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INFORMATION SHEET

MODULE 6: PUMPS

PUMPS

Machines designed to move liquids and add energy to them are called pumps. An operating
pump changes the mechanical energy available from the motor into potential, kinetic and thermal
energy imparted to the liquid flow.

Pumps are widely used in many fields; machine building, metallurgy, chemical industry,
hydraulic excavation and so on, but they are of especially extensive use in petroleum industry
where they are used for drilling bore holes of any depth, for process of petroleum refining and
transportation from oil fields to refineries, and also for transportation of petroleum products to
railway stations and cargo ports. The pumping of water, petroleum, kerosene, petrol oils,
solution, etc. may also be placed in this category.
The basic requirements of any pump are that it be reliable, durable and efficient.
The pump operation is characterized by:
Capacity Q,
Head H,
Suction head hsuc,
Power of the driver P and
Efficiency .

Figure 1

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Pumps are classified as per their design and the way of energy transfer inside the pump. The
table shows different types of pumps.

Figure 2-Classification of Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps:
Basic Concepts of Operation, Maintenance, and Troubleshooting Components of Centrifugal
Pumps

Pump Operation
The operation of a centrifugal pump is based on centrifugal force, which e force that tends to
move an object from the center of rotation.
When a centrifugal pump is started, the impeller begins to rotate. The impeller blades stir the
fluid, causing the fluid to rotate with the impeller. This circular motion generates force which
moves the fluid away from the center of the impeller.
This outward motion has two effects:
1. It moves the fluid to the outside edge of the impeller against the casing wall.
2. It creates suction at the eye (center) of the impeller to draw more fluid into the pump.
The outside edge of the impeller travels faster than its center. Therefore, to keep up with
the impeller, the fluid must continue to gain velocity as it moves outward. This increases
the kinetic energy (energy of motion) in the fluid.
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As fluid leaves the outside edge of the impeller, it enters an area of the casing called a volute.
The volute is designed in such a way that it is wider at the discharge nozzle than where the fluid
leaves the impeller. This increased area allows the fluid to slow down. As its velocity decreases,
the fluid gives up some of its kinetic energy. Because energy cannot simply disappear, it is
converted into pressure, which forces the fluid out the discharge nozzle and piping. Thus,
centrifugal pumps move fluids and increase fluid pressure using centrifugal force.

A centrifugal pump has two main types of components:

1. Stationary components comprised of a casing, casing cover, and bearings


2. Rotating components comprised of an impeller and a shaft

The general components, both stationary and rotary, are depicted in Figure 3a. The main
components are discussed in brief below. Figure 3b shows these parts on a photograph of a pump in
the field.

Figure 3a General components of Centrifugal Pump

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Figure 3b General components of a Centrifugal Pump

I. Stationary Components
a. Casing: Casings are generally of two types: volute and circular. The impellers are
fitted inside the casings as shown in fig 4.
1.Volute casings build a higher head; circular casings are used for low head and high
capacity.
A volute is a curved funnel increasing in area to the discharge port as shown in Figure 3. As the
area of the cross-section increases, the volute reduces the speed of the liquid and increases the
pressure of the liquid

Figure 4
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Figure 5 external components

One of the main purposes of a volute casing is to help balance the hydraulic pressure on
the shaft of the pump.
2. Circular casing have stationary diffusion vanes surrounding the impeller
periphery that convert velocity energy to pressure energy. Conventionally, the diffusers
are applied to multi-stage pumps.

Figure 6
The casings can be designed either as solid casings or split casings.

Solid casing implies a design in which the entire casing including the discharge nozzle is
all contained in one casting or fabricated piece as shown in fig 7.

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Figure 7 Solid casing

A split casing implies two or more parts are fastened together. When the casing parts are
divided by horizontal plane, the casing is described as horizontally split or axially split
casing. When the split is in a vertical plane perpendicular to the rotation axis, the casing
is described as vertically split or radially split casing. Casing Wear rings act as the seal
between the casing and the impeller.
b. Suction and Discharge Nozzle
The suction and discharge nozzles are part of the casings itself. They commonly have the
following configurations.
1. End suction/Top discharge (Figure 8) - The suction nozzle is located at the end of and
concentric to, the shaft while the discharge nozzle is located at the top of the case
perpendicular to the shaft. This pump is always of an overhung type and typically has lower
NPSHr because the liquid feeds directly into the impeller eye.
2. Top suction Top discharge nozzle (Figure 8) -The suction and discharge nozzles are located
at the top of the case perpendicular to the shaft. This pump can either be an overhung type or
between-bearing type but is always a radially split case pump.

