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Australia is a big country, and running it is a big job!

That's why we have three levels of law-making


sometimes called the three levels of government that work together to serve Australia.

The first level is the federal, or national, Parliament which meets at Parliament House in Canberra.

The federal Parliament has the power to make laws for the whole country. This power is listed in the
Constitution and covers issues like immigration, marriage, communications, taxation, defence and foreign
affairs things that affect all Australians.

Next is the state level which contains Australia's six state and two territory parliaments. They meet in the
capital city of each state or territory. Parliaments at this level make laws that are enforced within their own
state or territory.

These laws relate to areas not covered by Australia's Constitution. Things like schools, hospitals, roads,
railways, electricity, water, mining and agriculture. On some issues, federal and state parliaments both
have the power to make laws. If federal and state laws conflict on these issues, then the federal law will
override the state one.

The third level is the local level, made up of more than 560 councils across Australia. Councils are
elected in a similar way to members of the federal and state parliaments.

Councils are responsible for issues such as local roads, parks, rubbish collection, library services, street
signage, and pet control things that could be considered local services or matters.

These three levels of law-making work together to govern Australia. Each level has different
responsibilities and plays a vital role in keeping Australia running.

c l mt quc gia ln, v chy n l mt cng vic ln! l l do ti sao chng ta c ba mc


lut php - i khi c gi l ba cp chnh ph - cng hot ng phc v cho c.
Cp u tin l Quc hi lin bang, hoc quc gia, hp ti Ta nh Quc hi Canberra.
Quc hi lin bang c quyn a ra lut php cho c nc. Quyn ny c lit k trong Hin php
v bao gm cc vn nh nhp c, kt hn, thng tin lin lc, thu, quc phng v ngoi giao -
nhng iu nh hng n tt c ngi c.
Tip theo l cp tiu bang c su tiu bang v hai quc hi lnh th ca c. H gp nhau ti th
ca mi tiu bang hoc lnh th. Cc ngh vin cp ny a ra cc lut c thi hnh trong phm
vi quc gia hoc lnh th ca h.
Nhng lut ny lin quan n cc khu vc khng c Hin php c quy nh. Nhng th nh
trng hc, bnh vin, ng x, ng st, in, nc, khai thc m v nng nghip. V mt s
vn , lin bang v tiu bang u c quyn a ra lut. Nu lut lin bang v tiu bang mu thun
v nhng vn ny, th lut lin bang s ghi ln bang ny.
Cp th ba l cp a phng, bao gm hn 560 hi ng khp Australia. Cc hi ng c
bu theo cch tng t vi cc thnh vin ca ngh vin lin bang v tiu bang.
Cc hi ng chu trch nhim v cc vn nh ng x ti a phng, cng vin, thu gom rc,
dch v th vin, bin bo ng ph, v kim sot vt nui - nhng iu c th c coi l cc
dch v hoc cc vn a phng.
Ba cp ny ca cng tc xy dng php lut cng nhau qun l c. Mi cp c nhng trch
nhim khc nhau v ng mt vai tr quan trng trong vic gi cho c hot ng.
Australia is a representative democracy in which all Australians over 18 years vote for people to
represent them, and make decisions on their behalf.
There are three levels of government in Australia, and we vote to elect representatives to each of
these levels: federal, state or territory and local.
Federal government
The decision-making body of the federal government is Federal Parliament, which consists of two
houses the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The leader of the federal government is called the Prime Minister.
A federal election must be held every three years because Australia's Constitution limits the term of
Members of the House of Representatives.
Representatives elected to the House of Representatives are called Members of the House of
Representatives. There are 150 members and each member represents a separate division or
electorate in Australia.
