National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development

)

2
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
साउथ क|कण एजुके शन सोसायट|
गोÍवं दराम गोÍवं दराम गोÍवं दराम गोÍवं दराम से 4से Íरया से 4से Íरया से 4से Íरया से 4से Íरया Íव7ान Íव7ान Íव7ान Íव7ान 1नातक 1नातक 1नातक 1नातक महाÍव²ालय महाÍव²ालय महाÍव²ालय महाÍव²ालय, , , , बे लगाम् बे लगाम् बे लगाम् बे लगाम्


Íव7ान भ

Íव7ान भ

Íव7ान भ

Íव7ान Íवभाग Íवभाग Íवभाग Íवभाग

ñारा आयोिजत्

रा8ीय संगो8ी

Íवषय Íवषय Íवषय Íवषय: : : : क|कण क|कण क|कण क|कण सम

d सम

d सम

d सम

d तट तट तट तट
(गÎतशीलता, उcHांÎत, पयावरण और Íवकास)

12-13 Îसत+बर 2008

के
सार सार सार सार
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

3
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Our Sponsors
सहा³य सहा³य सहा³य सहा³य

1. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and Board of Research
in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), BARC, Mumbai.
परमाणु ऊजा Íवभाग ( डी ए ई ) और परमाणु Íव7ान अनुसंधान बोड (बी आर एन एस),
बी ए आर सी, मुंबई.

2. Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India, New Delhi.
भू Íव7ान मं×ालय (एम् ओ इ एस् ), भारत सरकार

3. South Konkan Education Society, Belgaum.
साउथ क|कण एजु के शन सोसायट|, बे लगाम्

Support expected from
अपॆ ÍHत अपॆ ÍHत अपॆ ÍHत अपॆ ÍHत सहा³य सहा³य सहा³य सहा³य

University Grants Commission (UGC)
Íव+Íव²ालय अनु दान आयोग ( यू जी सी )
Department of Science & Technology (DST)
Íव7ान और 9ौ²ोÎगक| Íवभाग (Íड एस ट|)
Department of Enonment& Forests (DoEn & F)
पयावरण और वन Íवभाग (Íड ओ इ एन् और् एस् )
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
रा8ीय आपदा 9बं धन 9ाÎधकरण ( एन डी एम ए )
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

4
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Convener’s Convener’s Convener’s Convener’s N NN Note ote ote ote
Govindram Seksaria Science (GSS) Degree College is a Four Star NAAC accredited, premier institution
in Science catering for the need of society in providing quality education in this part of the country. It
is run by South Konkan Education Society, under the supervision of a progressive management. It has
a beautiful campus with well equipped laboratories, departmental museums, well qualified and
dedicated staff. The library is known to have largest collection of books in the northern Karnataka.
The De De De Department of Geology partment of Geology partment of Geology partment of Geology is one of the oldest departments and is well known for its academic
excellence in this part of the country. The alumni of the department have spread all over India. The
department is active in Coastal Research of Uttara Kannada and Southern Maharashtra Coast;
through major research projects funded by DST, UGC & MoES; and have contributed many National
& International publications.
About the present Seminar: About the present Seminar: About the present Seminar: About the present Seminar: The land-sea interface or the ‘coastal zone’ is highly dynamic and fragile
environment where every micro environment of coast is changing by every passing moment. The most
fragile ecosystems within the coastal environment, such as beaches, mud flats, marshes, mangroves and
coral reefs are subjected and influenced by intense land-sea interactions as well as human interference
by way of fishing, agriculture, aquaculture, coastal construction, mining, tourism and recreation,
harbour development and navigation. Added to these pressures the impact of changing climate, such as
sea level rise, seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall etc., affect many of regulatory and social
and economic functions of coastal zones.
As more than 50% of the world’s population live along the coastal zone, the need for data base on the
above aspects, on any coast is a prerequisite for the coastal zone management and planning towards
creating better infrastructure and better planning and developmental activity of the coast.
Further, efforts are needed towards better understanding of the structure and functioning of coastal
systems in their complexity and interactions, their response to natural and anthropogenic pressures.
The present seminar offers a platform to discuss and identify gaps in research areas for integrated and
interdisciplinary studies concerning the coastal studies of Konkan. The focus of the seminar is also to
share and disseminate the knowledge acquired through various researches and strengthening the
governmental and non-governmental organisations involved in implementing sustainable coastal zone
management measures for the benefit of the coastal community and above all for the betterment of the
coastal environment.
I have received immense help from our research scholars Mr.Praveen Dube, Rajesh Hood and Asst.
Deepak Adiandra for preparing the abstract volume. I am grateful to all the sponsoring
agencies/firmsfor their kind guestures. I also thank advisory and organising committee members for
their constant support, guidance and help. My special thanks to Omega Offset, Belgaum for printing
this abstract volume.

Dr.P.T.Hanamgond Dr.P.T.Hanamgond Dr.P.T.Hanamgond Dr.P.T.Hanamgond
Convenor, National Seminar &
Selection Grade Lecturer, Department of Geology
G.S.Science Degree College,
Tilakwadi, BELGAUM – 590 006.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

5
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
संयॊजक संयॊजक संयॊजक संयॊजक क| क| क| क| ऒर ऒर ऒर ऒर से से से से :
जी. एस् . एस् . Íव7ान 1नातक महाÍव²ालय कॊ रा8ीय मू ~य़ां कन एवं 9cयायन् (NAAC) पÍरषद सॆ ४ Îसतारॊ ं क|
मा7यता 9ाB ह

ई है । समाज मॆ ं Íव7ान क| अव°यकताऒं कॊ ²यान म रखकर 1तर|य ÎशHा 9दान करनॆवाल| यह
दॆ श क| एक 9मु ख सं1था है । साउथ कॊ ं कण ए7युकॆ शन सॊसायÍट ñारा सं चाÎलत इस सं 1था कॆ खूबसूरत 9ांगण मॆ
Íवभागीय 9यॊगशालाएं एवं सं 0हालय सु सि7जत है । िजनÍक सं चालन ¯यव1था यॊ¹य एवं क

शल कम चार|य| कॆ
अधीन है । इस महाÍव²ालय का 0ंथालय उôर कनाटक का सबसे बडा एवं जाना माना 0ं थालय के तौर पर Eयाती
9ाB है ।
भूÍव7ान भूÍव7ान भूÍव7ान भूÍव7ान Íवभाग Íवभाग Íवभाग Íवभाग:
भूÍव7ान Íवभाग सबसे पुराना और सÍHय Íवभाग है । इस Íवभाग सॆ ÎशHा 9ाB अनॆक छा×ॊ ं ने दॆ श कॆ कॊने कॊने म
फै लकर अपनी यॊ¹यता Íदखाते ह

ए Íवभाग का और अपना नाम रॊशन Íकया है । उôर क7नडा कॆ तट|य अनु सं धान
एवं दÍHण महारा8 कॆ तट|य अनु संधान मॆ इस् Íवभाग का यॊगदान रहा है । इतना ह| नह| Íड एस् ट|, Íव+Íवधालय
अनु दान आय़ॊग और एम् ऒ इ एस कॆ Íवôीय सहय़ॊग से अनॆक बडी बडी पÍरयॊजनाएं Íवभाग क| ऒर सॆ तै यार क|
गई तथा रा8ीय और अंतरा8ीय 9काशन मॆ ं भी यह Íवभाग अ0णी रहा है ।
वत मान वत मान वत मान वत मान सं गॊ8ी सं गॊ8ी सं गॊ8ी सं गॊ8ी के के के के सं बध सं बध सं बध सं बध मॆ ं मॆ ं मॆ ं मॆ ं :
तट|य Hॆ× अcयाÎधक गÎतशील है । तट क| सू+म सॆ सू+म और् नाजूक हलचल सॆ भी तट|य पयावरण 9ÎतHा
पÍरवÎत त हॊता रहता है । समु d सॆ 9भाÍवत गहन चचा कॆ साथ ह| मानवीय ह1तHॆप कॆ Fप मॆ तट|य Îनमा ण काय ,
खनन, पय टन और मनॊरं जन, बंदरगाह कॆ Íवकास और् जहाजी या×ाऒं के कारण समुd पर जॊ दबाव बढता है उसके
अनॆक दु *पÍरणाम दॆ खने कॊ Îमलते है जैसे - समु d कॆ जल 1तर मॆ üुÍZ, मौसमी वषा और् तापमान मॆ बदलाव। और
तट|य Hॆ×ॊ कॆ सामािजक तथा आÎथ क जीवन पर 9भाव। माना जाता है क| जग क| आबाद| का 50% तट|य Hॆ× म
बसता है । अत: इस् Íदशा मॆ बे हतर 9बं धन बुÎनयाद| ढांचा और बे हतर|न यॊजनाऒं के Íवकास क| आव°यकता है ।
इ7ह| अव°यकताओं क| पूत| के Îलयॆ वत मान सं गॊ8ी का आय़ोजन कर महानु भावॊ ं कॊ चचा कॆ Îलयॆ मं च
91तुत Íकया गया है । इस् चचा कॆ दौरान जॊ भी बाते सामने आयॆ ं गी जॊ Îन*कष Îनकल गे उनमे
अनु संधान कर उ7हे सरकार| तथा गैर सरकार| सं गठनॊ सॆ जॊडकर लागू Íकया जाना आव°यक है । िजससे
1थायी Fप से तट|य Hॆ×ॊ ं के 9बं धन कॆ उपाय खॊजे जायॆ ं गे और तट|य Hॆ×ॊ ं मॆ ं उसका लाभ हॊगा। तट|य
पयावरण सुरÍHत रहे गा।
Íवôीय सहायता 9दान करनेवाल| सभी सं1था एवं सघठनाऒ का मै #

दय से आभार| ह

ं । 9बं ध समीती एवं
¯यव1थापक मंडल कॊ भी उनके सहय़ोग के Îलयॆ ध7यवाद ¹याÍपत करता ह

ं ।

डा डा डा डा̆ पी पी पी पी ट| ट| ट| ट| हणमगॊ ं ड हणमगॊ ं ड हणमगॊ ं ड हणमगॊ ं ड
सं यॊजक, भू Íव7ान Íवभाग

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

SEMINAR COMMITTEES
Organising Committee

Patron
Dr.S.K.Saidapur,
Vice-Chancellor, Karnatak University, Dharwad.

President
Shri. R.D.Shanbhag, Chairman, South Konkan Education Society, Belgaum.

Chairman
Prof.(Mrs).M..M.Shanbhag Principal, GSS College, Belgaum.

Co-ordinator
Prof.S.Y.Prabhu, Dept. of Zoology, GSS College, Belgaum.

Organising Secretary
Prof.A.K.Mense, Head, Dept. of Geology, G.S.S.College, Belgaum.

Advisory Committee

Dr.V.C.Chavadi, Retd.Professor, K.U.Dharwad
Dr.Charles W. Finkl, Jr., CERF; Principal Marine Geologist, Coastal Planning & Engineering, USA.
Dr.M.Prithviraj, DST, New Delhi.
Dr.S.A.S.Naqvi, MoES, New Delhi.
Prof. N. Vinod Chandra Menon, NDMA, New Delhi.
Dr.G.N.Nayak, Goa University, Goa.
Dr. Rajiv Nigam, NIO, Goa.
Dr.A.R.Gujar, NIO, Goa.
Dr. D.Mitra, IIRS, Dehradun.
Dr. R.C.Krishnaiah, OASTC, Mangalore.
Dr.K.R.Subrahmanya, Bangalore.
Dr.Victor Rajamanickam, Dean, Shastra, Tamilnadu.
Dr.A.C.Narayana, Central University, Hyderabad.
Dr.R.K.Sukhtankar, Retd. Professor, Pune.
Dr.V.S.Kale, University of Pune, Pune.
Dr.M.Basavanna, Karnatak University, Dharwad.

Convener

Dr.P.T.Hanamgond
Dept. of Geology, G.S.S.College, Belgaum
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

Reception and Registration Committee

Prof. H.G.Patil, Geology Dept. – Chairman
Prof. S.F.Patroti, Botany Dept. - Member
Prof. S. K. Hukkeri, Physics Dept. - Member
Prof. Nagsuresh, Maths Dept –Member
Prof. Ambuja Chitnis, Chemistry Dept- Member
Mr. Praveen Dube, JRF Geology Dept – Member
Mr.Madhu Karande, Geology Dept - Attender

Stage & Entertainment Committee

Prof. U.S.Arlimatti, Dept of English – Chairman
Prof. Anuja Naik – Dept. of English - Member
Prof. Pratibha Naik, Dept. of Zoology – Member
Prof. Pranav Pitre Dept. of Chemistry – Member
Mr. Deepak Adiandra, Res. Asst, Geol Dept - Member
Mr. Jyotiba Ravaluche, Geology Dept – Attender

Catering Committee

Prof. B. L. Majukar, Dept. of Botany – Chairman
Prof. B.M.Topinkatti, Dept. of Physics – Member


Transportation & Accommodation Committee

Prof. A. A. Halgekar, Dept. of Zoology – Chairman
Prof. Shrikant Sambrekar, Dept. of Botany –Member
Mr. Rajesh Hood, JRF Geol Dept. – Member
Mr. Sagar Waghmare – Student member
Mr.Suresh Khot- Student Member
Mr.Anand Nadagoudar – Student Member
Mr.Uttam Banoshi, Biology Dept. - Attender

Accounts
Shri. A. M. Samant.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
CONTENTS
Title of Research Paper with Authors Page
No.
Lead Papers
1. ICZM – Study for Goa Coast
J. DeSouza and G.N.Nayak
13
2. Analysis of Coastal Data using Multivariate Statistical, GIS and Image
Interpretation Techniques
Shrikant Karlekar
14
3. Geo-environmental Study of Hooghly Estuary, Bay of Bengal with Spatial
Emphasis on Port and Harbour using Geo-Informatics
D.Mitra and A. Mukhopadhyay
18
4. Stucturally Controlled Vengurla Port Lighthouse Headland

D I Deendar
19
5. Benthic Foraminifera as indicator of changing environment during last
three decades in Mandovi-Cumbarjua-Zuari estuarine complex, Goa, India
D.H. Shanmukha, R. Panchang, R. Nigam and G.N. Nayak

24
6. Marine Products in Ayurveda and Their Therapeutic Usage
Prasad B S
24
Coastal Dynamics
1. Land use Studies along the Coast from Velanganni to Vedaraniyam,
Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu.
P.Chellapandi., K.Chittibabu., G.Theenadhayalan

and R.Baskaran.
25
2. A Study on the Landforms and Shoreline Changes along the Coast Of
Karikal, Pondicherry
K.Chittibabu., P.Chellapandi., G.Theenadhayalan and R.Baskaran
25
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
3. Coastal changes at Mandve- Rewas, Maharastra, India
Bhagyashree Yargop
26
4. Evolution and major issues of Kudrus in Netravati-Gurpur Estuaries,
Karnataka
K. S. Jayappa., Avinash Kumar and Deepika B
27
5. Phased Beach Protection Works
D. Kudale., S.P.Kulkarni., B.R. Tayade and S.P. Jagtap.
28
6. Morphology and Behaviour of River Mouth Bar in the Outflow Area of
Dabhol Creek on Konkan Coast of Maharashtra
S.N.Karlekar.
29
7. Source And Compositionof Mud At Padle, Konkan Coast Of Maharashrta –
A Geomorphic Study
Manojkumar P.Devne.
30
8. Mineral magnetic properties of beach sands from Vengurla, Aravali and
Redi of Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra, India
P.B.Gawali., N.Basaviah and P.T.Hanamgond.
31
9. Foraminifera, Paleoecology and Neotectonics of the Coastal Sediments of
South Andaman, Andaman Sea, Bay Of Bengal
C.Rajshekhar.
32
10. Morphodynamics of Mirya Bay And Beach At Ratnagiri, Maharashtra
Sunil W.Gaikwad.
33
11. The Study of Sea cliffs and Shore platforms of Kolambe-Golap Plataeu,
Ratnagiri.
S.C. Thakurdesai.
34
12. Coastal Sand Dune System at Tambaldeg (Mithbav) as an Indicator of Sea
Level Fluctuation
Tushar Shitole.
35
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
13. Micro-Time Scale Beach Dynamics Study at Belambar, West Coast, India
M. M. Korakoppa., Chavadi V.C and P. T. Hanamgond.
36
14. Beach Dynamics along Redi Coast, Maharashtra, India.
P. T. Hanamgond.
37
15. Down Hole Variation Of Sediment Texture , Clay Mineralogy And
Geochemistry Of A Box Core SK-72/1, Bengal Deep Sea Fan, Northern
Indian .Ocean
Pradeep Kumar R., Thrivikramanji K.P., and Rafeek P.M.
38
16. Paleomonsoon and its influence on marine environment- A sediment core
study from southwestern continental margin of India
V. Yoganandan, H. Gangadhara Bhat and C. Krishnaiah
39
17. Geo-Morpho-Tectonic Evolution of the Coast between Rajpuri Creek and
Vijaydurga Creek Raigad Ratnagiri- Districts Maharashtra.
P.T. Sawant
39
18. Hydrographic Conditions of Near Shore region off Honnavar and Bhatkal,
Central West Coast of India.
Kanchanagouri,D.Gosavi; Shalini,G., V.S.Hegde., And Tejaswini,B.
40
Applications of Remote Sensing
19. Estuarine accretion erosion by digital image processing-a case study
Hooghly estuary
Anirban Mukhopadhyay., Debasish Mitra and Sugata Hazra.
41
20. Coastal Geomorphologic Study with Multi-Temporal Satellite Data around
Konkan Coast, Maharashtra, India.
Deepmala Nilamwar., D.Mitra and P. T. Hanamgond.
41
21. Tectonically controlled land form development in the coastal region of
Bhatkal and Baindur, Central West Coast of India.
Hegde V.S., Krishnaprasad P.A., Tejaswini,B., Girish, K.H., and
Shalini,G.
42
Coastal Ecosystem and Environment
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
22. A study on communication and technological adaptation in Marine fishing
Sector, West Bengal
Sourav Maity and Sugata Hazra
43
23. Heavy metal concentration in the mullet Mugil cephalus from Karwar
Central West coast of India
Praveen N. Dube and J. L. Rathod
44
24. Heavy metals in the Oyster Crossostrea madrasiensis from Karwar Coast
Central west coast of India
Sameer G.Chebbi and J. L. Rathod
44
25. The Study of Foraminifera Distribution in Savitri River Esturary, Raigad
District, North Konkan Coast, India.
Shaikh N.H.B and Prabhakar P.
45
26. Status of clams, Meritrix meritrix and Paphia malabarica from Aghanashini
estuary, Uttara Kannada, West Coast of India
Praveen N.Dube, and M. David
46
27. Ostracoda as Bio-indicators of Environmental Changes in Modern Seas
A.S.Vaidya
47
28. Biodiversity of Malvan Coast – A note on Preliminary Observations.
Sagar Waghmare, Suresh Khot, Praveen Dube*, Rajesh Hood* and P. T.
Hanamgond**
47
Therapeutically Use of Coastal Resources
29. Therapeutical importance of Marine originates in Ayurveda.
R. S. Hiremath
48
30. Physiological changes in the Human Body by the Coastal Climate (Tidal
Fluctuations)
H.G.Patil.
49
31. Usage of Marine Originates as Medicine in Ayurveda
Poornima Pyati.
49
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
32. Influxes of Sea Water into Venkatapur and Sarbi Rivers and its Impact on
Groundwater Quality, Bhatkal Taluka, Uttar Kannada District, Karnataka
S. M. Didgur and S. C. Puranik
50
33. Eco tourism with special reference to Konkan Coast.
Vandana Ravindran, Smita Patil (UG Students) and S. Y. Prabhu
51
Full Papers
34. Dynamics of Konkan Coast - A Review
Hanamgond P.T.
52
35. Sediment Observations in Muvattupuzha, Kerala, Southwest India
B. K. Purandara
64
36. Prediction of Extreme Storm Surge Level for Mumbai Coast
A. V. Sitarama Sarma and M. D. Kudale
70
37. Dynamic Evolution of the Maharashtra Coast
Milind A., Herlekar and R.K. Sukhtankar.
78
38. Geomorphic Development of River Basins of Konkan Coastal Belt with
Raigad District, Maharashtra, With Respect to Sinuosity Index
P.T. Sawant
84
39. Pharmaceutical Processing Techniques for Marine Originates in Ayurveda
P.G.Jadar
88


National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
ICZM – Study for Goa Coast

J. DeSouza and G.N.Nayak,
Department of Marine Sciences,
Goa University, Goa – 403 206
(nayak1006@rediffmail.com)

Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural
and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level,
cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. And, anthropogenic
pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution,
unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal
ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing
unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human
population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates
economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems.

Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries
world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal
ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19
th
February 1991, has designated specified
corridors along the landward side of the coastline as “Coastal Regulatory Zones” (CRZ), through
appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and
site-specific areas, developed in this study, will be an appraisal document earmarking
permissible and prohibiting activities for coastal communities, stakeholders and resource users.
Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis,
economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific
prescriptions.

The concept of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is based on the general system
theory. It is a holistic and multidisciplinary approach covering the full cycle of information
collection, design of planning, management and implementation. ICZM is an attempt to
understand the coastal areas, their functioning and their problems. It helps us to realize that
coastal areas have to be managed as a broad and extended ecosystem.

Modern tools and techniques namely, Satellite remote sensing, Geographic Information System
(GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) are used in the present study. Based on origin, the
landforms of structural, denudational, fluvial, marine and aeolian have been mapped. Shore line
changes along the coast as well as estuaries have been computed. Further, various coastal
ecosystem of Goa like estuarine, island, rocky, beaches and wetlands – vegetated and non-
vegetated and man made wetlands were mapped. Also marine and coastal resources like living,
non-living and service sector resources have been mapped, quantified and documented.

The Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) has been applied to State of Goa. An approach integrating
landscape, resources, ecosystems along with demographic pressures, tourism, fishery resources
as also stake holders and users, has been attempted. Coastal stretches of Goa have been classified
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

14
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
and earmarked for conservation, preservation, development and utilization, under various CRZ
categories. Permissible and prohibitive activities have also been enlisted. In addition, disaster
and risk prone coastal areas have been identified. Based on the investigations undertaken
appropriate site and area specific location propositions, under the CRZ guidelines, have been
documented, for the State of Goa.

***
Analysis of Coastal Data using Multivariate Statistical, GIS and Image
Interpretation Techniques
Dr. Shrikant Karlekar
Reader and Head, PG Department of Geography,
Sir Parashurambhau College, Tilak Road, Pune
(k_shree3@rediffmail.com)

Considerable amount of data are being presently collected and generated from a variety of
coastal environments in various parts of India. The data collected are plentiful, precise and
represent most of the coastal land facets such as beaches, dunes, tidal inlets, cliffs and shore
platforms. The data base creation is spatial as well as temporal.

At the time when we were trying to edit a special issue on Coastal Zone Management, it was
found that the quantum of data generated is really voluminous, but it is scattered, non coherent,
heterogeneous and piecemeal that needs proper integration and analysis. In case of Konkan coast
of Maharashtra, the creation of coastal data base is very poor as compared to other states. Our
effort to increase and enrich the data base for coastal Maharashtra has definitely helped in
knowing the nature of coastal environments along this coast in a better way.

For last few years we are creating, generating and widening the data base for this coast by using
conventional and modern techniques. They include the techniques such as profile leveling, water
and sediment sampling, litho section and stratigraphic studies, drift and current measurements,
subsurface sampling and georeferencing by GPS.

It appears that the data from the coastal environments in India in general lacks proper analytical
treatment making it less useful in decision making process in management practices. Many
multivariate statistical, mathematical and GIS techniques can be effectively applied to coastal
data and more accurate and meaningful knowledge of coastal processes and landforms can be
acquired. Attempts were made to apply such techniques to data collected on Konkan coast of
Maharashtra. The results of application are quite promising especially in terms of our
understanding of processes and landforms on this coast.

Following techniques were found more applicable in the analysis of coastal data.
1. Discriminant analysis
2. Trend surface analysis
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

15
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
3. Harmonic analysis
4. Directional derivatives
5. Satellite image analysis
6. GIS modeling

Discriminant analysis is a powerful multivariate statistical technique by which the samples are
discriminated into groups on the basis of measured variables. The samples are as far as possible
homogeneous and distinct from each other. The number of groups in a discriminant function is
set prior to the analysis on the basis of a dummy variable. In a coastal scenario various
sedimentary deposits require discrimination in distinct groups. The technique was applied to
discriminate the beach and dune sediments from the samples collected in beach dune
environment. The fossil deposits of dune and beach origin could also be discriminated.

The regional trends and local anomalies in the data collected in a two dimensional space are
determined by trend surface analysis. The linear and higher order quadratic and cubic trend
surfaces proved most appropriate in the analysis of data related to inter tidal and sub tidal flats,
pattern of pools developed on shore platforms and trends in the elevation of embryo, fore and
back dunes in a dune system.

A time series coastal data representing a truly periodic phenomenon such as quantum of
seasonal beach erosion, monsoonal growth of sediment plumes in the outflow areas of tidal
creeks and tidal fluctuations are best analysed by applying harmonic analysis. The technique is
used to decompose the series into various component parts.

The directional derivatives of first and second order were attempted to understand the
complexity in the morphology of estuarine bed forms. Bed contours on the hydrographic charts
of certain creeks were used to obtain their gridded surfaces.

Sounding datum in Indian hydrographic charts coincides with the local leveling datum with
reference to a bench mark. The mean sea level is also provided. Using level datum and mean sea
level the depths were reduced to constant level and used as Z in X, Y Z domain.

The depth values on the hydrographic charts after reducing to datum level were digitized and
gridded using GIS software. The directional derivatives were obtained and surfaces created using
same software. The hydrographic charts for Dabhol, Kajali, Mithbav, Anjarle and Karli creeks
and estuaries were used to calculate directional derivatives based on depth contours.

The contour map of any form gives a clear idea about its geometry. If these contours are gridded
in an X, Y, Z domain, at the location of each node, magnitude and direction of the steepest slope
can be calculated to generate its slope map. The result is based on the direction of the general
gradient. The directional derivative of the contours calculates rate of change of slope along a
predetermined direction. The result is a contour map that shows isolines of constant slope along
this direction. The rate of change of slope along predetermined direction is obviously zero. The
rate of change of slope is reported as rise over run and approaches negative or positive infinity as
it approaches vertical in a downhill or uphill direction. The rate is positive in uphill direction and
negative in downhill direction. First directional derivatives can be obtained along various
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

16
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
predetermined lines. Second derivatives produce contour maps that show isolines of rate of
change of slope across the surface.

The technique of satellite image enhancement and interpretation can be used very effectively
in the mapping of placer deposits, on the beaches, dunes and creeks, covered by ilmenite black
sand.

To obtain exact limits of the various pockets of ilmenite deposits on beaches and creeks on
Konkan coast , technique of image analysis was used. The IRS ID LISS III Pan Point Geocoded
image of the study area was transformed by using HLS color algorithm. The trace contour
technique was then employed and a series of binary feature maps were prepared indicating
presence of a particular feature. Low pass filter was used to remove the sharp edges and
unwanted information, leaving smooth gradients and low frequency details.

Gray tone variations of the beach sediments could be used to differentiate ilmenite in the beach
sand. Light minerals in the beach sands show white tone and the proportion of heavies increases
the tone that changes dark gray to black. It was concluded from the analysis that the littoral
assemblages of heavy minerals are best developed along coastal areas where sediment budget is
low. It indicated presence of placer deposits on the beaches, dunes and inlets in the study area at
specific locations. The river mouths in the study area, although tidal, are moderately deep to
shallow and do not restrict the movement of sediment to the sea. There is an unrestricted flow of
heavy minerals derived from the hinterland to the sea. The image analysis technique helped in
drawing exact limits, a thing that is usually difficult to achieve by the conventional field
methods.

For many reasons, it is often difficult to demarcate and interpret the coastal environments due to
complexity of shoreline processes. The waves, the tides and the currents shape the near shore
zone over the years and even nearby places on the coast exhibit marked variations.

The visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images is being used as a most
suitable and helpful technique to overcome the relative difficulty of subject matter. However
there are several limitations to such interpretations and the information gathered can be scanty
and subjective.

“Computer assisted image analysis” is a part of broader information revolution and can be
convincingly and effectively used in the study of coastal environments. The major goal of this
technique is to generate knowledge about the processes influencing the development of a variety
of features in the near shore areas. The computer assisted image analysis has a great potential in
generating more meaningful data necessary for coastal studies.

An 8 bit, gray scale image of Kolthare beach was used to demonstrate the technique. The image
was subjected to specific image analysis options. The image was first edited in its original mode
as the color conversion process can result in a loss of color information. The image tone was
adjusted by using “Gamma correction mode”. The terrain details could be easily picked out by
adjusting gamma in a low contrast image. Other options which were used to adjust the tone to
recognize various features included tonal curve, level equalization and brightness contrast. Level
equalization for the image, splitted in “Lab” separation was more useful as it helped in clearly
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

17
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
demarcating the beach, tidal channel, terrace, settlement and hill slopes. Lab color mode is based
on two chromatic components and hence was found to be more effective in the coastal
environment. Ground truthing can be carried out to ascertain the identification of various features
and environments identified by ‘Gamma correction and Trace contour’ mode.

Many morphodynamic models of coastal landforms simulate the coast in only two dimensions.
However it is now a well known fact that the form and process in the coastal environment
operates in 3 dimensions. To monitor and model the coastal process in 3 D still remains a
challenge to coastal Geomorphologist.

There are many computational constraints on creating 3 D models. They require more
computational time. Such models can be however developed now by using 3D generating GIS
softwares. Cell based simulations of various processes are also possible using 3D GIS.

A series of studies were undertaken at the mouth of river Banganga in Thane district of
Maharashtra. The area is locally known as Ucheli Creek. The overall morphology is simple. The
river discharges through the creek whose southern bank is bordered by a spit and a terrace. The
complex interplay of waves, currents and tides through the river mouth with monsoon and pre
and post monsoon season variations has produced a 3D system of shoals and bars in the creek.
The sedimentation pattern was found to change seasonally, which influences the formation of
sand bars and lenses inside the creek. Preliminary modeling of processes in 3D provided
considerable insight into the pattern of sedimentation and development of bars.The
sedimentation pattern of creeks, estuaries and tidal inlets in Konkan is still not perfectly
understood. 3D modeling of the creek processes discussed here may enable to deduce
generalizations and develop insights into the coastal processes.

GIS softwares can also be used to make specific queries to obtain the delineation of major
regions of dune systems. Initially the vector maps of different variables used for identification of
regions are converted to their raster formats. Using ‘AND’ as a logical Boolean operator in raster
environment various regions can be easily obtained. There are many sand dune systems on
Konkan coast. These systems are very complex in terms of their elevation, extent, moisture
content and vegetation cover. The dunes in the systems could not be classified in fore dunes and
back dunes just on the basis of their distance inland. The boundaries suggested by GIS overlay of
different variables give clear idea of the extent of fore dunes, interdunal areas and back dunes.

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

18
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Geo-environmental Study of Hooghly Estuary, Bay of Bengal with Spatial
Emphasis on Port and Harbour using Geo-Informatics
D.Mitra and A. Mukhopadhyay
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (NRSA)
Kalidas Road, Dehradun
(mitra@iirs.gov.in)

ABSTRACT

Hooghly estuary is very dynamic estuary not only in the sense of its ever changing
geomorphological characteristics but also for its other physical and chemical parameters. The
physicochemical parameters of the estuarine water suffer from huge distinguishable changes in
three main season pre monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon. This estuary has immense of
importance in ecological sense as well as in economic sense also because the maximum shipping
passages of the two main and only ports of north east India namely Kolkata and Haldia are
situated within this estuary. For maintaining these passages and searching for places suitable for
new port construction to maintain the increasing industrial and economical needs Geo-
environmental study of the estuary is very necessary. In this study the geomorphological changes
of the estuary has been studied using multi-temporal satellite images. The study reveals that the
main problem of the estuary is deposition .several new shoals have came out within a few years
which is hampering the shipping channels. For the study of the estuarine water comparative
spatial distribution map of the physicochemical parameters has been produced from the analyzed
data from 2003 to 2007. It has been identified though there is huge changes of these parameters
in pre monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoonal season the overall distribution of these
parameters throughout these years has not been changed so much, Bathymetry of the estuary has
been studied with interpellation techniques from the depth soundings collected from the
hydrographical survey using DGPS and HYPAC Software. For hydrodynamic characteristics
mathematical model study has been made where the main inputs were cross sections, discharge,
cubic capacity, flood and ebb current etc. And finally to select a place to establish a new port site
the bathymetry, current pattern, land-use land cover, road railway network, cyclone track, soil
map, earth quake probability etc were incorporated in GIS environment and final weighted map
showing the main two locations (Sagar and Namkhana) has been produced.

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

19
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Stucturally Controlled Vengurla Port Lighthouse Headland
D I Deendar
46 Watve Estate Mandoli Road
Belgaum 590008
deendad@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT

The geology of Vengurla Port Lighthouse headland, presents Dharwarian lithology in all its
complexity. The trend of the headland is East-West in the West and veers to
NE-SW towards East. It jets into the Arabian Sea forming a great escarpment.
This headland is drained by two westerly flowing streams. One on the northern side (Dhaboli)
and the other on the southern side of the headland (Vengurla). Both the streams drain into the
Arabian Sea. The granites are exposed at the foothills. The granites show intense shearing,
fracturing and brecciation. The intense fracturing and slickensides are prominently seen on the
Northern as well as the southern portions of the headland. The headland slopes towards east and
imperceptibly merges into a valley. The vertical as well as lateral displacement of the
Dharwarian rocks forming the Lighthouse Headland is due to faulting. The two fault zones on
either sides of the headland are weak zones. The streams find an ideal drainage course along the
two faults. The formation of the escarpment in the west, a valley in alignment with it in the east
is linked to the same phenomenon. These two features indicate intense structural movement. The
drainage pattern of the streams, the formation of the Vengurla port Lighthouse Headland and
the valley are controlled by faulting.
Introduction
Vengurla port Headland is located between Latitude 15° 50'and 16° 25' N and longitude 73° 27'
and 73° 45' E. It is part of Sindhudurg district (erstwhile Ratnagiri dist) Maharashtra (Figure 1).
Vengurla port is a natural harbor. Mercantile from Bidar, Bijapur, Gulbarga and Raichur were
shipped out from this port until recently. Vengurla was and is commercially and culturally
linked to north Karnataka particularly Belgaum.
Previous Work: Cursory Geological investigations were carried out since 1871 to 1956
(Wilkinson 1871, Foote 1876, Fermor 1909, 1915; Fox 1923; and Deshpande 1937). Iyer (1939)
recognizes metamorphosed rocks of Archean age. Kelkar (1956 ) gives an account of Geology of
this area.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

20
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Lithology and order of superposition at Vengurla Port headland (hill):
Laterite
Vitrophyric Basalts
Granite
Garnetiferrous Zone in Schist.
Schists
The schistose rocks are the oldest. They include zones of garnets. At least four vitrophyric
intrusives comprising a thickness of 2 3 ft and running at right angles to the shoreline for 20-30ft
are noticable at low tides. The schists are exposed at the foothills almost on the shoreline below
the headland. The general strike direction is NNW-SSE with a steep northeasterly dip, which is
inconformity with Dharwarian general strike direction. The maximum height of the headland is
260 ft. The schistose rocks are succeeded by granites and are exposed in the headland till a
height of ~100 ft above the schistose rocks. The laterites cover the major part of the top portion
of the headland.
Structural Geology
Structural disturbances are seen in Granites at the Port hill (headland) in the northern and
southern parts. Granites dominantly possess ruptural features (Figure 2). The rocks are sheared,
fractured and faulted in various directions. Some of the shears are parallel to the coast and are
very frequent. At some places lineation and foliation are noticeable. The trend of foliation is
N50°W- S50°E, with a high angle easterly dip.
Strike Slip Fault at the base of the port (hill) headland
These are developed at two places viz., the Vengurla port (southern side) and at the northern end
of the headland (Dhaboli). Streams flow along the southern and northern parts of the foothills.
The study reveals that the sheared and fractured zones coincide withfaults.
The fault zone at Vengurla Port has major shearing directions in N 60° W S 60° E and N65°W
S65°E. In absence of the key bed, the fault is construed as a strike slip fault based on shearing
directions (Figure 3). The shear directions are parallel to the general strike directions of the
formations. This fact is interpreted as strike slip fault.
Strike Slip Fault of north of Lighthouse hill
The granites at the foothill have extensively developed slicken-sided surfaces (Figure 4) and the
Dabholi stream along the Granites joining the Arabian Sea. It has a near E-W flow direction
which is characteristically aligned along slicken-sided surfaces of granites. The direction of the
striation on the slicken-sided surface of granites have N60°W S60°E trend with a plunge of 30°
due north. The movement along the fault plane is nearly in the strike direction. The fault
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

21
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
occupied by the Dabholi stream is strikeslip fault. This is supported by the presence of fault
breccia, shear zone and trapshotten phenomena?
The two strike slip faults, one in the northern base and the other in the southern base of the port
headland are associated with the translatory movement of the headland. The headland indicates
vertical movement forming an escarpment and cliff at the western extent. In the eastern region
the hill slopes into a valley. This structural feature of two parallel strike slip faults and the
upward movement of the rocks may be inferred as a Ridge fault with an easterly pitch. The
valley is aligned with the Headland and may be a rift valley. The height of the ridge (headland)
in the West and the approximate depth of the valley in the East are inversely proportional. The
displacement maybe about 80-100ft.
Conclusion
The two Strike slip faults, the flow directions of the two streams, shearing, fracturing and
presence of slickensides and the formation of the Ridge of the Port Headland are major
structural features of the Vengural Port Hill geology.
The coastal erosion may be active along the shore, wherever fault zones similar to ones described
above are present.
Acknowledgement
The author is grateful to the U.G.C for a fellowship awarded to carry out Ph.D research (1978-
81). The strike slip faults of Vengurla were studied and inferred during this period. The author is
indebted to Dr.N.W Gokhale, Supervisor and guide for Ph.D.
The interpretation of the ridge fault and the rift valley was subsequently inferred by the author
during field studies with graduate students. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance
given by the Principal of the S.K.E society's G.S.Sc College.
The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance rendered by Dr. P.T Hanamgond in
preparation of this paper.
References
D.I Deendar, 1982. Geology of Vengurla Area , Ratnagiri Dist Maharashtra State Unpublished
Ph.D thesis. Karnatak University, Dharwad, 155 p.
Holmes's Principles of Physical Geology (1976) p 678 Mcl.Duff.
Marland P.Billings, 1977. Structural Geology (Second Edition- Asia Publishing House, New
Delhi).
Hobbs B. E., Means W. D., and Williams P. F., 1976. An outline of structural geology. (John
Wiley & Sons, Newyork). 296 p.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).











Figure 1. Location Map of the Area (Courtesy: Satellite Image by Google Earth)












Figure 2. Geological Map of Vengurla Port Headland.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).











Figure 3. Field photograph showing fractures in Granite.











Figure 4. Field photograph showing Slickensides in Granite.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

24
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Benthic Foraminifera as indicator of changing environment during last three
decades in Mandovi-Cumbarjua-Zuari estuarine complex, Goa, India

D.H. Shanmukha
1
, R. Panchang
1
, R. Nigam
1
and G.N. Nayak
2
1
Micropaleontology Lab, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403004, India
(nigam@nio.org)
2
Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Goa- 403206, India
(gnnayak@unigoa.ac.in)

ABSTRACT

In Goa, on the west coast of India, the rivers Mandovi and Zuari, connected via the Cumbarjua
Canal, having large scale mining activities in their catchment areas, form an ecologically
sensitive estuarine complex. This gave us an opportunity to study the ecosystem with reference
to the effect of mining on foraminifera (marine micro organism). The present study was aimed at
determining the current distribution of foraminifera and comparing it with the previous report on
distribution in 1972. This would help us to estimate the changes, if any in environment over
nearly 30 years. We collected sediment samples from many locations in both the estuaries and
also along the the stretch of the canal and analyzed them for foraminiferal content. The results
obtained by comparing the present data with the previous study show that in Cumburjua canal,
the range of foraminiferal number (in 1 gram of sand fraction of the sediments) have increased
from 40-200 in 1972 to 168-9000 in 2006 in this canal over the years. Although the trend is
similar to that seen before i.e. decreasing from south to north, the Foraminiferal numbers
(abundance) have increased considerably during this period. The total number of foraminiferal
species (diversity) also show increase during this period. This indicates improved environmental
conditions for foraminifera to flourish and therefore decreasing effects of mining in the region.
When viewed with reference to our previous studies on foraminifera from Mandovi and Zuari
estuaries with same methodology, it is concluded that adverse effects of mining during last three
decades decreased in Zuari estuary with connecting Cumbarjua Canal and increased in Mandovi
estuary. This change in scenario is attributed to change in mining activities from South Goa
[catchment of Zuari] to North Goa [catchment of Mandovi].

***
Marine Products in Ayurveda and Their Therapeutic Usage

Prasad B S
Principal
KLE’s BMK Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya
Belgaum, Karnataka

ABSTRACT

Human body is a miniature of universe. How many structural entities are present in the universe
those many are present in the human body. Everything in the universe is made up of
panchamahabhuta. After knowing these principles and understanding the nature well ayurveda
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
identified the medicinal properties of all the natural products. Staring from leaves of plants up to
highly toxic materials including metals, minerals, animal origin products etc. are all included in
material medica of ayurveda. A list of marine products are described in detail in respect to their
availability, processing and therapeutic usage. Sudhavarga is one such group where most of the
drugs are marine origin. Though most of these drugs have CaCo
3
as chemical composition
therapeutically the drugs are indicated for varied clinical conditions such as hyperacidity, cardiac
disorders, expectorant, ophthalmic conditions, anti spasmodic etc. Also few of them are indicated
as medhya (intellect promoting property), vrishya (aphrodisiac) and sukrasodhaka (correction of
reproductive tissue).
***
Land use Studies along the Coast from Velanganni to Vedaraniyam,
Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu.
P.Chellapandi
1
, K.Chittibabu
1
, G.Theenadhayalan
2
and R.Baskaran
2
1
Department of Geology, National College, Trichy-620 001.
2
Department of Earth Sciences, Tamil university, Thanjavur-613 010.
(baskaranrajagopalan@yahoo.co.in)
ABSTRACT

The Study area from Velanganni to vedaraniyam along the coast of Nagapattinam District,
Tamilnadu, Was one of the Worst affected by the Tsunami on 24 December 2004, inundation
mapping was than the area RTK GPS with help of toposheet, cadastral maps and post tsunami
satellite imageries. The landuse/Land cover details were studied. The changes in coastal
landforms and the present landuse pattern were all so studied.
***
A Study on the Landforms and Shoreline Changes along the Coast Of
Karikal, Pondicherry
K.Chittibabu
1
, P.Chellapandi
1
, G.Theenadhayalan
2
and R.Baskaran
2

1
Department of Geology, National College, Trichy-620 001
2
Department of Earth Sciences, Tamil University, Thanjavur-613 010
(baskaranrajagopalan@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT
The study area represented in the toposheet 58N/9 and N/13 spread between North latitude
10.55’ and Longitudes 79° 49' of Pondicherry had been one of the most affected places due to
Tsunami of Dec.2004. The coastal landforms and shoreline changes between the said locations
namely from Thiruvettakudi to Vanjoor were interpreted by studying the relevant toposheets and
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

26
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
the Post Tsunami Satellite Imagery namely IRS P6 LISS 3 data. The morphological features and
the changes due to Tsunami are presented.
***
Coastal changes at Mandve- Rewas, Maharastra, India
Bhagyashree Yargop
Tilak Maharashtra University,
Gultekdi, Pune – 37
(bmyargop@yahoo.com)
ABSTRACT

The investigated area lies in the Raigad district of Maharashtra forming a part of northern
Konkan. The coastal changes have been studied between 1990-1994. The study area is drained
by the Dharamtar creek, which is supplied with sediments by three rivers - Amba, Karanja, and
Patalganga. It is observed that the sedimentation on the beach is the result of deposition of
sediments brought by these rivers. The significant deposition was responsible for the
development of about 30-35cms thick beach (mainly mud) at Rewas. The occurrence of wide
mudflats and rich growth of mangroves occupying these mudflats is mainly due to this
deposition.