Figure 8 Suction and Discharge Nozzle Locations

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1. Side suction / Side discharge nozzles - The suction and discharge nozzles are located at
the sides of the case perpendicular to the shaft. This pump can have either an axially or radially
split case type.

Seal Chamber and Stuffing Box

Seal chamber and Stuffing box both refer to a chamber, either integral with or separate from the
pump case housing that forms the region between the shaft and casing where sealing media are
installed. When the sealing is achieved by means of a mechanical seal, the chamber is
commonly referred to as a Seal Chamber. When the sealing is achieved by means of packing, the
chamber is referred to as a Stuffing Box. Figure 6 below depicts an externally mounted seal
chamber and its parts.

Figure 9 Parts of a simple Seal Chamber

Gland: The gland is a very important part of the seal chamber or the stuffing box

Throat Bushing: The bottom or inside end of the chamber is provided with a stationary device
called throat bushing that forms a restrictive close clearance around the sleeve (or shaft) between
the seal and the impeller.

Throttle bushing refers to a device that forms a restrictive close clearance around the sleeve (or
shaft) at the outboard end of a mechanical seal gland.

Internal circulating device refers to device located in the seal chamber to circulate seal chamber
fluid through a cooler or barrier/buffer fluid reservoir. Usually it is referred to as a pumping or
lantern ring.

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Bearing housing
The bearing housing encloses the bearings mounted on the shaft. The bearings keep the shaft or
rotor in correct alignment with the stationary parts under the action of radial and transverse
loads. The bearing house also includes an oil reservoir for lubrication, constant level oiler, jacket
for cooling by circulating cooling water.

Figure 10 Bearing housing

ROTATING COMPONENTS

1. Impeller
The impeller is the main rotating part that provides the centrifugal acceleration to the
fluid. They are often classified in many ways.
Based on major direction of flow in reference to the axis of rotation
Radial flow
Axial flow
Mixed flow
Based on suction type
Single-suction: Liquid inlet on one side.
Double suction: Liquid inlet to the impeller symmetrically from both sides.
Based on mechanical construction
Closed: Shrouds or sidewall enclosing the vanes.
Open: No shrouds or wall to enclose the vanes.
Semi-open or vortex type.

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Figure 11 Closed impeller

Closed Impeller
Closed impellers require wear rings and these wear rings present another maintenance problem.
Open and semi-open impellers are less likely to clog, but need manual adjustment to the volute
or back-plate to get the proper impeller setting and prevent internal re-circulation.

Figure 12 Open and Semi closed impellers

Wear rings: Wear ring provides an easily and economically renewable leakage joint between the
impeller and the casing. Clearance becomes too large the pump efficiency will be lowered
causing heat and vibration problems. Most manufacturers require that you disassemble the pump
to check the wear ring clearance and replace the rings when this clearance doubles.

2. Shaft The basic purpose of a centrifugal pump shaft is to transmit the torques encountered
when starting and during operation while supporting the impeller and other rotating parts. It
must do this job with a deflection less than the minimum clearance between the rotating and
stationary parts.
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Figure 13 Shaft and internal components

Shaft Sleeve: Pump shafts are usually protected from erosion, corrosion, and wear at the seal
chambers, leakage joints, internal bearings, and in the waterways by renewable sleeves. Unless
otherwise specified, a shaft sleeve of wear, corrosion, and erosion-resistant material shall be
provided to protect the shaft. The sleeve shall be sealed at one end. The shaft sleeve assembly
shall extend beyond the outer face of the seal gland plate. (Leakage between the shaft and the
sleeve should not be confused with leakage through the mechanical seal).

Figure 14 Double Suction Pump (External view)

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Figure 15 Double Suction Pump (Internal view)

Multi-Stage Pump
As shown in Fig 17 multi-stage pumps have two or more single suction impellers mounted on a
single shaft with the discharge port of the first impeller directed to the suction port of the second,
etc. As the fluid moves from one stage to the next, fluid pressure is increased in steps.

