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any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior permission
of the publisher.

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Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, OH 43240-4027

ISBN: 978-0-02-288152-8
MHID: 0-02-288152-2

Printed in the United States of America.

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CHAPTER 1
Plants Are Living Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Lesson 1 Learning About Living Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Lesson 2 Parts of Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Lesson 3 Different Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

CHAPTER 2
Plants Grow and Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Lesson 1 Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Lesson 2 How Plants Grow and Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Lesson 3 Plants Live in Many Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

CHAPTER 3
All About Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Lesson 1 All Kinds of Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Lesson 2 What Animals Need to Live . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Lesson 3 How Animals Eat Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Lesson 4 Animals Grow and Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

CHAPTER 4
Places to Live . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Lesson 1 Land Habitats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Lesson 2 Water Habitats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Lesson 3 Plants and Animals Live Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

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CHAPTER 5
Looking at Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Lesson 1 What Earth Looks Like . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Lesson 2 Rocks and Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Lesson 3 Changing the Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

CHAPTER 6
Caring for Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Lesson 1 Earths Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Lesson 2 Using Earths Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Lesson 3 Saving Earths Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

CHAPTER 7
Weather and Seasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Lesson 1 Weather All Around Us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Lesson 2 The Water Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Lesson 3 Spring and Summer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Lesson 4 Fall and Winter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

CHAPTER 8
The Sky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Lesson 1 The Sky Above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Lesson 2 Earth Moves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Lesson 3 Earths Neighbors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

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CHAPTER 9
Matter Everywhere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Lesson 1 Describing Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Lesson 2 Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Lesson 3 Liquids and Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

CHAPTER 10
Changes in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Lesson 1 Matter Can Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Lesson 2 Making Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Lesson 3 Heat Can Change Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

CHAPTER 11
On the Move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Lesson 1 Position and Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Lesson 2 Pushes and Pulls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Lesson 3 Simple Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Lesson 4 Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Vocabulary Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

CHAPTER 12
Energy Everywhere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Lesson 1 Energy and Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Lesson 2 Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Lesson 3 Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Lesson 4 Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Vocabulary Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
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CHAPTER 1

Plants Are Living Things


What do you know about plants?

Vocabulary

living a thing that needs food,


air, and water to live

nonliving a thing that does


not need food, water, and air
to live

leaves plant parts that


make food

stem part of a plant that


holds it up

roots plant parts that hold a


plant in the ground

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Lesson 1
Learning About Living Things

What are living and


nonliving things?
Plants and animals are living things.
Living things need food, water, and air.
They grow and change.
Nonliving things do not need food,
water, and air.
They do not grow and change.

Living and Nonliving Things

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Quick Check
Circle all correct answers.
1. Which of these are living things?

tree dog rock

2. Which of these are nonliving things?

grass desk book

Read a Photo
What is a living thing you see?

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Why are plants living things?


Plants grow and change.
They make new plants.
Plants need food, water, and air
to live.

rice plants cactus

Plants need water. Plants need air.

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Plants use water, air, and


sunlight to make food.

Plants need sunlight.

sunflower

Quick Check
Write two things a plant needs to live.

3.

4.

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at www.macmillanmh.com Chapter 1 Lesson 1

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Lesson 2
Parts of Plants

What are the parts of plants?


Plants have parts that help
them live.

Strawberry Plant
leaf

stem

Read a Diagram
Which plant part is in the
roots
ground?

See the parts of a strawberry plant at www.macmillanmh.com


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Plants have leaves, stems,


and roots.
These parts can look
different.

stem

leaf

Quick Check
Write three parts of a plant. roots

5.

6.

7.
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What do plant parts do?


Leaves make food.
They use sunlight, water, and air.
Stems hold up the plant.
They move water and food to other
plant parts.

stem

leaf

roots

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Roots hold the plant in the


ground.
Roots take in water.

Plant parts help a


plant live.

Quick Check
Circle all correct answers.
8. Leaves use to make food.

ground sunlight air water

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Lesson 3
Different Plants

How are plants different?


All plants are not the same color.
All plants are not the same size.

morning glory

gerbera daisy

lily of the valley

Plants have different flowers, leaves, and stems.

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Some plants have thin Tall Trees


stems.
Trees have thick stems.
Some plants are tall.

Quick Check
9. Draw two leaves that
are different.

Read a Photo
What parts of these trees
do you see?

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Which plant parts can


you eat?
You may eat some plant parts today.
Be careful!
Some plant parts can make
you sick.

Lettuce is a leaf.

A coconut is a seed.
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You can eat some roots or leaves.


You can eat some seeds or fruit.

Quick Check
10. Draw a picture of a plant part you eat.

A
carrot
is a
root.

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Vocabulary
Review

leaves roots stem

Draw a picture of a plant.


Use the words in the box to label the parts.

Tell what you know.

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Chapter 1 Lessons 13 Vocabulary Review

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CHAPTER 2

Plants Grow and Change


How do plants change?

Vocabulary

ower a plant part that


makes seeds

seed a plant part that grows


into a new plant

desert a dry place

rain forest a hot and


wet place

Arctic a cold and icy place


near the North Pole

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Lesson 1
Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds

Why are flowers important?


Some plant parts help make
new plants.
A flower is a plant part that
makes seeds.
A seed can grow into a new plant.

flowers

peach trees
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Some plants have fruit.


A fruit grows around a seed.
A fruit keeps the seed safe.

fruit

seed

Quick Check
Label the flower and the fruit.

1.

2.

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What are the parts of a seed?


Seeds need water, light, and a place
to grow.
Seeds have parts.

Look Inside a Seed

This will grow to


be a plant.

This is food
for the
new plant.
The outside of the
seed keeps it safe.

Read a Diagram
Which part of a seed keeps it safe?

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Plants Grow and Change

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Animals and wind can move seeds.


The seeds will grow in new places.

Animals move seeds.

Quick Check
Circle the answer.
3. Seeds need to grow.

milk water

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Lesson 2
How Plants Grow and Change

How do plants grow


from seeds?
A plant can start as a seed.
The seed gets water from the soil.
It grows into a new plant.
The new plant looks like the plant
it came from.
The new plant will make more
seeds.

Life Cycle of a Bean Plant

seed seed with roots sprouting seed

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Quick Check
Circle the answer.
4. A plant can begin as a .

seed fruit

5. A seed can grow into a .

new seed new plant

Watch the life cycle of


a bean plant at www.macmillanmh.com

Read a Diagram
new plant What does this plant
start as?

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How else do plants grow?


Some plants do not grow from seeds.
Some plants grow from plant parts.
Water helps some parts grow into
new plants.

stem

coleus plant
roots

Roots can grow from a plant part.

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new plant

New potato plants can


grow from a potato.

Quick Check
6. Draw a picture to show how a stem can grow
a new plant.

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Lesson 3
Plants Live in Many Places

Where do plants live?


Plants live in many places.
Some plants live in the desert.
A desert is a dry place.

These plants have parts that hold water.

desert

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A rain forest is hot and wet.