Further, it is observed that, the mud was exposed throughout the year, however, with a thin sandy
cover on the beach during monsoon.

The study area was revisited in 2007-08, which showed that, there was a significant change
along the coastline, especially the occurrence of mud and its extent with good thickness. Today
the mud can hardly be seen exposed on the beach, probably it must have underlying the beach
sand. Further, it is observed that- a) the occurrence of mud is within the protected areas between
Yelawane and Mandve that has probably shifted the earlier location; b) erosion accretion patterns
are recognized clearly. The northern end of the study area has distinctly experienced erosion
while the southern end has experienced deposition.

The present paper is an effort to show the observed trends and discuss the processes of coastal
change.
***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

27
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Evolution and major issues of Kudrus in Netravati-Gurpur
Estuaries, Karnataka
K. S. Jayappa, Avinash Kumar and Deepika B
Department of Marine Geology, Mangalore University
Mangalagangotri - 574 199, Karnataka
(ksjayappa@yahoo.com; kumaravinash13@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Naturally formed, relatively stable and inhabited islands in the estuarine environment are called
kudrus. There are about fifty kudrus in various estuaries of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi
districts. These are being very fertile, the local community found them suitable for agriculture,
aquaculture, fishing and other activities and hence large number of people is living on them
depending on their size and facilities available.

There are six kudrus in Netravati-Gurpur estuaries namely - Adam, Gatti, Pavuru Uliya, Nayar,
Nadu and Bavali. Number of population occupied on these kudrus varies from 20 to 500. The
main occupations of these people are: agriculture (mainly paddy, coconut and sugarcane
cultivation), sand mining, fishing, beedi making and extraction of lime shells.

Origin, evolutionary changes during the last 40 years, facilities available and problems faced by
the occupants have been studied in detail. Some of them are very dynamic and changing
morphologically due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Changes with respect to their areal
extent, direction and rate at which they have shifted have been quantified using RS and GIS
techniques with ground truth verifications.
***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

28
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Phased Beach Protection Works

M. D. Kudale S.P.Kulkarni B.R. Tayade S.P. Jagtap
Chief Research Officer Research Officer Research Officer Research Assistant

Central Water and Power Research Station
Khadakwasla, Pune-411 024, India
Fax: 91-20-24381004
(wapis@cwprs.gov.in, kudale_md@yahoo.co.in)
ABSTRACT

A beach at Tarkarli near Malvan is one of the beautiful beaches in Sindhudurg district in Konkan
having large tourism potential. The shore as well as the existing beach at Tarkarli were severely
eroded due to higher wave action during the monsoon for the last couple of years. The beach is
of vital importance for the tourism purposes since many tourists from the country as well as from
the abroad visit the beach throughout the year. The beach resort is located just adjacent to the
eroding shoreline. The common methods adopted for coastal protection in India are to provide
rubblemound structures with suitable stones in the armour and the toe. However, a different
approach using geotubes as well as revetment is suggested for the protection of beach and the
shoreline at Tarkarli.

The present paper describes the studies for the design of shore/beach protection works for
preventing the further erosion near the shore and to protect the beach near the existing resort at
Tarkarli. The design for the shore/beach protection work was evolved in two phases, based on
the existing site conditions. In first phase, a soft solution with sand filled geotubes in the form of
detached offshore-submerged reefs would be provided near the low tide line for reducing the
wave action on the shore and to hold the accumulated sand on the beach. This work was
proposed to be completed in the first phase as the permanent revetment structure may require
longer time for its completion. These offshore reefs are provided in a segment of 40 m length
with a gap of about 10 m left between the two segments for facilitating the tourist activities over
the beach even at the Low Water Level. These submerged reefs would arrest the sand deposited
on the beach due to onshore offshore movement of the sand. In the second phase, a revetment
type seawall structure near the high tide line consisting of gabions neatly packed with octagonal
plain cement concrete blocks has been recommended. The concrete blocks are hollow, provided
with openings at the centre for dissipating the wave energy. It is designed as a permanent
solution for mitigating the shoreline erosion near the resort and also for maintaining the
aesthetics of the beach. Also, this would not obstruct the activities over the beach.

The details of the studies carried out for protecting the shore/beach at Tarkarli are described in
the paper.

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

29
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Morphology and Behaviour of River Mouth Bar in the Outflow Area of
Dabhol Creek on Konkan Coast of Maharashtra
S.N.Karlekar
Reader and Head, P.G.Department of Geography and Research Center,
Sir Parashurambhau College, Pune 411030
(k_shree3@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT
There are large accumulated sediment bodies within or just outside many of the world's river
mouths. Such bodies of accumulated sediment are called river mouth bars. Majority of these bars
is formed when the river enters the sea. Supply of fluvial sediment throughout the year and its
non-removal by the waves and tides from the inlet are most important factors that determine the
development of sandbars near the entrance of tidal mouths. The sea waves, tidal currents, sea
level fluctuations, river discharge, sediments and shoreline configuration determine the
morphology and formation of river mouth bars
The outflow area of many of the major and minor creeks and tidal inlets on Konkan coast of
Maharashtra show such bars and sand bodies. A big sand bar, about 2 km long and 1.3 km wide
exists at the entrance of a creek 2.5 km away in the outflow area of river Vashishthi near Dabhol
on this coast. The bar is a permanent feature and keeps drifting throughout the year in the limited
nearshore area. A narrow, 6 m deep channel remains open near the southern bank of creek just
close to the entrance. The average depth of the bar is 3 m below the sea surface.
This work presents the observations on the morphology and behaviour of this sedimentary body
in the outflow area of the river. The study includes identification of trends in the yearly shift of
sandbar since 1969, variation in its orientation and change in the minimum depth above the bar.
A detailed mapping of the bar configuration and yearly change in the configuration as well as its
area extent forms a major part of the work. The technique of GIS is used in the final analysis of
the bar leading to its significance as an indicator of fluctuating sea level and sediment supply to
the outflow area of the creek.
***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

30
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Source And Compositionof Mud At Padle,
Konkan Coast of Maharashrta – A Geomorphic Study

Manojkumar P.Devne
Sydenham College Of Commerce And Economics, Mumbai
(manojdevne@hotmail.com)
ABSTRACT
Mud occurrence along the Konkan coast of Maharashtra is a recent incidence. The source of the
mud, in many cases, can be traced directly to the nearby rivers although that is not the only
source as the coastal configuration and wave climate of the region also play an important role in
mud deposition on the beaches.
Mud can be deposited in a number of different coastal settings. Many a times a combination of
coastal processes would be required for the existence of mud patches and formation of mud balls,
on beaches. The mud patches are not fixed and rigid and they keep on moving seasonally.
Occurrence of mud on the beach at Padle seems to be a seasonal phenomenon during the
monsoons only. This mud, in all possibilities is brought from inland erosion through the
adjoining creeks. Once it is brought to the mouth of the creek, it moves under the influence of the
littoral drift. Though seasonal, the occurrence of mud is not a yearly phenomenon indicating
peculiar conditions responsible for the transportation of this mud.
This mud tends to accumulate in a protected area around the southern headland. A large portion
of the accumulated mud eventually roles up into ‘mud balls’ and other chunks and chips etc.
The samples collected in different years were analysed by Infra red spectroscopy. They show the
occurrence of three major clay minerals namely; Kaolinite, Illemanite, and Montmorillonite.
There are bands of absorptions which show mixed layers of minerals. Further interpretation of
the curves shows the presence of external water and organic matter as well.
The results are also used to get the idea about the probable source of the mud.
***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

31
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Mineral magnetic properties of beach sands from Vengurla, Aravali and Redi
of Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra, India
P.B.Gawali, N.Basaviah and P.T.Hanamgond*
Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
*Department of Geology, GSS College, Tilakwadi, Belgaum – 590 006
(pravin@iig.iigm.res.in, prachoo99@yahoo.co.in)
ABSTRACT
Magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence are used to characterize the effects of
magnetic concentration and magnetic grain size in the beach sands of Vengurla, Aravali and
Redi to understand their spatial and seasonal variation. Susceptibility values at all stations of
Vengurla and Redi beaches may probably be controlled by titanomagnetite and titanohaematite,
while the dominance of antiferromagnetic minerals such as haematite and haemoilmenite is
found at Aravali and Redi beaches.
The concentration of magnetic minerals at all the beaches is more in monsoon (MON); same or
less during premonsoon (PRM) and postmonsoon (POM), except stations (stns) 16 and 17. Here
the concentration of magnetic minerals is more in POM than MON or PRM. Stns 3 to 7
(Vengurla beach) and stns 8 to 14 (Aravali beach) are characterized by low concentration of
magnetic minerals, but have an overwhelming presence of non-magnetic minerals. Overall the
concentration of magnetic minerals is more at the northern and southern ends of Vengurla and
Redi beaches respectively where their accumulation seems to be a function of shoreline
geometry and wave energy. Provenance of magnetic minerals is Deccan traps and residual
deposits.
Magnetic grain size at stns 1 and 2 (Vengurla beach) becomes coarse to fine landwards
characterized by relative increase of SP grains towards land. Stns 3 to 15 comprise fine grained
magnetic minerals. Stns 4, 5 and 6 (Vengurla beach); stn 14 (Aravali beach); and 15 (Redi
beach) exhibit antiferromagnetic minerals like haematite and/or haemoilmenite.
The study demonstrates magnetic susceptibility and its frequency-dependence provides detailed
and robust interpretation of sediment movement, characterization of magnetic lithology and its
grain size, in a rapid and inexpensive way.
***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

32
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Foraminifera, Paleoecology and Neotectonics of the Coastal Sediments of
South Andaman, Andaman Sea, Bay of Bengal
C. Rajshekhar
Paleobiology Group,A.R.I.
G.G.Agarkar Road,Pune 411004
(c_rajshekhar@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT
The late Holocene beach sediments of south Andaman Island are very significant as these are
associated with tectonically active zone, coral reef environment and 2004 Tsunami episode. The
beach sediments mainly comprised of beach sand, sands from raised beaches, beach rock and
clays associated with mangroves. The west coast of South Andaman is of prograding character
and have yielded foraminifera commonly. The frequency and the diversity of foraminifera are
low and are represented by species of Amphistegina,Amphisorus,Borelis,Peneroplis,
Cymbaloporetta and Calcarina reefoidal affinity ..
The beach rocks are another important constituent of the south Andaman as their occurrences are
associated with former strand lines. These rocks have foraminiferal composition very much
similar to that of beach sand. The 14c dates of the beach rocks range from 1681 yrs B.P.
(calibrated) to 6475 yrs.B.P( caliberatd).The youngest beach rocks occur at Wandoor of south
Andaman and the oldest is located on the west coast of Neil Island of Ritchie’s Archipelago. In
addition their elevational differences ranges from intertidal to 8m above the high tide line and
thus suggesting the neotectonic activity in this part of the Andaman archipelago.
The clays associated with the mangroves of the south Andaman is completely madeup of
agglutinated foraminifera and are represented by species of Trochammina and Milammina.
Trochammina inflata shows its dominance.Further the foraminiferal analyses reveals that there is
no marked change in the foraminiferal composition between the high and low tide lines and
hence not worth of intertidal zonation. It may be mentioned here that the recent tsunami has
tilted the west coast of south Andaman to about 1m and consequently a major coastal tract is
submerged. This might be one of the reasons effecting the distribution of intertidal foraminifera
along the south Andaman coast.
***

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

33
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Morphodynamics of Mirya Bay and Beach at Ratnagiri, Maharashtra

Sunil W.Gaikwad

Reader in Geography,S.P.College,Depat of Geography Pune -30
(gaikwad97@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The problem of beach erosion and siltation at Mirya in Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra (India)
is a very distinct case of disturbance of beach ecosystem due to unintentional human
interference. The problem is of major concern from many viewpoints.

Geo-environment of the area was studied for a period of last 45 years, based on the available
information and field visits. Field data in connection with near shore hydraulic conditions,
circulation pattern and processes of sediment transport was collected from 1989 to 1992, 1996,
2000,2006 & 2007and the geoenvironmental map showing various areas of siltation, erosion,
dune and beach vegetation, cusps and other related features were prepared in the field in 1989,
1990, 1991 & 1992,1996,2006 & 2007.

The wave induced currents; long shore currents and rip currents were observed and studied by
using Rhodamin-B dye as a tracer material. The direction and the velocity of long shore currents
were given more importance since they play a very important role in the movement of sediments
along the shore.

Recently high-resolution image of the study area procured from Google Earth pro also infers net
change in morph dynamics of Mirya beach. However Data on bay configuration has been
obtained from Marine Geosciences Data System, Global multi resolution synthesis (GMRT) and
Smith and Sand well marine data (multi beam data for shallow water, year 2001and 2005)
available in Geo applet also ascertains considerable change in bathymetry of the Mirya bay.

The Geoenvironment of the study region is fast changing, especially after the construction of
jetties and breakwater walls in the fishing harbour area to the south. Year 1972 was considered
as a demarcating year, since the construction of commercial harbour commenced in 1972.

Present study mainly attempts to correlate the stages in the development of Mirkarwada harbour
and morphodynamics of Mirya bay and beach using remote sensing and GIS. It has been
observed that, The trend of erosion of beach to the north of Bhati Mirya and siltation to the south
of Bhati Mirya established before 1972, continued for the next 13 years between 1972 and
1985.By the end of 1985, '0' metre contour advanced considerably between Jaki Mirya and Bhati
Mirya and consequently receded in the sheltered area to the south of Bhati Mirya. By the end of
1987, the northern beach became the scene of erosion and southern beach became the area of
heavy siltation. The intensity of erosion at Jaki Mirya after 1987 is reflected in definite
morphological and sedimentological changes.

High sediment influx in the Mirkarwada harbour is responsible for complete siltation of the
harbour and presently as ascertained in 2006 and 2007. The Bhagwati harbour area is silting at
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

34
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
an alarming rate. Beach stretch about 2.30 km from northern end of the beach to south of Bhati
Mirya exhibits considerable erosion. The average width of the beach remained to vary between
35 to 44.3 m.

***
The Study of Sea cliffs and Shore platforms of
Kolambe-Golap Plataeu, Ratnagiri.

S.C. Thakurdesai
P.G.Department of Geography
Gogate-Jogalekar College, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra

ABSTRACT

It is estimated that sea cliffs are present along 80% of the world’s oceanic coast. This is true for
the South Konkan coast also.
Sea cliffs in the study area show similarity in exposed Litho sections. The typical sequence from
top to bottom begins with lateritic cap at the top. This is followed by weathered zone usually
referred to as lithomarge. This is covered by material brought from the overland wash. Below the
lithomarge lies the basal rock that continues as a parent rock.
The height of the cliff varies from 25m to 38m in this area. Higher cliffs are usually found in mid
sections away from the bays or creeks. Along the landward edges of the beaches or creeks the
height of cliffs decreases. All the three segments show proportionate increase or decrease in their
height. Highest cliff segment is to the south of village Kasop having a height of 38m. Similarly
high cliffs are also seen near Mervi along Purnagad plateau. Low cliffs are seen near the mouth
of Purnagad creek with a height 24.5m. Near the mouth of Pawas creek the height is 25m. South
of Waingani beach it is 23.5m while north of Kasop it is 25m.
The upper lateritic crust is relatively thinner. It varies from 3 to 7 meters. Narrow headlands like
Ganeshgule (South), have thinner cap of only 3 meters. In the mid sections where the plateau
edge extends right upto the coast the lateritic cap remains intact. Its thickness in this sections is
as high as 7m (south of Kasop on Kolambe plateau) and 6m near Mervi along Purnagad plateau.
Similarly the thickness of middle weathered section also varies considerably. It is thickest near
Kasop and Mervi (13m to 15m respectively) Thickness of the lowermost sections of basal rock is
governed by the amount of exposure of parent rock. At Kasop the exposed rock measures 18m
and at Ganeshgule N. 16.5m; the exposure is minimum near Kajiwadi (10m).
The lateritic cap is near vertical in all sections. The lithomarge slopes moderately. It shows
convexity except in the high cliffs. This section is usually vegetated. The basalt at the base again
has near vertical slopes. The rock is hard and compact. The structure of rocks is retained in
weathered section but the weaker lines are exploited.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

35
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Shore platforms are visible at the base of some cliffs. The width of these shore platforms ranges
between 7 to 49.5 meters. These shore platforms are seen where the cliffs face SW monsoon
wave attack. Widest platform is seen to the south of Ganeshgule where the narrow headland
protrudes into the sea. At the base of this cliff there is a large sea cave. Elsewhere fully
developed sea caves are not seen. Notches can be seen at the foot of cliff at few places such as
Kasop, Waingani and Mervi.
Contemporary rates of erosion in hard crystalline rocks are very slow hence wide shore platforms
in the area are largely inherited from previous sea level.

***
Coastal Sand Dune System at Tambaldeg (Mithbav) as an Indicator of
Sea Level Fluctuation

Tushar Shitole
Head, Post Graduate Dept. of Geography,
Prof. Ramkrishna More A. C. & S College,
Akurdi, Pune – 411044, Maharashtra
(tshitole@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

The study area is a unique dune field where village Mithbav (16° 4′ N latitude and 73° 26′ E
longitude) is situated. It is located in Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra. Area comprising of
dune field, has an average length of about 5 km and has maximum width of 1.4 km. Maximum
dune height in the field is 16 m. The dune field consists of series of fore dunes and back dunes
with frequent embryo and shadow dunes. The dune field proper is located between 16° 16.4′ N
latitude and 16° 33′ N latitude, 73° 24′ E longitude and 73° 25′ E longitude. It has a length of
2980m and maximum width of 900 m. The settlement of Tambaldeg is situated right in the dune
field and on the northern bank of Mithbav creek.
Coastal sand dune systems in varying degree of preservation are the clear evidences of slightly
higher sea level in the area. Due to absence of any dateable material, no relative chronology is
available for the area. Therefore the distance inland and the height of the dunes above present sea
level are the only indicators of their relative age.
The evidences of ‘historic change’ in the area around Tambaldeg for over a centuary are well
preserved in the occurrence of mud / silt in dug well sections. The beach erosion and subsequent
recovery of the beach is well noticed by the locals in the area. The presence of low dunes about
100 m offshore is still recollected by the older people in the village. The erosion of coastline,
increase in the salinity of land bordering the shore and increasing brackishness of well water are
well recognized trends in last two to three decades.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

36
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
The observations for last 50 years or even a centuary as cited above are inadequate to understand
long-term behavior of the system, which however, requires a considerable insight in to coastal
evolution process. It is also possible that different areas of the beach have evolved differently.
Biogeomorphological links between geomorphology and biota can be used in such scenarios
more effectively. In the area around Tambaldeg, however, no clues by plants were noticed which
indicate binding and stabilization of sediments. The meager vegetation growth did not help to
suggest the tentative period of back dune development. The only indication is provided by silt
and mud in shallow wells of back dune areas.
The mangroves in the creek and intertidal areas of tidal inlet are not very dense, more landward
communities no doubt have preserved mature vegetation that grows in mature substratum. There
is however hardly any indication that they are the relicts of earlier environment.
In can therefore be concluded that the existence of a wide dune field in an otherwise unsuitable
beach extent and moderate sand supply in moist air suggest that the dunes are inherited from
ancient wide beach, ample sand supply and low sea level scenario.
A DTM model generated from the hydrographic chart (Bathymetric) for the study area clearly
shows the earlier beach, now submerged by transgression of sea level.
A rise in a sea level in recent years is suggested by defunct fluvio-marine tidal channel in the
northern part of the beach. The channel bed profile was adjusted to earlier lower sea level when
there was a perfect balance between incursion and excursion of tidal water through the channel.
The channel has slowly been silted and its entrance has become obscure as it is now out of phase
with the present tides. The meandering portion of the channel is converted to a pond like feature
at high tide.
***
Micro-Time Scale Beach Dynamics Study at Belambar, West Coast,
Karnataka, India
M. M. Korakoppa1, Chavadi V.C2 and P. T. Hanamgond3
1
AMSE Wing, Geological Survey of India, K.S. Layout, Bangalore-560078.
(korakoppam@hotmail.com)
2
Chenna Ganga, Karnatak University Campus, Dharwad
3
Department of Geology, G.S.Science Degree College,
Tilakwadi, Belgaum 590 006.
(hanamgondpt@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT
Micro-time scale variations in beach morphology over a tidal cycle (spring to spring tide) have
been taken up for study at Belambar beach. The study area is situated on the Uttara Kannada
coast of Karnataka (Latitudes 14° 37'30· to 14· 38'45· and longitudes 74· 16'15· to 74° 17'10). It
is a partially sheltered beach, bounded by headlands on either side, with a seasonal stream
cutting the beach at northern side. The beach is fringed by low level sand dunes (about 0.5 m)
which merge with lateritic soil of the coastal plain in the hinterland. The beach exhibits a steep
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

37
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
foreshore with well developed berm at northern end, while it changes gradually to gentle slope in
southern end.

Diurnal morphological variations have been studied along this beach over a tidal cycle. Study
clearly indicates that, central portion (station 2 & 3) experience accretion (10.42 m3m-1),
whereas, ends of the beach (stations 1 & 4) experience erosion, (-18.41 m3m-1).
The beach sediments shows grain size at station 1, very coarse to medium (- 0.383 to 2.125ø), at
station 2, coarse to fine sand (0.958 to 2.30ø), at station 3, medium to very fine sand (1.608 to
3.493ø), and at station 4, fine to very fine sand (2.175 to 3.617ø), indicating that the sediment
exponentially decrease in their size from station 1 to 4 (southerly). Across the beach, the
sediments decrease seaward.
***
Beach Dynamics along Redi Coast, Maharashtra, India
P. T. Hanamgond
Department of Geology, G.S.Science Degree College,
Tilakwadi, Belgaum 590 006.
(hanamgondpt@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT
The beaches at Redi village are mainly pocket and sheltered type located along Redi River and
run East-West except station 6 which is oriented NW-SE. Total Six locations were selected for
two annual cycles and are presented in this paper. The general trend of Redi beaches is that they
exhibit the cyclic behaviour during the two years which corroborates with the west coast Indian
beaches reported elsewhere. The morphological changes (erosion/accretion) are significant along
the entire profile. The annual changes indicate that the beaches have grown during two years
except at station 2 where it shows loss of sediments.
The volumetric analysis shows that the beach in general, the beach along all the locations has
experienced erosion, and the erosion is significant during pre monsoon and monsoon (2003 and
2004) season.

The CM patterns indicate that the sediments predominantly fall in the regions IV (36%), V=
(61%) and II (3%), indicating that, the sediments are generally graded suspension sediments,
type IV being high, type V being a moderate turbulence deposits. From this it is clear that, the
sediments of the study area are deposited under moderate to high-energy conditions.

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

38
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Down hole variation of sediment texture, clay mineralogy and geochemistry of
a box core SK- 72/1, Bengal Deep Sea Fan, Northern Indian Ocean
Pradeep Kumar R., Thrivikramanji K.P., Anirudhan S.,
and Rafeek P. M.,
Department of Geology,
University College, Trivandrum- 695 034
(rpradeepvarkala@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT
During 72nd cruise of the Ocean Research Vessel Sagar Kanya (ORVSK) a box sediment core of
400 cm in length were retrieved from the Bengal deep sea fan (BDSF) at a latitude 10° north and
longitude 90° east with a water depth of 3500 meters. BDSF is divided into upper fan, mid fan
and lower fan. Upper fan is called proximal fan and lower fan is called distal fan. BDSF is an
example of large geosynclines. Levees and channels are frequent in BDSF. Sedimentation rate is
much higher in proximal fan and sedimentation rate is very low in distal fan. Ninety East Ridge
separates BDSF into Bengal fan and Nicobar fan.
Subsampling were done (N=80) on down core colour variation. Colour of the core sediments
were determined with the help of American rock colour chart (NIO). Yellowish gray at the top of
the core and it varies olive gray along the bottom of the core. pH of the core sediments were
determined with the help of puncture pH meter. Sediment texture were determined with the help
of Pipette Analysis (PA). Shepards triangular diagram were plotted and the grain size
distributions were determined. Sediments fall in the fields of silty clay to clayey slit. Detrital
mineralogy were determined with the help of Olympus polarizing microscope fitted with camera.
Detrital minerals (light minerials) namely quartz and feldspars and heavy minerals. Pyroxenes,
amphiboles and zircons are noted as heavy minerals. Clay mineralogy were calculated with the
help of XRDA and SEMA. 33 representative clay films (saritorious) were studied for XRDA.
Smectite, chlorite, illite, and kaolinite are the chief clay minerals. Non clay minerals are quartz
and calcite. Gold coated clay samples were used for SEMA. Geochemistry (major and REE)
were estimated with the help of ICP-MS (La-Lu) and wet chemical analysis. Oxygen and carbon
isotopic studies (NGRI) were carried out on planktonic and benthic foraminifers and determined
the rate of sedimentation is 4 cm/ 1000 years at the core site. Age of' the sediments were
determined using oxygen and carbon isotopic studies on foraminifers and it was about 1, 000, 00
years. It is inferred that most of the clays were formed due to clastic terrigenous in origin
(Provenance). Rivers are contributing sediments to deep sea fans. Himalayan rivers namely
Ganges river and Brahmaputra rivers and peninsular rivers namely Cauvery river, Krishna river,
Mahanadi river and Godavari river and Irrawady river of Burma are contributing sediments to
Bengal deep sea fan (geosyncline).

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

39
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Paleomonsoon and its influence on marine environment- A sediment core
study from southwestern continental margin of India
V. Yoganandan, H. Gangadhara Bhat and C. Krishnaiah
Ocean and Atmospheric Science and Technology Cell, Department of Marine Geology,
Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199, India
(yoganandan1@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT
Many paleoclimatic studies in the western continental margin of India unrevealed that
paleoproductivity in marine environment during last glacial to Holocene mainly depends on the
strength of the monsoon system. Here we have made an attempt to reconstruct
Palaeoproductivity and their link to the paleoclimatic/paleomonsoon condition of the
southwestern continental margin of India through the CaCo3 and Organic carbon and texture
studies of a continental slope sediment core
Texture, CaCO3 and OC data of the present studied sediment core recorded early Holocene
reduced productivity and gradual increasing trend after ~8 kyr BP and reaches maximum ~6 kyr
BP thereafter the increased productivity is continued till present except two major reduced
productivity events. The interesting observation from this study show that the water column
productivity of the south eastern Arabian sea particularly southwest continental margin of India
is influenced by the paleoclimatic/paleomonsoon condition of the region, which is proved by the
reduced productivity record of late glacial to early Holocene and ~4.2 kyr BP and ~2 kyr BP
where the periods which injected large amount of fresh water to the southeastern Arabian sea due
to high intensity of the monsoon. These high intensity monsoon periods were recorded very well
in paleoclimatic studies from Indian continent.

***
Geo-Morpho-Tectonic Evolution of the Coast between Rajpuri Creek and
Vijaydurga Creek Raigad Ratnagiri- Districts Maharashtra

P.T. Sawant
Department of Geology,
Walchand College, Soiapur 413 006
(sawantpt@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The earthquake hazard prediction, climate changes during the Quaternary landslides on a very
large scale have brought out the significance of studies on Neo-Tectonic. The evidences of which
appears in the form of morphological changes on land.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

40
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
On the basis of Tectonic and morphologic features, a frame work for geodynamic model of coast
was suggested by Fairbridge and Finkl, (1988). On the basis of information the coast is classified
as emerging, sub-merging and quasistable. The evolution of morphological features is due to
change in sea-level during the Quaternary and it is the result of glacial, eustatic or tectonic
influence.
The tectonic setting, tectonic evolution, lithology, glacio-eustasy and Quaternary transgressional
and regressional responses to sea-level change are useful to know the evolution of the coastline.
According to the plate tectonics concept, the present configuration of coastline are the result of
differential displacement after the breaking of Gondwana and due to the active and or passive
margins which are the fundamental basis for the evaluation of coastline. The coast has modified
the coastline due to the combination of glacial eustasy, neo-tectonism and coastal erosional
processes. On the basis of these criteria the Maharashtra coastline is analysed and discussed.
***
Hydrographic Conditions of Near Shore region off Honnavar and Bhatkal,
Central West Coast of India.
Kanchanagouri,D.Gosavi1 ,; Shalini,G2. V.S.Hegde 1 Tejaswini,B1
1
SDM College of Engg and Tech.,Dharwad 580002
2
Global Academy of Technology, Bangalore 560 098
(vshegde2001@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Near shore region is of special socioeconomic importance owing to vast majority of fishery extraction in
this zone, and human activities have the most intense and persistent impacts. In particular, the tropical
coastal zone due to seasonal variation in wind and wave characteristics and influx of water and sediment
load.
Hydrographic condition such as salinity, pH, EC and Temperature etc are interrelated and have influence
on flocculation/deflocculating causing particles to remain in suspension/ deposition and near shore
ecosystem. To understand these, hydrographic conditions have been studied. During summer monsoon,
the surface flow is southward where as subsurface flow is northward. The process of upwelling causes
upward movement. When these water body moves landward during rising tide, they reduces the salinity
in the inner shelf . Hydrographic conditions do not suggest the indication of the Cold up welled water at
surface in the month of September.
During winter low saline Bengal bay water meets northward flowing equatorial Indian Ocean
water and flow northward as surface currents along the west coast of India. This event causes
reduction in the surface salinity along the coast. Such mesoscale oceanographic differences
observed in the innershelf have important consequences on the near shore ecosystem and
sediment suspension. The observed complex pattern of hydrographic conditions could be due to
coastal upwelling, river discharge, semidiurnal tides and wind forcing.
***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

41
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Estuarine accretion erosion by digital image processing-a case study Hooghly estuary

Anirban Mukhopadhyay* Debasish Mitra
#
and Sugata Hazra
%

* Research Scholar, School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University
# Scientist Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, dept. of Space
% Director School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University
(anirban@iirs.gov.in; mitra@iirs.gov.in)

ABSTRACT
The main problems of studying coastal accretion erosion are tidal level change, proper bank line
delineation, and manual error. All of these are tried to eliminate in the present work of accretion
erosion study of Hooghly estuary .Here the changes of the estuary has been studied from the year
1990 to 2007.The satellite images of these two years has been used in such a date and time when
the tidal level difference were minimal. After atmospheric correction of these two images the
infra-red band of these images has been used to determine the accretion erosion. After user
imposed supervised classification of these single band images both image were run in a model in
Erdas model-maker. Finally the change in pixel value indicates the area of accretion and
erosion. The quantitative analysis has been done.

***
Coastal Geomorphologic Study with Multi-Temporal Satellite Data around
Konkan Coast, Maharashtra, India
Deepmala Nilamwar, D.Mitra P. T. Hanamgond*
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (NRSA)
Kalidas Road, Dehradun
(mitra@iirs.gov.in)
*Department of Geology, G.S.Science Degree College,
Tilakwadi, Belgaum 590 006.
(hanamgondpt@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Application of Remote Sensing in understanding the coastal landforms is an important and useful
tool. Konkan Coast extending from north of Mumbai to north of Goa along the coast, is one of
the most important and productive zone in India. In the present paper application of remote
sensing technique is undertaken for a part of Konkan coast stretching between Malvan and
Rathnagiri. For the convenience, the study area has been divided in to three stretches as-
Ratnagiri, Vijyadurg and Devgad Coast.
The coast here exhibits variety of landforms and geomorphologic features that have been
developed mainly due to coastal regression and transgression leading to submergence and
emergence, leaving behind the signatures such as headlands, wide creeks, bays, beach ridges,
islands etc. For the present study LISS III data (2007) and Landsat data (2003) was used for
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

42
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
classification of various landforms along with change detection study using EARDAS imagine 9
software.
***
Tectonically controlled landform development in the coastal region of Bhatkal
and Baindur, Central West Coast of India.
Hegde V.S., Krishnaprasad P.A., Tejaswini,B., Girish, K.H., and Shalini,G.*
Dept of Civil Engineering, S.D.M. college of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad.
* Dept of Civil Engineering, Global Academy of Technology, Bangalore.
(vshegde2001@yahoo.com)

Abstract
Tectonics play a significant role in landform development, and drainage pattern are the sensitive
indicators of tectonic influence. In order to understand coastal land form development in the
region between Bhatkal and Baindur, drainage pattern and landforms have been studied using
the Survey of India Toposheet, Satellite data IRS IC/ID of 1972, 1989 TM data and LISS III of
2002 and 2006, and PAN data of 2006 in ERDAS 9.0 version. Relevant field check has been
carried out. To extract landform features various image enhancement techniques have been
employed.

The underlying rocks are gneisses and granites locally capped by laterites. Land form is well
dissected except in the coastal region. Many rivers originate on the western face of Western
Ghats, flow for a short distance before joining the Arabian sea. Drainages are dendritic, but
middle order streams show lineament controlled. Rivers show high sinuosity index even in the
upper reaches. Rivers show large meandering, migration and drowned valley nature. At the
places, terraces and boulders in the mouth regions of the river are observed. Satellite data
indicate distinct coast perpendicular faults. These anomalous features are interpreted to be due
to tectonic influence, to which the origin and the evolution of Western Ghats is ascribed to, and
the eustatic sea level changes recorded in the west coast of India.

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

43
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
A study on communication and technological adaptation in
Marine fishing Sector, West Bengal

Sourav Maity and Sugata Hazra
School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata- 700032
(srv_maity@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Among India’s 7200 Km long shore line, the maritime state of West Bengal shares a small
coastal segment spread over 200 Km, comprising of estuarine Sundarban part and open coastal
Purba Medinipore part. Nearly about 3-lakh fishermen are involved in marine fishing and the
annual marine fish catch is nearly about 1.8 Lakh Tons. The state lags behind in marine fishing
mostly due to failure in technology adaptation in terms of mechanization and communication.
Present study elicits the status of communication and technology adaptation among the marine
fisher community of West Bengal in general, and that of different stake holder groups on shore
and on board in particular.

Two locations has been chosen to understand the variability communication needs of the marine
fishermen community, one at Frasergunje-Kakdwip area on the estuarine coast of Sundarban,
and other on the open coastal segment at Digha. The data has been collected from different
primary, secondary and key stakeholders belonging to different socio-economic strata.

The study reveals that maximum fishermen of Sundarban area are gillnetters and only 2% of
them use GPS, while in the Digha, the number of GPS users are nearly 70%, majority of who are
trawl netters. This can be further correlated with the level of educational accomplishment by the
fishermen in the two study areas. The fish catch and margin of profit also shows a direct
correlation with level of technology adaptation and education. The paper summarizes some
useful recommendations regarding adaptation of technology to improve the status of marine
fishing in West Bengal.

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

44
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Heavy metal concentration in the mullet Mugil cephalus from Karwar
Central West coast of India

Praveen N. Dube and J. L. Rathod*
Research Scholar, GSS College, Belgaum -590006 Karnataka, India.
*Lecturer, Dept of Marine Biology, K.U P.G.Centre, Karwar, Karnataka, India.
(pndube_skyline@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT
The importance of heavy metals in the estuarine and coastal environment derives from both their
potential effects and anthropogenic sources. In this context organisms can accumulate the metals
from their food and sea water and or sediments to a concentration that considerably exceeds
those found in the environments.
In the marine environment it has been recognized that greater potential hazards exists in the
estuarine and near shore areas than in to the open sea because of their proximity to sites of
industrial and domestic activity, resulting in concentration of specific pollutants by runoff or
biological activation of inhabiting organisms. In the present study an attempt has been made to
evaluate the concentration of selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd) in the muscles and gills of
mullet Mugil cephalus from three different station of Karwar coast. The order of concentration of
metals in both gills and muscles was Cu > Pb > Cd. Relatively high concentration of copper was
found than Pb and Cd.
***
Heavy metals in the Oyster Crossostrea madrasiensis from Karwar Coast
Central west coast of India

Sameer G.Chebbi, and J. L. Rathod*
*Lecturer, Dept of Marine Biology,
K.U P.G.Centre, Karwar, Karnataka, India
(chebbisameer_2007@rediffmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Presence of heavy metals in the aquatic environment is a matter of global concern and regarded
as a serious pollutants of Marine ecosystem, due to their toxicity at even very low concentration,
their environmental persistence, their incorporation in to the food chain with ease and subsequent
accumulation by the living biota Bio-indicators are commonly used to assess ecosystem
contamination by pollutants. It is now well established that several bio-indicators are necessary
to give a satisfactory account of pollution status of an ecosystem under study.

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

45
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Bivalves are extensively used in monitoring programs in the marine / estuarine environments due
to their ability to concentrate pollutants (Heavy metals) to several orders of magnitude above
ambient level in the sea water. Oyster of the genus Crossotrea are excellent organisms as a bio-
monitor of marine / estuarine metal pollution in the tropical and subtropical coasts. Present study
was conducted to evaluate the concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) from
different locations of Karwar coast. The concentrations of metals are in the following order Zn>
Mn> Cu> Pb> Cd.

***
The Study of Foraminifera Distribution in Savitri River Esturary, Raigad
District, North Konkan Coast, India.
Shaikh N.H.B and Prabhakar P.
Dept. of Geology, Solapur University, Solapur.
(mushtaq_s10@rediffmail.com)
ABSTRACT
Micro Paleontological studies have been carried out along the Savitri river estuary falling in
Raigad district of Maharashtra. The investigations consist of foraminiferal distribution and their
frequency in order to decipher sedimentary environment and tectonic influence, if any. The study
area is part of Konkan coastal tract falling in Survey of India toposheet no. 47 G/1 and is bond
by North Latitudes 17⁰ 57’ -18⁰ 00’ and East Longitudes 73⁰ 00’ – 73⁰ 05’. Core sampling was
carried along the Savitri river estuary. The sample interval was 3 – 4 kms. The localities that
were sampled are Hari-Hareshwar, Dhandha, Bagmandle and Kolmandle.
The core samples were subdivided with 2” interval and were subjected to sample preparation
and sieving using 22, 72, and 120 BSS Mesh. The sample processing was conducted using
Hydrogen Peroxide solution. Later, the Foraminiferal identification was carried out using
micropaleontological microscope and scanning electron microscope. On examination about 12
foraminiferal species were noticed along the Savitri river estuary. The quantitative analysis
exhibited by foram occurrence is of normal trend i.e. there is a gradual decrease in frequency and
varieties from Savitri river mouth to inland. It is interesting to note the presence of benthic and
planktonic foraminifers deep inland. Further, agglutinated forams are typical of estuarian
environment. The mixing of benthic and planktonic species is perhaps being due to coastline
subsidence during storm like situation. Thus the paper highlights the use of formaminiferal
studies in bathymetry studies.
***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

46
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Status of clams, Meritrix meritrix and Paphia malabarica from
Aghanashini estuary, Uttara Kannada, West Coast of India

Praveen N. Dube and M. David
*
Research Scholar, GSS College, Belgaum -590006 Karnataka, India.
*Lecturer, Dept of Zoology, Karnatak Science College, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.
(pndube_skyline@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT
In recent times shellfish fishery is fast emerging as an important component in the marine
fisheries of the country. Among the renewable resources, of estuarine and brackish water
molluscan bivalves provide livelihood for the poor, who exploit them for their meat and shells.
Commercially bivalves resources are exploited at numerous places all along the coast using
variety of fishing methods, but the total production is not as high compared to several countries
of the world.

Clams forms important group of molluscs inhabiting estuaries, backwaters and other aquatic
habitats. They are mostly sedentary which makes there fishing easy Molluscan forms the
important group of invertebrates of commercial value. Among them the bivalves excelled the
gastropods and cephalopods as cultivable source of food, most of them serve as a source of
protein, glycogen, lipid, and minerals.

Mane (1973) considered that there are 90 creeks along the coastline, out of which 36 creeks are
devoid of clam fishery and 34 creeks support clam fishery. Among these Aghanashini is one,
which support clam fishery. There is no avalailable data on the clams fishery from Aghanashini
estuary. The present investigation was therefore undertaken to evaluate the status of clam
fisheries in Aghanashini estuary. During the collection of clam sample, clams of size ranging
from 2.0 cm to 4.0 cm were analysed, out of which 1.0- 3.0 cm were more in number when
compared to those of 0- 1.0 cm and 3.0 - 4.0 cm. Process of depuration as well as morphometric
measurements of clams was carried out to specify the quality and yield of clam meat and its
importance to beneficiaries.

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

47
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Biodiversity of Malvan Coast – A note on Preliminary Observations.
Sagar Waghmare, Suresh Khot, Praveen Dube*, Rajesh Hood* and
P. T. Hanamgond**
UG Students, GSS College, Tilakwadi, Belgaum – 590 006
*Research Scholars, Dept of Geology, GSS College, Tilakwadi, Belgaum – 590 006
**Department of Geology, GSS College, Tilakwadi, Belgaum – 590 006

ABSTRACT

The coastal areas of India with a coast line of over 7,500 km, harbors a variety of
specialised marine ecosystems like coral reef, seagrass beds, mangroves, algal communities,
mud flats and lagoons. Each of these marine ecosystems with its associated habitats supports a
wealth of marine resources (Government of India, Dept. of Ocean Development, 2001).
India is one of the 12 mega-biodiversity centers in the world, and the Indian Ocean is fished
heavily by Spain, Korea, Taiwan, France, Romania, Italy, and Lithuania. Cumulative catches
from the Indian. About 12% of all the world’s fishes are in India, or about 2 200 species, of
which 27 are in some degree of danger. Of about 4 million ha of wetlands, 2.6 million are man-
made (Summaries for Countries with Significant Aquatic Biodiversity Concerns August, 2001).
Malvan has been regarded as one of the biologically richest coastal regions in Maharashtra and
hence has been demarcated as Biodiversity hotspot of Konkan region. The present report is
preliminary observations made on variety of fauna and were documented with in situ field
photographs, during three visits to Malvan Coast, while carrying out Coastal Dynamics research
monitoring undertaken with the support of MoES.
***
Ostracoda as Bio-indicators of Environmental Changes in Modern Seas
A.S.Vaidya
UGC-Academic Staff College
Bangalore University, Central College Campus
Bangalore -560 001
(dr.arun_vaidya@yahoo.com)


ABSTRACT

Ostracodes are bivalve seed shrimps, inhabit all aquatic habitats including the terrestrial terrains.
It is with this context they have an edge over foraminifera’s besides, their fossil counterparts are
widely known since, Phanerozoic times. The analysis of ostracodes their shell composition,
sculpture, eye tubercle and nodes/spines are finding wide application in understanding the
changes of environments and the fact is yet untouched and utilized. Thus an attempt is made
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

48
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
herein to review the biological history of ostracodes and their use in understanding the
environmental studies of estuarine ecosystems and modern seas.