Figure 16 Multi-Stage Pump

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Figure 17 Multi-Stage Pump

Auxiliary Components
Auxiliary components generally include the following piping systems for the following
services:
Seal flushing , cooling , quenching systems
Seal drains and vents
Bearing lubrication , cooling systems
Seal chamber or stuffing box cooling, heating systems
Pump pedestal cooling systems

Auxiliary piping systems include tubing, piping, isolating valves, control valves, relief valves,
temperature gauges and thermocouples, pressure gauges, sight flow indicators, orifices, seal
flush coolers, dual seal barrier/buffer fluid reservoirs, and all related vents and drains.

Two Basic Requirements for Trouble-Free Operation of Pumps

Centrifugal pumps are the ultimate in simplicity. In general there are two basic requirements that
have to be met at all the times for a trouble free operation and longer service life of centrifugal
pumps.
The first requirement is that no cavitation of the pump occurs throughout the broad
operating range and the second requirement is that a certain minimum continuous flow is
always maintained during operation.
Just like there are many forms of cavitation, each demanding a unique solution, there are
a number of unfavorable conditions, which may occur separately or simultaneously when
the pump is operated at reduced flows. Some include:
Cases of heavy leakages from the casing, seal, and stuffing box
Deflection and shearing of shafts
Seizure of pump internals
Close tolerances erosion
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Separation cavitation
Product quality degradation
Excessive hydraulic thrust
Premature bearing failures

Each condition may dictate a different minimum flow low requirement. The final decision on
recommended minimum flow is taken after careful techno-economical analysis by both the
pump user and the manufacturer.
The consequences of prolonged conditions of cavitation and low flow operation can be
disastrous for both the pump and the process. Such failures in hydrocarbon services have often
caused damaging fires resulting in loss of machine, production, and worst of all, human life.

Thus, such situations must be avoided at all cost whether involving modifications in the pump
and its piping or altering the operating conditions. Proper selection and sizing of pump and its
associated piping can not only eliminate the chances of cavitation and low flow operation but
also significantly decrease their harmful effects.

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POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

Positive displacement pumps operate on a different principle than centrifugal pumps. Positive
displacement pumps physically entrap a quantity of liquid at the suction of the pump and push
that quantity out the discharge of the pump.

A positive displacement pump is one in which a definite volume of liquid is delivered for each
cycle of pump operation. This volume is constant regardless of the resistance to flow offered by
the system the pump is in, provided the capacity of the power unit driving the pump or pump
component strength limits are not exceeded. The positive displacement pump delivers liquid in
separate volumes with no delivery in between, although a pump having several chambers may
have an overlapping delivery among individual chambers, which minimizes this effect.
The positive displacement pump differs from centrifugal pumps, which deliver a continuous
flow for any given pump speed and discharge resistance. Positive displacement pumps can be
grouped into three basic categories based on their design and operation.
The three groups are:
reciprocating pumps,
rotary pumps, and
diaphragm pumps
PD pumps are found in a wide range of applications -- chemical-processing; liquid delivery;
marine; biotechnology; pharmaceutical; as well as food, dairy, and beverage processing. Their
versatility and popularity is due in part to their relatively compact design, high-viscosity
performance, continuous flow regardless of differential pressure, and ability to handle high
differential pressure.

This principle can be most easily demonstrated by considering a reciprocating positive


displacement pump consisting of a single reciprocating piston in a cylinder with a single suction
port and a single discharge port as shown in Figure 18. Check valves in the suction and
discharge ports allow flow in only one direction. During the suction stroke, the piston moves to
the left, causing the check valve in the suction Figure 12 Reciprocating Positive Displacement
Pump Operation line between the reservoir and the pump cylinder to open and admit water from
the reservoir. During the discharge stroke, the piston moves to the right, seating the check valve
in the suction line and opening the check valve in the discharge line. The volume of liquid
moved by the pump in one cycle (one suction stroke and one discharge stroke) is equal to the
change in the liquid volume of the cylinder as the piston moves from its farthest left position to
its farthest right position.