The plants can get a lot of water.
Big, pointy leaves let extra water
fall off the plants.

Rain Forest Plants

Read a Photo
How do these leaves look?

Quick Check
Fill in the blanks.

7. A desert is .

8. A rain forest is hot and .

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Chapter 2 Lesson 3

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How can plants survive in


the cold?
The Arctic is icy and cold.
The Arctic is near the North Pole.
Arctic plants live in groups.
They keep each other safe from
the wind. arctic plants

Arctic

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Arctic plants are short.


This helps them live in the cold.

Quick Check
9. Draw a picture of some arctic plants.

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Vocabulary
Review

Draw a line from each word to


the picture that matches.

1. desert

2. rain forest

3. Arctic

Tell what you know.

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Chapter 2 Lessons 13 Vocabulary Review

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CHAPTER 3

All About Animals


What do you know about animals?

Vocabulary

mammal an animal with hair


or fur

bird an animal that has two


legs, two wings, and feathers

reptile an animal with dry skin


and scales

amphibian an animal that


lives on land and in water

sh an animal that has gills


and ns

insect an animal with


six legs

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Lesson 1
All Kinds of Animals

What are some types


of animals?
Mammals have hair or fur.
They can hop, walk, swim, or fly.

porcupine

giraffes

Fur can keep mammals


warm and dry.

The parent takes care


of the baby.

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Birds have feathers.


They have two legs and
two wings.
Most birds can fly.

Many birds lay


eggs in a nest.

A beak helps
a bird eat.

Quick Check
1. What kind of animal has hair or fur?

2. What kind of animal has feathers?

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What are reptiles and


amphibians?
Reptiles have dry skin.
Their skin has scales.
snake
Some reptiles have shells.
Most reptiles lay eggs.

Snakes
have scales.

turtle

Turtles have shells.

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All About Animals

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Amphibians live in water


and on land.
Their skin is soft and wet.
Some hatch from eggs
in water.

Frogs have wet skin.

frog

Quick Check
3. Draw a reptile.

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What are some other


types of animals?
Fish live under water.
Most fish have scales.
Gills help them breathe.
Fins help them swim.

Fish swim in schools.


Parts of a Fish

fins

Read a Diagram
What helps a fish swim?
gills

34
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Insects are animals with


six legs.
butterfly
They have bodies divided
into three parts.
Most insects lay eggs.

ants

Quick Check
Circle the answer.
4. A fish has .

6 legs gills fur

5. An insect has .

6 legs gills fur

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-Review Summaries and quizzes online at www.macmillanmh.com Chapter 3 Lesson 1

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Lesson 2
What Animals Need to Live

bear
What do animals
need to live?
Animals are living things.
They need food, water,
and air.
This bear eats plants.
Zebras Needs

Read a photo
watering hole What are the zebras
doing in this picture?

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Animals live in different


places.
All animals need a safe
place to live.

These raccoons
live in a log.

raccoons

Quick Check
6. Draw an animal.
Show what the animal needs to live.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 2

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How do animals meet parrot


their needs?
Animals use wings, legs, or fins
to move.
Animals use eyes or noses to
find food.

Wings help this


bird fly.

mountain lion

Legs help
this lion
run.

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All About Animals

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Gills or lungs help animals get air.

Dolphins have lungs.

dolphin

Quick Check
7. Circle the body parts that help animals move.

lungs eyes legs noses

wings gills ears fins

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Lesson 3
How Animals Eat Food

What animals eat plants?


Animals need food to live.
Some animals eat only plants.

A horse eats plants.

horse

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These animals have flat teeth.


Flat teeth help them eat plants.

A rabbit eats plants.

rabbit

Quick Check
Name an animal that eats plants.

8.

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Chapter 3 Lesson 3

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What animals eat meat? Teeth


Some animals eat other
animals.
These animals have sharp
teeth.

Read a Photo
What do you see
that helps an
Tigers eat meat. animal eat meat?

tiger

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Sharp teeth help


animals eat meat.
shark
Tigers and sharks
both eat meat.

Sharks have
sharp teeth.

Quick Check
Write what these animals eat.
9.
tiger

lion shark

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-Review Summaries and quizzes online at www.macmillanmh.com Chapter 3 Lesson 3

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Lesson 4
Animals Grow and Change

How do mammals grow


and change?
Animals are born and grow older.
They make other animals and
then die.
This is their life cycle.
Mammals give birth to live young.
Many baby mammals can not
see or walk when they are born.

This is the life cycle of a fox.

newborn fox baby fox


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Their mothers take care of them.


Baby mammals grow up.
They look like their parents.

Quick Check
Write the answers.
10. What will a baby fox look like

when it grows up?

11. Who takes care of a newborn fox?

young fox adult fox


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Chapter 3 Lesson 4

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How do birds grow and change?


Baby birds hatch from eggs.
They do not have feathers.
They can not fly.
Their parents take care of them.
Their feathers will grow in.
Then the birds can fly.

Life Cycle of a Bird

A bird hatches from This bird is 3 weeks old.


an egg.

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Quick Check
Circle the answer.
12. Birds grow .

feathers fur scales

13. Birds as they grow.

change stay the same

This bird is 5 weeks old.


This bird is
an adult.

Read a Diagram
What part of this bird changes?

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Chapter 3 Lesson 4

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How do frogs grow and change?


Frogs lay eggs in water.
Baby frogs are called tadpoles.
They hatch from eggs.
Tadpoles have a tail and gills.

This is the life cycle of a frog.

7 weeks old
2 weeks old

tadpole
frog eggs

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Older tadpoles grow legs and lungs.


They grow up to be frogs.
Frogs can live on land.

Quick Check
Put these stages of a
frogs life cycle in order.
14. tadpole frog egg adult frog

First

Next

Last

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Vocabulary
Review

1. Circle the animal that has feathers and can fly.

frog tiger bird

2. Circle the animal that has hair or fur.

mammal insect fish

3. Circle the animal that has fins.

bird fish reptile

4. Circle the animal that has six legs.

bird mammal insect

Tell what you know.

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Chapter 3 Lessons 14 Vocabulary Review

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CHAPTER 4

Places to Live
Where do animals live?

Vocabulary

habitat a place where animals


and plants live

grassland a dry place with a


lot of grass

forest a place with many trees

lake water with land around it

ocean salty water that can be


very deep

food chain the order of how


living things get food

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Lesson 1
Land Habitats

What is a grassland habitat?


Animals live where they can find
the things they need.
The place where animals and
plants live is a habitat.
Animals have body parts that help
them stay safe in their habitats.

Long necks help giraffes


look out for danger.

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A grassland is a dry place.


It has lots of grass.
Many grassland animals eat grass.
Grass also helps some animals hide.

Prairie dogs can dig


holes and hide to
stay safe.

Quick Check
1. Draw a grassland habitat and an animal that
lives there.

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What is a forest habitat?


A forest is a place with many trees.
Trees grow tall in a forest.
Smaller plants grow under the trees.