***
THERAPEUTICAL IMPORTANCE OF MARINE ORIGINATES IN AYURVEDA

R. S. Hiremath
P.G.Dept of Rasashastra
K.L.E’s Shri B.M.K.Ayurved Mahavidyalaya
Post graduate Studies and Research Centre,
Belgavi, Karnataka 590003.

ABSTRACT
Ayurveda is a science of life and the main aim is to maintain positive health and to treat the
ailments of diseased. Since antiquity, the marine originates are in use therapeutically for to serve
the mankind and to achieve the aim of Ayurveda.
This article mainly highlights the following:
-To highlight the therapeutic role of marine originates in Ayurveda.
-Role of marine originates in the maintenance of positive health.
Calcium is the essential element for the human body for the formation of strong bones and teeth,
and for controlling blood-clotting mechanisms and to regulate the excitability of nerves and
muscles. Sufficient calcium is thought to protect against allergies, viruses and tooth decay etc.
Calcium is available in the universe from Mineral sources, Herbal sources and Animal sources.
But the calcium which is available from the animal sources is more beneficial therapeutically
and safe.
The some of the animal originates mainly having CaCo3 as an main ingredient including marine
originates are classified in Ayurveda under the group of Shukla varga dravyas, like Conch
Shell,Coveries,Coral,Perls etc.
These marine originates are selected and their quality was assessed based on classical and
modern parameters before using them therapeutically and necessary modifications are essential
for to convert them in to a suitable form.
After proper modification as according the classics (Shodhana (Purification ) and Marana
(Incineration etc))the drugs are become more potent and highly benefited in the management of
various ailments and also helps to maintain the positive health.
The present paper highlights about the marine originates and their therapeutical importance in
Ayurveda. All marine originates are having more or less the CaCO3 as a main constituent.
Based on various pharmaceutical processing techniques adopted for individual drugs so that the
pharmacological and therapeutical properties are going to change and are being used in the
different ailments in the form of bhasmas,Pisti or as a Compound formulations.

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

49
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Physiological changes in the Human Body by the Coastal Climate
(Tidal Fluctuations)

H.G.Patil
Department of Geology, G.S.Science College, Belgaum 590 006.
Rise and fall of the sea level by the effect of full moon/new moon (spring tides) and daily
variation of sea level (high/low tides), effects can be observed in some human beings. The effect
can be behaviorial /physiological change. The behavioral changes are mental derangements or
abnormal behavior, periodical– headache, migrane, epilepsy or fits and paralytic weakness. This
is due to chemical elements, imbalance in the body. The variation of the elements such as Ca- Na
–K, Fe- Mg and Si are the main cause to imbalance or discomfort or diseases.

***
Usage of Marine Originates as Medicine in Ayurved

Poornima Pyati

Consulting Ayurvedic Physician
Hindwadi, Belgaum.
(vskathavate@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

In today’s modern hectic era, the change in the lifestyle has given rise to lot of health problems.
Altered food habits have led to disturbances in metabolism and immunity system which is the
major contributor for many ailments like diabetes, obesity, hyperacidity, heart problems, skin
diseases, arthritis, stress and anxiety etc, etc.
Ayurveda - an ageold science which propagates as ‘yatha deho tatha prakruti’ has tried to
balance these conditions with the help of nature with optimum benefits. Nature has provided us
with drugs which are immunomodulators, antioxidants and the drugs which increase the bio-
availability.
Ayurveda considers everything on earth as medicines. Hence the broad classification of drugs is
made as CHETANA (SENDRIYA) DRAVYA and ACHETANA (NEERINDRIYA)
DRAVYA wherein the usage of Plant origin (Oudbhijya), Animal origin (pranij) and Mineral
(khanij) drugs is observed.
Drugs like Mukta (Pearl), Praval (Coral), Shankha (Conch), Shambuk (Pila), Mukta-shukti
(Pearl oyster), Kapardi (Cowry), Samudraphen (Cuttle fish bone), Agnijar (Ambergris) etc
marine originates find broader medicinal application in the category of animal origin.

This paper deals with the medicinal values of Marine Originates. Characteristics of these drugs,
their function, probable mode of action and their clinical application in different diseases shall be
discussed in this paper.
***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

50
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Influxes of Sea Water into Venkatapur and Sarbi Rivers and its Impact on
Groundwater Quality, Bhatkal Taluka, Uttar Kannada District, Karnataka

S. M. Didgur and S. C. Puranik
Dept. of Civil Engineering, Anjuman College of Engineering, Bhatkal
Dept. of Studies in Geology, Karnatak University, Dharwad

ABSTRACT

Influx of sea water into river course during high tides may cause contamination of fresh
groundwater depending upon characters of river course, tidal levels, aquifer characters etc.
Maximum contamination of river water occurs during high tides and minimum during low tides.
In the present work, Venkatapur and Sarbi Rivers of Bhatkal Taluka, Uttar Kannada District,
Karnataka are selected to know the influx of sea water into these rivers and its impact on
groundwater quality. The laterites are the litho units in the study area with primary and
secondary openings to store and transmit infiltered water. The groundwater occurs under water-
table (phreatic) conditions. Three samples of water are collected from these rivers at a distance
of one kilometer each in up stream direction from coast. The collections are made during March
2001, April 2001, November 2001, January 2002 and March 2002. Total dissolved Solids (TDS)
values of these water samples are estimated.

TDS values are comparatively less in the samples collected after monsoon season i.e. November
2001 and the values are high in dry season i.e. March 2001 and April 2002 at all the three
locations. The groundwater in the wells close to these rivers does show high TDS content. This
indicates that the influxed sea water into river course has infiltered or percolated into subsurface
and contaminated aquifer.

In order to restrain the sea water influx into the river course it is proposed to place sand or sand +
cement bags in the river bed at suitable places. Such structure help in preventing free movement
of sea water into the river course during high tides and do not contaminate subsurface with saline
sea water.

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

51
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Eco-tourism with special reference to Konkan Coast
Vandana Ravindran, Smita Patil (UG Students) and S. Y. Prabhu
Department of Zoology, G S Science College,
Belgaum- 590 006.

ABSTRACT
Ecotourism is entirely a new approach in tourism. It is a preserving travel to natural areas to
appreciate the cultural and natural history of the environment taking care not to disturb the
integrity of ecosystem, while creating economic opportunities that make conservation protection
of natural resources advantageous to local people.

India is known for its rich and diverse culture and its rich biodiversity, especially the Konkan
Coast. Some of the flora and fauna of Konkan Coast and the part that cover the Western Ghats
are;- kokam, cashew nut, coconut, amla plant, ashwagandha, banyan tree, neem tree, gaur, bear,
boar, Indian bustard, peafowl, peacock, seagulls, etc which are a few of the many species found
along the Konkan.

Foreign tourists are attracted by our own culture and values, but, are we preserving this rich
culture? The tourism places along Konkan are pilgrimage Temples, scenic beaches, caves, forts
and palaces etc. Ancient Indian Medical Science originated 5000 years ago. Konkan food
(Malvani) is famous worldwide. All these aspects help to attract the tourists from all over world
and generate resources for the economic development of this region.

***
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

52
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Dynamics of Konkan Coast - A Review
Hanamgond P.T.
Department of Geology,
G.S.Science College, Tilakwadi, BELGAUM – 590 006
(Hanamgondpt@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The present paper is a review of the work published on the coastal tract of Konkan, mainly on
the aspects of geomorphic, neotectonic, and coastal dynamic studies. Significant studies on
geomorphology involving the study of coastal geomorphological features through toposheet
referred maps and remote sensing; placer minerals along the beach and offshore; neotectonics,
involving the evolution of coast through the study of sea level variations and textural study of
beach sands along some of the beaches of Maharashtra coast have been made by several
researchers. The present review is an effort to bring all those works published and unpublished
together, so that it can serve as a quick resource and document for the researchers working
along this coast for reference.

Introduction
The coastal length of Maharashtra is about 720 Kms. It is a submerged coast, inter tongued by
creeks and promontories at regular intervals. Konkan is the littoral lowland extending from the
Arabian Sea to the Western Ghat escarpment and from north of Bombay (Mumbai) to north of
Goa (16 º to19º 30’ N). This region along the Sahyadri Ranges on India's west coast is
internationally acclaimed for its sun and sand making it a heavenly abode (Sathe and Chauhan,
2003). The Konkan Coast has the distinct morphological features form the rest of the Indian
Coast (Chandramohan, et al., 1992) and has a unique combination of nature's endowment with
scenic beauty of bays and beaches. The coastal eco system is unique and divergent owing to the
multidisciplinary geomorphological processes such as tectonic, fluvial, coastal and aeolian
processes. These processes which have acted in varying degrees and duration during the
Quaternary period have left their imprints in the form of various geomorphic features along the
coast such as deltas, beach ridge complexes, backwater-lagoon systems, estuary and creek
systems, spit and bar systems etc (Ramaswamy, http://www.gisdevelopment.net). It is known
that, coastal region of Maharashtra in India was tectonically active during Mio-Pliocene period,
and subsequently exogenetic processes were more powerful (Tandale, 1993). The coast here is
under the influence of predominantly semi-diurnal tides. The difference between the semi-
diurnal low tides occurs at approximately the hours of 11 and 23
(http://ocean.colorado.edu/~kantha/ Tides2D/arabian_sea.html).

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Geology and Geophysics
From the available literature, Bruce Foot (1876) seems to be one of the pioneers to record the
geological features of the southern Maharashtra. Subsequently, Iyer (1939); and Kelkar (1956)
have detailed out the geology of the southern part of Ratnagiri district. Chavadi (1974) has
carried out a detailed work on geology of Vengurla area; Gokhale and Chavadi (1969, 1972 &
1973); Chavadi and Gokhale (1975 & 1976), have detailed about the occurrence and geology of
Vajrat Gabbros, Banded Grunerite Granulites and basic dikes from Ratnagiri and Savantwadi
area. Deendar (1982) has studied the area around Vengurla for his Ph.D dissertation, where in he
has extensively carried structural aspects and geology of the area. Further, he describes that the
area is structurally disturbed and influenced the formation of the present topography, geology,
formation of iron ore and the drainage pattern to a great extent (Deendar 2003). Chavadi’s
(1974) and Deendar’s (1982) contributions are significant, but as they are in non listed journals
and dissertations, they have not been referred in many of the publications arising along this area,
including the text book “Geology of Maharashtra” (Deshpande, 1998) brought out by Geological
Society of India.

Bomay IIT and Pune university Geology departments have contributed most of the literature on
basalts of this area. The coast of Maharashtra represents the Pladpur and Ambenali Formations
of the Deccan Basalt (Subbarao and Hooper, 1998). The stratigraphic succession of different
rocks of Maharashtra. The oldest rocks, mostly biotite gneisses (3500 ma); the proterozoic
formations (Kaladgi super group) such as conglomerate, sandstone and shales which occur as
inliers (also referred as “Konkan Kaladgis”); and Miocene-Pliocene sequences such as- tertiary
sediments, lignite and shales; are exposed along the coastal tract of Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg
districts. Alongwith these, Eocene-Upper cretaceous formations- the Deccan trap basalt flows;
the Recent – Pleistocene formations (alluvium, laterite, sand and soils) also occur along this
coastal tract (Deshpande, 1998).

The Proterozoic sedimentary exposures occurring near Malvan are considered equivalent of
Badami group and are considered to have been deformed during a much younger (Tertiary)
activity along the west coast fault (Deshpande, 1998).

The litho section of the beach rock from Uran, Maharashtra was studied for its age and evolution
by Kale et al (1984). There study shows, the presence of about 1.8 to 2 m of exposed beach rock
at the base, extending upwards through parts of dune (0.9 to 1.5 m) and capped by red sandy soil.
The age of the beach rock suggested that either it developed in relation to a high sea level of the
last interglacial period, or there had been a neotectonic activity in the region.

Subba Raju et al., (1989), have studied the bathymetry of central west coast of India using the
shallow seismic surveys. This study covers most part of the Konkan coast. Thakur et al., (1999),
have detailed out the offshore basin configuration, framework, hydrocarbon prospects of Konkan
Deepwaters.

Sea level fluctuation and Neotectonics
Kale (1983) provided the geomorphic repercussions by new interpretation using palaeomagnetic
and geophysical data. He also suggests that the Indian Peninsula is still active and tectonically
disturbed. The straightness of the Western Ghat Scarp has been believed to be due to faulting.
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Wagle and Misra (1975), on the basis of aerial photos, interpreted the Goa and adjoining areas
and concluded that the present western face of the Western Ghats is merely a product of
circumdenudation of an old tableland. Rajaguru and Marathe (1984), have carriedout
geomorphological investigations of primary and secondary laterites around Rathnagiri. Their
study reveals buried channels, fossil littoral deposits and relict channel gravels. Kale (1983), has
used paleomagnetic and geophysical data to reveal the paleogeography, peninsular movements
and western ghat formation. Kale et al., (1984) have dated a late pleistocene beach rock (Karal)
from Uran. Kale and Rajaguru (1985) have given an overview about neogene and quaternary
transgressional and regressional history of the west coast of India. They have reconstructed
tentative sea level fluctuation curve.

Field studies along the coast of Vengurla carried by Sukhtankar (1986) reveal presence of
stabilised dunes, older and younger raised beaches apart from the present intertidal zone. From
these geomorphic features, he delineates a fall in sea-level to the extent of about 4 m and 1 m
during the Holocene period. He opines that tectonic control, operated either through a relative
fall in sea-level or an emergence of the Indian shield during the Holocene period is responsible
for the accretionary nature of the beach (Sukhtankar, 1986). Further, in one of his literature he
says that shaping of the coastline and the evolution of geomorphic features of marine origin are
not only due to the regressive phases of sea during the Holocene but also due to tectonic
evolution of the coast (Sukhtankar, and Pandian, 1990). Powar (1993), has envisaged in detail
the geomorphological evolution of Konkan coast, with particular reference to evolution of
western ghat using several field signatures. Tandale (1993) in his study using remote sensing
techniques says, coastal region of Maharashtra in India was tectonically active during Mio-
Pliocene period, and subsequently exogenetic processes were more powerful. Paper suggests that
(1) the evolution of the fluvio-marine environs are controlled by geologic, geomorphic and
tectonic processes, (2) human activities play significant role in land degradation, land use,
marine erosion and accretion, and delineates zones to protect fluvio-marine environs, to arrest
land degradation and improve land use situation.

Nigam et al., (1992), have delineated fluctuating sea levels off Bombay using the shallow water
benthic foraminifera. Rajshekhar and Kumaran (1998), in their study at Velas show that, the
lignite bed occurs about 100 m MSL and dated > 40000 years BP which is comparable to the
Warkalli beds and therefore, appears to be contemporaneous with the other lignite beds reported
so far from the west coast of India and support the neotectonic activity in this region.

Karlekar (2001), says that the available records of sea-level fluctuations on Konkan coast are
more or less of general. Most of the present coastal geomorphological features on Konkan Coast
indicate a slightly higher sea-level in early Holocene. Two/three generations of dune ridges
(although not very common) provide a convincing evidence of former shorelines. Oldest and the
farthest dune ridges suggest an early to mid Holocene period and younger, closer to the sea, a
slightly higher sea, in late Holocene. Cliffs formed by wave action, with raised platforms at the
foot, are most prominent features indicating emergence. Frequently occurring, wide coastal
plains and narrow elongated terraces are covered with Tertiary sands. There is a great variety of
shore marks between 2 to 10 meters above sea-level. The terraces are found within the elevation
range of 4 to 6 m. Fossil beach ridges are found to occur invariably in front of tidal basins. The
tidal basins are extensive flat plains of late Holocene sediments. Based on these evidences, the
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
magnitude of changes in sea-levels along the Konkan coast he has inferred as later part of
Holocene.

Deswandikar and Karlekar (1996) have studied the paleo beach and extensive dune complex
stretching within 500m inland from the backshore at Diveagar beach. They suggest the origin of
the dune complex about last 2000 to 4000 years. Using cliff height, slopes, erosion rates at high
and low tides, Kamble and Jog (1996), have provided a model to study the slope and width of the
resultant shore platforms.

Wagle (1982, 1987 & 1991), has covered many aspects on geomorphology of Maharashtra and
has identified beach ridges along the coast especially near river mouths and creeks, which he
attributes to continuous retreat of the sea. Kunte and Wagle (2005) have given a review of Indian
beach ridges. De Sousa et al., (1996), have studied the environmental changes associated with
monsoon induced upwelling, which covers southern portion of the Konkan coast.

Coastal Evolution and Geomorphology
De Souza and Sadashivaiah (1968), studied the formation of Western Ghat scarp, where in they
have classified the Western Ghat Scarp into three types on the basis of morphological
characteristics and topographic maturity, as - a) the Konkan Scarp, b) the Kanara Scarp and c)
the Kerala Scarp.

Deshpande (1998) in his study envisaged that, after the eruption of Deccan Traps the region of
Maharashtra was affected by earth movements mostly vertical, due to which the present
physiographic features were developed, including the formation of west coast, formation of
“Sahyadris/Western Ghats”, offshore graben and the development of drainage system in the
state. The continental shelf parallel to the west coast is traversed by a series of nearly north-south
trending faults producing narrow horst and graben structures, arches and highs separated by
basins. Off the coast of Maharashtra there are Bombay Arch/high, Ratnagiri basin, Vengurla
Arch and Konkan basin.

Biswal et al., (2003), have detailed out the morphotectonic analysis of the Konkan Coast with
seismic implications using remote sensing and GIS. Their study reveals that the Konkan coast is
highly seismic and lies in the zone 4 of the Seismic Zones of India. Subrahmanya (1998) opines
that the west coast of India represents a Passive Continental Margin (PCM) that developed at the
trailing edge of the Indian continent approximately 40 Ma ago, when India was separated from
Seychelles micro-continent by rifting and continental drifting.

Rajamanickam et al., (1994); have detailed out the influence of Geomorphological and Tectonic
control in the mineralisation of the Western Shelf of India, where in they have discussed the
evolution of the west coast. In their opinion, the present coast owes its existence to combined
effects of gradual submergence in the beginning and later frequent upheaval with simultaneous
denudational processes in each stage; sea level changes and also the recent intrusions have
contributed for the shaping of the present coastline. Patil et. al., (1994), also discusses the
evolution of Coastal belt between Palghar and Vijaydurg, Maharashtra.

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Helmut Bruckner (1987) gives his view on the evolution of Konkan coast and Western Ghat with
the help of some new data. He is of the opinion that, the littoral lowland of Konkan owes its
formation to – the retreat of the Western Ghat escarpment in the eastern part; surface planation
processes in the western part (water table weathering and slope retreat), creating an extended
plains up to 200 m; lateritisation processes in the southern part which conserved the plains there;
and a subsidence which caused the present ria-type coast. All of these processes were influenced
by the middle and late Tertiary fluctuations of the Arabian Sea that triggered several
morphodynamics cycles.

Kumar et al., (2000), have made the isotopic studies of beach rock carbonates stretching from
Guhagar to Deogad along the Konkan coast. Stratigraphically, these beach rocks are inferred to
belong to recent formations, developed during Later Holocene.

Samant and Subramanyan, (1998), have detailed out the landuse land cover change in Mumbai
and Navi Mumbai cities using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The netshore drift along most
of the Konkan coast has been dealt by Kunte and Wagle (1993), using remote sensing
techniques. They have detailed out recession of active cliffs and beach morphology. Vijay et al.,
(2005), have mapped the mangrove forests and change detection of Mumbai coast.

Recently, Hanamgond and Mitra (2008) have presented their view on evolution of Malvan Coast,
using remote sensing data. Their study shows that, the most of the Malvan city is situated on
beach ridges formed due to tombolo. They also suggest that the ridges have formed in two
phases. They also provide clues on the evolution of Malvan coast owing to a major lineament
that detatched the present Sindhudurg Island, Rocks behind IB and many islands which are
aligned almost in a same line between Devbag-Achra.

Taking the clue from their study, along Rathnagiri coast the headland between Kalbadevi and
Mirya bay (Figure 1A); and the Ambolghar headland north of Rajapur Bay (Figures 1B) can also
be interpreted as evolved owing to the tombolo effect and related processes.










Rajapur Bay
Figure 1: (A) The ongoing tombolo processes occurring between Mirya and Kalbadevi bays,
that might one day join completely with the mainland (?); (B) The Ambolgarh headland north
of Rajapur Bay has already joined with the mainland owing to tombolo processes. (Courtesy
Google Earth).
2 1
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Coastal Sediments and beach dynamics
Hashimi et al., (1978), have detailed out grain size analysis of continental shelf off Vengurla and
Mangalore. They have elaborated textural variation, environmental significance along with
variations in skeletal components, non skeletal components and detrital components. Sukumaran
and Nambiar, (1994), have elaborated ilmenite geochemistry from Rathnagiri beach placer sands.
Gujar et al., (2007) have studied the characterization of opaques off Konkan Coast supported
with REE studies. Valsangkar (2005) has studied the seasonal variations in heavy mineral placer
sand from kalbadevi bay of Ratnagiri coast. His studies show that only the berm environment has
high potential and provide highest reserves.

Rajamanickam and Gujar (1984, 1993), Rajamanickam et. al., (1986), have done a significant
work on heavy minerals of Konkan coast especially around Rathnagiri Bays from beach and
offshore sands. Their research contribution is mainly on heavy mineral distribution, sediment
depositional environment, effect of waves and redistribution of sediments etc.

Kundu and Matam (2000), while studying the Konkan coastline from Harnai to Guhagar reveal
many tectonic aspects. Their study indicates that, the study area consists of many straight line
segments being arranged in an en- echelon manner. These lineaments are occupied by major
rivers. It is believed that the NNW– SSE lineaments are probable faults in the area. Rare
slickensides are observed on the quartz vein wall as evidences of faulting. Some of these features
corroborate with the recent findings by Hanamgond and Mitra (2008). Ganesan (2004), in his
seasonal morphological variations along Kalbadevi bay shows the importance of beach profile
studies in the areas where rich beach placer deposits. Coastal processes using measured wave
height and longshore currents Sanil Kumar et al., (2006) have estimated the net sediment
transport and coastal erosion along Indian Coast, which covers the Konkan coast also.

Pathani (1996, 1997 & 1999) has a some brief reports on- coastal geomorphology of the coast
between Achra creek to Karli creek; micro environment differentiation using grain size analysis
of Malvan beach; and heavy mineral distribution along Sindhudurg coast.

Kumaran et al., (2004), have encountered with lignite clays which have provided information
about fossil fungi and other fossils related to mangrove ecosystem.

Recently, Hanamgond (2007) has detailed out the morphodynamics of the beaches along Redi,
Aravli and Vengurla, along 20 selected study locations and over two annual cycles (February
2003 to February 2005). The study distinguishes the high energy zones, the acrretional/erosional
areas, the wave and longshore current patterns; and the resultant sediment movement (on-
offshore and longshore) in relation to the morphological and textural variations within the
beaches of the study area. He has also applied remote sensing techniques studies for the
interpretation of landforms, classification and change detection; as well as magnetic
susceptibility study to understand the spatial and temporal variation in terms of seasonal
deposition and/or erosion of the beach is harnessed to trace out the variability and concentration
of magnetic minerals for qualitative assessment of sediment movement; to find out how rapidly
and reliably the initial or primary data could be obtained on sand movement in a coastal
environment using magnetic mineral techniques; and to decipher sediment transport, depositional
environment and identify provenance of beach sediments.
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Coastal Ecosystem Biodiversity
Department of Ocean Development, Government of India (2001), has brought out an integrated
research report formulated by NIO, ICMAM-PD and Anna University. The report provides
significant information on ecology, biodiversity, variety of habitats and their significance all
which indicate that the Malvan coast of Konkan coast has a very rich biodiversity with more than
367 species of fauna and flora. The report comprises remote sensing and GIS analysis of Malvan
Coast.

From the foregoing account it can be summerised that-
The coastal tract of Konkan is highly dissected/irregular by the presence of many rivers, creeks,
bays, promontories/headlands and islands. Most of the rivers/creeks follow the lineaments and
indicate the structural control over the geomorphological aspects of the Konkan coast.

There are occurrences of paleo beach ridges giving rise to series of dune ridges, wave cut
platforms/notches in the cliff, corals occurring at higher levels from the present sea level,
occurrence of peat/lignite beds etc., are the clear evidences for sea level fluctuations. The coast
near Malvan, Ambolghar headland and the headland between Mirya and Kalbadevi bays have
evolved owing to the tombolo processes that have joined the offshore islands with the mainland.
All these above features (1 & 2) showing both emergence and submergence of coast, and are
clearly suggestive of compound or intermediate coast.

The studies on morphology (erosion/accretion) of the beaches are scanty.

The placer mineral studies are restricted mainly to central part of the Maharashtra Coast
(Rathnagiri coast).

Therefore the Konkan coast provides ample opportunities to carryout researches in the area of
beach morphology, river/estuarine sedimentation, trace elemental studies to have a better
understanding of this coast.

Acknowledgement
The author is thankful to Ministry of Earth Sciences, for its financial support through major
project (MoES/11-MRDF/1/17/P/07-PC III).
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tectonic control in the mineralization of the western shelf of India. (In: Indian geomorphology.
Vol. 2: Geomorphology and resource management. Ed.: Jog, S.R. Pub: Rawat , New Delhi), pp
103-125.
Rajamanickam, G.V., and Gujar, A.R., 1984. Sediment Depositional Environment in some bays
in central west coast of India. Indian Jour. Mar. Sci., V.13, pp 53-59.
Rajamanickam, G.V., and Gujar, A.R., 1993. Depositional processes inferred from the log
probability distribution. Recent researches in Sedimentolgoy, pp 154-164.
Rajamanickam, G.V., Vethamony, and Gujar, A.R., 1986. Effect of waves in the redistribution of
sediments along the Konkan coast. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.,) Vol.95(2), pp 237-
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Rajaguru S.N. , and A.R. Marathe.1984. Neotectonic Activity around Ratnagiri, W. India. Proc.
Symp. Quat. Episodes Deptt. Of Geol., M.S.U. Baroda. pp 1-6.
Rajiv Nigam, N.H. Hashimi, Eileen T, Menezes and A.B. Wagh.1992. Fluctuating Sea Levels
Off Bombay (India) between 14,500 and 10,000 years before present. Curr. Sci, Vol. 62, No. 3,
10 February 1992, pp 309-311.
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Rajshekhar, C.; Kumaran, K.P.N., 1998. Micropaleontological evidence for tectonic uplift of
near shore deposits around Bankot-Velas, Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra. Current Science, V.
74, no. 8, pp. 705-708.
Ramaswamy S., 2006. Mapping of coastal eco system using Remote Sensing and spatial
technology - experience from South India. http://www.gisdevelopment.net.
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Mangrove Mapping and Change Detection Around Mumbai Using Remotely Sensed Data. Ind.
Jour. Mar. Sci. Vol.34(3), September 2005, pp.310-315.
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Vishwas S. Kale. 1983. The Indian Peninsular Movements, Western Ghat Formation and their
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Maharashtra India. July 2001, 29 p.
***
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Sediment Observations in Muvattupuzha, Kerala, Southwest India
B. K. Purandara
Scientist, Hard Rock Regional Centre
National Institute of Hydrology
Belgaum - 590 001 (Karnataka)
(purandarabk@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT
The transport of material by streamflow is accompanied by interactions between the flow and
mobile channel boundaries. These interactions, particularly those involving the channel bed,
introduce complexities not encountered in the study of rigid open channels. In order to
understand the sediment dynamics, it is necessary to know the exact source of sediments to the
river channel. This needs an estimate of grain size parameters apart from other mineralogical
concentrations. Considering the significance of grain size parameters in river sedimentation, in
the present study, bed sediments of Muvattupuzha river has been collected and particle size
analysis were carried out. The mean particle size of sediment carried on the bed of the
Muvattupuzha river decreases downstream. The upstream tributaries contribute mostly fine
sediment carried in suspension. Many downstream tributaries produce coarser sediment. For the
present study, sediment samples were collected from river Muvattupuzha, a major river that
debauches into Vembanad Lake in Central Kerala. It has been observed that the sediments are
mainly transported as graded suspension and it is lifted by bottom turbulence. Also, there is a
significant influence of bottom currents on sorting of sediments.

Introduction
The determination and interpretation of particle size distribution has a fundamental role in
hydraulics, geomorphology and sedimentology Textural analyses of coastal and river sediments
have been carried out by number of investigators working in the field of Sedimentology.
However, the study on Kerala rivers have not attracted many engineers and scientists. In recent
years Kerala rivers have been studied by Mallik et. al. (1987), Unnikrishnan (1987) and
Purandara (1990). They expressed the view that the river sediments are mainly derived from the
rocks of the Western Ghats through the west flowing rivers in Kerala. Though there are 41 west
flowing rivers in Kerala, no detailed study has been carried out to decipher the origin of the
sediments. In this paper we attempt to assess the influence of river Muvattupuzha on the
distribution of sediments and mode of transport along the course of the river. This information
will be useful to understand the hydrological and sedimentological characteristics of the river
basin and in turn it will help in reservoir sedimentation studies.

Study Area
Along the central Kerala coast, Muvattupuzha (figure 1) is one of the perennial rivers flowing
towards the west that debouches into the Vembanad lake at Vaikom. It covers an area of 1554 sq.
km. with a length of 121 km. The study area of the Muvattupuzha river basin is located between
9º 40’ and 10º 10’ N and longitudes 76º 20’ and 77º. It originates from the Western Ghats, drains
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
through highly lateritised crystalline rocks. The Muvattupuizha river basin is bound by the
Periyar river in the north and the Meenachil river basin in the south.
Geologically, the Kerala coast comprises of tertiary Cenozoic sediments which is underlain by
Archaean crystalline rocks consisting of khondalities, leptynites, charnockites and mica-
hornblende gneisses, as there are no rocks of other geological formations along the west coast.

Figure 1. The Muvattupuzha river basin with sampling locations

Sample collection and Investigation
Sediment samples were collected from the middle of the river channel from the selected
locations (figure 1) with varying intervals. The bottom sediment was collected by using Van-
veen grab.

The river sand samples were washed, dried and subjected to both sieve and pipette analysis
(Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938). For pipette analysis known quantities of dried sediments were
dispersed overnight in a solution of sodium -hexa-meta phosphate. By sieving the dispersed
sediment through a 63-micron sieve, the silt and clay fractions were separated. The coarse
fraction retained in the sieve were dried and weighed. Grain-size parameters like mean, standard
deviation, skewness and kurtosis were calculated using the formulae set by Folk and Ward
(1957). CM diagram (Passega, 1957) was drawn to establish a relationship between texture and
process of deposition. Heavy and Light mineral studies were conducted to cite the provenance of
the Muvattupuzha sediments.

Results
The grain size analysis of the Muvattupuzha sediments showed that 83.33% are polymodal and
the remaining 16.67% are bimodal. The size frequency diagram of various grain-size parameter
of Muvattupuzha river sediments are presented in figure 2. In general, the grain-size of the
sediments varies from the size of granule to clay. Majority of the sediments are between the size
grades of very coarse sand to coarse sands. Very fine sands are present in insignificant quantity
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
and silt is completely absent. Sediments are moderately to poorly sorted, very negatively to very
positively skewed and very platykurtic to very leptokurtic.

Figure 2. Frequency Distribution of Grain Size Parameters of Bottom Sediments
Figure 3 shows the variation of standard deviation with respect to river distance (length of
transportation).

Figure 3. River distance versus standard deviation (grain size parameter)

From the above figure it is evident that the sediments are uniformly distributed and the standard
deviation is increasing towards the river mouth, indicating that the downstream sediments are
comparatively less sorted than the upstream sediments. This is attributed to the estuarine mixing.
The binary plots are shown in figure 4a & 4b.
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).


The relationship between the graphic skewness and phi mean size shows that, as the grain-size
decreases the skewness becomes negative. It is observed that the upstream sediments are
positively skewed and the downstream sediments are negatively skewed.

Discussion
The study on Kerala rivers by Mallik et. al (1987), Unnikrishnan (1987) and Purandara
(1990) and Purandara (1993) revealed that the river sediments follows a decreasing trend (grain
size) towards the downstream of the river. In the present study it is found that the Muvattupuzha
sediments are very fine in size in the downstream direction and are very coarse grained to coarse
grained in the upstream region. This is evident from the polymodal nature of the sediments. The
relatively coarser size of the sediments in the upstream region is attributed to the greater
turbulent motion in the middle of the river, which influences finer materials in suspension for
outward transport. However, in the downstream side, the depth increases and showed a decrease
in competency. In the downstream region, the bottom water is comparatively stagnant and there
is an effect of flocculation due to the saline waters from the estuary, which causes the settling of
clayey particles. It is also observed that the silt particles are completely missing in the
downstream end of the river. This could be attributed to the low energy conditions prevailing in
the downstream, decrease of river velocity and also due to the environmental mixing of river
water with the estuarine water due to which silt and fine clayey particles escape into the
Vembanad lake. The wide variation of grain-size in the downstream region could also be
attributed to the mixing of sediments coming from different tributaries. Muvattupuzha receives
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
large quantity of sediments from Kothamangalam ar, Kaliyar and Thodupuizha before draining
into the Vembanad lake. The progressive sorting and differential transport of the sediments is
observed in the river sediments which could be due to the progressive decline in the competency
of the river (Pettijohn, 1957). In general, the Muvattupuzha sediments are poorly sorted to very
poorly sorted. The poorer sorting may be due to the high-energy condition, relative proximity of
the source area and the influx of the sediments from the tributaries and distributaries. The
Muvattupuzha sediments showed a positive skewness in the upstream and negative skewness in
the downstream. The negative skewness in the downstream is attributed to the addition of fine
clayey material, which is deposited due to the differential settling in the estuarine region. Data
analyses show that, generally moderate to well-sorted sediments which are uni-modal in nature
will have very little internal sorting. The alternate increase and decrease in the values of kurtosis
are associated with the progressive addition of finer particles.

Figure 5. CM Pattern diagram of Selected rivers of Kerala coast

The CM pattern (figure 5) of Muvattupuzha along with Pamba ar and Meenachil ar (all three
debauches into Vembanad lake), shows that the sediments are mainly either transported as
graded suspension, or lifted by bottom turbulence. The CM pattern of three river sediments
shows a similarity with that of the river Mississippi. The mode of sorting of the deposit may be
due to the settling out of a bottom current (Passega and Byramjee, 1969).

Acknowledgement
Authors are highly grateful to Director, NIH, Roorkee for encouraging publication of paper. Mr.
B. Venkatesh, Head, Hard Rock Regional Centre, National Institute of Hydrology is
acknowledged for providing encouragement to bring out this script in time.

References
Dora, Y. L., (1978). Certain aspects of provenance and sedimentation of the modern sediments
of the Godavari River and the Vasishta-Godavari distributary, India. Ph. D thesis. Andhra
University.

Folk, R. L., and Ward, W. C., (1957). Brazos river bar: a study on the significance of grain-size
parameters. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, V.27, pp 3-27.

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

69
G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Krumbein, W. C., and Pettijohn, F. J., (1938). Manual of Sedimentary Petrology, Appleton-
Centenary-Crofts, Inc., New York.

Mallik, T. K., Vasudevan, V., Aby Verghese, P., and Terry Machado, (1987). The black sand
placer deposits of Kerala beach, southwest India. Marine Geology, V.77, pp. 129-150.

Passega, R., (1957). Texture a characteristic of clastic deposition. Bulletin American Association
of Petroleum Geologists, V. 41, pp.1952-1984.

Passega, R., and Byramjee, R., (1969). Grain-size images of clastic deposits. Sedimentology.,
V.13, pp.233-252.

Pettijohn, F. J., (1957). Sedimentary Rocks, Harpers Geoscience Series, New York.

Purandara, B. K., and Dora, Y. L., (1987). Studies on texture and organic matter of the
Vembanad lake and nearshore sediments. Proceedings of the National Seminar on `Estuarine
Management', pp.449-452.

Purandara, B. K., 1993. Texture and Mineralogy of Periyar river (southwest coast of India)
sediments. IJMS, Vol.22, pp. 78-80.

Purandara, B. K., (1990). Provenance, Sedimentation and Geochemistry of the modern sediments
of the mud banks off the Central Kerala Coast, India. Ph. D. thesis, Cochin University of Science
and Technology.

Unnikrishnan, V. P., (1987). Texture, Mineralogy and Provenance of the beach sands of south
Kerala. Ph. D., thesis. Cochin University of Science and Technology.
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Prediction of Extreme Storm Surge Level for Mumbai Coast

A. V. Sitarama Sarma and M. D. Kudale
Central Water and Power Research Station
Khadakwasla, Pune-411 024, India
(akhandam_vsrs@yahoo.co.in, kudale_md@yahoo.co.in)

ABSTRACT

The power plants and refineries are often located along the coasts. Storm surge is one of the
important parameters influencing the design of the coastal plant. The storm surge level decides
the safe grade elevation of the plant. Unrecognizing the extreme storm surge level during the
design of the coastal plant may have disastrous effects during the severe cyclones. It may
completely disrupt the operation or even failure of the coastal plant. On the other hand,
overestimation of the safe grade elevation results in uneconomical design involving huge cost.
Storm surge analysis was carried out for a site near Mumbai on the west coast of India for
estimating the extreme storm surge levels using the past 115 (1891 to 2005) years of storm data.
The values of the storm surge due to inverted barometric effect and due to wind stress were
computed for the 53 storms, which were significant to the Mumbai coast. These data represent
the actual storms over the 115 years period and were fitted to Gumbel, Weibul and Log normal
distributions for extreme analysis. The studies revealed that a surge of 3.0 m and 3.5 m is likely
to occur with 100 year and 1000-year return period respectively at Mumbai. The source of data,
methodology adopted for analysis and the prediction of extreme storm surge values are
described in this paper.

Introduction
Several storms occur on the East and West coasts of India every year, particularly during the
periods from April to June and October to January, due to typical meteorological conditions in
the oceans. On the West coast, the frequency of occurrence of cyclones is low (about 2 per
year), whereas on the East coast, the cyclones are more frequent (about 5 per year). India’s
investment in maritime activities involving transport, fishing and oil/gas exploration is increasing
every year. Many plants like power plants and refineries are located along the coasts for obvious
reasons. The success and performance of these plants are dependent on the reliability of the
assessment of environmental parameters such as winds, waves, currents, storm surge etc., which
govern the design of these plants. Storm surge is the temporary rise in the water level at the
coastline during the cyclone. This temporary rise in the water level takes place only when the
cyclonic wind blows over the continental shelf and pushes the water against the coastline.
Cyclones are not only associated with high winds, but are also associated with torrential rains
that lead to flash flooding and abnormally high waves and storm surge. Each of these alone can
pose a serious threat to life and property. Their combined effect is capable of causing enormous
loss of life and widespread destruction. Severity of the storm i.e. wind speed, pressure gradient
as well as water depth, width of continental shelf etc. establishes the magnitude of the surge. The
determination of the storm surge is site specific and depends on extreme storm climate in the
vicinity of the site. Ideally, determination of extreme storm surge values should be based on the
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
statistical analysis of surge values. Since the long-term measurements of surges, which occur
during the storm conditions, are not available, the extreme value analysis is carried out using past
storm data for estimating the design storm surge. The India Meteorological Department (IMD)
provides the records of the storms in the form of synoptic charts (pressure distribution) and storm
tracks for moving storms. These storm data are useful for hindcasting the storm surge values.
Surge hindcasting is usually done to obtain surge data from the major storms over 30 to 50 years
or longer. Extreme value analysis was carried out for predicting the storm surge values with
various return periods for the Mumbai. In order to determine the extreme water level at the shore,
the predicted maximum storm surge is to be superimposed over the Highest High Water Level.
(HHWL). The sources of data, methodology adopted for extreme surge analysis and the design
storm surge levels derived for the site are presented in the paper.

Necessity of storm surge computation
For the plants located along the coast, the plinth level of the structures is kept well above the
design water level and is called as safe-grade elevation. The determination of safe grade
elevation is site specific and depends primarily on extreme climatic conditions at the site, life of
the structure, risk factor, cost of the project etc. The design safe grade elevation of the plant on
the open coast directly depends on the oceanic parameters such as highest tidal level, tsunami
run-up, storm surge and extreme waves. However, if the plant is located along the estuary or
creek, the highest flood level (which in turn depends on the intense rainfall) also becomes
important parameter for determining the safe-grade elevation. Thus, the highest tidal level,
Tsunami run-up, extreme storm surge, wave run-up, highest flood level and the maximum
rainfall are the six parameters, which decide safe grade elevation of the coastal plant. Ideally,
determination of the extreme surge levels should be based on the statistical analysis of long-term
measurements. Since the long-term measurements of the surge levels, which occur during the
cyclones are not available, the extreme value analysis for the storm surge is carried out using the
hindcast storm surge values (predicted values using past storm data). The extreme value analysis
provides the surge levels for various return periods, which are required for the determination of
the safe grade elevation of the coastal plant.

Hindcasting of storm surge data
The storm data in the form of synoptic charts (pressure distribution) and storm tracks for the
moving storms can be utilized to compute the storm surge levels that would occur at particular
coastal site. The computed values of the storm surge data, obtained by considering the storms
passed by the area of interest within 350 km from the coastline and for which the wind was
blowing over the continental shelf in front of the Mumbai coast in the past 115 years (1891-
2005).

The term ‘hindcasting’ is popularly used in the Costal Engineering in the context of predicting
the wave conditions using the past storm data. Wave hindcasting is usually carried out to obtain
storm wave data from the past storms. These storm wave data are subjected to extreme value
analysis for predicting the wave conditions having various return periods. By using the same
analogy, the storm surge values having various return periods can be predicted by carrying out
the extreme value analysis of ‘hindcast storm surge data’. The parameters, which govern the
storm surge, are:

1) Wind speed
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
2) Duration of wind
3) Distance over which the wind blows, called 'fetch'
4) Isobaric pressure gradient and
5) The width of the continental shelf
6) Water depth at the edge of the continental shelf
7) Water depth at the observing site

Empirical methods are available for estimating storm surge from the above parameters.
The data regarding wind speed, wind duration and fetch length are obtained from the storm
tracks and the synoptic charts. The wind speed is determined from the pressure gradient and the
latitude of the fetch area. The pressure gradient is determined from the isobar spacing shown on
the synoptic chart. The width of the continental shelf and water depths can be obtained from the
hydrographic charts.

Analysis of Storm Data :
A total number of 53 storm conditions including depressions were found to be of significance to
the Mumbai Coast in the past 115 years (1891 to 2005). The storm tracks of some of the storms,
which passed by coast of Mumbai are shown in Fig. 1. Synoptic chart for the cyclone of June
1977 is shown in Fig. 2. The breakup of these 53 storm conditions is as :

Depressions 14 Nos.
Deep Depressions 03 Nos.
Storms 11 Nos.
Severe storms 18 Nos.
Severe Cyclonic Storms 06 Nos.
Very Severe Cyclonic Storms

01 Nos.
Synoptic charts showing the pressure distribution of the storm on the day which generates
maximum storm surge were obtained from Indian Daily Weather Report (IDWR), available at
IMD. Based on the pressure distribution of the storm, surge analysis was carried out. The
analysis was done keeping in view the location of the area and the storms were assumed to pass
over Mumbai.
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).






















Fig 1: Typical Cyclonic Storm Tracks



















Fig 2 : Typical Synoptic Chart of the Storm on 10
th
June 1977 ( 0830 Hrs)


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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
STORM SURGE ANALYSIS
Rise in the normal water level due to storms is called as “Storm Surge”. The storm surge at or
near the shoreline is due to two main components viz. (a) inverted barometric pressure effect
and (b) onshore wind stress effect. The computations of the storm surge for the storms in the
vicinity of Mumbai area for each of the two components are described in the following
paragraphs.