Representatives elected to the Senate are called senators. They represent a whole state or territory.
There are 12 senators for every state and two senators for each territory. Senators representing
states are elected for a term of six years, with senators representing territories elected for a term of
three years.
Federal government responsibilities include: foreign affairs, social security, industrial relations,
trade, immigration, currency, defence.
State and territory government
The decision-making body of state government is the state parliament which meets in the
Parliament House of the particular state. Each state parliament, except for the Queensland
Parliament, is made up of two houses.
Representatives elected to state parliaments are generally known as 'Members' Members of the
Legislative Assembly (MLA) or Members of the House of Assembly (MHA) or Members of the
Legislative Council (MLC).
The leader of a state government is called the Premier.
The Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory have a different arrangement. Each
territory parliament has one house called the Legislative Assembly.
The leader of each territory government is called the Chief Minister.
State and territory government responsibilities include: justice, consumer affairs, health, education,
forestry, public transport, main roads.
Local government
The decision-making body of local government is usually called the city council or shire council.
Councils are established by state governments to look after the particular needs of a city or local
community. The people's representatives who form the Council are called aldermen or councillors.
The head of the Council is the Mayor or Shire President.
Local government responsibilities include: local road maintenance, garbage collection, building
regulations and land subdivisions, public health and recreation facilities such as swimming pools.
Ba cp chnh quyn
c l mt nn dn ch i din, trong tt c ngi c trn 18 nm b phiu cho ngi i din
cho h, v thay mt h quyt nh.
C ba cp chnh quyn xtrylia v chng ti b phiu bu cc i din cho tng cp : lin
bang, tiu bang hoc lnh th v a phng.
Chnh ph lin bang
C quan ra quyt nh ca chnh ph lin bang l Quc hi Lin bang, bao gm hai ngi nh - H
vin v Thng vin.
Lnh o ca chnh ph lin bang c gi l Th tng Chnh ph.
Mt cuc bu c lin bang phi c tin hnh ba nm mt ln bi v Hin php c gii hn thi
hn ca cc Thnh vin H vin.
Cc i biu c bu vo H vin c gi l Thnh vin ca H vin. C 150 thnh vin v mi
thnh vin i din cho mt b phn hoc c tri ring ti c. Cc i biu c bu vo Thng
vin c gi l thng ngh s. H i din cho ton b bang hoc lnh th. C 12 thng ngh s
cho mi tiu bang v hai thng ngh s cho mi lnh th. Cc thng ngh s i din cho cc tiu
bang c bu vi nhim k su nm, vi cc thng ngh s i din cho cc lnh th c bu
vo nhim k ba nm.
Cc trch nhim ca chnh ph lin bang bao gm: ngoi giao, an sinh x hi, quan h lao ng,
thng mi, nhp c, tin t, quc phng.
Chnh quyn tiu bang v lnh th
C quan ra quyt nh ca chnh ph nh nc l quc hi ca tiu bang gp ti Ta nh Quc hi
ca mt quc gia c th. Mi quc hi ca tiu bang, ngoi tr Quc hi tiu bang Queensland, u
bao gm hai ngi nh.
Cc i din c bu vo quc hi c gi chung l "Cc Thnh vin" - Cc Thnh vin ca
Quc hi Lp php (MLA) hoc cc thnh vin ca H vin (MHA) hoc cc thnh vin ca Hi
ng Lp php (MLC).
Nh lnh o ca mt chnh ph c gi l Th hin.
Lnh Th Pha Bc v Lnh Th Th ca c c cch b tr khc. Mi quc hi lnh th c mt
ngi nh gi l Lp php.
Lnh o ca mi chnh quyn lnh th c gi l B trng B.
Trch nhim ca chnh ph tiu bang v lnh th bao gm: cng l, vn ngi tiu dng, y t,
gio dc, lm nghip, giao thng cng cng, ng chnh.
Chnh quyn a phng
C quan ra quyt nh ca chnh quyn a phng thng c gi l hi ng thnh ph hoc
hi ng th trn. Cc hi ng c thnh lp bi cc chnh quyn tiu bang chm sc cc nhu
cu c th ca mt thnh ph hoc cng ng a phng. Cc i din ca nhn dn thnh lp Hi
ng c gi l aldermen hoc councilors. Ngi ng u ca Hi ng l Th trng hoc
Tng thng Shire.
Cc trch nhim ca chnh quyn a phng bao gm: bo tr ng b a phng, thu gom rc,
xy dng quy nh v phn khu t, cc c s y t v gii tr cng cng nh b bi.