Deer live in a forest. A tree is a good home for


a raccoon.

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Places to Live

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Some animals get food from Woodpecker


the trees.
Some animals make a home
in the trees.
A forest is their habitat.

Read a Photo
What could a woodpecker
find in this tree?

Quick Check
List two animals that live in a forest.

2.

3.

55
-Review Summaries and quizzes online at www.macmillanmh.com Chapter 4 Lesson 1

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Lesson 2
Water Habitats

What is a lake habitat?


A lake is water with land around it.
Some plants grow in and around
the water.

Lake Habitat

Read a Photo

What living things do you see?

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Places to Live

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Animals can find food


in and around a lake.
Their homes may be in
or near the lake.
A lake is their habitat.

Beavers build dams to


make homes.

Quick Check
List two ways animals use a lake habitat.

4.

5.

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Chapter 4 Lesson 2

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What is an ocean habitat?


An ocean has salty water.
tropical fish
This habitat is very big and deep.
Many plants, mammals, and fish
live in the ocean.

Fish live in the ocean.

This mammal lives in the ocean


and eats other animals.
orca whale

seaweed
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Places to Live

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Some ocean animals eat fish.


Other ocean animals eat plants.
An ocean is their habitat.
sea lion

Quick Check
Fill in the chart. Write the names of what lives in
an ocean habitat.
ocean
6.
habitat

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Lesson 3
Plants and Animals Live Together

mouse
Why do plants and animals
live together?
Plants help animals.
Animals need plants for food.
Animals use plants for homes.
They need plants to help them hide. Animals can use
plants for food.

Animals can use plants


to make a home.

skunks

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Places to Live

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Animals help plants too.


Bees help plants make new plants.
They carry pollen from flower to
flower.
The pollen helps make seeds. bee

Pollen sticks to
a bees legs.

Quick Check
Circle all correct answers.
7. Animals use plants for .

homes food friends hiding

8. Animals can help plants make .

friends new plants seeds

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Chapter 4 Lesson 3

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What is a food chain?


A food chain shows the order of
how living things get food.
The Sun starts every food chain.
Plants need the Sun to grow.
Plants are next in most food chains.
Animals eat plants or other animals.
Some animals eat both!

Food Chain

Sun gives plant energy.

Insect eats plant.

Frog eats insect.

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Places to Live

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Quick Check
9. What is at the start of every food chain?

Read a Diagram
What does the owl eat?
Owl eats
frog.

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What happens to living things


when a habitat changes?
Some things can harm a habitat.
Then the habitat may change.
Living things may not get what
they need.

Fire can harm a forest This forest habitat has


habitat. changed.

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Some animals may move to


a new habitat.
Some plants or animals die.
woolly mammoth

The woolly mammoth is


not alive today. Its habitat
changed long ago.

Quick Check
10. Draw a picture of how a habitat can change.

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-Review Summaries and quizzes online at www.macmillanmh.com Chapter 4 Lesson 3

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Vocabulary
Review

Write a word from the box that


matches each picture.

forest grassland lake ocean

1. salty water that


can be very deep

2. a dry place with


a lot of grass

3. a place with
many trees

4. water with
land around it
Tell what you know.

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Chapter 4 Lessons 13 Vocabulary Review

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CHAPTER 5

Looking at Earth
What does Earth look like?

Vocabulary

river fresh water that ows


into lakes and oceans

mountain land that is


very high

valley low land between


mountains

plain at land that is


very wide

soil the top layer of Earth

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Lesson 1
What Earth Looks Like

What is on the surface


of Earth?
Earth is made up of land and water.
Water covers most of Earth.
Earth

Read a Photo
What is the green part
in this photo of Earth?

68
Looking at Earth

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Land is the solid part of Earth.


Water is all around the land.

water

land

Quick Check
Fill in the blank.
1. Most of Earth is covered by .

69
Chapter 5 Lesson 1

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What is Earths water like?


Most of Earths water is found
in oceans.
Ocean water is salty.
Fresh water is not salty.

ocean lake

An ocean is very large. A lake is smaller


than an ocean.

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Looking at Earth

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Streams, rivers, and lakes


can have fresh water.
Streams flow into rivers.
Rivers flow into lakes
and oceans.

river

A river can move fast.

Quick Check
Circle all correct answers.
2. Earths water is found in .

lakes rocks rivers oceans

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Chapter 5 Lesson 1

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What is Earths land like?


The land on Earth is not all
the same.
A mountain is very high land.
Low land between mountains
is a valley.

mountain

valley
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Looking at Earth

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Some land on Earth is flat.


A plain is flat land.
A plain is very wide.

plain

Quick Check
3. Draw a picture with two kinds of land.

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Lesson 2
Rocks and Soil

What are rocks?


Rocks are different shapes, sizes,
and colors.
Rocks can be smooth or rough.
Rocks can be shiny or dull.
All rocks are nonliving.

Rocks

basalt granite

sandstone marble
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Looking at Earth

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Quick Check
Look at the rocks on these pages.
4. Which rock is smooth?

5. Which rock is rough?

chalk pumice limestone

Read a Photo
How are these rocks
different?

obsidian
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Chapter 5 Lesson 2

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What is soil?
Soil is the top layer of Earth.
It has small bits of rocks.
It has bits of dead plants and animals.
Air and water are in soil too.
Topsoil holds some
water.

Clay soil holds a lot


of water.

Sandy soil holds a


little water.

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Many soils are brown.


Some are red, gray, or
yellow.

This dead tree will


be part of the soil.

Quick Check
Name two things that are in soil.

6.

7.

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Lesson 3
Changing the Land

How can rocks change?


Water can change the shape of rocks.
Water gets into the cracks of a rock.
The water can turn into ice.
This makes the cracks bigger and the
rock break.
Changing Rock

Read a Photo
What is changing this
rock?

78
Looking at Earth Watch water change rock at www.macmillanmh.com

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Plants can change rocks too.


Roots grow into a crack.
The roots get bigger and break
the rock.

Quick Check
Name two things that can change rocks.

8.

9.

The roots are cracking the rock.

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Chapter 5 Lesson 3

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How can land change?


Wind can move rocks and soil.
Water can move rocks and
soil too.
Wind and water can change
the land.

Water washes away


rocks and soil. This
makes a canyon. canyon

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Looking at Earth

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Plants can stop soil and rocks


from moving.
Roots help keep the soil in place.

These plants keep sand from moving.

sand dunes

Quick Check
Write one way soil and rocks are moved.

10.

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Vocabulary
Review

Draw a line from each word to its meaning.


1. valley fresh water that flows
into lakes and oceans

2. river flat land that is very wide

3. mountain low land between


mountains

4. plain very high land

Tell what you know.

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CHAPTER 6

Caring for Earth


Why do we need to care for Earth?

Vocabulary

natural resources things from


Earth that people use

pollution things that hurt the


air, land, or water

reuse to use something again

reduce to use less of


something

recycle to make a new thing


from an old thing

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Lesson 1
Earths Resources

What is a natural
resource?
People use things that
come from Earth.
These things are called
natural resources.