Inverted Barometric Effect :
The inverted barometric effect is the tendency of the water surface to be sucked upwards in
regions of low atmospheric pressure. During the storm conditions, the water surface rise is
centered at the eye of the storm and depends directly on the central pressure relative to normal
sea-level pressure.

The surge due to inverted barometric effect (S
a
) is given by Silvester (1974)
2
:

( )
0
01 . 0 P P S
n a
− = in metre .......... (1)

Where, P
n
= Pressure of the isobar at the boundary of storm, in mb
P
o
= Pressure at the centre of storm, in mb

The central pressure (P
o
) is generally not mentioned on the synoptic charts. However, it
can be computed using Hydromet-Rankin Vortex Model for the cyclones Herbich (1990)
1
. The
pressure profile of a cyclone in Hydromet-Rankin Model is given by:

r R
n
r
e
P P
P P
/
0
0 −
=


.......... (2)
Where,
r = Radial distance from the center of storm in km
R = Radial distance of maximum cyclostrophic wind from the center of
storm in km.
P
r
= Pressure at radial distance ‘r’ in mb

The set of the values of P
r
and r can be obtained from the synoptic chart and equation (2)
can be solved for P
o
and R.

Wind Stress Effect :

Generally, the larger component of any storm surge is that due to the wind stress on the
water surface. The storm surge at the shoreline of an open ocean (i.e. storm surge over the
continental shelf) due to static wind field is given by Silvester (1974)
2
as:









+ − −
=
w w
w
S d
d
S d d g
L kU
S
2
1
2 1
2
ln
) (
.......... (3)
Where,
S
w
= Storm surge due to wind stress in meters
k = Wind stress co-efficient
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
= 0.000003 for open ocean,
= 0.0000033 for enclosed/semi enclosed water bodies
U = Surface wind speed in m/sec
L = Length or Fetch over which wind is blowing in meters.
g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/sec
2
)
d
1
= Depth of the water at the edge of the continental shelf in meters
d
2
= Depth of the water near the coast in meters

Results of Storm Surge Analysis
The values of the storm surge due to inverted barometric effect (S
a
) and due to wind stress (S
w
)
were computed for all the 53 storms, which were significant for the Mumbai Coast. Besides the
wind stress forcing the water shoreward, the reduction of atmospheric pressure at the centre of
the storm also causes a rise in the water level, as mentioned earlier. The maximum barometric
surge may be concurrent with the wind stress surge or it may precede or follow it. For
engineering purposes, it is desirable to consider them as synchronous. Considering these two
effects synchronous, the total surge at the Mumbai coast (-5 m contour, at the mouth of Thane
creek) during the severe cyclone of 10
th
June, 1977 work out as 3.16 m.

Out of the 53 storm conditions, there are 11 storm conditions, which generated a total storm
surge of 2.0 m or higher at the coast of Mumbai. The most of the severe storms producing higher
storm surge at the Mumbai coast had occurred in the months of May, June, October and
November.

Extreme value analysis of storm surge data
The objective of extreme value analysis is to predict the storm surge for the different return
periods using the past storm data. Prediction of extreme storm surge over a life span of 50 years,
100 years or 1000 years of the plant is required for determining the safe grade elevation. The
storm surge, which occurs on an average once in 100 years, will have 100 year ‘return period’
(R
p
). In the case of nuclear power plants the return period is to be considered as 1000 years. The
storm surge data of 53 storms were considered for extreme surge analysis. These data represent
the actual storms over a period of 115 years (1891 to 2005) and were fitted to Gumbel, Weibull
and Log-Normal distributions, since these distributions are applicable for the storm data
[Herbich, (1990)
1
]. The plots of Gumbel, Weibull and Log-Normal distributions for the storm
surge are shown in Figs. 3 to Fig. 5 respectively.
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Fig 3 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Gumbel Distribution Fig 3 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Gumbel Distribution Fig 3 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Gumbel Distribution Fig 3 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Gumbel Distribution
R
P
= 10 y
S = 2.0 m
R
P
= 100 y
S = 2.8 m
R
P
= 1000 y
S = 3.4 m
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
0.10 1.00 10.00 VARIATE
S
T
O
R
M

S
U
R
G
E

(
m
)


DATA POINTS RETURN PERIOD VALUES

Fig 4 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Weibul Distribution Fig 4 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Weibul Distribution Fig 4 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Weibul Distribution Fig 4 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Weibul Distribution
R
P
= 1000 y
S = 3.5m
R
P
= 100 y
S = 2.9 m
R
P
= 10 y
S = 2.0 m
1.00
10.00
0.10 1.00 10.00
Y

v
a
r
i
a
n
t
STORM SURGE ( m)
DATA Points Return Period Values

Fig 5 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Log Normal Distribution Fig 5 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Log Normal Distribution Fig 5 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Log Normal Distribution Fig 5 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Log Normal Distribution
R
P
= 10 y
S = 1.9 m
R
P
= 100 y
S = 3.0 m
R
P
= 1000 y
S = 3.2 m
0
1
2
3
4
5
0.0001 0.0010 0.0100 0.1000 1.0000
PROBABILITY OF EXCEEDENCE
S
T
O
R
M

S
U
R
G
E

(
M
)
DATA POINTS RETURN PERIOD VALUES

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
The 100-year and 1000-year return period storm surge values for the Mumbai coast are predicted
as 3.0 m and 3.5 m respectively.

Concluding remarks
For economic and safe design of the coastal Plant, it is essential to consider the extreme storm
surge value (likely to occur during the lifetime of the plant) in determining the safe grade
elevation. The parameters such as surface wind speed, water depth, width of continental shelf
and isobaric pressure gradient determines storm surge value on the open coast. The predicted
extreme storm surge values with 100-year return period and 1000-year return period for the
Mumbai Coast are 3.0 m and 3.5 m respectively.

Acknowledgement
The Authors are grateful to Mrs. V. M. Bendre, Director, Central Water and Power Research
Station (CWPRS), Pune, India for her kind consent to present this paper.

References
1. Herbich J.B. (1990), “Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 1”, Gulf
Publishing Company, Houston, Texas.

2. Silvester R. (1974) “Coastal Engineering, Vol. II”, Elsevier Scientific Publishing
Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Dynamic Evolution of the Maharashtra Coast

Milind A. Herlekar* and R.K. Sukhtankar**
*Department of Geology, University of Pune, Pune
**Department of Atmospheric and Space Science, University of Pune, Pune

ABSTRACT

The Maharashtra coast is a part of the central west coast of India, developed on the western
continental margin, which is regarded as the trailing, passive continental margin of the
advancing Indian subcontinent. Being the trailing margin, number of structural and tectonic
elements have developed on and off the west coast of India; in the form of faults and rifts.
Further evolution of the west coast reveals the imprints in the form of submarine terraces and
also the marine terraces in the form of raised beaches all along the coast in response to glacial –
interglacial cycles. However, it is observed that such raised terraces are rather discontinuous
and also with varying heights. These features have been interrupted in between by the features
which are marine erosional in character, thereby suggesting that the Maharashtra coast has
responded differentially to sea level changes during the Holocene period.
Details of the evolutionary history are discussed.

Introduction
A major physiographic division in the western part of Maharashtra state is termed as Kokan,
which lies between the Arabian Sea to the west and the Sahyadri ranges or the Western Ghats to
the east. The Sahyadri or Western Ghats are considered as receded erosional fault scarp (Ollier
and Powar, 1985), which gave rise to Kokan. The fault is regarded as the West Coast Fault,
genesis of which is ascribed to the rifting and drifting of the Indian Sub-continent from the
erstwhile Gondwanaland. Exact location of the West Coast Fault, however, is much debated in
literature. Most part of the Kokan is developed on the Deccan basalts of the Continental
Tholeiitic Province of India. Development of the various geomorphic features in the Kokan
suggests that it has experienced the complex geomorphic processes during the Quaternary period
and analysis of these features reveal the complexities in these processes associated with the
transgressional and regressional cycles of the Quaternary glaciation.

Physiography
The Sahyadris or Western Ghat is a unique topographic feature of the Peninsular India. It is
about 1500 km long and consists of high hill ranges, which rise in elevation 1000 – 2000 m
above msl and are aligned nearly in northwest-southeast direction, paralleling the west coast of
India. The western edge of the Ghats is a steep escarpment that has given rise to a narrow coastal
belt; which is termed as the Kokan. The elevation of the crestline of the Western Ghats ranges
between 760 m and 915 m above msl and the highest peak at about 1646 m above msl is at
Kalsubai.
Major rivers in the Kokan are Vaitarna, Ulhas, Kundalika, Savitri, Vashisti, Shastri and Gad,
which originate in the Sahyadri - the Western Ghats and flow towards west and meet the Arabian
sea. As these rivers originate at much high altitude and before meeting the sea, flow for a
relatively short distance, they have a steep gradient, eroding the source region in the upper
reaches at a faster rate. This results in a heavy deposition of sediments in the estuaries. The
Kokan coastal belt is interspersed in between by the promontories of the Western Ghats, which
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
are rather the offshoots of the Sahyadri ranges and trend in nearly east west direction, due to
which different river basins have formed in the belt.
A variety of geomorphic features have developed in the belt. These features owe their origin to
the fluvial processes, marine processes and also aeolian processes. As the coast falls in a
transitional environment, characterized by marine and fluvial processes, geomorphic features are
therefore the result of such processes, in addition to which the Quaternary glacial cycles brought
about the changes in sea-level thereby affecting the development of coastal geomorphic features.
A variety of geomorphic features present in the Kokan coastal belt is therefore a result of such
complex processes.

Geology of the Area
Lithological units exposed in the Kokan region belong mainly to four geological periods; viz; the
Archaeans, the Proterozoic, the Cretaceous–Miocene and the Quaternary. The Archaeans
constitute mainly the Peninsular Gneiss, represented by granites and granite gneiss and
Dharwarian schists, metamorphic quartzites, and the basic intrusives like Vajrat Gabbro,
whereas, the Proterozoics are the indurated shales, conglomerates and quartzites of autoclastic
origin, which are low-grade metamorphic sediments of the Kaladgi Supergroup. These are
exposed mainly in the southern part of Kokan, i.e., around Malvan, Vengurla, Sawantwadi and
Phonda region.
These Precambrian- the Archaeans and the Proterozoics are unconformably overlain by the basic
extrusives, i.e. the Deccan basalts, which is a Continental Tholeiitic Province of India of
Cretaceous-Miocene period (Krishnan, 1968). Except in the southern Kokan, rest of the area is
occupied by these basalt flows. In the northern part of the Kokan, around Alibag and Revdanda,
the basalt flows have been profusely intruded, in the form of swarm of doleritic dykes. Just north
of Revdanda, an intrusion of granodiorite in the form of huge pluton has also been observed. In
the same region are also exposed the magmatic differentiates of the basalts, along with the dykes
of lamprophyric composition. The basalt flows are generally horizontal to subhorizontal in
disposition. However, due north of Revdanda, i.e. the Kundalika river creek, horizontality of the
basalt flows is slightly disturbed and exhibit dip of about 5º -10º towards west, whereas to the
south of the creek, in the entire region, the basalt flows are in horizontal disposition.
The basalt flows most commonly are amygdaloidal, vesicular, compact, porphyritic and dark
colored. Agglomeratic basalts and acid differentiates have also been reported from the area
around Mumbai (Bombay). In amygdaloidal basalts, the secondary minerals, like; zeolites,
calcite, chalcedony, chert, agate occur as secondary minerals in the form of cavity filling deposit.
Presence of secondary minerals represent post magmatic-hydrothermal activity that took place
after the main eruptive phase of Deccan basalts was over.
The youngest lithounit exposed in the area and rather all along the coast constitutes
unconsolidated to little consolidated carbonate sediments of the Quaternary period. On
consolidation and compaction, fine sediments have given rise to friable shales. These sediments
are also exposed in the inland region through the mouths of the estuaries and the major streams
and also through the tidal inlets. These sediments comprise the molluscan shell fragments as
predominant constituents and therefore, these are termed as ‘shell limestone’.
These Quaternary carbonate sediments are exposed along the coast in the form of linear beaches,
pocket beaches and as beach-dune complexes. Along the beach, these are well developed in the
intertidal zone that varies generally between 100 m to 500 m in width. It is observed that
lamellibranch shell fragments have been well preserved in these carbonate sediments, which, in
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
geological literature, are commonly referred to as ‘littoral concrete’ (Pascoe, 1964), whereas,
locally these sediments are termed as ‘karals’ (Guzder, 1980.

Geomorphic Features
The Konkan coast is prominently marked by the development of headlands, pocket beaches,
linear beaches, which have been segmented by major rivers, viz; Kundalika, Savitri, Vashisti,
Shastri, etc. (Fig. 1).
The coastal plain is dominated by marine processes, which is divisible broadly into three zones,
viz;
i) The offshore zone between outer edge of the continental shelf and low tide mark,
ii) The shore zone-between the low tide and high tide mark and
iii) The coastal zone, which is a transitional zone between marine and fluvial
environments.
The inland Konkan is marked by fluvial and mass-wasting processes and even marine planation /
planar surfaces occur through the fluvial system.

The various geomorphic features that have been identified as follows-

Features
Process Erosional Depositional



Marine




Offshore zone Islands Islands
Shore zone

Rock beach, wave-cut
platforms, sea-cliffs, sea-
caves, stacks, Pocket
beaches,
Sand beaches, Pebbly
beaches, Spits, Sand bars,
tombolos, Bay-head bars
Coastal zone

Headlands, creeks, bays,
tidal inlets

Tidal flats, mud flats,
Tidal swamps, Tidal
marshes, Lagoons
Inland region

Uplifted marine platform Uplifted littoral terraces,
raised beaches, estuaries,
Rias
Fluvial Hill ranges, Valleys and
gorges, water falls, and
rapids, Planar surfaces
Alluvial plains, Fluvio-
colluvial slopes, River
terraces.
Aeolian Coastal dunes

Details of theses features have already been described elsewhere (Powar, et.al 1978, 1979 a and
b; Patil, et.al. 1988, Sukhtankar, 1989).
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Planar surfaces: The term ‘planar surface’ has been introduced by Raman Rao and
Vaidyanadhan (1974) as a primary geomorphic feature of fluvial erosional character. In other
words, such surfaces were identified as erosional. However later, Vaidyanadhan (1987) in a
review of the Quaternary Planar surfaces has suggested that all such surfaces are not necessarily
erosional, but some of them, like those at lower altitudes, nearer to the coast and those associated
with the Quaternary sediments are either partly erosional, partly depositional or are entirely
depositional. According to him, the Quaternary planar surfaces occur along the coast and also
along the extensive flood plains. It has also been observed that though the term ‘planar’ indicates
a plain geometrically, it is not necessarily a ‘plane’. More commonly, in a planar surface there
are variations in altitudes. On a local scale, it appears rather irregular or undulating, while on a
regional scale, it is planar.
The planar surfaces in the Konkan coastal tract have been identified at elevation of 150-200m,
60-90m, 20-40m, and also as promontories of the Western Ghats, ranging between 3 and 25 m
above msl. The lowermost surface gradually merges towards west along the coast with the
surface of the raised marine terrace, resulted due to deposition of the Quaternary carbonate
sediments.
Planar surfaces in the south Konkan are on the Deccan basalts and on the quartzites. The altitude
frequency analysis reveals the planar surfaces at 260-300m, 190-220m 90-110m, 50-70m and the
lowest at 20-40 m elevation slope from east to west.
Discussion
It is imperative to look into the offshore features of the coast, which are expected to throw light
on its evolutionary history.
The important offshore feature is the presence of number of islands, viz., Chaul Kadu, Rat, Sansa
fort, Janjira Fort, Butcher, Underi, Khanderi, Arnala, and Sindhudurg Fort etc. These islands
more or less are linearly placed and are parallel to the coast. Such a linearity rather appears to be
fault controlled and the islands are the erosional features.
The presence of submarine terraces on the Western Continental Margin has also been reported.
According to Nair (1974), these terraces occur at -92m, -85m, -75m, and
-55 m depth. Their radio carbon dates suggest the age range between 9000 and 11000, yrs. B.P.
According to Nair (op.cit), these terraces represent still-stands, genesis of which is ascribed to
Flandrian transgression.
In the sequence of evolution, formation of the islands appears to precede formation of the
submerged marine terraces. The Flandrian transgression, responsible for submarine terraces, also
has given rise to the raised marine terraces along the west coast.
The presence of the raised marine terrace all along the Konkan coast has already been reported,
whereas the presence of additional–younger marine terrace has been reported in the southern
Konkan coast (Sukhtankar, et.al. 1986). On the basis of the spatial distribution of marine
erosional and marine depositional features, Powar et.al. (1978) suggested the presence of hinge
fault along the trend of Kundalika River, while Sukhtankar (1995) has segmented Konkan coast
into three morphotectonic blocks (Fig.2).
Topographic studies of the central Konkan i.e. from Dabhol creek to Jaigarh creek in general
exhibits coarse texture, extent of dissection has reached the monadnock phase. Quantitative
analysis of geomorphic features indicates that the NE part has been uplifted in the relation to SW
part of the area.
In brief, evolution of the Konkan coast can be summarized as;
i. Faulting along the coast to give rise to erosional offshore islands,
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
ii. The formation of the raised marine terrace during the period between 9000 yrs. to 11000
yrs. B.P. ,
iii. The presence of raised marine terrace all along the coast as marine depositional features,
around 6000 yrs. B.P.
iv. The presence of sea-cliff, wave-cut platforms and headlands as marine erosional features,
v. The presence of linear beach, in segments along the coast is an indication of the fault
along the coast. Their en-echelon disposition indicates the differential displacement,
ascribed to the drift history of the Indian subcontinentant,
vi. The differential displacement of the Konkan coast along the lineaments in 18º, 50’
longitudes, 17º, N latitudes.

Acknowledgement: The first author (MAH) is thankful to Prof. N. J. Pawar, Head, Department
of Geology, University of Pune, Pune, for encouragement and providing the necessary facilities.

References
Guzder, S., (1980), Quaternary Environment and Stone Age Culture of the Konkan Coastal
Maharashtra, Ph.D. thesis, University of Poona, (unpublished).
Krishnan, M. S., (1968), Geology of India and Burma, Pub. CBS., 525 pp.
Nair, R.R. (1974), Holocene sea-levels on the western continental shelf of India,
Proceedings of the India Academy of Science, 79(5), 197-203 pp.
Ollier C. D. and Powar, K.B. (1985), Z. Geomorph N.F. 54, 57-69 pp.
Pascoe, E. H., (1964), A manual of Geology of India and Burma, Manager of Publ., Civil
Lines, Delhi, 3, 1345-2130 pp.
Patil D. N., Sukhtankar, R.K. and Powar K. B. (1988), Geomorphic Evolution of the
Kokan Coastal Belt Between Palghar and Vijaydurg, Maharashtra, India. Proc. Nat. Sem,
“Recent – Quaternary Studies in India”, M.P. Patel, Nikhil Desai (eds). M.S. University of
Baroda, Vadodara, 198-210 pp.
Powar K. B., Sukhtankar, R.K. Patil D. N. and, Sawant
,
P.T. (1978), Geomorphology and
Tectonics of West Coast of India between Revas and Srivardhan, Kolaba Dist., Maharashtra.
Tech Report 2, Dept. of Geology., Univ. Of Poona, Pune, submitted to ONGC, Dehradun
(Unpublished).
Powar, K. B., Sukhtankar, R.K. and, Patil D. N. (1979 a), Geomorphology and Tectonics
of West Coast of India between Palghar and Revas, Maharashtra, Tech. Report 2, Dept. of
Geology., Univ. Of Poona, Pune, Submitted to ONGC, Dehradun (Unpublished).
Powar, K. B., Sukhtankar, R.K. and, Sawant
,
P.T. (1979 b), Geomorphology and
Tectonics of West Coast of India between Sriwardhan and Vijaydurg, Maharashtra, Tech. Report
3, Dept. of Geol., Univ. Of Poona, Pune, Submitted to ONGC, Dehradun (Unpublished).
Raman Rao, K.L.V. and R. Vaidynandhan (1974), The ‘Planar surfaces’ of the Keonjhar
Region, Eastern India, Ind. Jour. Earth Sci. 1 (1), 84-95 pp.
Sukhtankar, R.K. (1995), An evolutionary model based on geomorphologic and tectonic
characteristics of the Maharashtra coast, India, Quaternary International, Vol.26, 131-137 pp.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Sukhtankar, R.K. (1989), Coastal Geomorphic Features in Relation to Neotectonics along the
Coastal Tract of Maharashtra and Karnataka., Geol. Surv. of India, Spl. Pub., 24, 319-325 pp.
Vaidyanadhan (1987), Coastal Geomorphology in India, Jour. Geol. Soc. of Ind. Vol. 29, 373-
378 pp.













Fig. 1. Location Map of the Study area
Fig. 2. Major lineaments, linear coastal
tracts and their en echelon disposition
(after Sukhtankar, 1995).
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
Geomorphic Development of River Basins of Konkan Coastal Belt with
Raigad District, Maharashtra, With Respect to Sinuosity Index
P.T. Sawant
Department of Geology,
Walchand College, Solapur 413006
(sawantpt@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

Morphological analysis has been carried out to study the drainage pattern of the river basins of
Konkan Coastal Belt (KCB) of Raigad District of Maharashtra State. The area consists of twelve
river basins viz., Savitri (i), Kal, Gandhari, Nageshwari, Ghod, Savitri (ii), Rajpuri (i), Mandod,
Rajpuri (ii), Pat, Jog and Jagbudi river basins.
The Stream order ranges from second to sixth order basins with elongated, oval, and less
elongated types. From the analysis, it is interred that six basins are in the youthful stage and six
basins are in early matured stage, of their development.
Introduction
In this paper an attempt has been made to analyse the evolutionary status of twelve river basins
of Konkan Coastal Belt (KCB) with request to the sinuosity index. Drainage pattern reflects a
wide range of influences, including morphology, geological structure, climate and history of
drainage development.
Study area
The study area lies between (North Lat. 17° 24' and ISO 20' and East long 73° 45' covering a
total area of about 650 sq. km. (Fig 1.1) The area falls under humid tropical region and is about
1000 m (above MSL) The topography is undulating with hills and valleys. Geologically the area
represents a hard rock terrain of basaltic rock formation. Major soil types are Lateritic, Red
10ams and Riverine Alluvium.
Methodology
The Konkan Coastal Belt of Raigad District has been selected to evaluate geomorphic and
morpho-tectonic development of the area up to Sahyadri crest line. The study has been
conducted under the project Eco-Geo-Morpho-Tectonic and related studies in the geologically
sensitive areas of Maharashtra, sponsored by UGC. There are twelve river basins in the Raigad
District between Lat 17° 24' and 18° 20' N and Long 72° 47' and 73° 45' E (Fig 1)
The sinuosity index reveals the topographic conditions of any area. The sinuosity index is the
ratio between channel length (CL) and river Valley Length (VL) The value varies from 1.1 to
4.00 or more. River sinuosity indices of less than 1.5 are called sinuous and those having values
of 1.5 or more are called meandering (Strahler, 1964). This index is significant in assessing the
evaluation of drainage and landforms. The streams equals to valley and streams slightly smaller
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
compared to valleys represent youth, mature and old stage of topography (Muller, 1968; Singh
and Singh, 1984)
The calculations of various types of sinuosity indices are made on the basis of the following
formulae.
1. Channel Index (CI) = Channel (CL)/ Air Distance
(Hydraulic and Topographic Sinuosity)
2. Valley Index (VI) = Valley Length (VL) Air Distance
(Topographic Sinuosity)
3. Hydraulic Sinuosity Index (HIS) = % equivalent of CI-VI/CI-I
4. Topographic Sinuosity Index (CSI) = % equivalent of VI-l /CI-l
5. Channel Sinuosity Index (CSI)= Channel Length (CL)/ Valley Length (VL)
6. Standard Sinuosity Index (SSI) =Channel Length (CL)/ Valley Index (VL)
Results and discussion
Geomorphic Analysis with respect to sinuosity indices has been made according to Muller’s
(1968) technique. Table 1 shows the channel Index (CI), Valley Index (VI) Hydraulic Sinuosity
Index (HSI), Topographic Sinuosity Index (TSL) Channel Sinuosity Index (CSI), Standard
Sinuosity Index (SSI) etc. for the twelve selected micro basins (Table 1)
The topographic sinuosity index is outstanding during the stages of youthful development when
hydraulic sinuosity index is negligible. The hydrologic sinuosity index becomes dominant in the
old stage, when most of the topographic sinuosity (TSL) has been destroyed (Gardiner, 1982).
In the study area, the maximum hydraulic sinuosity index is (163.00) for Ghod river basin and
the minimum TSI (-0.017) for Jog river basin has been described. The minimum HIS is 28.00
and the maximum TSI value is 72.00 for Pat river. The channel and valley indices range from
0.64 and 0.72 to 3.19 and 2.65.
On the basis of standard sinuosity index, the drainage basin may be classified into the following
stages of geomorphic developments- 1) Youthful (Less than 1.15), 2) early mature (1.50 to 2.00),
and 3) mature (more than 2.00).
In the study area, the SSI of the river basins ranges from 1.18 for Pat river basin to maximum
2.61 for Mandod river basin and according to the above classification Gandhari, Savitri (Upper
reaches), Rajpuri, Pat, Jog and Jagbudi river basins are in the youthful stage of development and
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
other river basins viz., Savitri (lower reaches) Kal, Nageswari, Ghod, Rajpuri (Lower reaches)
and Mandod are in early mature stage (Fig. 2).
Conclusion
The study highlights that six river basins are of youthful stage of geomorphic development and
six river basins have reached to the early mature stage of development.
Acnowledgements
The work is carried out under the financial support received from the U.G.C. New Delhi is
greatfully acknowledged.
References
Schumn, S.A. (1956): The Evolution of Drainage System and Slope in Bad Lands at Parth
Ambay- New Jersey- Geol.
Strahler, A.N. (1964): Quantitative Geomorphology of Drainage Basin and Channel Network in
Hand Book of Applied Hydrology Ed. V. T. Chow, New York Mc Craw Hill.
Muller, J. E. (1968): An Introduction to Hydraulic and Topographic Sinuosity indexes. Annuals
of Association of American Geologists Vol. 58
Gradinoer, V. (1982): Drainage Basin Morphometry: Quantitative Analysis of Drainage Basin
From, in Sharma, (H. S). (ed)., Perspectives in Geomorphology, Vol – II Concept Publishing
Company, New Delhi, P. 107-142
Sarvesh Singh and Singh M.B (1986). Morphometric Analysis of Kanhar River Basin, National
Geographical Journal of India Vol. 43 P 31-32

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Table 1
Channel Index (CI), Valley Index (VI) Hydraulic Sinuosity Index (HSI), Topographic Sinuosity
index (TSL) Channel Sinusity Index (CSI) , Standard Sinuosity Index (SSI) etc. tor the twelve
selected micro basins of the Konkan Coastal Belt {KCB) of Raigad Dist. Maharashtra
Basin
No.
Basin CL VL AD CI VI CSI HIS TSI SSI
1. Savitri 86.40 36.00 39.60 2.18 0.91 2.40 1.07 -0.08 2.40
2. Kal 74.16 30.96 43.20 1.72 0.72 2.39 1.38 -0.39 2.37
3. Gandhari 54.00 36.00 32.40 1.67 1.11 1.50 0.83 0.16 1.52
4. Nageshwari 52.56 25.20 33.84 1.55 0.74 2.08 1.47 -0.47 2.10
5. Ghod 88.56 36.00 56.16 1.57 0.64 2.46 1.63 -0.63 2.45
6. Savitri 103.68 56.88 54.72 1.89 1.04 1.82 0.96 0.044 1.82
7. Rajpuri 49.68 24.48 18.72 2.65 1.30 2.03 0.81 0.18 2.04
8. Mandod 84.96 32.40 26.64 3.19 1.22 2.62 0.89 0.10 2.61
9. Rajpuri 43.20 28.08 19.99 2.16 1.40 1.54 0.66 0.345 1.54
10. Pat 125.8 105.84 56.88 2.20 1.86 1.18 0.28 -0.72 1..18
11. Jog 79.20 49.76 50.40 1.57 0.99 1.59 1.02 -0.02 1.59
12. Jagbudi 158.40 100.80 79.20 2.00 1.27 1.57 0.73 0.27 1.58
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

Pharmaceutical Processing Techniques for Marine Originates in
Ayurveda

P.G.Jadar
P.G.Dept of Rasashastra
K.L.E’s Shri B.M.K.Ayurved Mahavidyalaya
Post graduate Studies and Research Centre,
Belgavi, Karnataka 590003

ABSTRACT

In Ayurveda in the group of Sudha varga Shankha(Conch), Kapardika(cowry), Shukti (Oyster),
Mukta (Pearl), Shambhuka(Squarriled small conch),Pravala,(Coral), and Samudraphena (Cattl
efishbone), Agnijara(Ambergris),of sea origin were included. Later on Kurma prishtha
(Tortisebackbone) was added & Lavana (Salt) is also considered as marine originates.
These drugs are hot in potency, astringent in property and are the drug of choice for hyper
acidity & peptic ulcer. They stimulates the appetite, improves digestion, eliminates flatulence &
averts vomiting .They are potent astringent, hence are beneficial in diarrhoea, dysentery &
chronic colitis. They ameliorates acne, improves complexion & also augments the strength.
The aim of this work is to emphasize on the products which are obtained naturally from sea but
need to be collect a good variety, purified, processed and converted in a suitable form for the
therapeutic purpose.
The products will be dealt in sequence and purification (Shodhana), incineration (Marana),
processes are given in a table with their recommended doses. These marine products are used
either in Bhasma form or in Pishti form also in liquid form. Bhasma is obtained by heating the
purified product for certain duration at specific temperature. While Pishti does not require heat,
the drug is given Bhavana of a certain liquid Rosewater oftenly for certain period. It can be
concluded that-
1. Marine originates are used therapeutically after proper variety selection & specific
purification, incineration with different temperature & preparing in suitable form.
2. Marine originates differ in their properties and therapeutic uses due to the presence
of different trace elements.
3. Emphasis should be made to obtain and process these products carefully so that it
can be served for the ailments and betterment of a mankind.

INTRODUCTION

In Ayurveda marine originates are mentioned in the Sudhavarga (Calcium group of drugs).
These drugs are used either in Bhasma form (ash) or in Pishti form (powder).
Therapeutically these are used after proper authentication, purification, incineration and
converting into a suitable usable form.
In general marine originates are
• Alkaline
• Hot
• Astringent
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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
MATERIALS

1. Shankha - Conch
2. Kapardika - Cowrie
3. Shukti - Oyster
4. Mukta - Pearl
5. Shambhuka - Squarriled small conch
6. Pravala - Coral
7. Samudraphena - Cuttle fish bone
8. Agnijara - Ambergrees
9. Kurmaprishtha - Tortise back bone
10. Samudra lavana - Sea salt
Most of the aquatic organisms synthesize organic calcium carbonate from their bodies to make
their shells and bones. When they die, the shells and bones are disintegrated by waves into
shell, coral sand and mud.
METHODS

I. Purification
II. Incineration
III. Preparation of Powder
I. PURIFICATION / DETOXIFICATION
The act of treating a substance with advised matter by boiling, steaming etc. so as to remove
unwanted substances.
• To remove physical and Chemical impurities
• Convert toxic drug to non-toxic
• Transforming hard material to brittle one
• Enhance the therapeutic efficacy
• Induce new therapeutic properties
• Make drugs , suitable for incineration
• Reduce the particle size
• Imbue organic properties to inorganic
II. INCINARATION
Heating transforms and enables the drugs to easily get assimilated into the human body.
• Purified drug + Herbal extract Triturating paste
• Suitable for internal administration
• Readily absorbable
• Bio-available
• Pharmacologically potent
III. PREPARATION OF POWDER
Purified drugs are triturated with Rose water in a mortar and pestle made of stone and the
mixture is dried in moon light.
1. SHANKHA – CONCH
• Strombus gigas- Queen Conch
• Is a large sea snail with a heavy, spiral shell.
• Shell colour - varies
• CaCO
3 ,
with organic elements.


National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
• Levorotatory - Most common
• Dextrorotatory – Rare
Purification - Steamed with lemon juice
Incineration - 800 to1000
0
C
Dose - 240 to 480 mg.
Use - Hyper acidity, Peptic ulcer etc.
2. KAPARDIKA- COWRIE
• Cyprea moneta - Cypraiedae
• Sea snail with a shiny, colourful shell
• 0.5 to 6 inches long with a triangular base
• More than 150 types
• Composed of CaCO
3
and few organic elements.


Purification – Steaming in a Sourgruel
Incineration - 250 to 300
0
C
CaCO
3
CaO + CO
2

Dose - 250 to 500 mg.
Use - Chronic Colitis
- Chronic Suppurative (Externally)
3. SHUKTI - OYSTER
• Pinctada maargaritifera- Oyester shell
• Soft, edible body inside a hard, two piece shell.
• Shell- Often sharp edged and very irregular in shape
• Composed of CaCO
3
and few organic elements.


Purification -
a) Boiling in the juice of Sesbania egyptica (Jayanti)
b) Steaming it in a sour gruel
Incineration - 800 to 1000
0
C
Dose - 240 to 480 mg.
Use - Reduces the Urine sugar
- Asthama and Colitis
4. MUKTA- PEARL
• Margoriata
• Pearl obtained from Pearl Oyster
• Composed of CaCO
3
, C
3
H
18
N
9
O
11
nH
2
O
• Into Shell - Foreign body - Secretes secretions
• Natural defence - CaCO3 – translucent
• Canchialian- C
30
H
48
N
2
O
2
transparent

Purification - Dipping in Lemon or Sour Butter milk
Incineration - 400 to 600
0
C
Dose - 30 to 60 mg.
Use- High fever, Burning sensation, Bleeding disorders.
Pishti- Purified pearls - processed with rose water
Use- It arrests bleeding through sputum in T.B.
5. SHAMBHUKA- SQUARRILED CONCH
• Pila
• Family – Mollusca, found in rivers, lakes.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
• Resembles Conch, cover - thin, hard and coiled.
Purification – Same as Conch
Incineration – Same as Conch
Dose - 240 mg.
Use- Weak digestion
- Eye disosders
- Abdominal pain
- Diarrhoea
6. PRAVALA - CORAL
• Made of skeletal remains of Anthezoa polypus
• As they grow – Branch out, form coral reefs and atolls
• Categorization - Basal part , Porous tube like branches
• Red Coral valued as - Jewel, Medicine
Purification - i) By immersing in diluted lemon juice
ii) By steaming in juice of Amaranthus spinosus (Tandulia)
Incineration - 400 to 600
0
C
Dose - 240 to 480 mg.
Use - In burning sensation of body, eyes, hands, feet.
- It arrests the bleeding
- In Cough, T.B., Pleurisy
Pishti - Purified pearls - Processed with rose water
7. SAMUDRAPHENA - CUTTLE FISH BONE
• Sepia officinalis
• Mollusk (Soft, boneless) – In same class as squid
• Size - 3 inches to 6 feet
• Internal shell - Cuttle bone
• When it dies, all organs get degraded and the bones floats on the surface of the
sea
Purification - Soaked in lemon juice, dried in sunlight.
Incineration - Not required, since it easily gets absorbed into human body
Dose - 250 mg
Use - In dressing wounds - combined with Litherge & Honey
- In Corneal opacity - with rock candy powder
- In Otitis – Roasted drug put into ears

8. AGNI JARA - AMBERGREES
• Found in intestines of Sperm Whale
• Waxy, Opaque, Grayish with black spots
• When dried, smell Musky
Purification - Not required
Incineration - Gets sublimated, hence not incinerated
Dose - 30 - 60 mg
Use – Stimulates appetite
- In Tetanus
- In Aphrodisiacs

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).
9. KURMA PRISHTHA - TORTISE BACKBONE
• Tortoise - Back hard portion
Purification - Immersed in Buttermilk & later washed with hot water
Incineration - 800 to 1000
0
C
Dose - 240 to 480 mg
Use –Strengthens bones
- In T.B.
- In Epilepsy

10. SAMUDRA LAVANA – SEA SALT
• Prepared from sea water by evaporation under sun
• Rich in Sodium Chloride, Essential for electrolyte balance and homoeostatic
activity of a body
Use – In Abdominal pain
- Digestive disorders
- Constipation

CONCLUSION
1. Marine originates are used therapeutically after proper identification, specific
purification and incineration formulating into a suitable form.
2. Especially, sea originates differ in their properties and therapeutic uses due to the
presence of variety of trace elements.
3. Emphasis should be given in obtaining and in processing of these products
carefully, so that it can serve in the ailments and in betterment of a mankind.
National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

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G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development) साउथ क कण एजुकशन सोसायट े

गो वंदराम से से रया व ान

ालय, नातक महा व ालय, बेलगाम ्

भू व ान वभाग

ारा आयोिजत ्

रा ीय संगो ी

वषय: वषय: क कण समु
(ग तशीलता, उ

तट

ां त, पयावरण और वकास)

12-13

सत बर 2008

क े

सार
2 G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

Our Sponsors सहा य
1. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), BARC, Mumbai.
परमाणु ऊजा वभाग ( डी ए ई ) और परमाणु व ान अनुसंधान बोड (बी आर एन एस), बी ए आर सी, मुंबई.

2. Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India, New Delhi.
भू व ान मं ालय (एम ् ओ इ एस ्), भारत सरकार

3. South Konkan Education Society, Belgaum.
साउथ क कण एजकशन सोसायट , बेलगाम ् ु े

Support expected from अपॆ त सहा य

University Grants Commission (UGC)
व व ालय अनुदान आयोग ( यू जी सी )

Department of Science & Technology (DST)
व ान और ौ ो गक वभाग ( ड एस ट )

Department of Enonment& Forests (DoEn & F)
पयावरण और वन वभाग ( ड ओ इ एन ् और् एस ्)

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
रा ीय आपदा बंधन ा धकरण ( एन डी एम ए )

3 G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

Science Degree College. Further. tourism and recreation. Department of Geology G. It is run by South Konkan Education Society.. I am grateful to all the sponsoring agencies/firmsfor their kind guestures. Ecosystem and Development) Convener’s Note Govindram Seksaria Science (GSS) Degree College is a Four Star NAAC accredited. guidance and help. mining. their response to natural and anthropogenic pressures.Praveen Dube. on any coast is a prerequisite for the coastal zone management and planning towards creating better infrastructure and better planning and developmental activity of the coast. under the supervision of a progressive management.P. UGC & MoES. The Department of Geology is one of the oldest departments and is well known for its academic Department excellence in this part of the country. The focus of the seminar is also to share and disseminate the knowledge acquired through various researches and strengthening the governmental and non-governmental organisations involved in implementing sustainable coastal zone management measures for the benefit of the coastal community and above all for the betterment of the coastal environment.T. The alumni of the department have spread all over India. About the present Seminar: The land-sea interface or the ‘coastal zone’ is highly dynamic and fragile environment where every micro environment of coast is changing by every passing moment. aquaculture. premier institution in Science catering for the need of society in providing quality education in this part of the country. The library is known to have largest collection of books in the northern Karnataka. As more than 50% of the world’s population live along the coastal zone.S. It has a beautiful campus with well equipped laboratories. such as sea level rise. National Seminar & Selection Grade Lecturer.S. harbour development and navigation. mud flats. 4 G. mangroves and coral reefs are subjected and influenced by intense land-sea interactions as well as human interference by way of fishing. Dr. such as beaches. I have received immense help from our research scholars Mr.Hanamgond Convenor. affect many of regulatory and social and economic functions of coastal zones. Evolution. Deepak Adiandra for preparing the abstract volume. well qualified and dedicated staff. and have contributed many National & International publications. departmental museums. marshes. The present seminar offers a platform to discuss and identify gaps in research areas for integrated and interdisciplinary studies concerning the coastal studies of Konkan. the need for data base on the above aspects. 2008). BELGAUM – 590 006. Tilakwadi. The most fragile ecosystems within the coastal environment. efforts are needed towards better understanding of the structure and functioning of coastal systems in their complexity and interactions. seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall etc. Added to these pressures the impact of changing climate. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. I also thank advisory and organising committee members for their constant support. . coastal construction. Belgaum.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. The department is active in Coastal Research of Uttara Kannada and Southern Maharashtra Coast.Science Degree College. My special thanks to Omega Offset. through major research projects funded by DST. agriculture. Belgaum for printing this abstract volume. Rajesh Hood and Asst.

Karnataka (12-13 Sept. एस ्. व वधालय ॆ ु अनदान आय़ॊग और एम ् ऒ इ एस क व ीय सहय़ॊग से अनॆक बडी बडी प रयॊजनाएं वभाग क ऒर सॆ तैयार क ॆ ु गई तथा रा ीय और अंतरा ीय काशन मॆ ं भी यह वभाग अ णी रहा है । वतमान संगॊ ी क संबध मॆ:ं े तट य ॆ अ या धक ग तशील है । तट क सू म सॆ सू म और् नाजक हलचल सॆ भी तट य पयावरण ू त ा प रव तत हॊता रहता है । समु सॆ भा वत गहन चचा क साथ ह मानवीय ह त ॆप क प मॆ तट य नमाण काय. . बंदरगाह क वकास और् जहाजी या ाऒ ं क कारण समु पर जॊ दबाव बढता है उसक ॆ े े अनॆक द ु प रणाम दॆ खने कॊ मलते है जैसे. Ecosystem and Development) संयॊजक क ऒर से: जी. व ान नातक महा व ालय कॊ रा ीय मू य़ांकन एवं यायन ् (NAAC) प रषद सॆ ४ सतारॊं क मा यता ा हुई है । समाज मॆ ं व ान क अव यकताऒ ं कॊ यान म रखकर तर य श ा दान करनॆवाल यह दॆ श क एक मख सं था है । साउथ कॊंकण ए यकशन सॊसाय ट ारा संचा लत इस सं था क खूबसूरत ांगण मॆ ॆ ु ु ॆ वभागीय यॊगशालाएं एवं सं हालय ससि जत है। िजन क संचालन यव था यॊ य एवं कशल कमचार य क ॆ ु ु अधीन है । इस महा व ालय का ा है। वभाग: भू व ान वभाग भू व ान वभाग सबसे पुराना और स य वभाग है। इस वभाग सॆ श ा ा अनॆक छा ॊंने दॆ श क कॊने कॊने म ॆ ंथालय उ र कनाटक का सबसे बडा एवं जाना माना थालय क तौर पर याती ं े फलकर अपनी यॊ यता दखाते हुए वभाग का और अपना नाम रॊशन कया है । उ र क नडा क तट य अनसंधान ै ॆ ु एवं द ण महारा क तट य अनसंधान मॆ इस ् वभाग का यॊगदान रहा है । इतना ह नह ड एस ् ट . मौसमी वषा और् तापमान मॆ बदलाव। और ॆ तट य ॆ ॊ क सामािजक तथा आ थक जीवन पर भाव। माना जाता है क जग क आबाद का 50% तट य ॆ ॆ म बसता है। अत: इस ् दशा मॆ बेहतर बंधन बु नयाद ढांचा और बेहतर न यॊजनाऒ ं क वकास क आव यकता है । े इ ह अव यकताओं क पूत क लयॆ वतमान संगॊ ी का आय़ोजन कर महानुभावॊं कॊ चचा क लयॆ मंच े ॆ तत ु थायी कया गया है । इस ् चचा क दौरान जॊ भी बाते सामने आयॆगी जॊ ॆ ं प से तट य ॆ ॊं क े बंधन क उपाय खॊजे जायॆगे और तट य ॆ ं न कष नकलगे उनमे अनसंधान कर उ हे सरकार तथा गैर सरकार संगठनॊ सॆ जॊडकर लागू कया जाना आव यक है । िजससे ु ॆ ॊं मॆ ं उसका लाभ हॊगा। तट य पयावरण सुर व ीय सहायता त रहे गा। बंध समीती एवं दान करनेवाल सभी सं था एवं सघठनाऒ का मै ु दय से आभार हूं। यव थापक मंडल कॊ भी उनक सहय़ोग क लयॆ ध यवाद या पत करता हूं। े े डा पी ट हणमगॊंड संयॊजक.Science Degree College. पयटन और मनॊरं जन. Belgaum.S. Evolution. भू व ान वभाग ̆ 5 G. ॆ ॆ खनन. 2008). एस ्.समु क जल तर मॆ ु .National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.