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Figure 18

Reciprocating Pumps
Reciprocating positive displacement pumps are generally categorized in four ways as shown in
fig 19:
direct-acting or indirect-acting;
simplex or duplex; single-acting or double-acting; and
power pumps.

Direct-Acting and Indirect-Acting Pumps


Some reciprocating pumps are powered by prime movers that also have reciprocating
motion, such as a reciprocating pump powered by a reciprocating steam piston. The piston rod
of the steam piston may be directly connected to the liquid piston of the pump or it may be
indirectly connected with a beam or linkage.
Direct-acting pumps have a plunger on the liquid (pump) end that is directly driven by the pump
rod (also the piston rod or extension thereof) and carries the piston of the power end.
Indirect-acting pumps are driven by means of a beam or linkage connected to and actuated
by the power piston rod of a separate reciprocating engine.

Simplex and Duplex Pumps A simplex pump, sometimes referred to as a single pump, is a
pump having a single liquid (pump) cylinder. A duplex pump is the equivalent of two simplex
pumps placed side by side on the same foundation. The driving of the pistons of a duplex pump
is arranged in such a manner that when one piston is on its upstroke the other piston is on
its down stroke, and vice versa. This arrangement doubles the capacity of the duplex
pump compared to a simplex pump of comparable design.

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Single-Acting and Double-Acting Pumps


A single-acting pump is one that takes suction, filling the pump cylinder on the stroke in only
one direction, called the suction stroke, and then forces the liquid out of the cylinder on the
return stroke, called the discharge stroke.

A double-acting pump is one that, as it fills one end of the liquid cylinder, is discharging liquid
from the other end of the cylinder. On the return stroke, the end of the cylinder just emptied is
filled, and the end just filled is emptied. One possible arrangement for single-acting and double-
acting pumps is shown in Figure 19.

Power Pumps Power pumps convert rotary motion to low speed reciprocating motion by
reduction gearing, a crankshaft, connecting rods and crossheads.
Plungers or pistons are driven by the crosshead drives. Rod and piston construction, similar to
duplex double-acting steam pumps, is used by the liquid ends of the low pressure, higher
capacity units. The higher pressure units are normally single-acting plungers, and usually
employ three (triplex) plungers. Three or more plungers substantially reduce flow pulsations
relative to simplex and even duplex pumps.

Figure 19 Single-Acting and Double-Acting Pumps

Power pumps typically have high efficiency and are capable of developing very high pressures.
They can be driven by either electric motors or turbines. They are relatively expensive pumps
and can rarely be justified on the basis of efficiency over centrifugal pumps. However, they are
frequently justified over steam reciprocating pumps where continuous duty service is needed due
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to the high steam requirements of direct-acting steam pumps. In general, the effective flow rate
of reciprocating pumps decreases as the viscosity of the fluid being pumped increases because
the speed of the pump must be reduced. In contrast to centrifugal pumps, the differential
pressure generated by reciprocating pumps is independent of fluid density. It is dependent
entirely on the amount of force exerted on the piston.
Rotary pumps
Rotary pumps are used in a wide range of applications -- liquids, slurries, and pastes. And
because rotary pumps displace a known quantity of liquid with each revolution of the pump
shaft, they are a popular choice for metering applications. They can accommodate thin to high
viscosity liquids, high vacuums to high pressures, and minute doses to high capacities. Rotary
pumps are available in a number of different pumping principles, each with its own unique set of
advantages and disadvantages. The following principles comprise the majority, but not all of the
rotary pump market.

Please check back as we continue to add principles to the list.


Internal Gear
External Gear
Lobe
Vane

Figure 20 Classification
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Internal Gear Pump


Internal gear pumps are exceptionally versatile. While they are often used on thin liquids such as
solvents and fuel oil, they excel at efficiently pumping thick liquids such as asphalt, chocolate,
and adhesives. The useful viscosity range of an internal gear pump is from 1cPs to over
1,000,000cP.

Figure 21

In addition to their wide viscosity range, the pump has a wide temperature range as well,
handling liquids up to 750F / 400C. This is due to the single point of end clearance (the
distance between the ends of the rotor gear teeth and the head of the pump). This clearance is
adjustable to accommodate high temperature, maximize efficiency for handling high viscosity
liquids, and to accommodate for wear. The internal gear pump is non-pulsing, self-priming, and
can run dry for short periods. They're also bi-rotational, meaning that the same pump can be
used to load and unload vessels. Because internal gear pumps have only two moving parts, they
are reliable, simple to operate, and easy to maintain.