People use wood from


trees.

People use rocks to


build things.
People use wool from
animals.
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Animals, plants, rocks, and


soil are natural resources.
Air and water are natural
resources too.

People use dyes


from plants.

Quick Check
What are two natural resources?

1.

2.

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Why is soil important?


Soil is a natural resource.
Plants grow in soil.
People and animals use plants
for food.

Earths Resources

Read a Photo
What natural resources do you see?

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We use soil to make things.


Clay is a kind of soil.
People use clay to make
cups and other things.

clay cup

Quick Check
Circle the answer.
3. Soil is a natural .
resource river

4. Clay is a kind of .
water soil

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Lesson 2
Using Earths Resources

Why are water and


air important?
All living things need air and water.
Plants need water to grow.
Animals and people drink water.
We use water to wash, cook, and play.
Using Water

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Dirty air and water hurt living things.


People need to keep air and water clean.

Quick Check
5. Draw a picture to show how people use water.
Label your picture.

Read a Photo
How do people use water?

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What is pollution?
Pollution hurts the land, water,
and air.
Trash or dirt in the ground, water, or
air can cause pollution.
Pollution can make living things sick.
Pollution can hurt animals.

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We can stop pollution.


We can do things to keep Earth clean.

air pollution

Quick Check
Name two things that are hurt by pollution.

6.

7.

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Lesson 3
Saving Earths Resources

How can we reuse resources?


Natural resources can be used up.
To save resources we can reuse
things.
Reuse means to use things again.

Cans and
bottles can be
used again.

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Reuse It

Read a Photo
What was reused
to make this castle?

Quick Check
8. Why is it important to reuse things?

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How can we save resources?


People can save natural resources.
We can reduce how much we use.
You can reduce what you use by
using less of it.

You can turn off a light. Turn off the water when
This saves electricity. you brush your teeth.
This saves water.

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People can recycle some things.


To recycle means to make new
things from old things.
We do not use resources to make
new things when we recycle.

Many towns recycle


paper, plastic, and
glass.

Quick Check
Circle the answer.
9. When we use less of something, we .
redo reduce reuse

10. When we make new things from old things,


we .
reduce redo recycle

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Vocabulary
Review

Use the words to answer the questions.

natural resources pollution reuse

1. What is it called when you use something again?

2. What can hurt the air, water, or land?

3. What are things from Earth that we use?

Tell what you know.

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CHAPTER 7

Weather and Seasons


What do you know about weather?

Vocabulary

temperature how cold or


warm the air is

water vapor water that goes


up into the air

spring the season after winter

summer the season after


spring

fall the season after summer

winter the season after fall

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Lesson 1
Weather All Around Us

What is weather?
Weather is what the sky and air are
like each day.
The sky can be sunny or cloudy.
The air can be rainy, snowy, or dry.
Temperature is how warm or cold
the air is.
Moving air is called wind.

sunny cloudy
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Quick Check
1. Write words that tell about the weather.

Kinds of
Weather

rainy snowy
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How can you measure


weather?
You can use tools to measure
weather.

Weather Tools

A thermometer tells how


hot or cold the air is.

A rain gauge tells how


much rain falls.

A wind vane shows which


way the wind blows.

Read a Photo
Which tool tells how hot or cold it is?

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rain gauge

Quick Check
Write the name of the tool next to what
it measures.

2. wind

3. rain

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Lesson 2
The Water Cycle

What makes it rain or snow?


The Sun warms Earths water.
Some water turns into water vapor.
Water vapor is water that goes up
into the air.

The Water Cycle

Sun clouds

rain

water vapor

Read a Diagram
What warms Earths water?

102
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Water vapor cools in the sky.


It turns into drops of water or ice.
Clouds are made of both.
The drops can get bigger and colder.
Then they can fall back to Earth as
rain or snow.

Sleet is frozen
rain.

Rain is drops
of water.

Quick Check
Circle all correct answers.
4. What are clouds made of?

water the Sun ice

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What are some different kinds


of clouds?
Clouds do not look the same.
Some clouds are big and fluffy.
Some clouds are very thin.

These clouds are made of water drops.

These clouds are made of bits of ice.


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Weather and Seasons

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These thunder clouds bring rain and storms.

Quick Check
Draw two kinds of clouds.
5.

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Lesson 3
Spring and Summer

What happens in spring?


A season is a time of year.
There are four seasons.
The weather can change
each season.
Sunlight in Spring
Date Sunrise Sunset Hours of Sunlight
March 21 6:10 A.M. 6:21 P.M. 12 hours, 11 minutes

Read a Chart
What time does the Sun
set on March 21?

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In spring the Sun shines a long time.


It can rain a lot in spring.
Spring weather is often the same
each year.

Quick Check
6. What happens in spring?

In spring plants grow and many animals are born.

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What happens in summer?


Summer is the season after spring.
The weather can be warm and dry.
Lots of sunlight helps plants grow.

Sunlight in Summer
Date Sunrise Sunset Hours of Sunlight
June 21 5:43 A.M. 8:37 P.M. 14 hours, 54 minutes

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Many plants grow fruit.


Animals grow bigger and stronger.

In summer there are many plants to eat.

Quick Check
Circle the answer.
7. Summer is the season after .

fall winter spring

8. The weather in summer can be .

cold and wet warm and dry

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Lesson 4
Fall and Winter

What happens in fall?


Fall is the season after summer.
There are less hours of sunlight.
The air gets cooler.
Some leaves change color and drop.

Sunlight in Fall
Date Sunrise Sunset Hours of Sunlight
September 21 6:55 A.M. 7:07 P.M. 12 hours, 12 minutes

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In fall animals get ready for winter.


Some grow thick fur.
Some move to warmer places.

chipmunk geese

Some animals store food. Some birds fly south.

Quick Check
Name two things that animals do in the fall.

9.

10.

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What happens in winter?


Winter is the season after fall.
Winter is the coldest season.
There are fewer hours of sunlight.

Seasons winter

fall spring

summer

Read a Diagram
When does the tree have no leaves?

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Weather and Seasons

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Some plants die in winter.


There is not a lot of food
for animals.
Some animals sleep until
spring. dormouse

Some animals sleep


all winter.

Sunlight in Winter
Date Sunrise Sunset Hours of Sunlight
December 21 7:23 A.M. 4:49 P.M. 9 hours, 26 minutes

Quick Check
Circle the answer.
11. The coldest season is .

summer winter fall

12. Some animals all winter.

eat sleep run

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Vocabulary
Review

Use each word once to complete the sentences.

fall season temperature winter

1. The is how warm or cold the air is.

2. The coldest season is .

3. Some leaves change colors in .

4. A is a time of year.

Tell what you know.

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CHAPTER 8

The Sky
What can you see in the sky?