Dr. Dr. Goa University. of Geology.D. Dept.Saidapur. Professor. Dr.Science Degree College.Victor Rajamanickam.Gujar. Karnatak University.K.S.Charles W. Dr.S.A. Central University. Tamilnadu.M.Naqvi. President Shri. Vice-Chancellor.Nayak.Mense.S. Shastra. USA.S.S. Convener Dr.S. G. South Konkan Education Society. Co-ordinator Prof. G.Shanbhag. NDMA. CERF.Sukhtankar.Mitra. Dharwad. Advisory Committee Dr.College. NIO.. Dr. N.R.S. DST. Evolution. Goa.Basavanna. Pune. Principal Marine Geologist. . New Delhi.T.U. Vinod Chandra Menon. Chairman. Dr.S. University of Pune. R.Shanbhag Principal.M.K.College.C.V.Hanamgond Dept. Goa.A. Dr. GSS College.V.Prithviraj. Belgaum 6 G. Belgaum. Goa.K.Dharwad Dr. Dr.A. IIRS.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.C.Y. Bangalore. Mangalore. 2008).P. of Geology.Narayana. Finkl. Belgaum. GSS College. Belgaum. Dr. OASTC. Prof.S. Dr.Kale.R. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.C. NIO.G. Hyderabad.R. D.Professor. Chairman Prof.N. Coastal Planning & Engineering.A. Rajiv Nigam. Dean. R.K. K. Dr. Dehradun.S.Chavadi. Jr. Ecosystem and Development) SEMINAR COMMITTEES Organising Committee Patron Dr. Organising Secretary Prof. Dr.Prabhu. of Zoology..(Mrs).Krishnaiah. Pune. Belgaum.M.Subrahmanya. MoES.M. New Delhi. Karnatak University. Belgaum. Retd. Dr. Dept. Dharwad. Head. Retd. New Delhi.

JRF Geol Dept. Asst. B. of Botany – Chairman Prof. Dept.Suresh Khot.Uttam Banoshi. Samant.Member Prof. of Physics – Member Transportation & Accommodation Committee Prof.F. JRF Geology Dept – Member Mr. Dept. A.Patroti. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. L. Dept. K. Geology Dept .M. Geology Dept.Member Mr.Member Mr. Biology Dept.S. Shrikant Sambrekar. of Botany –Member Mr. Ecosystem and Development) Reception and Registration Committee Prof. of Chemistry – Member Mr. Geology Dept – Attender Catering Committee Prof. of Zoology – Member Prof. Botany Dept. Pranav Pitre Dept. Hukkeri.Member Prof. U.S. Nagsuresh.Science Degree College. Dept of English – Chairman Prof.Student Member Mr. Sagar Waghmare – Student member Mr. . A. Pratibha Naik. Maths Dept –Member Prof. Praveen Dube.Member Prof. – Member Mr. Deepak Adiandra. H. Res. Chemistry Dept. 2008). B.G. Jyotiba Ravaluche. of Zoology – Chairman Prof. .Patil. Majukar. Physics Dept.Topinkatti. Evolution. Belgaum. Rajesh Hood. Halgekar.Arlimatti. S. .Attender Accounts Shri. of English .Madhu Karande. – Chairman Prof. Geol Dept . S.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. A. Anuja Naik – Dept. M. Dept. Dept. Ambuja Chitnis.Anand Nadagoudar – Student Member Mr. .Attender Stage & Entertainment Committee Prof. 7 G.

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

CONTENTS
Title of Research Paper with Authors Page No.

Lead Papers 1. ICZM – Study for Goa Coast J. DeSouza and G.N.Nayak 2. Analysis of Coastal Data using Multivariate Statistical, GIS and Image Interpretation Techniques Shrikant Karlekar 3. Geo-environmental Study of Hooghly Estuary, Bay of Bengal with Spatial Emphasis on Port and Harbour using Geo-Informatics D.Mitra and A. Mukhopadhyay 4. Stucturally Controlled Vengurla Port Lighthouse Headland D I Deendar 5. Benthic Foraminifera as indicator of changing environment during last three decades in Mandovi-Cumbarjua-Zuari estuarine complex, Goa, India D.H. Shanmukha, R. Panchang, R. Nigam and G.N. Nayak 6. Marine Products in Ayurveda and Their Therapeutic Usage Prasad B S Coastal Dynamics 1. Land use Studies along the Coast from Velanganni to Vedaraniyam, Nagapattinam District, Tamilnadu. P.Chellapandi., K.Chittibabu., G.Theenadhayalan and R.Baskaran. 2. A Study on the Landforms and Shoreline Changes along the Coast Of Karikal, Pondicherry K.Chittibabu., P.Chellapandi., G.Theenadhayalan and R.Baskaran 25 25 24 24 19 18 14 13

8 G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

3.

Coastal changes at Mandve- Rewas, Maharastra, India Bhagyashree Yargop

26

4.

Evolution and major issues of Kudrus in Netravati-Gurpur Estuaries, Karnataka K. S. Jayappa., Avinash Kumar and Deepika B

27

5.

Phased Beach Protection Works D. Kudale., S.P.Kulkarni., B.R. Tayade and S.P. Jagtap.

28

6.

Morphology and Behaviour of River Mouth Bar in the Outflow Area of Dabhol Creek on Konkan Coast of Maharashtra S.N.Karlekar.

29

7.

Source And Compositionof Mud At Padle, Konkan Coast Of Maharashrta – A Geomorphic Study Manojkumar P.Devne.

30

8.

Mineral magnetic properties of beach sands from Vengurla, Aravali and Redi of Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra, India P.B.Gawali., N.Basaviah and P.T.Hanamgond.

31

9.

Foraminifera, Paleoecology and Neotectonics of the Coastal Sediments of South Andaman, Andaman Sea, Bay Of Bengal C.Rajshekhar.

32

10.

Morphodynamics of Mirya Bay And Beach At Ratnagiri, Maharashtra Sunil W.Gaikwad.

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11.

The Study of Sea cliffs and Shore platforms of Kolambe-Golap Plataeu, Ratnagiri. S.C. Thakurdesai.

34

12.

Coastal Sand Dune System at Tambaldeg (Mithbav) as an Indicator of Sea Level Fluctuation Tushar Shitole.

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9 G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

13.

Micro-Time Scale Beach Dynamics Study at Belambar, West Coast, India M. M. Korakoppa., Chavadi V.C and P. T. Hanamgond.

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Beach Dynamics along Redi Coast, Maharashtra, India. P. T. Hanamgond.

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Down Hole Variation Of Sediment Texture , Clay Mineralogy And Geochemistry Of A Box Core SK-72/1, Bengal Deep Sea Fan, Northern Indian .Ocean Pradeep Kumar R., Thrivikramanji K.P., and Rafeek P.M.

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Paleomonsoon and its influence on marine environment- A sediment core study from southwestern continental margin of India V. Yoganandan, H. Gangadhara Bhat and C. Krishnaiah

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17.

Geo-Morpho-Tectonic Evolution of the Coast between Rajpuri Creek and Vijaydurga Creek Raigad Ratnagiri- Districts Maharashtra. P.T. Sawant Hydrographic Conditions of Near Shore region off Honnavar and Bhatkal, Central West Coast of India. Kanchanagouri,D.Gosavi; Shalini,G., V.S.Hegde., And Tejaswini,B.

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18.

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Applications of Remote Sensing 19. Estuarine accretion erosion by digital image processing-a case study Hooghly estuary Anirban Mukhopadhyay., Debasish Mitra and Sugata Hazra. 20. Coastal Geomorphologic Study with Multi-Temporal Satellite Data around Konkan Coast, Maharashtra, India. Deepmala Nilamwar., D.Mitra and P. T. Hanamgond. 21. Tectonically controlled land form development in the coastal region of Bhatkal and Baindur, Central West Coast of India. Hegde V.S., Krishnaprasad P.A., Tejaswini,B., Girish, K.H., and Shalini,G. Coastal Ecosystem and Environment
10 G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

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L.Patil. 31. North Konkan Coast. Raigad District. Ecosystem and Development) 22. A study on communication and technological adaptation in Marine fishing Sector. 48 49 49 . Evolution. Hanamgond** Therapeutically Use of Coastal Resources 29.S. Dube and J. L.Dube. Belgaum. 45 26. Rathod 44 25. and M.S. Physiological changes in the Human Body by the Coastal Climate (Tidal Fluctuations) H. Therapeutical importance of Marine originates in Ayurveda. Rathod 44 24. Heavy metals in the Oyster Crossostrea madrasiensis from Karwar Coast Central west coast of India Sameer G. T. Ostracoda as Bio-indicators of Environmental Changes in Modern Seas A. India. Uttara Kannada.G. The Study of Foraminifera Distribution in Savitri River Esturary. Heavy metal concentration in the mullet Mugil cephalus from Karwar Central West coast of India Praveen N. Usage of Marine Originates as Medicine in Ayurveda Poornima Pyati. 47 Sagar Waghmare. 2008). Biodiversity of Malvan Coast – A note on Preliminary Observations.Chebbi and J.B and Prabhakar P. Shaikh N. Suresh Khot. West Coast of India Praveen N.H. R.Science Degree College. David 46 27. Hiremath 30. Status of clams. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Rajesh Hood* and P. S. Praveen Dube*. Meritrix meritrix and Paphia malabarica from Aghanashini estuary.Vaidya 47 28. 11 G. West Bengal Sourav Maity and Sugata Hazra 43 23.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.

A Review Hanamgond P.Jadar 88 84 78 70 64 52 12 G. 38. Puranik 50 33. Didgur and S. 35. Bhatkal Taluka. Vandana Ravindran. Evolution. K. Karnataka S. Kerala. Dynamics of Konkan Coast . Sukhtankar. .K. Sawant 39.S. Eco tourism with special reference to Konkan Coast.. Maharashtra. Kudale 37. Sitarama Sarma and M. D.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.Science Degree College.T. Belgaum. Southwest India B. Prediction of Extreme Storm Surge Level for Mumbai Coast A. V. With Respect to Sinuosity Index P.T. 2008).G. Influxes of Sea Water into Venkatapur and Sarbi Rivers and its Impact on Groundwater Quality. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Ecosystem and Development) 32. Y. Geomorphic Development of River Basins of Konkan Coastal Belt with Raigad District. Smita Patil (UG Students) and S. Sediment Observations in Muvattupuzha. Pharmaceutical Processing Techniques for Marine Originates in Ayurveda P. M. Purandara 36. Herlekar and R. Prabhu 51 Full Papers 34. Dynamic Evolution of the Maharashtra Coast Milind A. C. Uttar Kannada District.

ecosystems along with demographic pressures. And. The concept of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is based on the general system theory. non-living and service sector resources have been mapped.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. In context with the CRZ notification. denudational. impinging risk to human population. Coastal stretches of Goa have been classified 13 G. developed in this study. anthropogenic pressures include population expansion. dredging. fluvial.N. quantified and documented. tsunamis. ocean traffic. Shore line changes along the coast as well as estuaries have been computed. island. has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as “Coastal Regulatory Zones” (CRZ). Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Synergy of ecosystems. devastation of resourceful lands. through appropriate policy and law.Science Degree College. the landforms of structural. economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions. resources. unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. coastal erosion. India. resource exploitation.S. cyclone. their functioning and their problems. Goa – 403 206 (nayak1006@rediffmail. has been attempted. rise in sea level. . Also marine and coastal resources like living. The Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) has been applied to State of Goa. Belgaum. Satellite remote sensing. landscape and resources with demographic. DeSouza and G. scientific database at local and site-specific areas. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Goa University. marine and aeolian have been mapped. will be an appraisal document earmarking permissible and prohibiting activities for coastal communities. Based on origin. Modern tools and techniques namely. Agenda-21. on 19th February 1991. The countries world over. pollution. beaches and wetlands – vegetated and nonvegetated and man made wetlands were mapped. 2008). resources. livestock. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities. rendering these coastal regions vulnerable. It helps us to realize that coastal areas have to be managed as a broad and extended ecosystem. It is a holistic and multidisciplinary approach covering the full cycle of information collection. Further. Ecosystem and Development) ICZM – Study for Goa Coast J. An approach integrating landscape. morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation. world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. Department of Marine Sciences. tourism.Nayak. fishery resources as also stake holders and users. vis-à-vis. The natural processes include climatic changes. pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED.com) Coastal and estuarine environments. design of planning. management and implementation. salinity ingress and siltation. rocky. like sub ecosystems. stakeholders and resource users. flood. properties. Evolution. including India. ICZM is an attempt to understand the coastal areas. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. various coastal ecosystem of Goa like estuarine. tourism data. Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) are used in the present study. as also.

mathematical and GIS techniques can be effectively applied to coastal data and more accurate and meaningful knowledge of coastal processes and landforms can be acquired. Pune (k_shree3@rediffmail. have been documented. it was found that the quantum of data generated is really voluminous. Sir Parashurambhau College. In case of Konkan coast of Maharashtra. Our effort to increase and enrich the data base for coastal Maharashtra has definitely helped in knowing the nature of coastal environments along this coast in a better way. *** Analysis of Coastal Data using Multivariate Statistical. generating and widening the data base for this coast by using conventional and modern techniques. Belgaum. tidal inlets.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Tilak Road. drift and current measurements. water and sediment sampling. under various CRZ categories. For last few years we are creating. subsurface sampling and georeferencing by GPS. At the time when we were trying to edit a special issue on Coastal Zone Management. Evolution. Ecosystem and Development) and earmarked for conservation. Discriminant analysis 2. disaster and risk prone coastal areas have been identified. 2008). The data collected are plentiful. It appears that the data from the coastal environments in India in general lacks proper analytical treatment making it less useful in decision making process in management practices. Attempts were made to apply such techniques to data collected on Konkan coast of Maharashtra. cliffs and shore platforms. GIS and Image Interpretation Techniques Dr. Following techniques were found more applicable in the analysis of coastal data. In addition.Science Degree College. Many multivariate statistical. They include the techniques such as profile leveling. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Trend surface analysis 14 G. precise and represent most of the coastal land facets such as beaches. for the State of Goa. non coherent. Based on the investigations undertaken appropriate site and area specific location propositions. 1. under the CRZ guidelines. The results of application are quite promising especially in terms of our understanding of processes and landforms on this coast. development and utilization. preservation. the creation of coastal data base is very poor as compared to other states. Permissible and prohibitive activities have also been enlisted. but it is scattered.com) Considerable amount of data are being presently collected and generated from a variety of coastal environments in various parts of India. litho section and stratigraphic studies. heterogeneous and piecemeal that needs proper integration and analysis. Shrikant Karlekar Reader and Head.S. The data base creation is spatial as well as temporal. dunes. . PG Department of Geography.

. The number of groups in a discriminant function is set prior to the analysis on the basis of a dummy variable. fore and back dunes in a dune system. The hydrographic charts for Dabhol. Using level datum and mean sea level the depths were reduced to constant level and used as Z in X.Science Degree College. The linear and higher order quadratic and cubic trend surfaces proved most appropriate in the analysis of data related to inter tidal and sub tidal flats. 2008). The directional derivatives were obtained and surfaces created using same software. The technique was applied to discriminate the beach and dune sediments from the samples collected in beach dune environment. The result is a contour map that shows isolines of constant slope along this direction. magnitude and direction of the steepest slope can be calculated to generate its slope map. The rate of change of slope along predetermined direction is obviously zero. The result is based on the direction of the general gradient. The directional derivatives of first and second order were attempted to understand the complexity in the morphology of estuarine bed forms. The mean sea level is also provided.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Ecosystem and Development) 3. The directional derivative of the contours calculates rate of change of slope along a predetermined direction. Z domain. Kajali. If these contours are gridded in an X. Anjarle and Karli creeks and estuaries were used to calculate directional derivatives based on depth contours. pattern of pools developed on shore platforms and trends in the elevation of embryo. The regional trends and local anomalies in the data collected in a two dimensional space are determined by trend surface analysis. The fossil deposits of dune and beach origin could also be discriminated. 6. 4. In a coastal scenario various sedimentary deposits require discrimination in distinct groups. Sounding datum in Indian hydrographic charts coincides with the local leveling datum with reference to a bench mark. Evolution. Belgaum. The depth values on the hydrographic charts after reducing to datum level were digitized and gridded using GIS software. First directional derivatives can be obtained along various 15 G. Y. A time series coastal data representing a truly periodic phenomenon such as quantum of seasonal beach erosion. Y Z domain. The contour map of any form gives a clear idea about its geometry. The rate of change of slope is reported as rise over run and approaches negative or positive infinity as it approaches vertical in a downhill or uphill direction. 5. The samples are as far as possible homogeneous and distinct from each other. monsoonal growth of sediment plumes in the outflow areas of tidal creeks and tidal fluctuations are best analysed by applying harmonic analysis. Mithbav. The technique is used to decompose the series into various component parts. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. The rate is positive in uphill direction and negative in downhill direction. Harmonic analysis Directional derivatives Satellite image analysis GIS modeling Discriminant analysis is a powerful multivariate statistical technique by which the samples are discriminated into groups on the basis of measured variables.S. Bed contours on the hydrographic charts of certain creeks were used to obtain their gridded surfaces. at the location of each node.

The IRS ID LISS III Pan Point Geocoded image of the study area was transformed by using HLS color algorithm. are moderately deep to shallow and do not restrict the movement of sediment to the sea. An 8 bit. leaving smooth gradients and low frequency details. on the beaches. The visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images is being used as a most suitable and helpful technique to overcome the relative difficulty of subject matter. Light minerals in the beach sands show white tone and the proportion of heavies increases the tone that changes dark gray to black. gray scale image of Kolthare beach was used to demonstrate the technique. The image was first edited in its original mode as the color conversion process can result in a loss of color information. The image was subjected to specific image analysis options. To obtain exact limits of the various pockets of ilmenite deposits on beaches and creeks on Konkan coast . Low pass filter was used to remove the sharp edges and unwanted information. Evolution. For many reasons. Other options which were used to adjust the tone to recognize various features included tonal curve. It was concluded from the analysis that the littoral assemblages of heavy minerals are best developed along coastal areas where sediment budget is low. The computer assisted image analysis has a great potential in generating more meaningful data necessary for coastal studies. The trace contour technique was then employed and a series of binary feature maps were prepared indicating presence of a particular feature. splitted in “Lab” separation was more useful as it helped in clearly 16 G. The major goal of this technique is to generate knowledge about the processes influencing the development of a variety of features in the near shore areas. The technique of satellite image enhancement and interpretation can be used very effectively in the mapping of placer deposits. dunes and creeks. However there are several limitations to such interpretations and the information gathered can be scanty and subjective. covered by ilmenite black sand. The waves. Ecosystem and Development) predetermined lines. The image tone was adjusted by using “Gamma correction mode”. Second derivatives produce contour maps that show isolines of rate of change of slope across the surface. dunes and inlets in the study area at specific locations. it is often difficult to demarcate and interpret the coastal environments due to complexity of shoreline processes. Belgaum. Level equalization for the image. It indicated presence of placer deposits on the beaches. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. There is an unrestricted flow of heavy minerals derived from the hinterland to the sea. a thing that is usually difficult to achieve by the conventional field methods. The river mouths in the study area. The image analysis technique helped in drawing exact limits. technique of image analysis was used.S. Gray tone variations of the beach sediments could be used to differentiate ilmenite in the beach sand. The terrain details could be easily picked out by adjusting gamma in a low contrast image.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. the tides and the currents shape the near shore zone over the years and even nearby places on the coast exhibit marked variations.Science Degree College. 2008). level equalization and brightness contrast. although tidal. . “Computer assisted image analysis” is a part of broader information revolution and can be convincingly and effectively used in the study of coastal environments.

The river discharges through the creek whose southern bank is bordered by a spit and a terrace. *** 17 G.The sedimentation pattern of creeks. tidal channel. These systems are very complex in terms of their elevation. The area is locally known as Ucheli Creek. which influences the formation of sand bars and lenses inside the creek. 3D modeling of the creek processes discussed here may enable to deduce generalizations and develop insights into the coastal processes. The boundaries suggested by GIS overlay of different variables give clear idea of the extent of fore dunes. Such models can be however developed now by using 3D generating GIS softwares. A series of studies were undertaken at the mouth of river Banganga in Thane district of Maharashtra. The sedimentation pattern was found to change seasonally. The complex interplay of waves. Ecosystem and Development) demarcating the beach. Preliminary modeling of processes in 3D provided considerable insight into the pattern of sedimentation and development of bars. Initially the vector maps of different variables used for identification of regions are converted to their raster formats. They require more computational time. There are many computational constraints on creating 3 D models. interdunal areas and back dunes. Cell based simulations of various processes are also possible using 3D GIS. Evolution. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.Science Degree College. moisture content and vegetation cover. extent. terrace. settlement and hill slopes. However it is now a well known fact that the form and process in the coastal environment operates in 3 dimensions. . The dunes in the systems could not be classified in fore dunes and back dunes just on the basis of their distance inland. Ground truthing can be carried out to ascertain the identification of various features and environments identified by ‘Gamma correction and Trace contour’ mode. Belgaum. estuaries and tidal inlets in Konkan is still not perfectly understood. Using ‘AND’ as a logical Boolean operator in raster environment various regions can be easily obtained. The overall morphology is simple. 2008).S. GIS softwares can also be used to make specific queries to obtain the delineation of major regions of dune systems. There are many sand dune systems on Konkan coast. Lab color mode is based on two chromatic components and hence was found to be more effective in the coastal environment. currents and tides through the river mouth with monsoon and pre and post monsoon season variations has produced a 3D system of shoals and bars in the creek. Many morphodynamic models of coastal landforms simulate the coast in only two dimensions. To monitor and model the coastal process in 3 D still remains a challenge to coastal Geomorphologist.

and post monsoon. cyclone track. This estuary has immense of importance in ecological sense as well as in economic sense also because the maximum shipping passages of the two main and only ports of north east India namely Kolkata and Haldia are situated within this estuary.Mitra and A. For the study of the estuarine water comparative spatial distribution map of the physicochemical parameters has been produced from the analyzed data from 2003 to 2007. discharge.S. monsoon. 2008). For maintaining these passages and searching for places suitable for new port construction to maintain the increasing industrial and economical needs Geoenvironmental study of the estuary is very necessary. monsoon. Mukhopadhyay Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (NRSA) Kalidas Road. The physicochemical parameters of the estuarine water suffer from huge distinguishable changes in three main season pre monsoon. The study reveals that the main problem of the estuary is deposition . road railway network. It has been identified though there is huge changes of these parameters in pre monsoon.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. and post monsoonal season the overall distribution of these parameters throughout these years has not been changed so much. flood and ebb current etc. cubic capacity.in) ABSTRACT Hooghly estuary is very dynamic estuary not only in the sense of its ever changing geomorphological characteristics but also for its other physical and chemical parameters. And finally to select a place to establish a new port site the bathymetry. In this study the geomorphological changes of the estuary has been studied using multi-temporal satellite images. Bathymetry of the estuary has been studied with interpellation techniques from the depth soundings collected from the hydrographical survey using DGPS and HYPAC Software.gov.Science Degree College. Evolution. *** 18 G. Ecosystem and Development) Geo-environmental Study of Hooghly Estuary. . Belgaum. land-use land cover. current pattern. Dehradun (mitra@iirs. soil map. earth quake probability etc were incorporated in GIS environment and final weighted map showing the main two locations (Sagar and Namkhana) has been produced. For hydrodynamic characteristics mathematical model study has been made where the main inputs were cross sections. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.several new shoals have came out within a few years which is hampering the shipping channels. Bay of Bengal with Spatial Emphasis on Port and Harbour using Geo-Informatics D.

The granites show intense shearing. Fox 1923. Ecosystem and Development) Stucturally Controlled Vengurla Port Lighthouse Headland D I Deendar 46 Watve Estate Mandoli Road Belgaum 590008 deendad@yahoo. Fermor 1909.Science Degree College. and Deshpande 1937). The two fault zones on either sides of the headland are weak zones. The vertical as well as lateral displacement of the Dharwarian rocks forming the Lighthouse Headland is due to faulting. Bijapur. Previous Work: Cursory Geological investigations were carried out since 1871 to 1956 (Wilkinson 1871. Iyer (1939) recognizes metamorphosed rocks of Archean age. fracturing and brecciation. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. One on the northern side (Dhaboli) and the other on the southern side of the headland (Vengurla). Gulbarga and Raichur were shipped out from this port until recently. The drainage pattern of the streams. The trend of the headland is East-West in the West and veers to NE-SW towards East. Both the streams drain into the Arabian Sea. 1915. a valley in alignment with it in the east is linked to the same phenomenon. It jets into the Arabian Sea forming a great escarpment. The granites are exposed at the foothills.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. The intense fracturing and slickensides are prominently seen on the Northern as well as the southern portions of the headland. The formation of the escarpment in the west. The headland slopes towards east and imperceptibly merges into a valley. Evolution. It is part of Sindhudurg district (erstwhile Ratnagiri dist) Maharashtra (Figure 1). . the formation of the Vengurla port Lighthouse Headland and the valley are controlled by faulting. This headland is drained by two westerly flowing streams. These two features indicate intense structural movement.in ABSTRACT The geology of Vengurla Port Lighthouse headland. 2008). Foote 1876.co.S. Mercantile from Bidar. The streams find an ideal drainage course along the two faults. Introduction Vengurla port Headland is located between Latitude 15° 50'and 16° 25' N and longitude 73° 27' and 73° 45' E. Vengurla port is a natural harbor. 19 G. Vengurla was and is commercially and culturally linked to north Karnataka particularly Belgaum. Belgaum. presents Dharwarian lithology in all its complexity. Kelkar (1956 ) gives an account of Geology of this area.

This fact is interpreted as strike slip fault. The study reveals that the sheared and fractured zones coincide withfaults. Streams flow along the southern and northern parts of the foothills. The shear directions are parallel to the general strike directions of the formations. Ecosystem and Development) Lithology and order of superposition at Vengurla Port headland (hill): Laterite Vitrophyric Basalts Granite Garnetiferrous Zone in Schist. Strike Slip Fault at the base of the port (hill) headland These are developed at two places viz. with a high angle easterly dip. fractured and faulted in various directions. The maximum height of the headland is 260 ft. The movement along the fault plane is nearly in the strike direction. The fault 20 G. Evolution. The trend of foliation is N50°W. The schists are exposed at the foothills almost on the shoreline below the headland. The direction of the striation on the slicken-sided surface of granites have N60°W S60°E trend with a plunge of 30° due north.. the Vengurla port (southern side) and at the northern end of the headland (Dhaboli). Strike Slip Fault of north of Lighthouse hill The granites at the foothill have extensively developed slicken-sided surfaces (Figure 4) and the Dabholi stream along the Granites joining the Arabian Sea. The fault zone at Vengurla Port has major shearing directions in N 60° W S 60° E and N65°W S65°E. At some places lineation and foliation are noticeable. It has a near E-W flow direction which is characteristically aligned along slicken-sided surfaces of granites. . Some of the shears are parallel to the coast and are very frequent.Science Degree College. Structural Geology Structural disturbances are seen in Granites at the Port hill (headland) in the northern and southern parts. The general strike direction is NNW-SSE with a steep northeasterly dip. Granites dominantly possess ruptural features (Figure 2). In absence of the key bed.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Schists The schistose rocks are the oldest.S50°E. the fault is construed as a strike slip fault based on shearing directions (Figure 3). Karnataka (12-13 Sept. They include zones of garnets. which is inconformity with Dharwarian general strike direction. The schistose rocks are succeeded by granites and are exposed in the headland till a height of ~100 ft above the schistose rocks. The laterites cover the major part of the top portion of the headland. Belgaum. The rocks are sheared. 2008).S. At least four vitrophyric intrusives comprising a thickness of 2 3 ft and running at right angles to the shoreline for 20-30ft are noticable at low tides.

D research (197881). 155 p.Billings.S.E society's G. one in the northern base and the other in the southern base of the port headland are associated with the translatory movement of the headland. In the eastern region the hill slopes into a valley. Evolution. E.S. Marland P. Means W.I Deendar. . Belgaum. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. This is supported by the presence of fault breccia. Structural Geology (Second Edition.T Hanamgond in preparation of this paper. Geology of Vengurla Area .W Gokhale. The headland indicates vertical movement forming an escarpment and cliff at the western extent.Asia Publishing House. Hobbs B.N. shearing. D. P.D. wherever fault zones similar to ones described above are present. 296 p.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance rendered by Dr. The strike slip faults of Vengurla were studied and inferred during this period. Dharwad. The coastal erosion may be active along the shore. (John Wiley & Sons. References D. This structural feature of two parallel strike slip faults and the upward movement of the rocks may be inferred as a Ridge fault with an easterly pitch. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance given by the Principal of the S. An outline of structural geology. fracturing and presence of slickensides and the formation of the Ridge of the Port Headland are major structural features of the Vengural Port Hill geology. Acknowledgement The author is grateful to the U. The valley is aligned with the Headland and may be a rift valley. shear zone and trapshotten phenomena? The two strike slip faults. Karnatak University. F. 21 G. Conclusion The two Strike slip faults.D thesis.. Ratnagiri Dist Maharashtra State Unpublished Ph. The displacement maybe about 80-100ft.C for a fellowship awarded to carry out Ph. Ecosystem and Development) occupied by the Dabholi stream is strikeslip fault. 1976.Science Degree College.. the flow directions of the two streams. 1977. New Delhi).K. 1982.Duff.Sc College. Newyork). Holmes's Principles of Physical Geology (1976) p 678 Mcl. The interpretation of the ridge fault and the rift valley was subsequently inferred by the author during field studies with graduate students.G.. Supervisor and guide for Ph. The height of the ridge (headland) in the West and the approximate depth of the valley in the East are inversely proportional. 2008). and Williams P. The author is indebted to Dr.

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Geological Map of Vengurla Port Headland. Evolution. 22 G.S. Ecosystem and Development) Figure 1. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Location Map of the Area (Courtesy: Satellite Image by Google Earth) Figure 2. . Belgaum.Science Degree College. 2008).

Science Degree College. Belgaum. Field photograph showing Slickensides in Granite.S. Field photograph showing fractures in Granite. . Evolution. Figure 4. 23 G. Ecosystem and Development) Figure 3. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.

The total number of foraminiferal species (diversity) also show increase during this period. on the west coast of India. National Institute of Oceanography.in) ABSTRACT In Goa. Everything in the universe is made up of panchamahabhuta. This indicates improved environmental conditions for foraminifera to flourish and therefore decreasing effects of mining in the region. the rivers Mandovi and Zuari. if any in environment over nearly 30 years. having large scale mining activities in their catchment areas. How many structural entities are present in the universe those many are present in the human body. Nigam1 and G. India (nigam@nio.org) 2 Department of Marine Sciences. Karnataka ABSTRACT Human body is a miniature of universe. Goa. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.403206. India 1 D. R.N. Nayak2 Micropaleontology Lab. This would help us to estimate the changes. Evolution. Goa-403004. form an ecologically sensitive estuarine complex.ac. 2008). connected via the Cumbarjua Canal. decreasing from south to north. *** Marine Products in Ayurveda and Their Therapeutic Usage Prasad B S Principal KLE’s BMK Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya Belgaum. India (gnnayak@unigoa. Belgaum. The results obtained by comparing the present data with the previous study show that in Cumburjua canal. We collected sediment samples from many locations in both the estuaries and also along the the stretch of the canal and analyzed them for foraminiferal content. Dona Paula. the Foraminiferal numbers (abundance) have increased considerably during this period.H. This gave us an opportunity to study the ecosystem with reference to the effect of mining on foraminifera (marine micro organism). Panchang1. the range of foraminiferal number (in 1 gram of sand fraction of the sediments) have increased from 40-200 in 1972 to 168-9000 in 2006 in this canal over the years. Goa. Goa University. .Science Degree College. it is concluded that adverse effects of mining during last three decades decreased in Zuari estuary with connecting Cumbarjua Canal and increased in Mandovi estuary. R. Although the trend is similar to that seen before i.e. After knowing these principles and understanding the nature well ayurveda 24 G. This change in scenario is attributed to change in mining activities from South Goa [catchment of Zuari] to North Goa [catchment of Mandovi]. When viewed with reference to our previous studies on foraminifera from Mandovi and Zuari estuaries with same methodology.S. The present study was aimed at determining the current distribution of foraminifera and comparing it with the previous report on distribution in 1972. Shanmukha1. Ecosystem and Development) Benthic Foraminifera as indicator of changing environment during last three decades in Mandovi-Cumbarjua-Zuari estuarine complex.

in) ABSTRACT The Study area from Velanganni to vedaraniyam along the coast of Nagapattinam District. processing and therapeutic usage.2004. *** A Study on the Landforms and Shoreline Changes along the Coast Of Karikal. Pondicherry K. Nagapattinam District.Chellapandi1. Thanjavur-613 010. inundation mapping was than the area RTK GPS with help of toposheet. G. Tamilnadu. cadastral maps and post tsunami satellite imageries. National College. Trichy-620 001 2 Department of Earth Sciences. Sudhavarga is one such group where most of the drugs are marine origin. The changes in coastal landforms and the present landuse pattern were all so studied. ophthalmic conditions. animal origin products etc.Science Degree College. Tamilnadu. Tamil university.Baskaran2 1 Department of Geology. National College. K. Tamil University. The landuse/Land cover details were studied. 1 (baskaranrajagopalan@yahoo. Staring from leaves of plants up to highly toxic materials including metals. 2008). Department of Earth Sciences. anti spasmodic etc. Belgaum. cardiac disorders.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Trichy-620 001.Baskaran2 2 Department of Geology. P. Though most of these drugs have CaCo3 as chemical composition therapeutically the drugs are indicated for varied clinical conditions such as hyperacidity. . Was one of the Worst affected by the Tsunami on 24 December 2004. minerals. A list of marine products are described in detail in respect to their availability. expectorant.in) ABSTRACT The study area represented in the toposheet 58N/9 and N/13 spread between North latitude 10. Evolution.Chittibabu1. Thanjavur-613 010 (baskaranrajagopalan@yahoo.Chittibabu1.Theenadhayalan2 and R. The coastal landforms and shoreline changes between the said locations namely from Thiruvettakudi to Vanjoor were interpreted by studying the relevant toposheets and 25 G. G. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.co.S.co. are all included in material medica of ayurveda. P. vrishya (aphrodisiac) and sukrasodhaka (correction of reproductive tissue). Ecosystem and Development) identified the medicinal properties of all the natural products.55’ and Longitudes 79° 49' of Pondicherry had been one of the most affected places due to Tsunami of Dec.Theenadhayalan2 and R. Also few of them are indicated as medhya (intellect promoting property).Chellapandi1. *** Land use Studies along the Coast from Velanganni to Vedaraniyam.

The present paper is an effort to show the observed trends and discuss the processes of coastal change. The coastal changes have been studied between 1990-1994. . Maharastra.Amba. *** 26 G. Further. probably it must have underlying the beach sand.Science Degree College.a) the occurrence of mud is within the protected areas between Yelawane and Mandve that has probably shifted the earlier location. and Patalganga. Ecosystem and Development) the Post Tsunami Satellite Imagery namely IRS P6 LISS 3 data. which is supplied with sediments by three rivers . which showed that. The study area was revisited in 2007-08.S. The occurrence of wide mudflats and rich growth of mangroves occupying these mudflats is mainly due to this deposition. Belgaum. especially the occurrence of mud and its extent with good thickness. there was a significant change along the coastline. Gultekdi. 2008).com) ABSTRACT The investigated area lies in the Raigad district of Maharashtra forming a part of northern Konkan. India Bhagyashree Yargop Tilak Maharashtra University. The northern end of the study area has distinctly experienced erosion while the southern end has experienced deposition. however. Pune – 37 (bmyargop@yahoo. Karanja.Rewas. The study area is drained by the Dharamtar creek.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. It is observed that the sedimentation on the beach is the result of deposition of sediments brought by these rivers. Evolution. b) erosion accretion patterns are recognized clearly. it is observed that. the mud was exposed throughout the year. Today the mud can hardly be seen exposed on the beach. with a thin sandy cover on the beach during monsoon. it is observed that. The morphological features and the changes due to Tsunami are presented. *** Coastal changes at Mandve. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. The significant deposition was responsible for the development of about 30-35cms thick beach (mainly mud) at Rewas. Further.

. beedi making and extraction of lime shells.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. facilities available and problems faced by the occupants have been studied in detail. There are six kudrus in Netravati-Gurpur estuaries namely . Mangalore University Mangalagangotri . Avinash Kumar and Deepika B Department of Marine Geology. The main occupations of these people are: agriculture (mainly paddy. Nadu and Bavali. *** 27 G. Evolution.Adam. Ecosystem and Development) Evolution and major issues of Kudrus in Netravati-Gurpur Estuaries. Karnataka (ksjayappa@yahoo.574 199. Pavuru Uliya. coconut and sugarcane cultivation). Karnataka K.com) ABSTRACT Naturally formed. Number of population occupied on these kudrus varies from 20 to 500.com. Origin. fishing. Belgaum. Jayappa. aquaculture.Science Degree College. the local community found them suitable for agriculture.S. These are being very fertile. S. There are about fifty kudrus in various estuaries of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts. fishing and other activities and hence large number of people is living on them depending on their size and facilities available. 2008). kumaravinash13@rediffmail. relatively stable and inhabited islands in the estuarine environment are called kudrus. Some of them are very dynamic and changing morphologically due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Changes with respect to their areal extent. Gatti. Nayar. evolutionary changes during the last 40 years. sand mining. direction and rate at which they have shifted have been quantified using RS and GIS techniques with ground truth verifications.

The design for the shore/beach protection work was evolved in two phases. kudale_md@yahoo. Evolution. Belgaum. In first phase.Kulkarni Research Officer B. 2008). The shore as well as the existing beach at Tarkarli were severely eroded due to higher wave action during the monsoon for the last couple of years. .R. However. The concrete blocks are hollow.in) ABSTRACT A beach at Tarkarli near Malvan is one of the beautiful beaches in Sindhudurg district in Konkan having large tourism potential. provided with openings at the centre for dissipating the wave energy. this would not obstruct the activities over the beach. a soft solution with sand filled geotubes in the form of detached offshore-submerged reefs would be provided near the low tide line for reducing the wave action on the shore and to hold the accumulated sand on the beach. These offshore reefs are provided in a segment of 40 m length with a gap of about 10 m left between the two segments for facilitating the tourist activities over the beach even at the Low Water Level. Kudale Chief Research Officer S. The beach resort is located just adjacent to the eroding shoreline. This work was proposed to be completed in the first phase as the permanent revetment structure may require longer time for its completion.P. based on the existing site conditions. The beach is of vital importance for the tourism purposes since many tourists from the country as well as from the abroad visit the beach throughout the year.P. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. The details of the studies carried out for protecting the shore/beach at Tarkarli are described in the paper. These submerged reefs would arrest the sand deposited on the beach due to onshore offshore movement of the sand. Tayade Research Officer S. Also.in. In the second phase. It is designed as a permanent solution for mitigating the shoreline erosion near the resort and also for maintaining the aesthetics of the beach.gov. The common methods adopted for coastal protection in India are to provide rubblemound structures with suitable stones in the armour and the toe. D. a different approach using geotubes as well as revetment is suggested for the protection of beach and the shoreline at Tarkarli. Ecosystem and Development) Phased Beach Protection Works M. The present paper describes the studies for the design of shore/beach protection works for preventing the further erosion near the shore and to protect the beach near the existing resort at Tarkarli.Science Degree College.S. India Fax: 91-20-24381004 (wapis@cwprs. a revetment type seawall structure near the high tide line consisting of gabions neatly packed with octagonal plain cement concrete blocks has been recommended. Pune-411 024. Jagtap Research Assistant Central Water and Power Research Station Khadakwasla. *** 28 G.co.

. This work presents the observations on the morphology and behaviour of this sedimentary body in the outflow area of the river. A big sand bar. A detailed mapping of the bar configuration and yearly change in the configuration as well as its area extent forms a major part of the work.5 km away in the outflow area of river Vashishthi near Dabhol on this coast. The average depth of the bar is 3 m below the sea surface. tidal currents. Such bodies of accumulated sediment are called river mouth bars. Belgaum. The technique of GIS is used in the final analysis of the bar leading to its significance as an indicator of fluctuating sea level and sediment supply to the outflow area of the creek.G. The study includes identification of trends in the yearly shift of sandbar since 1969. Ecosystem and Development) Morphology and Behaviour of River Mouth Bar in the Outflow Area of Dabhol Creek on Konkan Coast of Maharashtra S. Sir Parashurambhau College.Karlekar Reader and Head. sea level fluctuations. river discharge. variation in its orientation and change in the minimum depth above the bar.com) ABSTRACT There are large accumulated sediment bodies within or just outside many of the world's river mouths. Pune 411030 (k_shree3@rediffmail. Majority of these bars is formed when the river enters the sea. The bar is a permanent feature and keeps drifting throughout the year in the limited nearshore area. 6 m deep channel remains open near the southern bank of creek just close to the entrance.N. about 2 km long and 1. P. sediments and shoreline configuration determine the morphology and formation of river mouth bars The outflow area of many of the major and minor creeks and tidal inlets on Konkan coast of Maharashtra show such bars and sand bodies. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.3 km wide exists at the entrance of a creek 2. 2008). Evolution.S. The sea waves. Supply of fluvial sediment throughout the year and its non-removal by the waves and tides from the inlet are most important factors that determine the development of sandbars near the entrance of tidal mouths. *** 29 G.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. A narrow.Science Degree College.Department of Geography and Research Center.

