Company, Inc.
MHz 3. G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, E. M. T. Jones “Microwave
118 124 128 132 136 Filters, ImpedanceMatching Networks and Coupling
f
Structures” McGrawHill Book Company, Inc.
4. G. L. Matthaei “Tables of Chebyshew
Figure 39. η vs Frequency
ImpedanceTransforming Networks of LowPass Filter
db. Form” Proc. IEEE, August 1964
5. Freescale Application Note AN267 “Matching Network
0
Designs with Computer Solutions”
Prefl.
6. E. G. Cristal “Tables of Maximally Flat
Pin − 5 PIN = 2 W ImpedanceTransforming Networks of LowPassFilter
− 10 Form” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and
Techniques Vol. MTT 13, No 5, September 1965
1W
− 15 Correspondence
0.5 W 7. H. W. Bode “Network Analysis and Feedback Amplifier
− 20 Design” D. Van Nostrand Co., N.Y.
8. R. M. Fano “Theoretical Limitations on the Broadband
MHz Matching of Arbitrary Impedances” Journal of Franklin
118 124 128 132 136 Institute, January  February 1950
f 9. J. H. Horwitz “Design Wideband UHFPower
Amplifiers” Electronic Design 11, May 24, 1969
Figure 40. PREFL./PIN vs Frequency
10. O. Pitzalis, R. A. Gilson “Tables of Impedance Matching
Networks which Approximate Prescribed Attenuation
Versus Frequency Slopes” IEEE Transactions on
Microwave Theory and Techniques Vol. MTT19, No 4,
April 1971
11. C. L. Ruthroff “Some Broadband Transformers” Proc.
IRE, August 1959
12. H. H. Meinke “Theorie der H. F. Schaltungen” München,
Oldenburg 1951
AN721
RF Application Information
Freescale Semiconductor 15
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AN721
Document Number: AN721
Rev. 1, 10/2005 RF Application Information
16 Freescale Semiconductor