Vocabulary

star an object in the sky that


makes its own light

Sun the star closest


to Earth

Moon a ball of rock that


moves around Earth

planet a large object that


moves around the Sun

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Lesson 1
The Sky Above

What is in the sky?


At night you can see lights in the sky.
Stars are the little spots of light.
They are very far away.
They make their own light.

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Lesson 3
The Moon and Stars

Why can we see the Moon


from Earth?
The Moon is made of rock. It does not shine
like the Sun. We see the Moon because the
Suns light shines on it.
We see the Moon best at night. During the
day the Sun is too bright.
Read a Diagram
What shines light on the Moon?
How the Moon Moves
_____________________________

Sun
Moon

The Suns light


shines on the Moon.
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Earth and Space

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The Sun is a star.


It is the star closest to Earth.
The Sun lights Earth during the day.

Quick Check
1. Why do stars look so small?

There are many stars!

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The Moon moves in an orbit around Earth.


It takes about one month for the Moon to
make one orbit. The Moon repeats this path
again and again.

Quick Check
8. Why do we see the Moon in the sky?

9. Why do we see the Moon best at night?

Earth

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Why is the Sun important?


The Sun makes heat and light.
It warms the air, land, and water.

Suns Warmth

Read a Photo
Who looks warmer?

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Why does the Moon seem to


change shape?
Over time the Moon seems to change
shape. One night it looks round. A few
nights later it is thin.
The Moons shape does not change.
The amount of light shining on the
Moon changes.
Each moon shape we see is called a
phase. The phases of the Moon repeat in
the same order each month.

Moon Phases

new moon first quarter moon

1 We can not see the Suns light After a week the Moon is
shining on the Moon. one quarter of the way
through its orbit.
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Earth and Space

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Earth would be dark


without the Sun.
It would be too cold
for us to live.

The Sun helps living


things stay alive.

Quick Check
Circle all correct answers.
2. The Sun makes and .

heat water light

-Review Summaries and quizzes 119


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Quick Check
10. Draw what the Moon looks like about one week after
a new moon.

full moon last quarter moon

! The next week the Moon has " The Moon is three quarters of
moved. We can see all of the the way through its orbit by
Moons lit side. the third week.
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Lesson 2
Earth Moves

What causes day and night?


The Sun looks like it moves in the sky.
It does not move.
Earth moves and spins.
When Earth spins, it makes day
and night.

The Sun looks high in the The Sun looks low in the
sky. Shadows are short. sky. Shadows are long.

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What are stars?


A star is an object in space made of hot
gases. The gases give off heat and light.
Some stars are bright. Stars can be
different colors. Together some stars make
patterns in the sky.

These lines show a pattern of


stars called Orion the Hunter.

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The sky is light on the part of Earth


facing the Sun.
It is day.
Then Earth turns away from the Sun.
The sky is now dark and it is night.
You are here.

Sun

You are here.

Sun

Quick Check
Complete the sentence.
3. When Earth spins it makes

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From Earth, stars look like tiny


points of light. They are very, very far
away. There is one star close to Earth.
It is the Sun. It looks large because it
is close to Earth.

The Sun lights up the


sky during the day. We
can not see other stars
until night.

Quick Check
Circle the answer.

11. The is a star that is close to Earth.


Sun Moon Orion

12. Stars look tiny because they are .


shining far away near

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What causes a year?


Earth spins each day.
It also moves around the Sun.
Earth takes one year to move all the
way around the Sun.
One Full Year

Read a Diagram
What does Earth move around?

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Part of Earth leans toward the Sun.


The other part leans away.
This makes the four seasons.
winter spring summer fall

Quick Check
4. How long does it take Earth to move
around the Sun?

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Lesson 3
Earths Neighbors

How does the Moon look?


We see the Moon in the night sky.
The Moon is a ball of rock.
It moves around Earth.
It does not make its own light.
The Suns light shines on it.

the Moon

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The lit part of the Moon changes.

Moon Phases

last quarter

new full

Read a Diagram
When does the Moon
first quarter look small?

Quick Check
5. What makes the Moons light?

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What are planets?


A planet is a large object in the sky.
Planets move around the Sun.
Earth is a planet.
All planets are not the same.

Eight planets move around


the Sun.

Sun

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The planets close to the Sun


are warm.
The planets far from the Sun
are cold.

Quick Check
Write each answer.
6. Which planet is closest to the Sun?

7. Is Venus colder or warmer than Earth?

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Vocabulary
Review

Find the word in the box that


matches the clue.
Write the word in the puzzle.

Moon planet Sun stars

Across 1.

2. a large object that moves


3.
around the Sun
2.
4. the star closest to Earth
Down
1. a ball of rock that moves 4.

around Earth
3. they make their own light
Tell what you know.

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CHAPTER 9

Matter Everywhere
What are things made of?

Vocabulary

matter what all things are


made of

mass how much matter is in


something

balance a tool used to


measure mass

solid a kind of matter that has


a shape of its own

liquid a kind of matter that


ows and takes the shape of
its container

gas a kind of matter that does


not have its own shape

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Lesson 1
Describing Matter

What is matter?
All things are made of matter.
We can describe how
matter looks.
We can talk about color, shape,
and size.
We can tell how matter smells,
tastes, sounds, and feels.

This toy bear is brown


and soft.
The kite has points and
four colors.

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There are three kinds of matter.


Matter can be a liquid, a solid,
or a gas.

Quick Check
What are two colors on the kite?

1.

2.

The water, the raft, the girl, and the air are matter.

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What is mass?
Mass is how much matter
something has.
Heavy things have more mass.
Light things have less mass.
A balance is a tool that
measures mass.

The metal bird has more


mass. The sponge bird has
less mass.

balance

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Comparing Mass

Read a Photo
Which toy truck has more mass?
How could you find out?

Quick Check
Circle the answer.
3. Heavy things have mass.

balance more less

4. Lighter things have mass.

balance more less

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Lesson 2
Solids

What is a solid?
A solid is a kind of matter.
A solid has a shape of its own.

Building Blocks

Read a Photo
What are solids in
this photo?

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The amount of matter in a solid


stays the same.
Look at the puzzle pieces and
the finished puzzle. They have
the same amount of matter.

Quick Check
List two things that are solids.

5.

6.

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What are some properties


of solids?
Solids can be big or small.
Solids can be different shapes
and colors.
Some solids can bend or fold.
You can fold some solids.

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Solids can feel hard or soft.


Solids can feel rough
or smooth.

Scissors are hard


and smooth.

Feathers are soft.

Quick Check
7. Draw a solid.

8. Describe the solid you drew.

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Lesson 3
Liquids and Gases

What are some properties


of liquids?
A liquid is a kind of matter.
A liquid does not have its own shape.
It takes the shape of what it is in.

honey ketchup
Some liquids
flow slowly.

milk oil
Some liquids
flow quickly.

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A liquids shape can change.


You can put a liquid in a big cup.
Then put the liquid in a small cup.
The amount of liquid stays the same.