*** 30 G. Illemanite. and Montmorillonite. This mud. the occurrence of mud is not a yearly phenomenon indicating peculiar conditions responsible for the transportation of this mud.Science Degree College. The source of the mud. Occurrence of mud on the beach at Padle seems to be a seasonal phenomenon during the monsoons only. Mumbai (manojdevne@hotmail. Further interpretation of the curves shows the presence of external water and organic matter as well. The results are also used to get the idea about the probable source of the mud. can be traced directly to the nearby rivers although that is not the only source as the coastal configuration and wave climate of the region also play an important role in mud deposition on the beaches. it moves under the influence of the littoral drift. 2008). Once it is brought to the mouth of the creek. The samples collected in different years were analysed by Infra red spectroscopy. on beaches.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. . Kaolinite. in all possibilities is brought from inland erosion through the adjoining creeks. Konkan Coast of Maharashrta – A Geomorphic Study Manojkumar P. Though seasonal.S. There are bands of absorptions which show mixed layers of minerals. The mud patches are not fixed and rigid and they keep on moving seasonally. Evolution. They show the occurrence of three major clay minerals namely. Belgaum. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Ecosystem and Development) Source And Compositionof Mud At Padle.com) ABSTRACT Mud occurrence along the Konkan coast of Maharashtra is a recent incidence. Many a times a combination of coastal processes would be required for the existence of mud patches and formation of mud balls.Devne Sydenham College Of Commerce And Economics. in many cases. This mud tends to accumulate in a protected area around the southern headland. A large portion of the accumulated mud eventually roles up into ‘mud balls’ and other chunks and chips etc. Mud can be deposited in a number of different coastal settings.

and 15 (Redi beach) exhibit antiferromagnetic minerals like haematite and/or haemoilmenite. India P. Stns 3 to 15 comprise fine grained magnetic minerals. Belgaum. except stations (stns) 16 and 17.Basaviah and P.Gawali.in. The concentration of magnetic minerals at all the beaches is more in monsoon (MON). . Stns 3 to 7 (Vengurla beach) and stns 8 to 14 (Aravali beach) are characterized by low concentration of magnetic minerals. Maharashtra *Department of Geology. same or less during premonsoon (PRM) and postmonsoon (POM).in) ABSTRACT Magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence are used to characterize the effects of magnetic concentration and magnetic grain size in the beach sands of Vengurla. Tilakwadi. Maharashtra.S.T. Navi Mumbai. Ecosystem and Development) Mineral magnetic properties of beach sands from Vengurla. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.res.Hanamgond* Indian Institute of Geomagnetism. in a rapid and inexpensive way. Here the concentration of magnetic minerals is more in POM than MON or PRM. prachoo99@yahoo.B. Stns 4.co. but have an overwhelming presence of non-magnetic minerals. 5 and 6 (Vengurla beach). stn 14 (Aravali beach). while the dominance of antiferromagnetic minerals such as haematite and haemoilmenite is found at Aravali and Redi beaches. Belgaum – 590 006 (pravin@iig. Evolution. Provenance of magnetic minerals is Deccan traps and residual deposits. 2008). Aravali and Redi to understand their spatial and seasonal variation. GSS College. Aravali and Redi of Sindhudurg district. characterization of magnetic lithology and its grain size. The study demonstrates magnetic susceptibility and its frequency-dependence provides detailed and robust interpretation of sediment movement.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.iigm. *** 31 G.Science Degree College. Overall the concentration of magnetic minerals is more at the northern and southern ends of Vengurla and Redi beaches respectively where their accumulation seems to be a function of shoreline geometry and wave energy. Magnetic grain size at stns 1 and 2 (Vengurla beach) becomes coarse to fine landwards characterized by relative increase of SP grains towards land. N. Susceptibility values at all stations of Vengurla and Redi beaches may probably be controlled by titanomagnetite and titanohaematite.

Karnataka (12-13 Sept.G. It may be mentioned here that the recent tsunami has tilted the west coast of south Andaman to about 1m and consequently a major coastal tract is submerged. This might be one of the reasons effecting the distribution of intertidal foraminifera along the south Andaman coast. Bay of Bengal C.The youngest beach rocks occur at Wandoor of south Andaman and the oldest is located on the west coast of Neil Island of Ritchie’s Archipelago. coral reef environment and 2004 Tsunami episode.Peneroplis. Ecosystem and Development) Foraminifera. 2008). sands from raised beaches. Belgaum. beach rock and clays associated with mangroves. The beach rocks are another important constituent of the south Andaman as their occurrences are associated with former strand lines.I.Agarkar Road.S. Trochammina inflata shows its dominance.P. These rocks have foraminiferal composition very much similar to that of beach sand.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.. The beach sediments mainly comprised of beach sand.Further the foraminiferal analyses reveals that there is no marked change in the foraminiferal composition between the high and low tide lines and hence not worth of intertidal zonation. The 14c dates of the beach rocks range from 1681 yrs B.co.Pune 411004 (c_rajshekhar@yahoo.A. The west coast of South Andaman is of prograding character and have yielded foraminifera commonly.B.P( caliberatd).in) ABSTRACT The late Holocene beach sediments of south Andaman Island are very significant as these are associated with tectonically active zone. . G.R. The clays associated with the mangroves of the south Andaman is completely madeup of agglutinated foraminifera and are represented by species of Trochammina and Milammina.Science Degree College. Evolution. Paleoecology and Neotectonics of the Coastal Sediments of South Andaman. Rajshekhar Paleobiology Group. (calibrated) to 6475 yrs.Borelis. Andaman Sea. Cymbaloporetta and Calcarina reefoidal affinity . The frequency and the diversity of foraminifera are low and are represented by species of Amphistegina.Amphisorus. In addition their elevational differences ranges from intertidal to 8m above the high tide line and thus suggesting the neotectonic activity in this part of the Andaman archipelago. *** 32 G.

The problem is of major concern from many viewpoints. High sediment influx in the Mirkarwada harbour is responsible for complete siltation of the harbour and presently as ascertained in 2006 and 2007. 2008). Global multi resolution synthesis (GMRT) and Smith and Sand well marine data (multi beam data for shallow water. Geo-environment of the area was studied for a period of last 45 years. Field data in connection with near shore hydraulic conditions. the northern beach became the scene of erosion and southern beach became the area of heavy siltation. Evolution. 2000. It has been observed that. Ecosystem and Development) Morphodynamics of Mirya Bay and Beach at Ratnagiri. Belgaum. Present study mainly attempts to correlate the stages in the development of Mirkarwada harbour and morphodynamics of Mirya bay and beach using remote sensing and GIS.2006 & 2007and the geoenvironmental map showing various areas of siltation. The Bhagwati harbour area is silting at 33 G.S. cusps and other related features were prepared in the field in 1989. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Year 1972 was considered as a demarcating year. Maharashtra Sunil W. 1990. erosion. The direction and the velocity of long shore currents were given more importance since they play a very important role in the movement of sediments along the shore. since the construction of commercial harbour commenced in 1972. based on the available information and field visits. The wave induced currents. circulation pattern and processes of sediment transport was collected from 1989 to 1992. Recently high-resolution image of the study area procured from Google Earth pro also infers net change in morph dynamics of Mirya beach. especially after the construction of jetties and breakwater walls in the fishing harbour area to the south.Science Degree College.Depat of Geography Pune -30 (gaikwad97@gmail.com) ABSTRACT The problem of beach erosion and siltation at Mirya in Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra (India) is a very distinct case of disturbance of beach ecosystem due to unintentional human interference. year 2001and 2005) available in Geo applet also ascertains considerable change in bathymetry of the Mirya bay.1996. The intensity of erosion at Jaki Mirya after 1987 is reflected in definite morphological and sedimentological changes.P.College.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.Gaikwad Reader in Geography. continued for the next 13 years between 1972 and 1985. long shore currents and rip currents were observed and studied by using Rhodamin-B dye as a tracer material. The trend of erosion of beach to the north of Bhati Mirya and siltation to the south of Bhati Mirya established before 1972. . 1991 & 1992.2006 & 2007. '0' metre contour advanced considerably between Jaki Mirya and Bhati Mirya and consequently receded in the sheltered area to the south of Bhati Mirya.S. By the end of 1987.By the end of 1985. The Geoenvironment of the study region is fast changing. 1996. dune and beach vegetation. However Data on bay configuration has been obtained from Marine Geosciences Data System.

34 G. The upper lateritic crust is relatively thinner. Evolution. At Kasop the exposed rock measures 18m and at Ganeshgule N. Below the lithomarge lies the basal rock that continues as a parent rock.G. 2008).30 km from northern end of the beach to south of Bhati Mirya exhibits considerable erosion. The lithomarge slopes moderately. Narrow headlands like Ganeshgule (South). Ratnagiri. have thinner cap of only 3 meters. Ratnagiri. All the three segments show proportionate increase or decrease in their height. The average width of the beach remained to vary between 35 to 44. The structure of rocks is retained in weathered section but the weaker lines are exploited. In the mid sections where the plateau edge extends right upto the coast the lateritic cap remains intact. Near the mouth of Pawas creek the height is 25m. Low cliffs are seen near the mouth of Purnagad creek with a height 24.5m.C. Maharashtra ABSTRACT It is estimated that sea cliffs are present along 80% of the world’s oceanic coast. S. It shows convexity except in the high cliffs.Department of Geography Gogate-Jogalekar College. . The basalt at the base again has near vertical slopes. It is thickest near Kasop and Mervi (13m to 15m respectively) Thickness of the lowermost sections of basal rock is governed by the amount of exposure of parent rock. Higher cliffs are usually found in mid sections away from the bays or creeks. The rock is hard and compact. This is followed by weathered zone usually referred to as lithomarge.S. *** The Study of Sea cliffs and Shore platforms of Kolambe-Golap Plataeu. 16.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.5m. Beach stretch about 2. South of Waingani beach it is 23.Science Degree College. Thakurdesai P. The typical sequence from top to bottom begins with lateritic cap at the top. Ecosystem and Development) an alarming rate. Similarly the thickness of middle weathered section also varies considerably. the exposure is minimum near Kajiwadi (10m). Sea cliffs in the study area show similarity in exposed Litho sections. The lateritic cap is near vertical in all sections. Belgaum. Highest cliff segment is to the south of village Kasop having a height of 38m.5m while north of Kasop it is 25m. This is true for the South Konkan coast also. Similarly high cliffs are also seen near Mervi along Purnagad plateau.3 m. The height of the cliff varies from 25m to 38m in this area. This is covered by material brought from the overland wash. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. It varies from 3 to 7 meters. Its thickness in this sections is as high as 7m (south of Kasop on Kolambe plateau) and 6m near Mervi along Purnagad plateau. This section is usually vegetated. Along the landward edges of the beaches or creeks the height of cliffs decreases.

Widest platform is seen to the south of Ganeshgule where the narrow headland protrudes into the sea.4′ N latitude and 16° 33′ N latitude. Post Graduate Dept. The beach erosion and subsequent recovery of the beach is well noticed by the locals in the area. Elsewhere fully developed sea caves are not seen. The evidences of ‘historic change’ in the area around Tambaldeg for over a centuary are well preserved in the occurrence of mud / silt in dug well sections. increase in the salinity of land bordering the shore and increasing brackishness of well water are well recognized trends in last two to three decades. Contemporary rates of erosion in hard crystalline rocks are very slow hence wide shore platforms in the area are largely inherited from previous sea level. Pune – 411044.4 km. At the base of this cliff there is a large sea cave. It has a length of 2980m and maximum width of 900 m.com) ABSTRACT The study area is a unique dune field where village Mithbav (16° 4′ N latitude and 73° 26′ E longitude) is situated.S. 35 G. The dune field proper is located between 16° 16. *** Coastal Sand Dune System at Tambaldeg (Mithbav) as an Indicator of Sea Level Fluctuation Tushar Shitole Head. Area comprising of dune field. 73° 24′ E longitude and 73° 25′ E longitude. Ecosystem and Development) Shore platforms are visible at the base of some cliffs. Akurdi.5 meters. Ramkrishna More A. Belgaum. Evolution. has an average length of about 5 km and has maximum width of 1. These shore platforms are seen where the cliffs face SW monsoon wave attack. C. It is located in Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra. Prof. The erosion of coastline. The width of these shore platforms ranges between 7 to 49.Science Degree College. of Geography. Notches can be seen at the foot of cliff at few places such as Kasop. Therefore the distance inland and the height of the dunes above present sea level are the only indicators of their relative age. Maharashtra (tshitole@yahoo. . Due to absence of any dateable material. The dune field consists of series of fore dunes and back dunes with frequent embryo and shadow dunes. The settlement of Tambaldeg is situated right in the dune field and on the northern bank of Mithbav creek. 2008). Coastal sand dune systems in varying degree of preservation are the clear evidences of slightly higher sea level in the area.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. & S College. The presence of low dunes about 100 m offshore is still recollected by the older people in the village. no relative chronology is available for the area. Waingani and Mervi. Maximum dune height in the field is 16 m. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.

(korakoppam@hotmail.C2 and P. . with a seasonal stream cutting the beach at northern side. no clues by plants were noticed which indicate binding and stabilization of sediments. A rise in a sea level in recent years is suggested by defunct fluvio-marine tidal channel in the northern part of the beach.com) 2 Chenna Ganga.S. In the area around Tambaldeg. Hanamgond3 AMSE Wing. bounded by headlands on either side.5 m) which merge with lateritic soil of the coastal plain in the hinterland. 2008). In can therefore be concluded that the existence of a wide dune field in an otherwise unsuitable beach extent and moderate sand supply in moist air suggest that the dunes are inherited from ancient wide beach. requires a considerable insight in to coastal evolution process.S. *** Micro-Time Scale Beach Dynamics Study at Belambar. The mangroves in the creek and intertidal areas of tidal inlet are not very dense. The beach is fringed by low level sand dunes (about 0. (hanamgondpt@gmail. T. Tilakwadi. The only indication is provided by silt and mud in shallow wells of back dune areas. Biogeomorphological links between geomorphology and biota can be used in such scenarios more effectively. Geological Survey of India. Belgaum.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.Science Degree College. M. Layout. Dharwad 3 Department of Geology. Bangalore-560078. Belgaum 590 006. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. more landward communities no doubt have preserved mature vegetation that grows in mature substratum. It is a partially sheltered beach. ample sand supply and low sea level scenario. India 1 M. It is also possible that different areas of the beach have evolved differently. however. Ecosystem and Development) The observations for last 50 years or even a centuary as cited above are inadequate to understand long-term behavior of the system. Chavadi V. Karnatak University Campus. A DTM model generated from the hydrographic chart (Bathymetric) for the study area clearly shows the earlier beach. Korakoppa1. The beach exhibits a steep 36 G. The channel bed profile was adjusted to earlier lower sea level when there was a perfect balance between incursion and excursion of tidal water through the channel.com) ABSTRACT Micro-time scale variations in beach morphology over a tidal cycle (spring to spring tide) have been taken up for study at Belambar beach. There is however hardly any indication that they are the relicts of earlier environment. The channel has slowly been silted and its entrance has become obscure as it is now out of phase with the present tides. The meager vegetation growth did not help to suggest the tentative period of back dune development. Evolution. The meandering portion of the channel is converted to a pond like feature at high tide. West Coast. Karnataka. which however. G. K. The study area is situated on the Uttara Kannada coast of Karnataka (Latitudes 14° 37'30· to 14· 38'45· and longitudes 74· 16'15· to 74° 17'10).S. now submerged by transgression of sea level.Science Degree College.

From this it is clear that. and the erosion is significant during pre monsoon and monsoon (2003 and 2004) season. and at station 4. The annual changes indicate that the beaches have grown during two years except at station 2 where it shows loss of sediments. the sediments of the study area are deposited under moderate to high-energy conditions. Total Six locations were selected for two annual cycles and are presented in this paper. 2008). Tilakwadi. Ecosystem and Development) foreshore with well developed berm at northern end. The CM patterns indicate that the sediments predominantly fall in the regions IV (36%). type V being a moderate turbulence deposits.com) ABSTRACT The beaches at Redi village are mainly pocket and sheltered type located along Redi River and run East-West except station 6 which is oriented NW-SE. indicating that.958 to 2. type IV being high. Across the beach. The volumetric analysis shows that the beach in general. at station 2. *** 37 G. .42 m3m-1).608 to 3. the sediments decrease seaward. coarse to fine sand (0.617ø). central portion (station 2 & 3) experience accretion (10. indicating that the sediment exponentially decrease in their size from station 1 to 4 (southerly). V= (61%) and II (3%). while it changes gradually to gentle slope in southern end. Diurnal morphological variations have been studied along this beach over a tidal cycle. The beach sediments shows grain size at station 1. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. fine to very fine sand (2. The general trend of Redi beaches is that they exhibit the cyclic behaviour during the two years which corroborates with the west coast Indian beaches reported elsewhere.0.493ø).Science Degree College.125ø). the sediments are generally graded suspension sediments. Belgaum 590 006. India P. at station 3. The morphological changes (erosion/accretion) are significant along the entire profile.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. medium to very fine sand (1. Study clearly indicates that. Belgaum. whereas. the beach along all the locations has experienced erosion.S. (hanamgondpt@gmail. Maharashtra.Science Degree College. very coarse to medium (.175 to 3.30ø). *** Beach Dynamics along Redi Coast. ends of the beach (stations 1 & 4) experience erosion.41 m3m-1). (-18.383 to 2. Evolution. T. G. Hanamgond Department of Geology.S.

Evolution. pH of the core sediments were determined with the help of puncture pH meter. Sedimentation rate is much higher in proximal fan and sedimentation rate is very low in distal fan. *** 38 G. Non clay minerals are quartz and calcite. 33 representative clay films (saritorious) were studied for XRDA.695 034 (rpradeepvarkala@yahoo. Upper fan is called proximal fan and lower fan is called distal fan. Colour of the core sediments were determined with the help of American rock colour chart (NIO). Geochemistry (major and REE) were estimated with the help of ICP-MS (La-Lu) and wet chemical analysis.72/1. illite.. Subsampling were done (N=80) on down core colour variation.Science Degree College. Detrital minerals (light minerials) namely quartz and feldspars and heavy minerals. Levees and channels are frequent in BDSF. Yellowish gray at the top of the core and it varies olive gray along the bottom of the core. BDSF is divided into upper fan. clay mineralogy and geochemistry of a box core SK. Detrital mineralogy were determined with the help of Olympus polarizing microscope fitted with camera. Trivandrum. Northern Indian Ocean Pradeep Kumar R. Gold coated clay samples were used for SEMA. Mahanadi river and Godavari river and Irrawady river of Burma are contributing sediments to Bengal deep sea fan (geosyncline).co.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Pyroxenes. Age of' the sediments were determined using oxygen and carbon isotopic studies on foraminifers and it was about 1.. 2008). Anirudhan S. Sediment texture were determined with the help of Pipette Analysis (PA).P.S.. Ecosystem and Development) Down hole variation of sediment texture. Oxygen and carbon isotopic studies (NGRI) were carried out on planktonic and benthic foraminifers and determined the rate of sedimentation is 4 cm/ 1000 years at the core site. Clay mineralogy were calculated with the help of XRDA and SEMA. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Shepards triangular diagram were plotted and the grain size distributions were determined. amphiboles and zircons are noted as heavy minerals. Sediments fall in the fields of silty clay to clayey slit. 000. Bengal Deep Sea Fan. Thrivikramanji K. . Rivers are contributing sediments to deep sea fans. Krishna river. Belgaum. It is inferred that most of the clays were formed due to clastic terrigenous in origin (Provenance). M.in) ABSTRACT During 72nd cruise of the Ocean Research Vessel Sagar Kanya (ORVSK) a box sediment core of 400 cm in length were retrieved from the Bengal deep sea fan (BDSF) at a latitude 10° north and longitude 90° east with a water depth of 3500 meters. Himalayan rivers namely Ganges river and Brahmaputra rivers and peninsular rivers namely Cauvery river. Smectite. and kaolinite are the chief clay minerals. mid fan and lower fan. Ninety East Ridge separates BDSF into Bengal fan and Nicobar fan. 00 years. University College. Department of Geology. chlorite.. BDSF is an example of large geosynclines. and Rafeek P.

2008).A sediment core study from southwestern continental margin of India V. Gangadhara Bhat and C.S. Krishnaiah Ocean and Atmospheric Science and Technology Cell. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Sawant Department of Geology. .Districts Maharashtra P. Here we have made an attempt to reconstruct Palaeoproductivity and their link to the paleoclimatic/paleomonsoon condition of the southwestern continental margin of India through the CaCo3 and Organic carbon and texture studies of a continental slope sediment core Texture. These high intensity monsoon periods were recorded very well in paleoclimatic studies from Indian continent.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. climate changes during the Quaternary landslides on a very large scale have brought out the significance of studies on Neo-Tectonic. The evidences of which appears in the form of morphological changes on land.T.com) ABSTRACT The earthquake hazard prediction. Ecosystem and Development) Paleomonsoon and its influence on marine environment. Yoganandan. *** Geo-Morpho-Tectonic Evolution of the Coast between Rajpuri Creek and Vijaydurga Creek Raigad Ratnagiri. Mangalore University. Department of Marine Geology. which is proved by the reduced productivity record of late glacial to early Holocene and ~4.com) ABSTRACT unrevealed that Many paleoclimatic studies in the western continental margin of India paleoproductivity in marine environment during last glacial to Holocene mainly depends on the strength of the monsoon system. The interesting observation from this study show that the water column productivity of the south eastern Arabian sea particularly southwest continental margin of India is influenced by the paleoclimatic/paleomonsoon condition of the region. Evolution. Soiapur 413 006 (sawantpt@gmail. Belgaum. H. Walchand College. India (yoganandan1@rediffmail.2 kyr BP and ~2 kyr BP where the periods which injected large amount of fresh water to the southeastern Arabian sea due to high intensity of the monsoon. CaCO3 and OC data of the present studied sediment core recorded early Holocene reduced productivity and gradual increasing trend after ~8 kyr BP and reaches maximum ~6 kyr BP thereafter the increased productivity is continued till present except two major reduced productivity events. Mangalagangotri 574 199.Science Degree College. 39 G.

On the basis of information the coast is classified as emerging.Hegde 1 Tejaswini. and human activities have the most intense and persistent impacts. *** Hydrographic Conditions of Near Shore region off Honnavar and Bhatkal. hydrographic conditions have been studied. tectonic evolution.S. V. The tectonic setting.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. The evolution of morphological features is due to change in sea-level during the Quaternary and it is the result of glacial. Hydrographic condition such as salinity. In particular. 2008).B1 1 SDM College of Engg and Tech. To understand these. glacio-eustasy and Quaternary transgressional and regressional responses to sea-level change are useful to know the evolution of the coastline. Ecosystem and Development) On the basis of Tectonic and morphologic features. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. When these water body moves landward during rising tide. This event causes reduction in the surface salinity along the coast. Hydrographic conditions do not suggest the indication of the Cold up welled water at surface in the month of September. During summer monsoon. the surface flow is southward where as subsurface flow is northward. Such mesoscale oceanographic differences observed in the innershelf have important consequences on the near shore ecosystem and sediment suspension.com) ABSTRACT Near shore region is of special socioeconomic importance owing to vast majority of fishery extraction in this zone. Kanchanagouri. lithology.D.Gosavi1 . Bangalore 560 098 (vshegde2001@yahoo. pH. EC and Temperature etc are interrelated and have influence on flocculation/deflocculating causing particles to remain in suspension/ deposition and near shore ecosystem. neo-tectonism and coastal erosional processes. river discharge.S. The coast has modified the coastline due to the combination of glacial eustasy. a frame work for geodynamic model of coast was suggested by Fairbridge and Finkl. The observed complex pattern of hydrographic conditions could be due to coastal upwelling.Science Degree College. *** 40 G.. Belgaum. the tropical coastal zone due to seasonal variation in wind and wave characteristics and influx of water and sediment load. The process of upwelling causes upward movement. the present configuration of coastline are the result of differential displacement after the breaking of Gondwana and due to the active and or passive margins which are the fundamental basis for the evaluation of coastline.Dharwad 580002 2 Global Academy of Technology. . semidiurnal tides and wind forcing. Central West Coast of India. According to the plate tectonics concept. During winter low saline Bengal bay water meets northward flowing equatorial Indian Ocean water and flow northward as surface currents along the west coast of India. Evolution. they reduces the salinity in the inner shelf .G2. On the basis of these criteria the Maharashtra coastline is analysed and discussed. (1988). eustatic or tectonic influence. Shalini.. sub-merging and quasistable.

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

Estuarine accretion erosion by digital image processing-a case study Hooghly estuary Anirban Mukhopadhyay* Debasish Mitra# and Sugata Hazra% * Research Scholar, School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University # Scientist Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, dept. of Space % Director School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University (anirban@iirs.gov.in; mitra@iirs.gov.in)
ABSTRACT

The main problems of studying coastal accretion erosion are tidal level change, proper bank line delineation, and manual error. All of these are tried to eliminate in the present work of accretion erosion study of Hooghly estuary .Here the changes of the estuary has been studied from the year 1990 to 2007.The satellite images of these two years has been used in such a date and time when the tidal level difference were minimal. After atmospheric correction of these two images the infra-red band of these images has been used to determine the accretion erosion. After user imposed supervised classification of these single band images both image were run in a model in Erdas model-maker. Finally the change in pixel value indicates the area of accretion and erosion. The quantitative analysis has been done.

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Coastal Geomorphologic Study with Multi-Temporal Satellite Data around Konkan Coast, Maharashtra, India
Deepmala Nilamwar, D.Mitra P. T. Hanamgond* Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (NRSA) Kalidas Road, Dehradun (mitra@iirs.gov.in) *Department of Geology, G.S.Science Degree College, Tilakwadi, Belgaum 590 006. (hanamgondpt@gmail.com) ABSTRACT Application of Remote Sensing in understanding the coastal landforms is an important and useful tool. Konkan Coast extending from north of Mumbai to north of Goa along the coast, is one of the most important and productive zone in India. In the present paper application of remote sensing technique is undertaken for a part of Konkan coast stretching between Malvan and Rathnagiri. For the convenience, the study area has been divided in to three stretches asRatnagiri, Vijyadurg and Devgad Coast. The coast here exhibits variety of landforms and geomorphologic features that have been developed mainly due to coastal regression and transgression leading to submergence and emergence, leaving behind the signatures such as headlands, wide creeks, bays, beach ridges, islands etc. For the present study LISS III data (2007) and Landsat data (2003) was used for

41 G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

classification of various landforms along with change detection study using EARDAS imagine 9 software.

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Tectonically controlled landform development in the coastal region of Bhatkal and Baindur, Central West Coast of India.
Hegde V.S., Krishnaprasad P.A., Tejaswini,B., Girish, K.H., and Shalini,G.* Dept of Civil Engineering, S.D.M. college of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad. * Dept of Civil Engineering, Global Academy of Technology, Bangalore. (vshegde2001@yahoo.com) Abstract Tectonics play a significant role in landform development, and drainage pattern are the sensitive indicators of tectonic influence. In order to understand coastal land form development in the region between Bhatkal and Baindur, drainage pattern and landforms have been studied using the Survey of India Toposheet, Satellite data IRS IC/ID of 1972, 1989 TM data and LISS III of 2002 and 2006, and PAN data of 2006 in ERDAS 9.0 version. Relevant field check has been carried out. To extract landform features various image enhancement techniques have been employed. The underlying rocks are gneisses and granites locally capped by laterites. Land form is well dissected except in the coastal region. Many rivers originate on the western face of Western Ghats, flow for a short distance before joining the Arabian sea. Drainages are dendritic, but middle order streams show lineament controlled. Rivers show high sinuosity index even in the upper reaches. Rivers show large meandering, migration and drowned valley nature. At the places, terraces and boulders in the mouth regions of the river are observed. Satellite data indicate distinct coast perpendicular faults. These anomalous features are interpreted to be due to tectonic influence, to which the origin and the evolution of Western Ghats is ascribed to, and the eustatic sea level changes recorded in the west coast of India.

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42 G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics, Evolution, Ecosystem and Development)

A study on communication and technological adaptation in Marine fishing Sector, West Bengal
Sourav Maity and Sugata Hazra School of Oceanographic Studies, Jadavpur University, Kolkata- 700032 (srv_maity@rediffmail.com) ABSTRACT

Among India’s 7200 Km long shore line, the maritime state of West Bengal shares a small coastal segment spread over 200 Km, comprising of estuarine Sundarban part and open coastal Purba Medinipore part. Nearly about 3-lakh fishermen are involved in marine fishing and the annual marine fish catch is nearly about 1.8 Lakh Tons. The state lags behind in marine fishing mostly due to failure in technology adaptation in terms of mechanization and communication. Present study elicits the status of communication and technology adaptation among the marine fisher community of West Bengal in general, and that of different stake holder groups on shore and on board in particular. Two locations has been chosen to understand the variability communication needs of the marine fishermen community, one at Frasergunje-Kakdwip area on the estuarine coast of Sundarban, and other on the open coastal segment at Digha. The data has been collected from different primary, secondary and key stakeholders belonging to different socio-economic strata. The study reveals that maximum fishermen of Sundarban area are gillnetters and only 2% of them use GPS, while in the Digha, the number of GPS users are nearly 70%, majority of who are trawl netters. This can be further correlated with the level of educational accomplishment by the fishermen in the two study areas. The fish catch and margin of profit also shows a direct correlation with level of technology adaptation and education. The paper summarizes some useful recommendations regarding adaptation of technology to improve the status of marine fishing in West Bengal.

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43 G.S.Science Degree College, Belgaum, Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 2008).

Karnataka (12-13 Sept. India. In the marine environment it has been recognized that greater potential hazards exists in the estuarine and near shore areas than in to the open sea because of their proximity to sites of industrial and domestic activity. Relatively high concentration of copper was found than Pb and Cd. GSS College. Rathod* *Lecturer.co.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Ecosystem and Development) Heavy metal concentration in the mullet Mugil cephalus from Karwar Central West coast of India Praveen N.com) ABSTRACT Presence of heavy metals in the aquatic environment is a matter of global concern and regarded as a serious pollutants of Marine ecosystem.U P. Evolution. Rathod* Research Scholar. Karwar. K. Dept of Marine Biology.Centre. It is now well established that several bio-indicators are necessary to give a satisfactory account of pollution status of an ecosystem under study. Belgaum. their environmental persistence. In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the concentration of selected heavy metals (Cu. Cd) in the muscles and gills of mullet Mugil cephalus from three different station of Karwar coast. K. their incorporation in to the food chain with ease and subsequent accumulation by the living biota Bio-indicators are commonly used to assess ecosystem contamination by pollutants.S. L. In this context organisms can accumulate the metals from their food and sea water and or sediments to a concentration that considerably exceeds those found in the environments. Pb.Centre. due to their toxicity at even very low concentration. Dept of Marine Biology. 44 G. Dube and J. *Lecturer.Science Degree College. India (chebbisameer_2007@rediffmail.G.G. . Karnataka. India. Belgaum -590006 Karnataka. Karnataka. L.in) ABSTRACT The importance of heavy metals in the estuarine and coastal environment derives from both their potential effects and anthropogenic sources. and J. resulting in concentration of specific pollutants by runoff or biological activation of inhabiting organisms. (pndube_skyline@yahoo.Chebbi. *** Heavy metals in the Oyster Crossostrea madrasiensis from Karwar Coast Central west coast of India Sameer G.U P. 2008). Karwar. The order of concentration of metals in both gills and muscles was Cu > Pb > Cd.

Ecosystem and Development) Bivalves are extensively used in monitoring programs in the marine / estuarine environments due to their ability to concentrate pollutants (Heavy metals) to several orders of magnitude above ambient level in the sea water. *** 45 G.S. The core samples were subdivided with 2” interval and were subjected to sample preparation and sieving using 22. Solapur University. Core sampling was carried along the Savitri river estuary. The quantitative analysis exhibited by foram occurrence is of normal trend i. Present study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of heavy metals (Zn. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Pb. The study area is part of Konkan coastal tract falling in Survey of India toposheet no. if any. 47 G/1 and is bond by North Latitudes 17⁰ 57’ -18⁰ 00’ and East Longitudes 73⁰ 00’ – 73⁰ 05’. Thus the paper highlights the use of formaminiferal studies in bathymetry studies. Dhandha. the Foraminiferal identification was carried out using micropaleontological microscope and scanning electron microscope. .Science Degree College. The sample processing was conducted using Hydrogen Peroxide solution. and 120 BSS Mesh. On examination about 12 foraminiferal species were noticed along the Savitri river estuary.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.e. The sample interval was 3 – 4 kms. Mn. 2008). North Konkan Coast. It is interesting to note the presence of benthic and planktonic foraminifers deep inland. there is a gradual decrease in frequency and varieties from Savitri river mouth to inland. Raigad District. Later. India. *** The Study of Foraminifera Distribution in Savitri River Esturary. The investigations consist of foraminiferal distribution and their frequency in order to decipher sedimentary environment and tectonic influence. Bagmandle and Kolmandle. Cu.H. (mushtaq_s10@rediffmail. Solapur. Belgaum. 72. Dept. The concentrations of metals are in the following order Zn> Mn> Cu> Pb> Cd. Oyster of the genus Crossotrea are excellent organisms as a biomonitor of marine / estuarine metal pollution in the tropical and subtropical coasts. Evolution. and Cd) from different locations of Karwar coast. agglutinated forams are typical of estuarian environment.com) ABSTRACT Micro Paleontological studies have been carried out along the Savitri river estuary falling in Raigad district of Maharashtra. Shaikh N. The mixing of benthic and planktonic species is perhaps being due to coastline subsidence during storm like situation. The localities that were sampled are Hari-Hareshwar.B and Prabhakar P. Further. of Geology.

0. They are mostly sedentary which makes there fishing easy Molluscan forms the important group of invertebrates of commercial value.in) ABSTRACT In recent times shellfish fishery is fast emerging as an important component in the marine fisheries of the country. and minerals. Commercially bivalves resources are exploited at numerous places all along the coast using variety of fishing methods. The present investigation was therefore undertaken to evaluate the status of clam fisheries in Aghanashini estuary. backwaters and other aquatic habitats. clams of size ranging from 2. During the collection of clam sample. Clams forms important group of molluscs inhabiting estuaries. Among the renewable resources. GSS College. which support clam fishery.Science Degree College.0 cm. Ecosystem and Development) Status of clams. Karnataka. lipid. of estuarine and brackish water molluscan bivalves provide livelihood for the poor. Process of depuration as well as morphometric measurements of clams was carried out to specify the quality and yield of clam meat and its importance to beneficiaries.0 cm and 3. David* Research Scholar.0 . who exploit them for their meat and shells. 2008). There is no avalailable data on the clams fishery from Aghanashini estuary.3. out of which 36 creeks are devoid of clam fishery and 34 creeks support clam fishery. Karnatak Science College. glycogen.4. Mane (1973) considered that there are 90 creeks along the coastline.S. India. Belgaum -590006 Karnataka.0 cm were analysed. *Lecturer. Dept of Zoology. Dharwad. India. most of them serve as a source of protein. Uttara Kannada. Dube and M. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Belgaum. out of which 1. West Coast of India Praveen N.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. *** 46 G. Among these Aghanashini is one. Among them the bivalves excelled the gastropods and cephalopods as cultivable source of food. . Evolution. (pndube_skyline@yahoo.1.0 cm were more in number when compared to those of 0.0 cm to 4.co. Meritrix meritrix and Paphia malabarica from Aghanashini estuary. but the total production is not as high compared to several countries of the world.

their fossil counterparts are widely known since. Italy. Each of these marine ecosystems with its associated habitats supports a wealth of marine resources (Government of India. Thus an attempt is made 47 G. GSS College. About 12% of all the world’s fishes are in India.com) ABSTRACT Ostracodes are bivalve seed shrimps. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. France. harbors a variety of specialised marine ecosystems like coral reef. Korea. Dept. 2. mangroves. 2001). 2008). while carrying out Coastal Dynamics research monitoring undertaken with the support of MoES. The analysis of ostracodes their shell composition. .arun_vaidya@yahoo. Tilakwadi. Central College Campus Bangalore -560 001 (dr. Phanerozoic times. of Ocean Development.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Rajesh Hood* and P. of which 27 are in some degree of danger. eye tubercle and nodes/spines are finding wide application in understanding the changes of environments and the fact is yet untouched and utilized. Evolution. algal communities.Science Degree College. Cumulative catches from the Indian. *** Ostracoda as Bio-indicators of Environmental Changes in Modern Seas A. Taiwan. and the Indian Ocean is fished heavily by Spain. Hanamgond** UG Students. GSS College.S. during three visits to Malvan Coast. Tilakwadi. Tilakwadi. The present report is preliminary observations made on variety of fauna and were documented with in situ field photographs. seagrass beds. Of about 4 million ha of wetlands.S. Belgaum – 590 006 **Department of Geology. or about 2 200 species. Sagar Waghmare. Praveen Dube*. Malvan has been regarded as one of the biologically richest coastal regions in Maharashtra and hence has been demarcated as Biodiversity hotspot of Konkan region. sculpture. Belgaum – 590 006 ABSTRACT The coastal areas of India with a coast line of over 7. India is one of the 12 mega-biodiversity centers in the world. Belgaum. Dept of Geology. GSS College. T. mud flats and lagoons. Suresh Khot.500 km. 2001). and Lithuania. Belgaum – 590 006 *Research Scholars. It is with this context they have an edge over foraminifera’s besides.6 million are manmade (Summaries for Countries with Significant Aquatic Biodiversity Concerns August. inhabit all aquatic habitats including the terrestrial terrains. Romania. Ecosystem and Development) Biodiversity of Malvan Coast – A note on Preliminary Observations.Vaidya UGC-Academic Staff College Bangalore University.

Hiremath P.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. But the calcium which is available from the animal sources is more beneficial therapeutically and safe. Karnataka 590003.Perls etc. All marine originates are having more or less the CaCO3 as a main constituent. Calcium is the essential element for the human body for the formation of strong bones and teeth. like Conch Shell.Ayurved Mahavidyalaya Post graduate Studies and Research Centre. S. .E’s Shri B.Coral. Since antiquity.Science Degree College. After proper modification as according the classics (Shodhana (Purification ) and Marana (Incineration etc))the drugs are become more potent and highly benefited in the management of various ailments and also helps to maintain the positive health.S. -Role of marine originates in the maintenance of positive health. the marine originates are in use therapeutically for to serve the mankind and to achieve the aim of Ayurveda.K.G. Herbal sources and Animal sources.L.Coveries.Dept of Rasashastra K.M. This article mainly highlights the following: -To highlight the therapeutic role of marine originates in Ayurveda. Evolution. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. These marine originates are selected and their quality was assessed based on classical and modern parameters before using them therapeutically and necessary modifications are essential for to convert them in to a suitable form. The present paper highlights about the marine originates and their therapeutical importance in Ayurveda. Belgavi. The some of the animal originates mainly having CaCo3 as an main ingredient including marine originates are classified in Ayurveda under the group of Shukla varga dravyas. Calcium is available in the universe from Mineral sources. *** 48 G. Based on various pharmaceutical processing techniques adopted for individual drugs so that the pharmacological and therapeutical properties are going to change and are being used in the different ailments in the form of bhasmas.Pisti or as a Compound formulations. Ecosystem and Development) herein to review the biological history of ostracodes and their use in understanding the environmental studies of estuarine ecosystems and modern seas. and for controlling blood-clotting mechanisms and to regulate the excitability of nerves and muscles. viruses and tooth decay etc. Sufficient calcium is thought to protect against allergies. 2008). Belgaum. *** THERAPEUTICAL IMPORTANCE OF MARINE ORIGINATES IN AYURVEDA R. ABSTRACT Ayurveda is a science of life and the main aim is to maintain positive health and to treat the ailments of diseased.

Fe. Samudraphen (Cuttle fish bone).S. *** 49 G. The effect can be behaviorial /physiological change.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.an ageold science which propagates as ‘yatha deho tatha prakruti’ has tried to balance these conditions with the help of nature with optimum benefits. skin diseases.Science Degree College. migrane. Belgaum. Belgaum 590 006. Agnijar (Ambergris) etc marine originates find broader medicinal application in the category of animal origin. effects can be observed in some human beings. heart problems. (vskathavate@yahoo. Altered food habits have led to disturbances in metabolism and immunity system which is the major contributor for many ailments like diabetes.Na –K.Patil Department of Geology. probable mode of action and their clinical application in different diseases shall be discussed in this paper. Mukta-shukti (Pearl oyster). their function. obesity. Drugs like Mukta (Pearl). etc. stress and anxiety etc. periodical– headache. Rise and fall of the sea level by the effect of full moon/new moon (spring tides) and daily variation of sea level (high/low tides). Nature has provided us with drugs which are immunomodulators. *** Usage of Marine Originates as Medicine in Ayurved Poornima Pyati Consulting Ayurvedic Physician Hindwadi. imbalance in the body. This paper deals with the medicinal values of Marine Originates. Ayurveda . Praval (Coral). Belgaum. Characteristics of these drugs. hyperacidity.Mg and Si are the main cause to imbalance or discomfort or diseases. Evolution. Ayurveda considers everything on earth as medicines. Shankha (Conch). 2008). The behavioral changes are mental derangements or abnormal behavior. Kapardi (Cowry). Ecosystem and Development) Physiological changes in the Human Body by the Coastal Climate (Tidal Fluctuations) H. . Hence the broad classification of drugs is made as CHETANA (SENDRIYA) DRAVYA and ACHETANA (NEERINDRIYA) DRAVYA wherein the usage of Plant origin (Oudbhijya).com) ABSTRACT In today’s modern hectic era. G. The variation of the elements such as Ca. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Shambuk (Pila). Animal origin (pranij) and Mineral (khanij) drugs is observed. This is due to chemical elements.Science College.S. antioxidants and the drugs which increase the bioavailability. epilepsy or fits and paralytic weakness. arthritis. the change in the lifestyle has given rise to lot of health problems.G.

Karnataka are selected to know the influx of sea water into these rivers and its impact on groundwater quality. Ecosystem and Development) Influxes of Sea Water into Venkatapur and Sarbi Rivers and its Impact on Groundwater Quality. *** 50 G.S. November 2001. The collections are made during March 2001.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. In the present work. The groundwater in the wells close to these rivers does show high TDS content. March 2001 and April 2002 at all the three locations. Such structure help in preventing free movement of sea water into the river course during high tides and do not contaminate subsurface with saline sea water. The laterites are the litho units in the study area with primary and secondary openings to store and transmit infiltered water. aquifer characters etc.Science Degree College. 2008). Three samples of water are collected from these rivers at a distance of one kilometer each in up stream direction from coast. This indicates that the influxed sea water into river course has infiltered or percolated into subsurface and contaminated aquifer. of Studies in Geology. Venkatapur and Sarbi Rivers of Bhatkal Taluka. Anjuman College of Engineering. January 2002 and March 2002. Didgur and S. M. TDS values are comparatively less in the samples collected after monsoon season i. Bhatkal Taluka. Bhatkal Dept.e. Karnatak University. Dharwad ABSTRACT Influx of sea water into river course during high tides may cause contamination of fresh groundwater depending upon characters of river course. Uttar Kannada District. of Civil Engineering. In order to restrain the sea water influx into the river course it is proposed to place sand or sand + cement bags in the river bed at suitable places. November 2001 and the values are high in dry season i. Total dissolved Solids (TDS) values of these water samples are estimated. Evolution. Belgaum. Maximum contamination of river water occurs during high tides and minimum during low tides.e. tidal levels. Karnataka S. Uttar Kannada District. The groundwater occurs under watertable (phreatic) conditions. Puranik Dept. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. C. April 2001. .