How Internal Gear Pumps Work

Figure 22
1. Liquid enters the suction port between the rotor (large exterior gear) and idler (small
interior gear) teeth. The arrows indicate the direction of the pump and liquid.
2. Liquid travels through the pump between the teeth of the "gear-within-a-gear" principle. The
crescent shape divides the liquid and acts as a seal between the suction and discharge ports.

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3. The pump head is now nearly flooded, just prior to forcing the liquid out of the discharge
port. Intermeshing gears of the idler and rotor form locked pockets for the liquid which assures
volume control.
4. Rotor and idler teeth mesh completely to form a seal equidistant from the discharge and
suction ports. This seal forces the liquid out of the discharge port.

Advantages
Only two moving parts
Only one stuffing box
Non-pulsating discharge Disadvantages
Excellent for high-viscosity liquids Usually requires moderate
Constant and even discharge regardless of pressure speeds
conditions Medium pressure limitations
Operates well in either direction One bearing runs in the
Can be made to operate with one direction of flow product pumped
with either rotation Overhung load on shaft
Low NPSH required bearing
Single adjustable end clearance
Easy to maintain
Flexible design offers application customization

Applications
Common internal gear pump applications include, but are not limited to:
All varieties of fuel oil and lube oil
Resins and Polymers
Alcohols and solvents
Asphalt, Bitumen, and Tar
Polyurethane foam (Isocyanate and polyol)
Food products such as corn syrup, chocolate, and peanut butter
Paint, inks, and pigments
Soaps and surfactants
Glycol

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External Gear Pump


External gear pumps are a popular pumping principle and are often used as lubrication pumps in
machine tools, in fluid power transfer units, and as oil pumps in engines as shown in fig 23.

Figure 23

External gear pumps can come in single or double (two sets of gears) pump configurations with
spur (shown), helical, and herringbone gears. Helical and herringbone gears typically offer a
smoother flow than spur gears, although all gear types are relatively smooth. Large-capacity
external gear pumps typically use helical or herringbone gears. Small external gear pumps
usually operate at 1750 or 3450 rpm and larger models operate at speeds up to 640 rpm. External
gear pumps have close tolerances and shaft support on both sides of the gears. This allows them
to run to pressures beyond 3,000 PSI / 200 BAR, making them well suited for use in hydraulics.
With four bearings in the liquid and tight tolerances, they are not well suited to handling abrasive
or extreme high temperature applications.

Tighter internal clearances provide for a more reliable measure of liquid passing through a pump
and for greater flow control. Because of this, external gear pumps are popular for precise transfer
and metering applications involving polymers, fuels, and chemical additives.

How External Gear Pumps Work


External gear pumps are similar in pumping action to internal gear pumps in that two gears come
into and out of mesh to produce flow. However, the external gear pump uses two identical gears
rotating against each other -- one gear is driven by a motor and it in turn drives the other gear.
Each gear is supported by a shaft with bearings on both sides of the gear.

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Figure 24

1. As the gears come out of mesh, they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the pump.
Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the gear teeth as they rotate.
2. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets between the teeth and the casing
-- it does not pass between the gears.
3. Finally, the meshing of the gears forces liquid through the outlet port under pressure.
Because the gears are supported on both sides, external gear pumps are quiet-running and are
routinely used for high-pressure applications such as hydraulic applications. With no overhung
bearing loads, the rotor shaft can't deflect and cause premature wear.
Advantages
High speed Disadvantages
High pressure Four bushings in liquid area
No overhung bearing loads No solids allowed
Relatively quiet operation Fixed End Clearances
Design accommodates wide variety of materials

Applications
Common external gear pump applications include, but are not limited to:
Various fuel oils and lube oils
Chemical additive and polymer metering
Chemical mixing and blending (double pump)
Industrial and mobile hydraulic applications (log splitters, lifts, etc.)
Acids and caustic (stainless steel or composite construction)
Low volume transfer or application

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Lobe Pump
Lobe pumps are used in a variety of industries including, pulp and paper, chemical, food,
beverage, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology. They are popular in these diverse industries
because they offer superb sanitary qualities, high efficiency, reliability, corrosion resistance, and
good clean-in-place and sterilize-in-place (CIP/SIP) characteristics.