Quick Check
9. How are liquids and solids the same?
Write a fact that is true about both.
solid both liquid

does not
has its own
have its own
shape
shape

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What are some properties


of gases?
A gas is a kind of matter.
A gas does not have its own shape.
A gas spreads out to fill the space
it is in.

Gas Changes Shape

Read a Diagram
Did the gas stay in the balloon?

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The air is made of many gases.


You can not see these gases.
You can feel air when it moves.
It can feel hot or cold.

Air helps the ribbon


stay up.

Quick Check
Circle the correct answer.
10. A gas have its own shape.

does does not

11. Gases fill up the space they are in.

will will not

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Vocabulary
Review

Circle the correct answer.


1. Things are made of .
mass matter balance

2. Somethings tells how much matter is in it.


mass matter balance

3. A has its own shape.


gas solid liquid

4. The air is made of many .


gases solids liquids

5. Some flow quickly.


gases solids liquids

Tell what you know.

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CHAPTER 10

Changes in Matter
How can matter change?

Vocabulary

mixture different things put


together

dissolve to mix well into


a liquid

freeze to change from


a liquid to a solid

melt to change from a solid


to a liquid

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Lesson 1
Matter Can Change

How can matter change?


You can bend, fold, or tear some
solids.
The solid does not look the same.
It is still made of the same thing.

Shaping Clay

Read a Photo
What kind of matter is clay?

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Sometimes matter changes.


It can change into something new.
Heat and air can change matter.

This paper has been Heat changed the


cut. It is still paper. paper. Now it is ash.

Quick Check
Circle all correct answers.
1. Paper does not change when it is .

cut burned folded

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Lesson 2
Making Mixtures

What is a mixture?
A mixture is different things
put together.
We can mix some solids.
They may not change.
We can see the solids in the mixture.
We can take the mixture apart.

balls

marbles

You can take apart this mixture.


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You can mix solids with water.


Some solids float in water.
Some solids sink in water.

Quick Check
2. What is a mixture of something you like to eat?

Sink and Float

Read a Photo
What do the red balls do
in water?

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What are some other mixtures?


Some mixtures are hard to take apart.
The parts may dissolve or mix totally.
Solids may dissolve in a liquid.
Some liquids dissolve in a liquid too.
The different parts are hard to see.

This solid dissolves This liquid dissolves


in water. in water.

food
drink mix
coloring

water water

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Some liquids do not mix.


They stay apart.
oil

water

These two liquids


do not mix.

Quick Check
Circle the answer.
3. Drink mix can in water.

grow dissolve break

4. Water and do not mix.

food coloring oil drink mix

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Lesson 3
Heat Can Change Matter

How can solids and liquids


change?
A liquid can change.
It can change into a solid or freeze.
A liquid can freeze if it gets very cold.
Water will freeze into ice.

Forms of Water

water

ice

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A solid can change.


It can change into a liquid or melt.
A solid will melt when it is heated.
Ice will melt when it gets warm.

Quick Check
Fill in the blanks.

5. When a liquid , it becomes a solid.

6. When a solid , it becomes a liquid.

water

Read a Photo
What did the liquid
change into?

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How can liquids and


gases change?
Heat changes water.
Heat makes water change into a gas.
This gas is water vapor.
Water vapor goes up into the air.

This pond was full of water. Some water changed into


gas. The pond has less water.

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Water vapor cools.


The gas changes into a
liquid.
It changes back into water.

Water vapor cools into


drops on this pitcher.

Quick Check
Fill in the blanks.
7. Heat can change a liquid into a

8. Water vapor cools and becomes

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Vocabulary
Review

Use the clues below to help you


find the words in the puzzle.
1. different things put together
2. to mix well into a liquid
3. to change from a liquid to a solid
4. to change from a solid to a liquid

a m l o t s i m
d i s s o l v e
e x t o c w h l
a t n q n s b t
v u k w n p b o
f r e e z e c t
z e g s u g j n
Tell what you know.

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CHAPTER 11

On the Move
How can you make things move?

Vocabulary

motion a change in an
objects position

push a force that moves


something away from you

pull a force that moves


something closer to you

simple machine a tool that


can make it easier to move
things

magnet a thing that can pull


objects with iron in them

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Lesson 1
Position and Motion

How can you tell where


something is?
A position is the place where
something is found.
It can tell you if an object
is over or under.

Find Things at a Fair

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Position can tell you if an object is


close or far.
It can tell you if an object is to
the right or left.

Quick Check
1. Circle all words that tell about an
objects position.

over thing under left near

Read a Photo
Describe the position of
something at the fair.

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How do things move?


Things that move are in motion.
Motion is a change in an objects
position.
All things do not move the same.
Some things move forward
or backward.

This car moves in This plane moves in


a curvy line. a straight line.
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Some things move side


to side.
Objects can move fast
or slow.

This rocket ship


moves very fast.

Quick Check
Fill in the blanks.
2. Things that move are in .

3. Things can move or slow.

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Lesson 2
Pushes and Pulls

What makes things move?


A force is a push or a pull that
moves something.
A push moves something away
from you.
A pull moves something toward you.

The girl pushes the


ball to the basket.

The boy pulls the bag.

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Gravity is the force that


pulls things toward Earth. Jumping Rope

When you jump up, gravity


pulls you back down.
If you let go of something,
it falls down.

Read a Photo
What will pull the girl back down?

Quick Check
Circle the answer.
4. A push moves something .

toward you away from you

5. A pull moves something .

toward you away from you

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How are forces different?


A small push can move a small object.
A big push can move a big object.
A big push can move an
object faster.
It can also move it farther.

A big force pushes the A small force pushes the


ball far away. ball a short way.

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Friction is two things rubbing


together.
This force slows things down.

rubber stopper

Friction makes
you stop.

Quick Check
Fill in the blanks.

6. A force can move an


object faster.

7. A force moves an
object a short way.

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Lesson 3
Simple Machines

What are simple machines?


A simple machine is a tool.
They make it easier to move things.
Simple machines help people
do work.

Using Simple Machines

Read a Photo
What simple machines are
these children using?

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One kind of simple machine is


a pulley.
It has a rope that moves over
a wheel.
It helps lift heavy things.

pulley

This pulley is a
simple machine.

Quick Check
Name two ways simple machines help us.

8. They help us .

9. They help us .

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What are levers and ramps?


A lever is a simple machine.
It has a bar that moves
on a point.
It moves like a seesaw. This lever can move
or lift something.
A lever makes it easier to move
something.

An oar is a lever. It helps to move the boat.

lever

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A ramp is also a simple


machine.
One side is lower than
the other.
It helps us move things
up and down.

ramp

A ramp can take the place of


steps.

Quick Check
10. Draw a picture of a simple machine.

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Lesson 4
Magnets Magnet Chart

What is a magnet?
A magnet pulls things.
A magnet will pull things
that have iron in them.
Iron is a kind of metal.

Read a Chart
magnet What is one object the
magnet attracted?