. All these aspects help to attract the tourists from all over world and generate resources for the economic development of this region. gaur. are we preserving this rich culture? The tourism places along Konkan are pilgrimage Temples. forts and palaces etc.590 006. Evolution. neem tree. boar. but. Belgaum.Science Degree College.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Belgaum. Prabhu Department of Zoology. seagulls. Foreign tourists are attracted by our own culture and values. banyan tree. while creating economic opportunities that make conservation protection of natural resources advantageous to local people. bear. Ancient Indian Medical Science originated 5000 years ago. etc which are a few of the many species found along the Konkan.kokam. Y. ashwagandha. It is a preserving travel to natural areas to appreciate the cultural and natural history of the environment taking care not to disturb the integrity of ecosystem. ABSTRACT Ecotourism is entirely a new approach in tourism. amla plant. Some of the flora and fauna of Konkan Coast and the part that cover the Western Ghats are. . Indian bustard.S. Ecosystem and Development) Eco-tourism with special reference to Konkan Coast Vandana Ravindran. cashew nut. India is known for its rich and diverse culture and its rich biodiversity. caves. especially the Konkan Coast. peacock. 2008). scenic beaches. peafowl. Konkan food (Malvani) is famous worldwide. coconut. Smita Patil (UG Students) and S. *** 51 G. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. G S Science College.

coastal and aeolian processes..T. It is a submerged coast.S. Tilakwadi. and coastal dynamic studies. estuary and creek systems. Ecosystem and Development) Dynamics of Konkan Coast .com) ABSTRACT The present paper is a review of the work published on the coastal tract of Konkan.Science Degree College. This region along the Sahyadri Ranges on India's west coast is internationally acclaimed for its sun and sand making it a heavenly abode (Sathe and Chauhan. BELGAUM – 590 006 (Hanamgondpt@gmail. G. fluvial. and subsequently exogenetic processes were more powerful (Tandale. involving the evolution of coast through the study of sea level variations and textural study of beach sands along some of the beaches of Maharashtra coast have been made by several researchers. neotectonics. 2003). 2008). It is known that. Evolution. Introduction The coastal length of Maharashtra is about 720 Kms.Science College.gisdevelopment. 52 G. The coast here is under the influence of predominantly semi-diurnal tides. et al.colorado.html). 1993). Department of Geology. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.S. http://www. The coastal eco system is unique and divergent owing to the multidisciplinary geomorphological processes such as tectonic. 1992) and has a unique combination of nature's endowment with scenic beauty of bays and beaches.net). inter tongued by creeks and promontories at regular intervals. coastal region of Maharashtra in India was tectonically active during Mio-Pliocene period. The Konkan Coast has the distinct morphological features form the rest of the Indian Coast (Chandramohan. so that it can serve as a quick resource and document for the researchers working along this coast for reference. Belgaum. Konkan is the littoral lowland extending from the Arabian Sea to the Western Ghat escarpment and from north of Bombay (Mumbai) to north of Goa (16 º to19º 30’ N). The difference between the semidiurnal low tides occurs at approximately the hours of 11 and 23 (http://ocean. . beach ridge complexes.A Review Hanamgond P.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. mainly on the aspects of geomorphic.edu/~kantha/ Tides2D/arabian_sea. These processes which have acted in varying degrees and duration during the Quaternary period have left their imprints in the form of various geomorphic features along the coast such as deltas. Significant studies on geomorphology involving the study of coastal geomorphological features through toposheet referred maps and remote sensing. placer minerals along the beach and offshore. neotectonic. The present review is an effort to bring all those works published and unpublished together. backwater-lagoon systems. spit and bar systems etc (Ramaswamy.

This study covers most part of the Konkan coast. 1998). Chavadi’s (1974) and Deendar’s (1982) contributions are significant. the Recent – Pleistocene formations (alluvium. Bomay IIT and Pune university Geology departments have contributed most of the literature on basalts of this area. and Kelkar (1956) have detailed out the geology of the southern part of Ratnagiri district. Chavadi and Gokhale (1975 & 1976). Maharashtra was studied for its age and evolution by Kale et al (1984). have detailed out the offshore basin configuration. Iyer (1939). Alongwith these. The oldest rocks. but as they are in non listed journals and dissertations. and Miocene-Pliocene sequences such as. Sea level fluctuation and Neotectonics Kale (1983) provided the geomorphic repercussions by new interpretation using palaeomagnetic and geophysical data. Subba Raju et al. Subsequently. Ecosystem and Development) Geology and Geophysics From the available literature. . There study shows. hydrocarbon prospects of Konkan Deepwaters.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. (1989). 1998). The age of the beach rock suggested that either it developed in relation to a high sea level of the last interglacial period.D dissertation. Chavadi (1974) has carried out a detailed work on geology of Vengurla area. the proterozoic formations (Kaladgi super group) such as conglomerate. extending upwards through parts of dune (0. sandstone and shales which occur as inliers (also referred as “Konkan Kaladgis”). formation of iron ore and the drainage pattern to a great extent (Deendar 2003). they have not been referred in many of the publications arising along this area. Eocene-Upper cretaceous formations. or there had been a neotectonic activity in the region. sand and soils) also occur along this coastal tract (Deshpande. geology. where in he has extensively carried structural aspects and geology of the area. The stratigraphic succession of different rocks of Maharashtra.9 to 1. have studied the bathymetry of central west coast of India using the shallow seismic surveys. Bruce Foot (1876) seems to be one of the pioneers to record the geological features of the southern Maharashtra. 1998). The straightness of the Western Ghat Scarp has been believed to be due to faulting. (1999). he describes that the area is structurally disturbed and influenced the formation of the present topography.5 m) and capped by red sandy soil. lignite and shales.the Deccan trap basalt flows. He also suggests that the Indian Peninsula is still active and tectonically disturbed. The litho section of the beach rock from Uran.Science Degree College.S. Gokhale and Chavadi (1969. Evolution. 1998) brought out by Geological Society of India. laterite. including the text book “Geology of Maharashtra” (Deshpande.8 to 2 m of exposed beach rock at the base. have detailed about the occurrence and geology of Vajrat Gabbros. 2008). framework. Thakur et al.. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Belgaum.. Further. are exposed along the coastal tract of Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts. Deendar (1982) has studied the area around Vengurla for his Ph.tertiary sediments. 1972 & 1973). mostly biotite gneisses (3500 ma). The coast of Maharashtra represents the Pladpur and Ambenali Formations of the Deccan Basalt (Subbarao and Hooper. Banded Grunerite Granulites and basic dikes from Ratnagiri and Savantwadi area. The Proterozoic sedimentary exposures occurring near Malvan are considered equivalent of Badami group and are considered to have been deformed during a much younger (Tertiary) activity along the west coast fault (Deshpande. the presence of about 1. 53 G.

Kale et al. Based on these evidences. a slightly higher sea. Kale (1983). on the basis of aerial photos. Their study reveals buried channels. the 54 G.. older and younger raised beaches apart from the present intertidal zone. 1990). are most prominent features indicating emergence. Tandale (1993) in his study using remote sensing techniques says. interpreted the Goa and adjoining areas and concluded that the present western face of the Western Ghats is merely a product of circumdenudation of an old tableland. appears to be contemporaneous with the other lignite beds reported so far from the west coast of India and support the neotectonic activity in this region. and subsequently exogenetic processes were more powerful. 1986). He opines that tectonic control. They have reconstructed tentative sea level fluctuation curve. coastal region of Maharashtra in India was tectonically active during MioPliocene period. the lignite bed occurs about 100 m MSL and dated > 40000 years BP which is comparable to the Warkalli beds and therefore. (1992). Frequently occurring. Rajaguru and Marathe (1984). operated either through a relative fall in sea-level or an emergence of the Indian shield during the Holocene period is responsible for the accretionary nature of the beach (Sukhtankar. land use. Paper suggests that (1) the evolution of the fluvio-marine environs are controlled by geologic. with particular reference to evolution of western ghat using several field signatures. has envisaged in detail the geomorphological evolution of Konkan coast. Further. with raised platforms at the foot.Science Degree College. From these geomorphic features.S.. The tidal basins are extensive flat plains of late Holocene sediments. Cliffs formed by wave action. Kale and Rajaguru (1985) have given an overview about neogene and quaternary transgressional and regressional history of the west coast of India. Rajshekhar and Kumaran (1998). Powar (1993). Nigam et al. (1984) have dated a late pleistocene beach rock (Karal) from Uran. Two/three generations of dune ridges (although not very common) provide a convincing evidence of former shorelines. Most of the present coastal geomorphological features on Konkan Coast indicate a slightly higher sea-level in early Holocene. and delineates zones to protect fluvio-marine environs. he delineates a fall in sea-level to the extent of about 4 m and 1 m during the Holocene period. Fossil beach ridges are found to occur invariably in front of tidal basins. Belgaum. fossil littoral deposits and relict channel gravels. says that the available records of sea-level fluctuations on Konkan coast are more or less of general. and Pandian. peninsular movements and western ghat formation. wide coastal plains and narrow elongated terraces are covered with Tertiary sands. in their study at Velas show that. Field studies along the coast of Vengurla carried by Sukhtankar (1986) reveal presence of stabilised dunes. . closer to the sea. Oldest and the farthest dune ridges suggest an early to mid Holocene period and younger. has used paleomagnetic and geophysical data to reveal the paleogeography. Evolution.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. (2) human activities play significant role in land degradation. in one of his literature he says that shaping of the coastline and the evolution of geomorphic features of marine origin are not only due to the regressive phases of sea during the Holocene but also due to tectonic evolution of the coast (Sukhtankar. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. have carriedout geomorphological investigations of primary and secondary laterites around Rathnagiri. The terraces are found within the elevation range of 4 to 6 m. Karlekar (2001). geomorphic and tectonic processes. have delineated fluctuating sea levels off Bombay using the shallow water benthic foraminifera. 2008). Ecosystem and Development) Wagle and Misra (1975). marine erosion and accretion. to arrest land degradation and improve land use situation. There is a great variety of shore marks between 2 to 10 meters above sea-level. in late Holocene.

have provided a model to study the slope and width of the resultant shore platforms. In their opinion. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. where in they have discussed the evolution of the west coast. have studied the environmental changes associated with monsoon induced upwelling. Ratnagiri basin. b) the Kanara Scarp and c) the Kerala Scarp. has covered many aspects on geomorphology of Maharashtra and has identified beach ridges along the coast especially near river mouths and creeks. Patil et. Belgaum. Coastal Evolution and Geomorphology De Souza and Sadashivaiah (1968).. (2003). slopes. Subrahmanya (1998) opines that the west coast of India represents a Passive Continental Margin (PCM) that developed at the trailing edge of the Indian continent approximately 40 Ma ago. al. . Ecosystem and Development) magnitude of changes in sea-levels along the Konkan coast he has inferred as later part of Holocene. Using cliff height. studied the formation of Western Ghat scarp. have detailed out the morphotectonic analysis of the Konkan Coast with seismic implications using remote sensing and GIS. Wagle (1982. Maharashtra. 1987 & 1991). arches and highs separated by basins.S.a) the Konkan Scarp. (1996). De Sousa et al. Off the coast of Maharashtra there are Bombay Arch/high. Biswal et al. sea level changes and also the recent intrusions have contributed for the shaping of the present coastline. also discusses the evolution of Coastal belt between Palghar and Vijaydurg. (1994).. 2008). which he attributes to continuous retreat of the sea. after the eruption of Deccan Traps the region of Maharashtra was affected by earth movements mostly vertical. Vengurla Arch and Konkan basin. (1994). when India was separated from Seychelles micro-continent by rifting and continental drifting. Evolution. formation of “Sahyadris/Western Ghats”.. erosion rates at high and low tides. the present coast owes its existence to combined effects of gradual submergence in the beginning and later frequent upheaval with simultaneous denudational processes in each stage. which covers southern portion of the Konkan coast.Science Degree College. due to which the present physiographic features were developed. as . Deswandikar and Karlekar (1996) have studied the paleo beach and extensive dune complex stretching within 500m inland from the backshore at Diveagar beach. where in they have classified the Western Ghat Scarp into three types on the basis of morphological characteristics and topographic maturity. Their study reveals that the Konkan coast is highly seismic and lies in the zone 4 of the Seismic Zones of India. have detailed out the influence of Geomorphological and Tectonic control in the mineralisation of the Western Shelf of India. 55 G. They suggest the origin of the dune complex about last 2000 to 4000 years.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Kunte and Wagle (2005) have given a review of Indian beach ridges. offshore graben and the development of drainage system in the state. Kamble and Jog (1996). including the formation of west coast. The continental shelf parallel to the west coast is traversed by a series of nearly north-south trending faults producing narrow horst and graben structures. Deshpande (1998) in his study envisaged that. Rajamanickam et al..

Kumar et al. Stratigraphically. They also provide clues on the evolution of Malvan coast owing to a major lineament that detatched the present Sindhudurg Island.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.Science Degree College. (2000). lateritisation processes in the southern part which conserved the plains there. Samant and Subramanyan. 2008). They also suggest that the ridges have formed in two phases. the most of the Malvan city is situated on beach ridges formed due to tombolo. . Their study shows that. (2005). Evolution. creating an extended plains up to 200 m. developed during Later Holocene. 56 G. along Rathnagiri coast the headland between Kalbadevi and Mirya bay (Figure 1A). Recently. that might one day join completely with the mainland (?). have made the isotopic studies of beach rock carbonates stretching from Guhagar to Deogad along the Konkan coast. Taking the clue from their study. surface planation processes in the western part (water table weathering and slope retreat). Ecosystem and Development) Helmut Bruckner (1987) gives his view on the evolution of Konkan coast and Western Ghat with the help of some new data.. using remote sensing data. Belgaum. Vijay et al.S. 1 2 Rajapur Bay Figure 1: (A) The ongoing tombolo processes occurring between Mirya and Kalbadevi bays. All of these processes were influenced by the middle and late Tertiary fluctuations of the Arabian Sea that triggered several morphodynamics cycles. these beach rocks are inferred to belong to recent formations. (Courtesy Google Earth). (1998). (B) The Ambolgarh headland north of Rajapur Bay has already joined with the mainland owing to tombolo processes. They have detailed out recession of active cliffs and beach morphology. and the Ambolghar headland north of Rajapur Bay (Figures 1B) can also be interpreted as evolved owing to the tombolo effect and related processes. Hanamgond and Mitra (2008) have presented their view on evolution of Malvan Coast. He is of the opinion that. have detailed out the landuse land cover change in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai cities using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The netshore drift along most of the Konkan coast has been dealt by Kunte and Wagle (1993). using remote sensing techniques. and a subsidence which caused the present ria-type coast.. the littoral lowland of Konkan owes its formation to – the retreat of the Western Ghat escarpment in the eastern part. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Rocks behind IB and many islands which are aligned almost in a same line between Devbag-Achra. have mapped the mangrove forests and change detection of Mumbai coast.

Coastal processes using measured wave height and longshore currents Sanil Kumar et al. (2007) have studied the characterization of opaques off Konkan Coast supported with REE studies. which covers the Konkan coast also. The study distinguishes the high energy zones. environmental significance along with variations in skeletal components. Pathani (1996. 1997 & 1999) has a some brief reports on. (1986). They have elaborated textural variation.coastal geomorphology of the coast between Achra creek to Karli creek. Sukumaran and Nambiar. These lineaments are occupied by major rivers. have done a significant work on heavy minerals of Konkan coast especially around Rathnagiri Bays from beach and offshore sands. Recently. while studying the Konkan coastline from Harnai to Guhagar reveal many tectonic aspects. Rare slickensides are observed on the quartz vein wall as evidences of faulting. effect of waves and redistribution of sediments etc. (1994). His studies show that only the berm environment has high potential and provide highest reserves. micro environment differentiation using grain size analysis of Malvan beach. and to decipher sediment transport. non skeletal components and detrital components. Some of these features corroborate with the recent findings by Hanamgond and Mitra (2008). have elaborated ilmenite geochemistry from Rathnagiri beach placer sands. Hanamgond (2007) has detailed out the morphodynamics of the beaches along Redi. have encountered with lignite clays which have provided information about fossil fungi and other fossils related to mangrove ecosystem. and the resultant sediment movement (onoffshore and longshore) in relation to the morphological and textural variations within the beaches of the study area. to find out how rapidly and reliably the initial or primary data could be obtained on sand movement in a coastal environment using magnetic mineral techniques. (2004). ..S.. Ecosystem and Development) Coastal Sediments and beach dynamics Hashimi et al. in his seasonal morphological variations along Kalbadevi bay shows the importance of beach profile studies in the areas where rich beach placer deposits. sediment depositional environment. as well as magnetic susceptibility study to understand the spatial and temporal variation in terms of seasonal deposition and/or erosion of the beach is harnessed to trace out the variability and concentration of magnetic minerals for qualitative assessment of sediment movement. Evolution. al. have detailed out grain size analysis of continental shelf off Vengurla and Mangalore. Their study indicates that... the study area consists of many straight line segments being arranged in an en. Valsangkar (2005) has studied the seasonal variations in heavy mineral placer sand from kalbadevi bay of Ratnagiri coast. It is believed that the NNW– SSE lineaments are probable faults in the area.echelon manner. 2008). along 20 selected study locations and over two annual cycles (February 2003 to February 2005). Rajamanickam et.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. classification and change detection. Belgaum. Gujar et al. the acrretional/erosional areas.Science Degree College. and heavy mineral distribution along Sindhudurg coast. Kumaran et al. He has also applied remote sensing techniques studies for the interpretation of landforms. 57 G. Aravli and Vengurla. depositional environment and identify provenance of beach sediments.. Their research contribution is mainly on heavy mineral distribution. 1993). Karnataka (12-13 Sept. the wave and longshore current patterns. Rajamanickam and Gujar (1984. Kundu and Matam (2000). (1978). (2006) have estimated the net sediment transport and coastal erosion along Indian Coast. Ganesan (2004).

Eds: H. for its financial support through major project (MoES/11-MRDF/1/17/P/07-PC III).National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. variety of habitats and their significance all which indicate that the Malvan coast of Konkan coast has a very rich biodiversity with more than 367 species of fauna and flora. creeks. .. et al. The studies on morphology (erosion/accretion) of the beaches are scanty. Government of India (2001).Science Degree College. 2003. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. V.) Kalpana Pvt. Kundu B. Bruce Foot R.. Gupta) Geological Society of India. Matam Anand and Subramanyan V. promontories/headlands and islands. Mem. biodiversity. Pune. Memoir 54.K.Indi. From the foregoing account it can be summerised thatThe coastal tract of Konkan is highly dissected/irregular by the presence of many rivers. Belgaum. corals occurring at higher levels from the present sea level.Geol.. and are clearly suggestive of compound or intermediate coast.Surv.. The placer mineral studies are restricted mainly to central part of the Maharashtra Coast (Rathnagiri coast). wave cut platforms/notches in the cliff. (In:Earthquake Studies in Peninsular India : Since 1993... pp 173-184. 1987. 2008). trace elemental studies to have a better understanding of this coast. Morphotectonic analysis of the Konkan Coast of Maharashtra and its seismic implication. Geological features of the south Maharatta country & adjoining districts. All these above features (1 & 2) showing both emergence and submergence of coast. Exploration in Tropics (Eds: Datye V. There are occurrences of paleo beach ridges giving rise to series of dune ridges. References Biswal T. bays. ICMAM-PD and Anna University.. 1876. pp 70-138.S.D. Ltd. occurrence of peat/lignite beds etc. The report provides significant information on ecology. Most of the rivers/creeks follow the lineaments and indicate the structural control over the geomorphological aspects of the Konkan coast. S. Ecosystem and Development) Coastal Ecosystem Biodiversity Department of Ocean Development. Bruckner. H. are the clear evidences for sea level fluctuations. Ambolghar headland and the headland between Mirya and Kalbadevi bays have evolved owing to the tombolo processes that have joined the offshore islands with the mainland.12(2). 58 G. Acknowledgement The author is thankful to Ministry of Earth Sciences. river/estuarine sedimentation. The report comprises remote sensing and GIS analysis of Malvan Coast. Gupta and G. Evolution.K.. Therefore the Konkan coast provides ample opportunities to carryout researches in the area of beach morphology. The coast near Malvan. has brought out an integrated research report formulated by NIO.

XX.. W. 29 p.Science Degree College. Geomorphology. Karnatak University. Off Central West Coast of India. Belgaum. . pp 45-67.. Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management..C. Geological Society of India. pp 147 – 153. Deshpande G. and S. Math. India. Kulkarni.. Project Directorate. Deendar D. pp 125-135.. Univ. 59 G..W. N. ed. Geology of the Mafic and other associated Rocks of Savantvadi. 1975. Technical report : NIO /TR.V. Unpublished Ph D Thesis. pp. Sawakar and P. Jour. Ratnagiri District. Ratnagiri District. Vol. Maharashtra. N. A geomorphic significance of coastal dune complex at Diveagar. Sci. 1992. pp 74-88. R..National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. 223 p. C. pp. Ratnagiri District. Evolution. Mathematical Geology. Gokhale N. Ind. Ratnagiri District. Geology of the Vengurla Area Ratnagiri District Maharashtra State. Univ. Text Book Series 10. Maharashtra State. Surfzone dynamics of the Konkan Coast. In: MEAI. Maharashtra. chemical studies in the Vajrat gabbros. and Chavadi V. Gokhale N. W. 1972. Chennai. Sci. XVIII. Delineation of high tide line and seasonal beach profiling at Kalbadevi bay.1976. Structural controls in the formation of iron ore deposits and laterite of Vengurla area. Anand.G. Univ... Jour.. N. and Chavadi V. Environmental Changes Associated With Mansoon Induced Upwelling. Maharashtra State. P. De Sousa S. Areal. Gokhale N.S. Journal Geological Society of India V. 2003. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Jour. Dharwad. Geol. Maharashtra state.S. 1996. Areal variation of anorthite content of plagioclase feldspar from the Vajrat Gabbro.8/ 2004 Government of India. C. 1972. pp 8-10. C. XX.. B. Geostatistical investigations of gabbro occurrences near Savantvadi. and Karlekar S. W..1 (2). OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE INDIAN OCEAN. Sci. Indian Jour. Geology of Maharashtra. Journal Int. 751-75. 1982. and Nayak. 1996. Karn. Geostatistical investigation of the gabbro occurrences near Savantwadi. N. Chavadi V.M. P. Unpublished Ph D Thesis. 25.N. pp 49-67. Critical Habitat Information System of Malvan Maharashtra India.. Dharwad. Mar. Sci. V. Ganesan. Glimmer gabbros from Savantwadi area. Ratnagiri district. Karn. Vol.. Gokhale. C. Vol. Karnatak University. Ratnagiri District.W. NEW-DELHIINDIA OXFORD-AND-IBH. Ratanagiri District. Maharashtra..4(2). Deendar D. Dept.. Maharashtra. Chavadi V.I. 1969. July 2001.10(1) pp 95-102. 2004. Chavadi V. 1974. Chavadi V. 1973. N. Desai.. Deswandikar A. Maharashtra State. Belgaum chapter workshop Souvenir “Sustainable Resource Management in Mining: With special reference in Coastal Regions of Karnataka and Maharashtra”. B. Gokhale. Karn.W. Vol.115-119. and Chavadi V. 1998.U.. V4(2) pp 147-153. Jour.I.S. C. Central west coast of India. of Ocean Development. quantitative. K. Durga Prasada Roa... India. India. 2008). V. C. June 1996. Ass. Basic dykes from Savantwadi area. Ecosystem and Development) Chandramohan. Gokhale..

V. Mar. Maharashtra. Central West Coast of India.. No. P.1. Current Science. Hanamgond P.. H. 44. Maharashtra State. 1984. Karlekar. Bulletin of the Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute. V.74(4). of India (ESS/23/VES/138/2001)... 1939. West Coast of India – a Case Study Using Remote Sensing Data. 1956.N. & Tooley.A. Geol.33(3). Jour.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. In: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Quaternary Sea Level Variation.N. Late-Pleistocene beach rock From Uran. Characterization of Opaques off Konkan Coast Maharashtra. Vol. Konkan. and Rajamanickam.257-261. Kundu Biswaketan and Matam Anand 2000. 1984. M.. .A. West coast of India. Journal of Coastal Research. Rajaguru.. Rec. Geomorphology.7. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Journ. and Nair R. Vol. T. Maharashtra.42.N. Current Science.. G. Poona Univ. 6. Angusamy.. V. Kunte P.24(3) pp 672-678. Kamble A. Bombay Presidency. pp153-167. Sci. pp 782-789. Kale V. Kelkar K. 2007.. India. Kumar K. Limaye. Evolution. Maharashtra. and S.. V. Hashimi N. and Jog S. Rajaguru. No. 2001.1 (2)..N.. of Science and Technology. Ecosystem and Development) Gujar.A.N. Hanamgond P. The geology of the south Ratnagiri and parts of Savantwadi state. Vol. Shoreline Displacement and Coastal Environment Eds: Rajamanickam. pp.G. India.. Neogene and Quaternary Transgressional and Regressional History of the West Coast of India: An Overview. Delhi. V. Indian Jour.J. 20 March 1984.V.. 6.. 2005. A.T and Mitra D.S. 2000. pp 317-319. 53. Surv. Vol. G. India New Academic Publ pp..India. Evolution of Malvan Coast. 162-166. Sci.Science Degree College. Fossil Record of Marine Mangliocolous Fungi From Malvan (Konkan) West Coast of India.S.S. Kshirsagar and S. Dept. 78(12) pp 1556-1560. pp 167-175. Vol. The evidences of the vertical displacement of shorelines in Konkan (west coast of India). V. M. Kumaran. V. Iyer L. No. Maharashtra.S. Indian Jour.. The beach ridges of India: A review.R. 2007. M.1985. Morphodynamics of the beaches between Redi and Vengurla. pp 231-238. 60 G. Kale. Technical Report. September 2004. Journal of Coastal Research. pp 174-183.16 (3). Rajaguru. Characteristics of waves off Goa.. Grain size and coarse fraction studies of sediments between Vengurla and Mangalore on the Western Continental Shelf of India. K. 6. 1978. N. Kale. pp 317-319. R. Vol. Identification of probable faults in the vicinity of Harnai–Ratnagiri region of the Konkan coast. 53.. R.. V.S. A.6. V. Kumar V. 2004. India. Kidwai R. 2008. D and Wagle B. Ind. Govt. 277p. Curr. A. Mar. Late-pleistocene beach rock from Uran. N. and Anand N. Sci. Equilibrium width of shore platforms: model and implications. Journal of Coastal Research. V. 2008). Vol. Sci.S. pp 53-67.. 1996. Mahesh Shinikar and Ruta B. Belgaum. S.A. West Coast of India. Archaean rocks in the southern parts of Rathnagiri District.. Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering. Kshirsagar.

Vol.R. Neotectonic Activity around Ratnagiri. Kunte P. Vol. A. Menezes and A. Heavy mineral analysis of quarternary sediments from Sindhudurg coastal tract.13. Isotope Studies of Beach Rock Carbonates From Konkan. S. B.. 2: Geomorphology and resource management. New Delhi). Wagle.500 and 10.G.5(1).Commission. Rajamanickam. R. 2000. D.: Jog.. and Gujar. Rajamanickam. and Gujar. A.7(4). Hashimi. India. Rajamanickam. Powar. Central West Coast of India. Acad. and Gujar. Belgaum. Vol. pp 309-311. (Earth Planet. K. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Maharashtra. Rajamanickam. Geomorphic Evolution of the Konkan Coastal belt between Palghar and Vijaydurg. 1993.. Ed. 1984. A. Journal of Coastal Research...1992.N. Assn.Geol. Wagh. Patil.S. Determination of Net Shore Drift Direction of Central West Coast of India Using Remotely Sensed Data. 11& 12. 62. pp 20-28 Pathani R. Assn. pp 103-125.B. Rajamanickam. pp 793-796. 10 &25 February 1993. pp 237244. 1994. 3. Geol. 1994. 61 G. Effect of waves in the redistribution of sediments along the Konkan coast.. M. and A. 2: Geomorphology and resource management. Pathani R. (In: Indian geomorphology. Vol. and B. Pub: Rawat . A. Indian Jour. Sci. 1997.R. Influence of geomorphological and tectonic control in the mineralization of the western shelf of India. A. Centre. V. Sukhtankar nad K. Vethamony.. Gujar. 10 February 1992. Baroda. Maharashtra.V.R. Sci.) Vol. Pub: Rawat .H. W. Maharashtra. G. Centre. New Delhi).. .95(2). 2008). Sindhudurg District. Marathe. Vol. Fluctuating Sea Levels Off Bombay (India) between 14. G. D.B. No. G. pp 53-59. Of Geol.: Jog. Eileen T. Coastal geomorphology of the area between Achra Creek and Karli Creek. pp 1-6.. Res.V. Vol.B. Curr.V. 1993. Sci. 1993. Quat. Indian Ocean Sub. Centre. Jour. . Symp. Evolution. pp 140-144. Seminar on INQUA Shoreline. (In: Indian geomorphology. and Gujar. 1996. pp811822. Rajiv Nigam. 64.G. No. Jour. Sci. Proc.R. Vol. S.3.000 years before present. 1999. Significance of grain size analysis to differentiate micro environment from Malvan beach. pp 11-15.R.. Quat.K. Ecosystem and Development) Kumar.R. Wagle. Pathani R. Res.4(4).. Sediment Depositional Environment in some bays in central west coast of India. Powar. N. Assn.S.V. A. Recent researches in Sedimentolgoy. Rajaguru S. A. Geomorphological Evolution of Konkan Coastal Belt and Adjoining Sahyadri Uplands with reference to Quaternary uplift. . India. A. Proc.1993. pp 167-170.1984. Sci. No. 9. R.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Depositional processes inferred from the log probability distribution. B.V..R.Science Degree College. Geol. Proc. Ind. G. pp 154-164. Res. pp 198-210. Vol.. Ed. Int. Episodes Deptt.N. Jour.. 1986. G. Mar.U. Curr.

. Ed:Rajamanickam.. 74. Sanilkumar V.. 62 G.310-315. No. R.B. S.. 1989. 2006.. Subrahmanya K. Vol.1989. 1998. India. 1998. Western Ghats. pp79-88.S. R. Photonirvachak. Vijay.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. K. Sukhtankar. V. Srivastava A. Ratnagiri District.S.. R. Mapping of coastal eco system using Remote Sensing and spatial technology . Journal of Geological Society of India. P. 59-65. Arasu.1989. 705-708.34(3). Valsangkar A.. Soc. Coastal processes along the Indian coastline. Coastal environ of Maharashtra--evolution and human activities aided with satellite remote sensing.. pp 530-536..pp 319-327. Gondwana Research. Inamdar. pp..1&2. Samant H. Vol.P. 1993. P. and Gowthaman R.. Geol. G. N. 329-338. Basin Configaration in Konkan Deepwaters: Western Indian Offshore.. 1998.. no. 1994. NIO Online library... vol. pp291-297 Thakur. and Almeida F. K. Pub.gisdevelopment. B. Marine Geoscientific Survey in Ports and nearrshore Regions of the Arebian Sea off Centaral West Coast of India. 1998.. and Subramanyan.26. Tandale. Geochemistry of ilmenite from Ratnagiri coast. A.. Current Science V. The Saga of Sahyadri: Societal environmental issues of Konkan and Goa In: Recent advances in environmental science. 1 (3-4). Evaluation of sea-level rise on the shore zone areas of the Maharashtra coast. 2003. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing. Sci.V. K. . C.Science Degree College. Micropaleontological evidence for tectonic uplift of near shore deposits around Bankot-Velas.. 21. Kumaran. Evolution. 1999. Surv. India. Pednekar P.S.N. Landuse/ Land Cover Change in Navi Mumbai Cities and Its Effect on Basins and Channels. Pathak. Maharashtra.net.A Study. Maharashtra..D. Vol. Seasonal Variations in Heavy Mineral Placer Sand from Kalbadevi Bay. K. http://www.. and Hooper. Mem..experience from South India. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Raju. Maharashtra. S. R. Ratnagiri. Jour. O S. Sukumaran and Nambiar. 1990. V. 2006. Reconnaissance Map of the Deccan Basalt Group. vol.. Subba Raju. Pandian. Bajji S. Mangrove Mapping and Change Detection Around Mumbai Using Remotely Sensed Data.S. V. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the West Coast of India. Biradar. Ind. September 2005. Sea level variation and its impact on coastal environment. 2005. No. V. Sathe.53. Spl. Deshmukhe. Jan.K. R. C. . 2008). V.. and Murthy A. Current Science.91(4).. T.R.V. 24. in Deccan Flood Basalts. pp 26-35.N. Ecosystem and Development) Rajshekhar. pp 105-107. 8. pp. V. pp. Ind. 10.. G. Subbarao... 2. . 1999. Belgaum. 2005. Mar. 1998. Geol.P V and Chauhan. and Madhavi Pikle. T. Divakar Naidu P. L. Current Science..V. S.R.67(2).S. Ramaswamy S. pp. no. Subrahmanyam.

Vol.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. . July 1983. Western Ghat Formation and their Geomorphic Repercussions. Kale.html. Indian Photo Interpretation Institute. 1983. A geomorphological survey of Goa and adjoining area. G. 2008). Dept. Unpublished Tech. Inst.. Evolution. Government of India.5. 45 p. *** 63 G. Trans. Critical Habitat Information System of Malvan Maharashtra India. Chennai. 29 p. Indian Geographers. 1975. S.Science Degree College. of Ocean Development. Project Directorate. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.S. 2. The Indian Peninsular Movements.edu/~kantha/ Tides2D/arabian_sea. and Misra K. Wagle B. http://ocean. July 2001. Belgaum. No.colorado. pp 145155. Report. Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management. Ecosystem and Development) Vishwas S.

Introduction The determination and interpretation of particle size distribution has a fundamental role in hydraulics. It originates from the Western Ghats. drains 64 G. These interactions.590 001 (Karnataka) (purandarabk@yahoo. The upstream tributaries contribute mostly fine sediment carried in suspension. In recent years Kerala rivers have been studied by Mallik et. They expressed the view that the river sediments are mainly derived from the rocks of the Western Ghats through the west flowing rivers in Kerala. However. km. Also. (1987). Though there are 41 west flowing rivers in Kerala. For the present study. Belgaum. . Hard Rock Regional Centre National Institute of Hydrology Belgaum . The study area of the Muvattupuzha river basin is located between 9º 40’ and 10º 10’ N and longitudes 76º 20’ and 77º. geomorphology and sedimentology Textural analyses of coastal and river sediments have been carried out by number of investigators working in the field of Sedimentology. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Considering the significance of grain size parameters in river sedimentation. with a length of 121 km. Evolution. Unnikrishnan (1987) and Purandara (1990). a major river that debauches into Vembanad Lake in Central Kerala. the study on Kerala rivers have not attracted many engineers and scientists. It has been observed that the sediments are mainly transported as graded suspension and it is lifted by bottom turbulence. Southwest India B.Science Degree College. it is necessary to know the exact source of sediments to the river channel.com) ABSTRACT The transport of material by streamflow is accompanied by interactions between the flow and mobile channel boundaries.S. In order to understand the sediment dynamics. 2008). In this paper we attempt to assess the influence of river Muvattupuzha on the distribution of sediments and mode of transport along the course of the river. K. particularly those involving the channel bed. This information will be useful to understand the hydrological and sedimentological characteristics of the river basin and in turn it will help in reservoir sedimentation studies. sediment samples were collected from river Muvattupuzha.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. It covers an area of 1554 sq. Purandara Scientist. Ecosystem and Development) Sediment Observations in Muvattupuzha. Study Area Along the central Kerala coast. there is a significant influence of bottom currents on sorting of sediments. This needs an estimate of grain size parameters apart from other mineralogical concentrations. no detailed study has been carried out to decipher the origin of the sediments. in the present study. Kerala. introduce complexities not encountered in the study of rigid open channels. Many downstream tributaries produce coarser sediment. The mean particle size of sediment carried on the bed of the Muvattupuzha river decreases downstream. Muvattupuzha (figure 1) is one of the perennial rivers flowing towards the west that debouches into the Vembanad lake at Vaikom. bed sediments of Muvattupuzha river has been collected and particle size analysis were carried out. al.

Heavy and Light mineral studies were conducted to cite the provenance of the Muvattupuzha sediments. skewness and kurtosis were calculated using the formulae set by Folk and Ward (1957). standard deviation. dried and subjected to both sieve and pipette analysis (Krumbein and Pettijohn. The bottom sediment was collected by using Vanveen grab. Geologically. Grain-size parameters like mean. 2008). The river sand samples were washed. the grain-size of the sediments varies from the size of granule to clay. The coarse fraction retained in the sieve were dried and weighed. charnockites and micahornblende gneisses. . leptynites. The Muvattupuzha river basin with sampling locations Sample collection and Investigation Sediment samples were collected from the middle of the river channel from the selected locations (figure 1) with varying intervals. Very fine sands are present in insignificant quantity 65 G. Majority of the sediments are between the size grades of very coarse sand to coarse sands. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.33% are polymodal and the remaining 16. In general. Evolution. Belgaum. the silt and clay fractions were separated. 1938).67% are bimodal. The Muvattupuizha river basin is bound by the Periyar river in the north and the Meenachil river basin in the south. the Kerala coast comprises of tertiary Cenozoic sediments which is underlain by Archaean crystalline rocks consisting of khondalities.S. Ecosystem and Development) through highly lateritised crystalline rocks. By sieving the dispersed sediment through a 63-micron sieve. as there are no rocks of other geological formations along the west coast.Science Degree College. Figure 1. Results The grain size analysis of the Muvattupuzha sediments showed that 83. CM diagram (Passega. For pipette analysis known quantities of dried sediments were dispersed overnight in a solution of sodium -hexa-meta phosphate.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. 1957) was drawn to establish a relationship between texture and process of deposition. The size frequency diagram of various grain-size parameter of Muvattupuzha river sediments are presented in figure 2.

.S. 2008). Evolution. 66 G. Sediments are moderately to poorly sorted. very negatively to very positively skewed and very platykurtic to very leptokurtic. Belgaum. Figure 3. This is attributed to the estuarine mixing. Ecosystem and Development) and silt is completely absent.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. indicating that the downstream sediments are comparatively less sorted than the upstream sediments. River distance versus standard deviation (grain size parameter) From the above figure it is evident that the sediments are uniformly distributed and the standard deviation is increasing towards the river mouth. The binary plots are shown in figure 4a & 4b. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Figure 2.Science Degree College. Frequency Distribution of Grain Size Parameters of Bottom Sediments Figure 3 shows the variation of standard deviation with respect to river distance (length of transportation).

It is also observed that the silt particles are completely missing in the downstream end of the river. This is evident from the polymodal nature of the sediments. in the downstream side. as the grain-size decreases the skewness becomes negative. al (1987). Muvattupuzha receives 67 G. In the downstream region. 2008). Evolution. It is observed that the upstream sediments are positively skewed and the downstream sediments are negatively skewed. This could be attributed to the low energy conditions prevailing in the downstream. the bottom water is comparatively stagnant and there is an effect of flocculation due to the saline waters from the estuary. In the present study it is found that the Muvattupuzha sediments are very fine in size in the downstream direction and are very coarse grained to coarse grained in the upstream region. However. Discussion The study on Kerala rivers by Mallik et.S. decrease of river velocity and also due to the environmental mixing of river water with the estuarine water due to which silt and fine clayey particles escape into the Vembanad lake. The wide variation of grain-size in the downstream region could also be attributed to the mixing of sediments coming from different tributaries. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. the depth increases and showed a decrease in competency.Science Degree College. which causes the settling of clayey particles. Ecosystem and Development) The relationship between the graphic skewness and phi mean size shows that. Belgaum. Unnikrishnan (1987) and Purandara (1990) and Purandara (1993) revealed that the river sediments follows a decreasing trend (grain size) towards the downstream of the river. . The relatively coarser size of the sediments in the upstream region is attributed to the greater turbulent motion in the middle of the river. which influences finer materials in suspension for outward transport.

References Dora. Belgaum. 68 G. The alternate increase and decrease in the values of kurtosis are associated with the progressive addition of finer particles. Roorkee for encouraging publication of paper. India. The progressive sorting and differential transport of the sediments is observed in the river sediments which could be due to the progressive decline in the competency of the river (Pettijohn. The Muvattupuzha sediments showed a positive skewness in the upstream and negative skewness in the downstream. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology.. 2008). C. Ph. generally moderate to well-sorted sediments which are uni-modal in nature will have very little internal sorting. and Ward. . Folk. R. relative proximity of the source area and the influx of the sediments from the tributaries and distributaries. pp 3-27. Andhra University. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Kaliyar and Thodupuizha before draining into the Vembanad lake. NIH. CM Pattern diagram of Selected rivers of Kerala coast The CM pattern (figure 5) of Muvattupuzha along with Pamba ar and Meenachil ar (all three debauches into Vembanad lake).S. D thesis. which is deposited due to the differential settling in the estuarine region. Ecosystem and Development) large quantity of sediments from Kothamangalam ar. Evolution. (1957). the Muvattupuzha sediments are poorly sorted to very poorly sorted. In general. National Institute of Hydrology is acknowledged for providing encouragement to bring out this script in time. Data analyses show that. Mr. 1969).National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. L. Venkatesh. W. Hard Rock Regional Centre. The CM pattern of three river sediments shows a similarity with that of the river Mississippi. Brazos river bar: a study on the significance of grain-size parameters. V. Acknowledgement Authors are highly grateful to Director. The poorer sorting may be due to the high-energy condition. Certain aspects of provenance and sedimentation of the modern sediments of the Godavari River and the Vasishta-Godavari distributary. Y.. Figure 5. shows that the sediments are mainly either transported as graded suspension. The mode of sorting of the deposit may be due to the settling out of a bottom current (Passega and Byramjee. The negative skewness in the downstream is attributed to the addition of fine clayey material. (1978). L.Science Degree College. Head.. 1957). B. or lifted by bottom turbulence.27.

Studies on texture and organic matter of the Vembanad lake and nearshore sediments. pp. L. K. K.13. and Pettijohn.22. New York. Grain-size images of clastic deposits.449-452. The black sand placer deposits of Kerala beach. Evolution.. and Terry Machado. India. Ph. ..S. J. R. K. Texture.. 69 G. pp. Ecosystem and Development) Krumbein. Mallik. R. Sedimentation and Geochemistry of the modern sediments of the mud banks off the Central Kerala Coast. (1987). pp. B. Harpers Geoscience Series. P.... V. (1987)... Texture a characteristic of clastic deposition.. Cochin University of Science and Technology. southwest India. thesis..77. Unnikrishnan. (1938).. B. V. Texture and Mineralogy of Periyar river (southwest coast of India) sediments. (1969). New York.. Marine Geology. Cochin University of Science and Technology. Passega. 41. AppletonCentenary-Crofts. Purandara. (1987). C. Ph. thesis. Pettijohn. J. V. Aby Verghese. 1993. IJMS. Belgaum. D. Purandara. Vasudevan.. Provenance. Proceedings of the National Seminar on `Estuarine Management'. F. V. Vol. pp. (1957). D. 78-80. Sedimentary Rocks. 129-150. T. P.1952-1984. W. Mineralogy and Provenance of the beach sands of south Kerala.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.. K. (1957). Passega.Science Degree College. 2008). F. B. Inc. Y. Bulletin American Association of Petroleum Geologists.. and Byramjee.. Purandara. V.. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Manual of Sedimentary Petrology. R. (1990).233-252. Sedimentology. pp. and Dora.