Magnets pull things


with iron in them.

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Magnets do not pull some metals.


Magnets do not pull cloth, feathers,
or crayons.

Quick Check
Look at the picture below. Fill in the blanks.

11. Magnets pull things with in them.

12. Magnets do not pull .

Magnets do not pull paper,


glass, rubber, or wood.

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What are a magnets poles?


Magnets have two ends where
the pull is strongest.
One end is called north.
The other end is called south.
The ends of a magnet
are called poles.

Ends that are not the


same pull toward each
other.

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A north pole and a south pole


pull toward each other.
Two north poles or two south
poles will push away from each
other.

These magnets are round.


North poles are red.
South poles are blue.

Quick Check
Circle all correct answers.
13. Which ends pull toward each other?

N and N N and S S and S

14. Which ends push away from each other?

N and N N and S S and S

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Vocabulary
Review

Use the words below to answer the questions.

force magnet pull

1. What force moves something closer to you?

2. What object pulls things with iron in them?

3. What do we call a push or pull that moves something?

Tell what you know.

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CHAPTER 12

Energy Everywhere
What is energy?

Vocabulary

energy a force that makes


things work or change

heat a form of energy that


makes things warm

vibrate to move back


and forth

light a form of energy that


lets you see

electricity a form of energy


that gives some things power
to work

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Lesson 1
Energy and Heat

What is energy?
Energy makes things work.
Energy makes things change.
We use energy every day.

Windmills use wind to get Lights use energy from


energy. electricity.
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There are different kinds


of energy.
Heat, light, and sound
are kinds of energy.
Electricity is a kind of
energy too.

Cars use energy from


gasoline.

Quick Check
List two kinds of energy.

1.

2.

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What is heat?
Heat is energy that
makes things warm.
We can get heat from
burning things.
We can burn wood, oil,
or gas for heat.

The Suns energy warms Earth.

Heat Energy

Read a Photo
Where is the heat coming from?

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Heat energy makes


houses warm.
Heat energy cooks food.

Rubbing your hands


together makes heat.

Heat energy makes


popcorn pop.

Quick Check
Circle all correct answers.
3. Heat energy things.

cools warms pulls

4. Heat energy comes from .

a push a fire the Sun

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Lesson 2
Sound

How can you make sound?


Sound is a kind of energy.
It is made when something vibrates.
Vibrate means to move back
and forth.
Sounds can tell us things.
They can help us wake up.
Sounds help us stay safe.

The cymbals vibrate.


This makes a sound.

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City Sounds

Read a Photo
What sounds do you hear in the city?

Quick Check
5. What are some sounds you hear every day?
Draw a picture. Label the sounds you hear.

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How are sounds


different?
Sounds can be loud.
Big vibrations make
loud sounds.
Sounds can be soft.
Little vibrations make
soft sounds.
A coyotes howl
can be loud.

A broom makes a soft sound. A fire engine makes a loud


sound.
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A sound can be high or low.


Fast vibrations make a high sound.
Slow vibrations make a low sound.

Quick Check
Write the answer to the question.
6. What makes a loud sound?

A whistle makes A motorcycle makes


a high sound. a low sound.
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Lesson 3
Light

What is light?
Light is a kind of energy.
Light lets you see.
Some things let light
Read a Diagram
through them.
What lets the boy see?
Some things do not.

Light and Sight

These glasses These glasses This mask


let a lot of light let some light lets no light
through. through. through.
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Some things block light.


This makes a shadow.

The girls body blocks light.


She has a shadow.

Quick Check
Write two things that can block light.

7.

8.

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What are some sources


of light?
Most of the light on Earth comes
from the Sun.
Other lights are made by people.
Light lets us see things.
Light bounces off objects and goes
into your eyes.
This lets you see the object.

Lights in the street Lamps help us see


help us see at night. at home.

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flashlight

string of lights

There are different kinds


of lights.

Quick Check
Write the answers to the questions.
9. What makes most of Earths light?

10. What kinds of things make light?

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Lesson 4
Electricity

How do you use electricity?


Electricity is a kind of energy.
It gives some things power to work.
Wires carry electricity.
Batteries store electricity.
We use electricity every day.
Plugged In

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Quick Check
11. List two objects that get electricity from wires.
List two objects that get electricity from batteries.

Electricity from Wires Electricity from Batteries

Read a Diagram
Name an object you see
that needs electricity.

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Vocabulary
Review

Use the words below to answer each question.

heat light vibrate

1. What kind of energy lets you see?

2. What kind of energy makes things warm?

3. What does an object do when it makes a sound?

Tell what you know.

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amphibian An animal that lives


on land and in water. (page 33)
A frog is an amphibian.

Arctic A cold and icy place near the


North Pole. (page 26) Plants in the Arctic
are short.

balance A tool used to measure mass.


(page 132) The side of a balance with
more mass will go down.

bird An animal that has two legs, two


wings, and feathers. (page 31)
A duck is a bird.

desert A dry place. (page 24)


Cactus plants can live in the desert.

dissolve To mix well into a liquid.


(page 148) Drink mix will dissolve in water.

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electricity A form of energy that


gives some things power to work.
(page 186) Some things in your home
need electricity.

energy A force that makes things work


or change. (page 174) Gasoline gives cars
the energy to move.

fall The season after summer. (page 110)


Some leaves change colors in fall.

fish An animal that has gills and fins.


(page 34) Fish live under water.

flower A plant part that makes seeds.


(page 16) Flowers come in many shapes
and colors.

food chain The order of how living


things get food. (page 62) All animals
are part of a food chain.

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force A push or a pull that makes a


thing move. (page 160) It takes force
to move a ball.

forest A place with many trees.


(page 54) Many plants and animals live
in the forest.

freeze To change from a liquid to a


solid. (page 150) Water will freeze if it
gets very cold.

friction A force that slows things down.


(page 163) Friction makes a skate stop.

gas A kind of matter that does not


have its own shape. (page 140)
Gas gives balloons their shape.

grassland A dry place with a lot of


grass. (page 53) Prairie dogs live in
a grassland.
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gravity A force that pulls things toward


Earth. (page 161) Gravity keeps us from
staying up in the air.

habitat A place where animals and


plants live. (page 52) A forest is a
habitat for many plants and animals.

heat A form of energy that makes


things warm. (page 176) Heat makes
popcorn pop.

insect An animal with six legs. (page 35)


An ant is an insect.

lake Water with land around it.


(page 56) A lake is a home for many
plants and animals.

leaves Plant parts that make food.


(page 8) Leaves come in different
shapes and sizes.
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light A form of energy that lets you see.


(page 182) Light can help you see in the
dark.

liquid A kind of matter that flows and


takes the shape of its container.
(page 138) Milk is a liquid.

living A thing that needs food, air,


and water to live. (page 2)
This girl is a living thing.

magnet A thing that can pull objects


with iron in them. (page 168) A magnet
can pull some metals.

mammal An animal with hair or fur.


(page 30) Fur can keep mammals warm.

mass How much matter is in something.


(page 132) These birds both have mass.

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matter What all things are made of.


(page 130) A kite is made of matter.

melt To change from a solid to a


liquid. (page 151) Ice cubes can melt
and become water.

mixture Different things put together.


(page 146) A fruit salad is a mixture.

Moon A ball of rock that moves around


Earth. (page 124) The Moon does not
make its own light.

motion A change in a things


position. (page 158) The plane is in
motion.

mountain Land that is very high.


(page 72) A mountain is the highest
kind of land.
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natural resources Things from Earth


that people use. (page 84)
Rocks are a natural resource.

nonliving A thing that does not need


food, water, and air to live. (page 2)
A rock is a nonliving thing.

ocean Salty water that can be very big


and deep. (page 58) Whales live in
the ocean.

plain Flat land that is very wide.


(page 73) A plain is wide and flat.

planet A large object that moves


around the Sun. (page 126)
Saturn is a planet.

poles Where a magnets pull is


strongest. (page 170) A magnet
has a north pole and a south pole.
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pollution Things that hurt the air, land,


or water. (page 90) Pollution can harm
animals.

position The place where something


is found. (page 156) You can find
something if you know its position.

pull A force that moves something


closer to you. (page 160) The boy pulls
the bag of balls.

push A force that moves something


away from you. (page 160) The girl
pushes the ball when she throws it.

rain forest A hot and wet place. (page 25)


A rain forest has many green plants.

recycle To make a new thing from an


old thing. (page 95) You can recycle
paper, plastic, and glass.

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reduce To use less of something.


(page 94) You can reduce how much
water you use.

reptile An animal with dry skin and


scales. (page 32) A snake is a reptile.

reuse To use something again. (page 92)


You can reuse cans and bottles.

river Fresh water that moves. (page 71)


A river may flow into an ocean.

root Plant part that holds a plant in the


ground. (page 9) Roots hold a plant in
the ground.

season A time of year. (page 106)


There are four seasons.

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seed A plant part that grows into a new


plant. (page 16) A seed inside a peach
can grow.

simple machine A tool that can make it


easier to move things. (page 164)
A rake is a simple machine.

soil The top layer of Earth. (page 76)


Soil can be brown, red, gray, or yellow.

solid A kind of matter that has a shape


of its own. (page 134) A block is a solid.

spring The season after winter. (page 107)


Many animals are born in spring.

star An object in the sky that makes its


own light. (page 116) We can see many
stars in the night sky.

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stem Part of a plant that holds it up.


(page 8) The stem holds up the flower.

summer The season after spring.


(page 108) Lemonade can cool you off
in the hot summer.

Sun The star closest to Earth. (page 117)


The Sun gives light and heat to Earth.

temperature How cold or warm the


air is. (page 98) The temperature can be
cold in winter.

valley Low land between mountains.


(page 72) This valley is flat.

vibrate To move back and forth. (page 178)


Sound is made when something vibrates.

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water vapor Water that goes up into


the air. (page 102) You can not see
water vapor.

winter The season after fall. (page 112)


It can snow in winter.

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Cover Photo Juniors Bildarchiv/Alamy; title page Juniors Alamy, (tr)Jacques Cornell/Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, (tl b)Ken
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Images, (3)Evan Sklar/Botanica/Jupiterimages, (4)Dave King/ (4)BigCheesePhoto/PunchStock, (5)Mark E. Gibson/CORBIS;
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Macmillan/McGraw-Hill; 173 (1)Jack Star/PhotoLink/Getty Jupiterimages, (3)Comstock/PictureQuest, (4 6)Natalie Ray/
Images, (2)Aqua Image/Alamy, (3)David Young-Wolff/ Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, (5)Blickwinkel/Alamy; 194 (1)DK
PhotoEdit, (4)Kader Meguedad/Alamy; 174 (l)John W Banagan/ Images, (2)Dennis Gray/Cole Group/Getty Images, (3)Richard
Getty Images, (r)Golden Gate Images/Alamy; 175 Jack Star/ Wahlstrom/The Image Bank/Getty Images,(4)Thinkstock/
PhotoLink/Getty Images; 176 (t)Dynamic Graphics/ Punchstock, (5)Amy and Chuck Wiley/Wales/Index Stock
JupiterImages, (b)Aqua Image/Alamy; 177 Lena Johansson/ Imagery; 195 (1)Rainer Hackenberg/zefa/Corbis, (2)C. Borland/
Getty Images; 178 David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit; 179 Greg PhotoLink/Getty Images, (4)Macduff Everton/Corbis,
Stott/Masterfile; 180 (t)Photodisc/Punchstock, (bl)Creatas/ (5)Jacques Cornell/Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, David Fleetham/
Punchstock, (br)Tom Carter/PhotoEdit; 181 (l)WireImageStock/ Getty Images; 196 (1)Deco/Alamy, (2)Michael Scott/Macmillan/
Masterfile, (r)Ted Soqui/CORBIS; 182 (t)Eyewire Collection/ McGraw-Hill, (3)Chris Clinton/Getty Images, (4)Tom Bean/
Getty Images, (br bc bl)Natalie Ray/Macmillan/McGraw-Hill; Corbis, (5)Mark E. Gibson/Corbis; 197 (1)BigCheesePhoto/
183 Peter Griffith/Masterfile; 184 (l)Rudy Sulgan/CORBIS, PunchStock, (2)IT Stock/Punchstock, (3)Natalie Ray/
(r)Kader Meguedad/Alamy; 185 David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit, Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, (4)Amy and Chuck Wiley/Wales/Index
185 Macmillan/McGraw-Hill; 189 (1)Michael & Patricia Fogden/ Stock Imagery, (5)John Kaprielian/Photo Researchers, Inc.,
Minden Pictures, (2)Jim D. Barr/AlaskaStock.com,(3 6)Natalie (6)Stock Connection/Alamy; 198 (1)Judd Pilossof/
Ray/Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, (4)Jose B. Ruiz/naturepl. Jupiterimages, (2)Michael Newman/PhotoEdit, (3)Natalie Ray/
com,(5)Mark Gibson/Index Stock Imagery; 190 (1)Jack Star/ Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, (4)Ken Karp/Macmillan McGraw Hill,
PhotoLink/Getty Images,2)Ariel Skelley/Getty (5)Richard Cummins/Corbis, (6)Rob Matheson/Corbis;
Images,(3)Imagestate/Alamy,(4)Royalty-Free/Corbis; 199 (1)Dave King/DK Images, (2)Photodisc/Punchstock, (3)G.
191 (1)ThinkStock LLC/Index Stock Imagery,(2)Jack Schuster/zefa/Corbis,(5)Gary Yeowell/Getty Images, (6)David
Milchanowski/Visuals Unlimited, (3)Ken Karp/Macmillan/ Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit; 200 Stock Connection/Alamy.
McGraw-Hill, (4)Rolf Schultes/dpa/Corbis,(5)Jules Frazier/

202
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