Their combined effect is capable of causing enormous loss of life and widespread destruction. The studies revealed that a surge of 3. Storm surge analysis was carried out for a site near Mumbai on the west coast of India for estimating the extreme storm surge levels using the past 115 (1891 to 2005) years of storm data. 2008). Severity of the storm i. Ecosystem and Development) Prediction of Extreme Storm Surge Level for Mumbai Coast A. establishes the magnitude of the surge. The storm surge level decides the safe grade elevation of the plant. Belgaum. Ideally. storm surge etc. Pune-411 024. waves. D. wind speed.5 m is likely to occur with 100 year and 1000-year return period respectively at Mumbai.Science Degree College. The determination of the storm surge is site specific and depends on extreme storm climate in the vicinity of the site. Unrecognizing the extreme storm surge level during the design of the coastal plant may have disastrous effects during the severe cyclones. India’s investment in maritime activities involving transport. determination of extreme storm surge values should be based on the 70 G.0 m and 3. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. This temporary rise in the water level takes place only when the cyclonic wind blows over the continental shelf and pushes the water against the coastline. whereas on the East coast. but are also associated with torrential rains that lead to flash flooding and abnormally high waves and storm surge. the frequency of occurrence of cyclones is low (about 2 per year). Evolution.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. overestimation of the safe grade elevation results in uneconomical design involving huge cost. width of continental shelf etc. On the West coast. V. particularly during the periods from April to June and October to January.in) ABSTRACT The power plants and refineries are often located along the coasts. pressure gradient as well as water depth. These data represent the actual storms over the 115 years period and were fitted to Gumbel. the cyclones are more frequent (about 5 per year). Kudale Central Water and Power Research Station Khadakwasla. Sitarama Sarma and M.in. It may completely disrupt the operation or even failure of the coastal plant. kudale_md@yahoo. which govern the design of these plants. The values of the storm surge due to inverted barometric effect and due to wind stress were computed for the 53 storms. .S.. methodology adopted for analysis and the prediction of extreme storm surge values are described in this paper. Storm surge is one of the important parameters influencing the design of the coastal plant. The success and performance of these plants are dependent on the reliability of the assessment of environmental parameters such as winds. fishing and oil/gas exploration is increasing every year. Cyclones are not only associated with high winds. On the other hand. Storm surge is the temporary rise in the water level at the coastline during the cyclone.co. India (akhandam_vsrs@yahoo. Each of these alone can pose a serious threat to life and property. Introduction Several storms occur on the East and West coasts of India every year. due to typical meteorological conditions in the oceans. Many plants like power plants and refineries are located along the coasts for obvious reasons. Weibul and Log normal distributions for extreme analysis.co. The source of data. currents.e. which were significant to the Mumbai coast.

However. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. are: 1) Wind speed 71 G. The parameters. These storm wave data are subjected to extreme value analysis for predicting the wave conditions having various return periods. The computed values of the storm surge data. risk factor.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. which govern the storm surge. which occur during the cyclones are not available. which are required for the determination of the safe grade elevation of the coastal plant. the extreme value analysis is carried out using past storm data for estimating the design storm surge. Extreme value analysis was carried out for predicting the storm surge values with various return periods for the Mumbai. Ideally. These storm data are useful for hindcasting the storm surge values. Thus. Ecosystem and Development) statistical analysis of surge values. 2008). the storm surge values having various return periods can be predicted by carrying out the extreme value analysis of ‘hindcast storm surge data’. highest flood level and the maximum rainfall are the six parameters. By using the same analogy. the highest tidal level. Surge hindcasting is usually done to obtain surge data from the major storms over 30 to 50 years or longer. the highest flood level (which in turn depends on the intense rainfall) also becomes important parameter for determining the safe-grade elevation. storm surge and extreme waves. . life of the structure. The term ‘hindcasting’ is popularly used in the Costal Engineering in the context of predicting the wave conditions using the past storm data. which decide safe grade elevation of the coastal plant. the predicted maximum storm surge is to be superimposed over the Highest High Water Level. Tsunami run-up. the plinth level of the structures is kept well above the design water level and is called as safe-grade elevation. are not available. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) provides the records of the storms in the form of synoptic charts (pressure distribution) and storm tracks for moving storms. extreme storm surge. (HHWL). cost of the project etc. tsunami run-up. Evolution. obtained by considering the storms passed by the area of interest within 350 km from the coastline and for which the wind was blowing over the continental shelf in front of the Mumbai coast in the past 115 years (18912005). The extreme value analysis provides the surge levels for various return periods. The sources of data. Necessity of storm surge computation For the plants located along the coast. the extreme value analysis for the storm surge is carried out using the hindcast storm surge values (predicted values using past storm data).Science Degree College. which occur during the storm conditions. Since the long-term measurements of the surge levels. Since the long-term measurements of surges. The design safe grade elevation of the plant on the open coast directly depends on the oceanic parameters such as highest tidal level. determination of the extreme surge levels should be based on the statistical analysis of long-term measurements. methodology adopted for extreme surge analysis and the design storm surge levels derived for the site are presented in the paper. Belgaum. Wave hindcasting is usually carried out to obtain storm wave data from the past storms.S. Hindcasting of storm surge data The storm data in the form of synoptic charts (pressure distribution) and storm tracks for the moving storms can be utilized to compute the storm surge levels that would occur at particular coastal site. if the plant is located along the estuary or creek. The determination of safe grade elevation is site specific and depends primarily on extreme climatic conditions at the site. wave run-up. In order to determine the extreme water level at the shore.

surge analysis was carried out. . 03 Nos.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. available at IMD. The width of the continental shelf and water depths can be obtained from the hydrographic charts. Synoptic chart for the cyclone of June 1977 is shown in Fig. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. The analysis was done keeping in view the location of the area and the storms were assumed to pass over Mumbai. Evolution.Science Degree College. 2008). 06 Nos. Storms 01 Nos.S. Belgaum. 11 Nos. Analysis of Storm Data : A total number of 53 storm conditions including depressions were found to be of significance to the Mumbai Coast in the past 115 years (1891 to 2005). which passed by coast of Mumbai are shown in Fig. 72 G. The data regarding wind speed. Based on the pressure distribution of the storm. called 'fetch' Isobaric pressure gradient and The width of the continental shelf Water depth at the edge of the continental shelf Water depth at the observing site Empirical methods are available for estimating storm surge from the above parameters. 18 Nos. wind duration and fetch length are obtained from the storm tracks and the synoptic charts. The breakup of these 53 storm conditions is as : Depressions Deep Depressions Storms Severe storms Severe Cyclonic Storms Very Severe Cyclonic 14 Nos. 1. 2. Ecosystem and Development) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Duration of wind Distance over which the wind blows. The storm tracks of some of the storms. Synoptic charts showing the pressure distribution of the storm on the day which generates maximum storm surge were obtained from Indian Daily Weather Report (IDWR). The pressure gradient is determined from the isobar spacing shown on the synoptic chart. The wind speed is determined from the pressure gradient and the latitude of the fetch area.

Ecosystem and Development) Fig 1: Typical Cyclonic Storm Tracks Fig 2 : Typical Synoptic Chart of the Storm on 10th June 1977 ( 0830 Hrs) 73 G. Evolution. .S. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. 2008).Science Degree College. Belgaum.

. During the storm conditions. 2008).Science Degree College. Evolution... in mb Po = Pressure at the centre of storm. However..01 (Pn − P0 ) in metre Where. .. The computations of the storm surge for the storms in the vicinity of Mumbai area for each of the two components are described in the following paragraphs. it can be computed using Hydromet-Rankin Vortex Model for the cyclones Herbich (1990)1. (3) 74 G... Belgaum..National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. The storm surge at the shoreline of an open ocean (i......... the water surface rise is centered at the eye of the storm and depends directly on the central pressure relative to normal sea-level pressure... The storm surge at or near the shoreline is due to two main components viz. storm surge over the continental shelf) due to static wind field is given by Silvester (1974)2 as: Sw = Where. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Inverted Barometric Effect : The inverted barometric effect is the tendency of the water surface to be sucked upwards in regions of low atmospheric pressure.... r = Radial distance from the center of storm in km R = Radial distance of maximum cyclostrophic wind from the center of storm in km. Wind Stress Effect : Generally.. the larger component of any storm surge is that due to the wind stress on the water surface. (a) inverted barometric pressure effect and (b) onshore wind stress effect.  d1  kU 2 L  ln g (d1 − d 2 − S w )  d 2 + S w    Sw = k = Storm surge due to wind stress in meters Wind stress co-efficient .. (1) Pn = Pressure of the isobar at the boundary of storm. Ecosystem and Development) STORM SURGE ANALYSIS Rise in the normal water level due to storms is called as “Storm Surge”..e.. The surge due to inverted barometric effect (Sa) is given by Silvester (1974) 2 : S a = 0. The pressure profile of a cyclone in Hydromet-Rankin Model is given by: Pr − P0 = e −R / r Pn − P0 ... (2) Where.S. . in mb The central pressure (Po) is generally not mentioned on the synoptic charts. Pr = Pressure at radial distance ‘r’ in mb The set of the values of Pr and r can be obtained from the synoptic chart and equation (2) can be solved for Po and R.

it is desirable to consider them as synchronous. Ecosystem and Development) = = U = L = g = d1= d2 = 0. 2008). The storm surge data of 53 storms were considered for extreme surge analysis.000003 for open ocean. Belgaum.0 m or higher at the coast of Mumbai. June.81 m/sec2) Depth of the water at the edge of the continental shelf in meters Depth of the water near the coast in meters Results of Storm Surge Analysis The values of the storm surge due to inverted barometric effect (Sa) and due to wind stress (Sw) were computed for all the 53 storms. Acceleration due to gravity (9.16 m. 100 years or 1000 years of the plant is required for determining the safe grade elevation. These data represent the actual storms over a period of 115 years (1891 to 2005) and were fitted to Gumbel. Out of the 53 storm conditions.S. October and November. which were significant for the Mumbai Coast. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. will have 100 year ‘return period’ (Rp). Besides the wind stress forcing the water shoreward. the total surge at the Mumbai coast (-5 m contour. The most of the severe storms producing higher storm surge at the Mumbai coast had occurred in the months of May. which generated a total storm surge of 2. since these distributions are applicable for the storm data [Herbich. Considering these two effects synchronous. which occurs on an average once in 100 years. In the case of nuclear power plants the return period is to be considered as 1000 years. 0.Science Degree College. The plots of Gumbel. Extreme value analysis of storm surge data The objective of extreme value analysis is to predict the storm surge for the different return periods using the past storm data. at the mouth of Thane creek) during the severe cyclone of 10th June. the reduction of atmospheric pressure at the centre of the storm also causes a rise in the water level. (1990)1]. Evolution. as mentioned earlier. Weibull and Log-Normal distributions. 75 G. 3 to Fig. Weibull and Log-Normal distributions for the storm surge are shown in Figs. there are 11 storm conditions. 5 respectively. 1977 work out as 3. The storm surge. The maximum barometric surge may be concurrent with the wind stress surge or it may precede or follow it. .0000033 for enclosed/semi enclosed water bodies Surface wind speed in m/sec Length or Fetch over which wind is blowing in meters. For engineering purposes. Prediction of extreme storm surge over a life span of 50 years.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.

00 VARIATE 10.0 m RP = 100 y S = 2.0 0.5m 1. .00 0.10 DATA POINTS RETURN PERIOD VALUES RP = 1000 y S = 3.00 STORM SURGE ( m) 10.0001 0.1000 1.9 m Fig 5 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Log Normal Distribution 76 G.2 m RETURN PERIOD VALUES RP = 100 y S = 3.00 DATA Points Return Period Values Y variant RP = 1000 y RP = 10 y S = 2.Science Degree College.9 m S = 3.0 3.0 m RP = 10 y S = 1.00 Fig 4 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Weibul Distribution 5 4 STORM SURGE (M) 3 2 1 0 0. Belgaum.0010 0.0 1.4 m RP = 100 y S = 2.10 1.00 Fig 3 : Hindcast Storm Surge Data at Mumbai on Gumbel Distribution 10.0100 PROBABILITY OF EXCEEDENCE 0.5 0.5 1. Ecosystem and Development) 4.0000 DATA POINTS RP = 1000 y S = 3. 2008).S.0 m 1.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.5 2.8 m RP= 10 y S = 2.0 STORM SURGE (m) 2. Evolution.5 3. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.

“Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Evolution. II”.Science Degree College. India for her kind consent to present this paper. it is essential to consider the extreme storm surge value (likely to occur during the lifetime of the plant) in determining the safe grade elevation. . V. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.0 m and 3.0 m and 3. Pune. Director. Acknowledgement The Authors are grateful to Mrs. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. water depth.5 m respectively. The predicted extreme storm surge values with 100-year return period and 1000-year return period for the Mumbai Coast are 3. (1990). width of continental shelf and isobaric pressure gradient determines storm surge value on the open coast. The Netherlands.B.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Ecosystem and Development) The 100-year and 1000-year return period storm surge values for the Mumbai coast are predicted as 3. 77 G. The parameters such as surface wind speed. References 1. Concluding remarks For economic and safe design of the coastal Plant. Amsterdam. Vol.S. 1”. Belgaum. Central Water and Power Research Station (CWPRS). (1974) “Coastal Engineering. Herbich J.5 m respectively. Gulf Publishing Company. Bendre. 2008). M. Vol. Texas. Silvester R. Houston. 2.

1985). which is regarded as the trailing. is much debated in literature. . Pune **Department of Atmospheric and Space Science. The Sahyadri or Western Ghats are considered as receded erosional fault scarp (Ollier and Powar. it is observed that such raised terraces are rather discontinuous and also with varying heights. 2008). Pune ABSTRACT The Maharashtra coast is a part of the central west coast of India.the Western Ghats and flow towards west and meet the Arabian sea. Being the trailing margin. number of structural and tectonic elements have developed on and off the west coast of India. University of Pune. Vashisti. flow for a relatively short distance. This results in a heavy deposition of sediments in the estuaries. The fault is regarded as the West Coast Fault. developed on the western continental margin. Further evolution of the west coast reveals the imprints in the form of submarine terraces and also the marine terraces in the form of raised beaches all along the coast in response to glacial – interglacial cycles. Ulhas. they have a steep gradient. eroding the source region in the upper reaches at a faster rate. however. Major rivers in the Kokan are Vaitarna. It is about 1500 km long and consists of high hill ranges.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Introduction A major physiographic division in the western part of Maharashtra state is termed as Kokan. Ecosystem and Development) Dynamic Evolution of the Maharashtra Coast Milind A. which rise in elevation 1000 – 2000 m above msl and are aligned nearly in northwest-southeast direction. These features have been interrupted in between by the features which are marine erosional in character. Belgaum. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.Science Degree College. As these rivers originate at much high altitude and before meeting the sea. which gave rise to Kokan. which lies between the Arabian Sea to the west and the Sahyadri ranges or the Western Ghats to the east. Exact location of the West Coast Fault. Savitri. Details of the evolutionary history are discussed. The elevation of the crestline of the Western Ghats ranges between 760 m and 915 m above msl and the highest peak at about 1646 m above msl is at Kalsubai.K. in the form of faults and rifts. paralleling the west coast of India. genesis of which is ascribed to the rifting and drifting of the Indian Sub-continent from the erstwhile Gondwanaland. passive continental margin of the advancing Indian subcontinent. However. which is termed as the Kokan. Herlekar* and R. which 78 G. Evolution. which originate in the Sahyadri . The Kokan coastal belt is interspersed in between by the promontories of the Western Ghats. Development of the various geomorphic features in the Kokan suggests that it has experienced the complex geomorphic processes during the Quaternary period and analysis of these features reveal the complexities in these processes associated with the transgressional and regressional cycles of the Quaternary glaciation. University of Pune. Sukhtankar** *Department of Geology. Most part of the Kokan is developed on the Deccan basalts of the Continental Tholeiitic Province of India. Kundalika. Physiography The Sahyadris or Western Ghat is a unique topographic feature of the Peninsular India.S. thereby suggesting that the Maharashtra coast has responded differentially to sea level changes during the Holocene period. Shastri and Gad. The western edge of the Ghats is a steep escarpment that has given rise to a narrow coastal belt.

1968). Along the beach. rest of the area is occupied by these basalt flows. in the entire region. an intrusion of granodiorite in the form of huge pluton has also been observed. the Proterozoics are the indurated shales.e. zeolites. i. like. Belgaum. in 79 G. compact. which is a Continental Tholeiitic Province of India of Cretaceous-Miocene period (Krishnan. along with the dykes of lamprophyric composition. these are well developed in the intertidal zone that varies generally between 100 m to 500 m in width. the Proterozoic. metamorphic quartzites. i. whereas to the south of the creek. whereas.the Archaeans and the Proterozoics are unconformably overlain by the basic extrusives. around Alibag and Revdanda. These Precambrian. These sediments comprise the molluscan shell fragments as predominant constituents and therefore. the basalt flows are in horizontal disposition.e. Just north of Revdanda. On consolidation and compaction. these are termed as ‘shell limestone’. conglomerates and quartzites of autoclastic origin. the secondary minerals. The youngest lithounit exposed in the area and rather all along the coast constitutes unconsolidated to little consolidated carbonate sediments of the Quaternary period. around Malvan. represented by granites and granite gneiss and Dharwarian schists. 2008). . Presence of secondary minerals represent post magmatic-hydrothermal activity that took place after the main eruptive phase of Deccan basalts was over.S. These are exposed mainly in the southern part of Kokan. These Quaternary carbonate sediments are exposed along the coast in the form of linear beaches.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Vengurla. The basalt flows are generally horizontal to subhorizontal in disposition. marine processes and also aeolian processes. chalcedony. In the northern part of the Kokan. Geology of the Area Lithological units exposed in the Kokan region belong mainly to four geological periods. in addition to which the Quaternary glacial cycles brought about the changes in sea-level thereby affecting the development of coastal geomorphic features.e. calcite. characterized by marine and fluvial processes. porphyritic and dark colored. The Archaeans constitute mainly the Peninsular Gneiss. which. horizontality of the basalt flows is slightly disturbed and exhibit dip of about 5º -10º towards west. in the form of swarm of doleritic dykes. viz. Sawantwadi and Phonda region. the basalt flows have been profusely intruded. the Kundalika river creek. geomorphic features are therefore the result of such processes. It is observed that lamellibranch shell fragments have been well preserved in these carbonate sediments. which are low-grade metamorphic sediments of the Kaladgi Supergroup. Agglomeratic basalts and acid differentiates have also been reported from the area around Mumbai (Bombay). As the coast falls in a transitional environment. Evolution. These features owe their origin to the fluvial processes. chert. A variety of geomorphic features present in the Kokan coastal belt is therefore a result of such complex processes.. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. However. vesicular.Science Degree College. the Cretaceous–Miocene and the Quaternary. The basalt flows most commonly are amygdaloidal. pocket beaches and as beach-dune complexes. and the basic intrusives like Vajrat Gabbro. due north of Revdanda. In the same region are also exposed the magmatic differentiates of the basalts. agate occur as secondary minerals in the form of cavity filling deposit. the Deccan basalts. Except in the southern Kokan. i. These sediments are also exposed in the inland region through the mouths of the estuaries and the major streams and also through the tidal inlets. A variety of geomorphic features have developed in the belt. due to which different river basins have formed in the belt. In amygdaloidal basalts. fine sediments have given rise to friable shales. the Archaeans. Ecosystem and Development) are rather the offshoots of the Sahyadri ranges and trend in nearly east west direction.

1964). stacks. which is a transitional zone between marine and fluvial environments. 1). linear beaches. caves. Bay-head bars beaches. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. et. tidal inlets creeks. mud flats. Vashisti. which is divisible broadly into three zones.al. bays. Tidal marshes. Savitri. 1988. Headlands. Rias Coastal zone Inland region Uplifted marine platform Fluvial Hill ranges. viz. Sukhtankar. i) The offshore zone between outer edge of the continental shelf and low tide mark. Tidal swamps.al 1978. Valleys and Alluvial plains. The various geomorphic features that have been identified as followsFeatures Erosional Islands Process Offshore zone Shore zone Marine Depositional Islands Rock beach.Science Degree College.S. 2008). wave-cut Sand beaches. pocket beaches. viz. Planar surfaces terraces. Spits. 80 G. Evolution. and colluvial slopes. ii) The shore zone-between the low tide and high tide mark and iii) The coastal zone. etc. Shastri. 1979 a and b. Fluviogorges. Pocket tombolos. whereas. Tidal flats.beaches. are commonly referred to as ‘littoral concrete’ (Pascoe. Geomorphic Features The Konkan coast is prominently marked by the development of headlands. Pebbly platforms. which have been segmented by major rivers. et.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. The coastal plain is dominated by marine processes. Belgaum. locally these sediments are termed as ‘karals’ (Guzder. estuaries. raised beaches. 1980. Kundalika. Lagoons Uplifted littoral terraces. water falls. River rapids. . sea. The inland Konkan is marked by fluvial and mass-wasting processes and even marine planation / planar surfaces occur through the fluvial system. Coastal dunes Aeolian Details of theses features have already been described elsewhere (Powar. (Fig. sea-cliffs. Ecosystem and Development) geological literature. 1989). Sand bars. Patil.

The lowermost surface gradually merges towards west along the coast with the surface of the raised marine terrace. extent of dissection has reached the monadnock phase. In the sequence of evolution. viz.e. like those at lower altitudes. 60-90m. genesis of which is ascribed to Flandrian transgression. evolution of the Konkan coast can be summarized as. The important offshore feature is the presence of number of islands.P. it is not necessarily a ‘plane’.S. According to Nair (op. However later. i. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Rat. Janjira Fort. Faulting along the coast to give rise to erosional offshore islands. -75m.Science Degree College. formation of the islands appears to precede formation of the submerged marine terraces.. In brief. ranging between 3 and 25 m above msl. and -55 m depth. (1978) suggested the presence of hinge fault along the trend of Kundalika River.2). Evolution. from Dabhol creek to Jaigarh creek in general exhibits coarse texture. while Sukhtankar (1995) has segmented Konkan coast into three morphotectonic blocks (Fig. Quantitative analysis of geomorphic features indicates that the NE part has been uplifted in the relation to SW part of the area. According to Nair (1974). it is planar. while on a regional scale. The presence of submarine terraces on the Western Continental Margin has also been reported. in a planar surface there are variations in altitudes. B. 2008). The presence of the raised marine terrace all along the Konkan coast has already been reported. but some of them. Such a linearity rather appears to be fault controlled and the islands are the erosional features. nearer to the coast and those associated with the Quaternary sediments are either partly erosional. which are expected to throw light on its evolutionary history. such surfaces were identified as erosional. These islands more or less are linearly placed and are parallel to the coast. these terraces represent still-stands. Topographic studies of the central Konkan i. The planar surfaces in the Konkan coastal tract have been identified at elevation of 150-200m. Khanderi.al. whereas the presence of additional–younger marine terrace has been reported in the southern Konkan coast (Sukhtankar. Sansa fort. resulted due to deposition of the Quaternary carbonate sediments. yrs. Planar surfaces in the south Konkan are on the Deccan basalts and on the quartzites. Chaul Kadu. 81 G. Ecosystem and Development) Planar surfaces: The term ‘planar surface’ has been introduced by Raman Rao and Vaidyanadhan (1974) as a primary geomorphic feature of fluvial erosional character. More commonly. Discussion It is imperative to look into the offshore features of the coast. According to him. Powar et. In other words. -85m. 50-70m and the lowest at 20-40 m elevation slope from east to west. and Sindhudurg Fort etc. and also as promontories of the Western Ghats. Underi. Vaidyanadhan (1987) in a review of the Quaternary Planar surfaces has suggested that all such surfaces are not necessarily erosional. On a local scale. 20-40m. partly depositional or are entirely depositional. Belgaum. responsible for submarine terraces. et. On the basis of the spatial distribution of marine erosional and marine depositional features. Butcher.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. also has given rise to the raised marine terraces along the west coast. these terraces occur at -92m.al. It has also been observed that though the term ‘planar’ indicates a plain geometrically. it appears rather irregular or undulating. The altitude frequency analysis reveals the planar surfaces at 260-300m.cit). the Quaternary planar surfaces occur along the coast and also along the extensive flood plains. 190-220m 90-110m. Arnala. The Flandrian transgression. 1986). Their radio carbon dates suggest the age range between 9000 and 11000. .

The presence of linear beach. Holocene sea-levels on the western continental shelf of India. and. N. University of Poona. 50’ longitudes. Patil D. The differential displacement of the Konkan coast along the lineaments in 18º. wave-cut platforms and headlands as marine erosional features.T.. vi. . Pune. K. Maharashtra. .. An evolutionary model based on geomorphologic and tectonic characteristics of the Maharashtra coast. The formation of the raised marine terrace during the period between 9000 yrs. Kolaba Dist.T. Vaidynandhan (1974). R. (1974). and. Powar. (1979 a).S.. 525 pp. Geomorphology and Tectonics of West Coast of India between Palghar and Revas.. (1968). Report 3. “Recent – Quaternary Studies in India”.D. Of Poona. submitted to ONGC. and. Pawar.. Geomorphology and Tectonics of West Coast of India between Revas and Srivardhan.P. Pub. R. India. and R. (1980). v. Powar. Dept. 57-69 pp. The presence of raised marine terrace all along the coast as marine depositional features. for encouragement and providing the necessary facilities. Vadodara. in segments along the coast is an indication of the fault along the coast.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. University of Pune. Univ. Sukhtankar. Earth Sci. Krishnan.K. of Geology. Proc. iv. Sukhtankar.P. Nat. Sukhtankar. Belgaum. Proceedings of the India Academy of Science.26. Pascoe. 79(5). of Geology. Manager of Publ. (1978). R. N latitudes. Submitted to ONGC.. and Powar. Ph.F. ascribed to the drift history of the Indian subcontinentant... K. Dehradun (Unpublished). University of Baroda.. R. CBS. around 6000 yrs. References Guzder. (1995). K. Maharashtra. Tech. Dehradun (Unpublished). E. N.V.B. Eastern India. Sukhtankar. Of Poona. Powar K. (unpublished).. B. A manual of Geology of India and Burma. 54. D. The ‘Planar surfaces’ of the Keonjhar Region. Delhi. N. Univ. Tech Report 2. 131-137 pp. Tech. 82 G. Sukhtankar. The presence of sea-cliff. R. 1 (1). Head. Report 2. Maharashtra. 2008). Pune.Science Degree College. Univ. (1964). Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Dehradun (Unpublished). Patil D. of Geol.R. Ind. Sem. Geomorphology and Tectonics of West Coast of India between Sriwardhan and Vijaydurg. Nair. (1988). 198-210 pp. Pune. Patil D.K. Sawant. H.K.K. Nikhil Desai (eds). Submitted to ONGC. Raman Rao. P. Ecosystem and Development) ii. Of Poona. Geomorph N.. Department of Geology. and Powar K.S.. B. (1979 b). thesis. J. S.L. M. Quaternary Environment and Stone Age Culture of the Konkan Coastal Maharashtra. 84-95 pp. Geology of India and Burma. M.P. Acknowledgement: The first author (MAH) is thankful to Prof. R.K. B. 197-203 pp. Geomorphic Evolution of the Kokan Coastal Belt Between Palghar and Vijaydurg. Their en-echelon disposition indicates the differential displacement. S. Dept. Sawant. P. iii. B. (1985). to 11000 yrs. Z. Vol. M. Patel. Ollier C. Quaternary International. B. B. Evolution. 17º. Civil Lines. Maharashtra. India. N. Jour. K. Dept. 3.. 1345-2130 pp. Pune.

S. . Evolution. Surv. Coastal Geomorphology in India. 2. Jour. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. 319-325 pp. Geol. of India. Geol. Vaidyanadhan (1987). linear coastal tracts and their en echelon disposition (after Sukhtankar. of Ind. (1989). Coastal Geomorphic Features in Relation to Neotectonics along the Coastal Tract of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Major lineaments. 1995).National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.K. 2008). Ecosystem and Development) Sukhtankar.. 373378 pp. Pub. R. Soc. Belgaum.. Fig.Science Degree College. Spl. Location Map of the Study area Fig. Vol. 24. 29. 1. 83 G.

Science Degree College. km. Methodology The Konkan Coastal Belt of Raigad District has been selected to evaluate geomorphic and morpho-tectonic development of the area up to Sahyadri crest line.T. Solapur 413006 (sawantpt@gmail. Mandod.1) The area falls under humid tropical region and is about 1000 m (above MSL) The topography is undulating with hills and valleys.5 or more are called meandering (Strahler. Savitri (i). climate and history of drainage development. Red 10ams and Riverine Alluvium. Jog and Jagbudi river basins. Ecosystem and Development) Geomorphic Development of River Basins of Konkan Coastal Belt with Raigad District. Savitri (ii). The sinuosity index is the ratio between channel length (CL) and river Valley Length (VL) The value varies from 1. Evolution. Study area The study area lies between (North Lat. it is interred that six basins are in the youthful stage and six basins are in early matured stage. of their development. including morphology.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.com) ABSTRACT Morphological analysis has been carried out to study the drainage pattern of the river basins of Konkan Coastal Belt (KCB) of Raigad District of Maharashtra State. oval. From the analysis. and less elongated types. There are twelve river basins in the Raigad District between Lat 17° 24' and 18° 20' N and Long 72° 47' and 73° 45' E (Fig 1) The sinuosity index reveals the topographic conditions of any area. This index is significant in assessing the evaluation of drainage and landforms. 2008).1 to 4. Nageshwari. Introduction In this paper an attempt has been made to analyse the evolutionary status of twelve river basins of Konkan Coastal Belt (KCB) with request to the sinuosity index. Walchand College. Maharashtra. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. sponsored by UGC. Sawant Department of Geology.00 or more.S. 1964). River sinuosity indices of less than 1. Rajpuri (ii). 17° 24' and ISO 20' and East long 73° 45' covering a total area of about 650 sq. Belgaum.5 are called sinuous and those having values of 1. Kal. Rajpuri (i). The area consists of twelve river basins viz. . geological structure. Pat. With Respect to Sinuosity Index P. The study has been conducted under the project Eco-Geo-Morpho-Tectonic and related studies in the geologically sensitive areas of Maharashtra. Gandhari. The Stream order ranges from second to sixth order basins with elongated. The streams equals to valley and streams slightly smaller 84 G. (Fig 1. Geologically the area represents a hard rock terrain of basaltic rock formation.. Major soil types are Lateritic. Ghod. Drainage pattern reflects a wide range of influences.

Hydraulic Sinuosity Index (HIS) = % equivalent of CI-VI/CI-I 4. Singh and Singh.00 for Pat river. . Valley Index (VI) Hydraulic Sinuosity Index (HSI). Rajpuri. 2) early mature (1. Standard Sinuosity Index (SSI) etc. Standard Sinuosity Index (SSI) =Channel Length (CL)/ Valley Index (VL) Results and discussion = Valley Length (VL) Air Distance Geomorphic Analysis with respect to sinuosity indices has been made according to Muller’s (1968) technique.S.017) for Jog river basin has been described. Ecosystem and Development) compared to valleys represent youth. Evolution. The channel and valley indices range from 0.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.00) for Ghod river basin and the minimum TSI (-0. In the study area. Valley Index (VI) (Topographic Sinuosity) 3. 1982).65. Table 1 shows the channel Index (CI). the drainage basin may be classified into the following stages of geomorphic developments.Science Degree College. Channel Index (CI) = Channel (CL)/ Air Distance (Hydraulic and Topographic Sinuosity) 2.50 to 2.61 for Mandod river basin and according to the above classification Gandhari. Channel Sinuosity Index (CSI)= Channel Length (CL)/ Valley Length (VL) 6.00).00). Pat. and 3) mature (more than 2. 2008). when most of the topographic sinuosity (TSL) has been destroyed (Gardiner. The hydrologic sinuosity index becomes dominant in the old stage.72 to 3. for the twelve selected micro basins (Table 1) The topographic sinuosity index is outstanding during the stages of youthful development when hydraulic sinuosity index is negligible.00 and the maximum TSI value is 72. 1968.19 and 2.18 for Pat river basin to maximum 2. Jog and Jagbudi river basins are in the youthful stage of development and 85 G. On the basis of standard sinuosity index.64 and 0. the SSI of the river basins ranges from 1. The minimum HIS is 28. 1984) The calculations of various types of sinuosity indices are made on the basis of the following formulae. Topographic Sinuosity Index (CSI) = % equivalent of VI-l /CI-l 5.15). 1. In the study area. the maximum hydraulic sinuosity index is (163. Topographic Sinuosity Index (TSL) Channel Sinuosity Index (CSI). Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Belgaum. Savitri (Upper reaches). mature and old stage of topography (Muller.1) Youthful (Less than 1.

V. Strahler.. Acnowledgements The work is carried out under the financial support received from the U. 2). Karnataka (12-13 Sept. New York Mc Craw Hill. (H. Muller. New Delhi is greatfully acknowledged.C.. A. (1982): Drainage Basin Morphometry: Quantitative Analysis of Drainage Basin From. P.N.G. Ecosystem and Development) other river basins viz. S). Savitri (lower reaches) Kal. Morphometric Analysis of Kanhar River Basin. (1968): An Introduction to Hydraulic and Topographic Sinuosity indexes. J. Conclusion The study highlights that six river basins are of youthful stage of geomorphic development and six river basins have reached to the early mature stage of development.S. in Sharma. New Delhi. References Schumn. E. 2008).Geol. 107-142 Sarvesh Singh and Singh M.New Jersey.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Ghod. V. Vol – II Concept Publishing Company. Nageswari.Science Degree College. Belgaum. (1956): The Evolution of Drainage System and Slope in Bad Lands at Parth Ambay. . Evolution. (ed). Chow.A. 43 P 31-32 86 G. Annuals of Association of American Geologists Vol. 58 Gradinoer. Rajpuri (Lower reaches) and Mandod are in early mature stage (Fig.B (1986). Perspectives in Geomorphology. S. T. National Geographical Journal of India Vol. (1964): Quantitative Geomorphology of Drainage Basin and Channel Network in Hand Book of Applied Hydrology Ed.

72 18. Basin Savitri Kal Gandhari Nageshwari Ghod Savitri Rajpuri Mandod Rajpuri Pat Jog Jagbudi CL 86.88 24. 1.40 79.40 1.40 2.27 CSI 2.20 1. 2. Topographic Sinuosity index (TSL) Channel Sinusity Index (CSI) .27 SSI 2.55 1.64 1.40 2.16 54.54 1.82 2.22 1.57 2.16 2. Valley Index (VI) Hydraulic Sinuosity Index (HSI).16 54.18 1.63 0.345 -0.99 1.76 100.88 50.65 3.00 25.47 1. 3.20 158. 9. 7.48 32. 4.91 0.89 2. 12.11 0.02 0.63 0.08 105.10 2.37 1.80 AD 39.30 1.68 49.83 1.50 2.96 0.20 36.03 2.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.72 1. 2008).20 32.28 1.19 2.07 1.57 1. 6.38 0.81 0.84 56.72 -0.8 79.59 1.00 52.96 36.73 TSI -0.40 28. 11.Science Degree College.18 1.67 1.40 VL 36.59 1.96 43.72 1. Belgaum.60 43.04 1.82 2.64 19. Evolution.84 49.56 103.20 CI 2. Standard Sinuosity Index (SSI) etc.74 0. 8.00 VI 0. tor the twelve selected micro basins of the Konkan Coastal Belt {KCB) of Raigad Dist.47 -0.044 0.54 1.39 0.62 1.89 0. Maharashtra Basin No. .66 0.58 87 G.72 26. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.10 0.46 1.40 74.40 33. Ecosystem and Development) Table 1 Channel Index (CI).20 125. 10.08 -0.04 2.39 1.56 88..99 56.45 1.57 HIS 1.18 1.16 -0.18 0.00 56.68 84.02 0.86 0.00 30.S.61 1.08 2. 5.52 2.

Shambhuka(Squarriled small conch). improves digestion.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Belgaum. purified. The aim of this work is to emphasize on the products which are obtained naturally from sea but need to be collect a good variety.They are potent astringent. Mukta (Pearl). These drugs are used either in Bhasma form (ash) or in Pishti form (powder).Jadar P. . Later on Kurma prishtha (Tortisebackbone) was added & Lavana (Salt) is also considered as marine originates. It can be concluded that1. incineration with different temperature & preparing in suitable form. They ameliorates acne. While Pishti does not require heat.Science Degree College. The products will be dealt in sequence and purification (Shodhana). INTRODUCTION In Ayurveda marine originates are mentioned in the Sudhavarga (Calcium group of drugs). incineration and converting into a suitable usable form.(Coral). Bhasma is obtained by heating the purified product for certain duration at specific temperature.Pravala. processes are given in a table with their recommended doses.G. Therapeutically these are used after proper authentication. Kapardika(cowry). Shukti (Oyster). astringent in property and are the drug of choice for hyper acidity & peptic ulcer. Agnijara(Ambergris).Ayurved Mahavidyalaya Post graduate Studies and Research Centre. These marine products are used either in Bhasma form or in Pishti form also in liquid form.L. 2. Belgavi. dysentery & chronic colitis. These drugs are hot in potency. They stimulates the appetite. 3. improves complexion & also augments the strength. Marine originates differ in their properties and therapeutic uses due to the presence of different trace elements. 2008).S. and Samudraphena (Cattl efishbone).E’s Shri B. eliminates flatulence & averts vomiting . Evolution.of sea origin were included. incineration (Marana). hence are beneficial in diarrhoea. In general marine originates are • Alkaline • Hot • Astringent 88 G. Marine originates are used therapeutically after proper variety selection & specific purification. the drug is given Bhavana of a certain liquid Rosewater oftenly for certain period. processed and converted in a suitable form for the therapeutic purpose. Karnataka 590003 ABSTRACT In Ayurveda in the group of Sudha varga Shankha(Conch). Emphasis should be made to obtain and process these products carefully so that it can be served for the ailments and betterment of a mankind.Dept of Rasashastra K.K. purification. Karnataka (12-13 Sept.M.G. Ecosystem and Development) Pharmaceutical Processing Techniques for Marine Originates in Ayurveda P.

2008).Conch 2.Tortise back bone 10.Pearl 5.Coral 7.Cuttle fish bone 8. Evolution. . Pravala . Mukta . steaming etc. Samudraphena . Purification II.S.Queen Conch • Is a large sea snail with a heavy. SHANKHA – CONCH • Strombus gigas. • Shell colour . Incineration III. with organic elements.Oyster 4.varies • CaCO3 . Shankha . 1. • To remove physical and Chemical impurities • Convert toxic drug to non-toxic • Transforming hard material to brittle one • Enhance the therapeutic efficacy • Induce new therapeutic properties • Make drugs . Agnijara .Sea salt Most of the aquatic organisms synthesize organic calcium carbonate from their bodies to make their shells and bones. suitable for incineration • Reduce the particle size • Imbue organic properties to inorganic II.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics.Cowrie 3. so as to remove unwanted substances. 89 G. • Purified drug + Herbal extract Triturating paste • Suitable for internal administration • Readily absorbable • Bio-available • Pharmacologically potent III. PURIFICATION / DETOXIFICATION The act of treating a substance with advised matter by boiling. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Preparation of Powder I. coral sand and mud. Kurmaprishtha . Kapardika . the shells and bones are disintegrated by waves into shell. Shukti . PREPARATION OF POWDER Purified drugs are triturated with Rose water in a mortar and pestle made of stone and the mixture is dried in moon light.Science Degree College. INCINARATION Heating transforms and enables the drugs to easily get assimilated into the human body. Ecosystem and Development) MATERIALS 1. When they die. Shambhuka . spiral shell. Samudra lavana . METHODS I.Squarriled small conch 6. Belgaum.Ambergrees 9.

Steamed with lemon juice Incineration . Use .COWRIE • Cyprea moneta .Most common • Dextrorotatory – Rare Purification .Chronic Suppurative (Externally) 3.250 to 3000C CaO + CO2 CaCO3 Dose . Burning sensation. .National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. SHUKTI . Karnataka (12-13 Sept.S. lakes.240 to 480 mg. 2008).PEARL • Margoriata • Pearl obtained from Pearl Oyster • Composed of CaCO3 .Science Degree College. Pishti. • Shell. Ecosystem and Development) • Levorotatory .SQUARRILED CONCH • Pila • Family – Mollusca.400 to 6000C Dose .Asthama and Colitis 4. Peptic ulcer etc.240 to 480 mg.Chronic Colitis . two piece shell.B.OYSTER • Pinctada maargaritifera. Use . Belgaum. edible body inside a hard.Dipping in Lemon or Sour Butter milk Incineration . Use . Bleeding disorders. C3H18N9O11nH2O • Into Shell . 90 G. KAPARDIKA.Often sharp edged and very irregular in shape • Composed of CaCO3 and few organic elements.Secretes secretions • Natural defence . Evolution.CaCO3 – translucent • Canchialian. Use. Purification a) Boiling in the juice of Sesbania egyptica (Jayanti) b) Steaming it in a sour gruel Incineration .5 to 6 inches long with a triangular base • More than 150 types • Composed of CaCO3 and few organic elements. Purification – Steaming in a Sourgruel Incineration .800 to10000C Dose . 5. MUKTA.Oyester shell • Soft.Reduces the Urine sugar . 2. SHAMBHUKA.Purified pearls .250 to 500 mg.30 to 60 mg.Hyper acidity.It arrests bleeding through sputum in T. colourful shell • 0. found in rivers.Foreign body .800 to 10000C Dose .Cypraiedae • Sea snail with a shiny.processed with rose water Use.High fever.C30H48N2O2 transparent Purification .

2008). .30 .Purified pearls .Jewel.thin.CUTTLE FISH BONE • Sepia officinalis • Mollusk (Soft. SAMUDRAPHENA . Pleurisy Pishti .Soaked in lemon juice.Diarrhoea 6. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Opaque.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Evolution. smell Musky Purification .240 to 480 mg. since it easily gets absorbed into human body Dose . all organs get degraded and the bones floats on the surface of the sea Purification . Belgaum. cover .In Tetanus .i) By immersing in diluted lemon juice ii) By steaming in juice of Amaranthus spinosus (Tandulia) Incineration .with rock candy powder . form coral reefs and atolls • Categorization .Abdominal pain .400 to 6000C Dose .Science Degree College. hence not incinerated Dose .In Cough. Use . Incineration . T. Medicine Purification .B. feet.It arrests the bleeding .CORAL • Made of skeletal remains of Anthezoa polypus • As they grow – Branch out.Not required Incineration .3 inches to 6 feet • Internal shell . dried in sunlight. Grayish with black spots • When dried.240 mg. AGNI JARA .In Otitis – Roasted drug put into ears 8. boneless) – In same class as squid • Size .250 mg Use .In Corneal opacity . Purification – Same as Conch Incineration – Same as Conch Dose . eyes.In burning sensation of body.60 mg Use – Stimulates appetite .Eye disosders ..AMBERGREES • Found in intestines of Sperm Whale • Waxy. hard and coiled. hands. .Weak digestion . PRAVALA . Use.Processed with rose water 7.S.Basal part .In Aphrodisiacs 91 G. Porous tube like branches • Red Coral valued as .Not required.Cuttle bone • When it dies.In dressing wounds .Gets sublimated. Ecosystem and Development) • Resembles Conch.combined with Litherge & Honey .

Constipation CONCLUSION 1. SAMUDRA LAVANA – SEA SALT • Prepared from sea water by evaporation under sun • Rich in Sodium Chloride.800 to 10000C Dose . Essential for electrolyte balance and homoeostatic activity of a body Use – In Abdominal pain . so that it can serve in the ailments and in betterment of a mankind. 92 G. Evolution.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. Belgaum.Digestive disorders . 3. KURMA PRISHTHA .240 to 480 mg Use –Strengthens bones . 2. Ecosystem and Development) 9. specific purification and incineration formulating into a suitable form.TORTISE BACKBONE • Tortoise .In Epilepsy 10. sea originates differ in their properties and therapeutic uses due to the presence of variety of trace elements.In T.Back hard portion Purification . Karnataka (12-13 Sept.B. Marine originates are used therapeutically after proper identification. Emphasis should be given in obtaining and in processing of these products carefully. Especially. . .Science Degree College. 2008).Immersed in Buttermilk & later washed with hot water Incineration .S.

S. Evolution.National Seminar Konkan Coast DEED (Dynamics. 2008).Science Degree College. Karnataka (12-13 Sept. Belgaum. . Ecosystem and Development) 93 G.

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