Figure 25

These pumps offer a variety of lobe options including single, bi-wing, tri-lobe (shown), and
multi-lobe. Rotary lobe pumps are non-contacting and have large pumping chambers, allowing
them to handle solids such as cherries or olives without damage. They are also used to handle
slurries, pastes, and a wide variety of other liquids. If wetted, they offer self-priming
performance. A gentle pumping action minimizes product degradation. They also offer
reversible flows and can operate dry for long periods of time. Flow is relatively independent of
changes in process pressure, so output is constant and continuous.

Figure 26
Rotary lobe pumps range from industrial designs to sanitary designs. The sanitary designs break
down further depending on the service and specific sanitary requirements. These requirements
include 3-A, EHEDG, and USDA. The manufacturer can tell you which certifications, if any,
their rotary lobe pump meets.
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How Lobe Pumps Work


As shown in Fig 27 lobe pumps are similar to external gear pumps in operation in that fluid
flows around the interior of the casing. Unlike external gear pumps, however, the lobes do not
make contact. Lobe contact is prevented by external timing gears located in the gearbox. Pump
shaft support bearings are located in the gearbox, and since the bearings are out of the pumped
liquid, pressure is limited by bearing location and shaft deflection.

Figure 27

1. As the lobes come out of mesh, they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the pump.
Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the lobes as they rotate.
2. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets between the lobes and the
casing -- it does not pass between the lobes.
3. Finally, the meshing of the lobes forces liquid through the outlet port under pressure.
Lobe pumps are frequently used in food applications because they handle solids without
damaging the product. Particle size pumped can be much larger in lobe pumps than in other PD
types. Since the lobes do not make contact, and clearances are not as close as in other PD
pumps, this design handles low viscosity liquids with diminished performance. Loading
characteristics are not as good as other designs, and suction ability is low. High-viscosity liquids
require reduced speeds to achieve satisfactory performance. Reductions of 25% of rated speed
and lower are common with high-viscosity liquids.

Advantages
Pass medium solids Disadvantages
No metal-to-metal contact Requires timing gears
Superior CIP/SIP capabilities Requires two seals
Long term dry run (with lubrication Reduced lift with thin liquids
to seals)
Non-pulsating discharge

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Applications
Common rotary lobe pump applications include, but are not limited to:
Polymers
Paper coatings
Soaps and surfactants
Paints and dyes
Rubber and adhesives
Pharmaceuticals
Food applications (a sample of these is referenced below)

Vane Pump
While vane pumps can handle moderate viscosity liquids, they excel at handling low viscosity
liquids such as LP gas (propane), ammonia, solvents, alcohol, fuel oils, gasoline, and
refrigerants. Vane pumps have no internal metal-to-metal contact and self-compensate for wear,
enabling them to maintain peak performance on these non-lubricating liquids. Though efficiency
drops quickly, they can be used up to 500 cPs / 2,300 SSU.

Figure 28

Vane pumps are available in a number of vane configurations including sliding vane (left),
flexible vane, swinging vane, rolling vane, and external vane. Vane pumps are noted for their
dry priming, ease of maintenance, and good suction characteristics over the life of the pump.
Moreover, vanes can usually handle fluid temperatures from -32C / -25F to 260C / 500F and
differential pressures to 15 BAR / 200 PSI (higher for hydraulic vane pumps).

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Figure 29

Each type of vane pump offers unique advantages. For example, external vane pumps can
handle large solids. Flexible vane pumps, on the other hand, can only handle small solids but
create good vacuum. Sliding vane pumps can run dry for short periods of time and handle small
amounts of vapor.

How Vane Pumps Work


Despite the different configurations, most vane pumps operate under the same general principle
described below.

Figure 30

1. A slotted rotor is eccentrically supported in a cycloidal cam. The rotor is located close to the
wall of the cam so a crescent-shaped cavity is formed. The rotor is sealed into the cam by two
side plates. Vanes or blades fit within the slots of the impeller. As the rotor rotates (yellow
arrow) and fluid enters the pump, centrifugal force, hydraulic pressure, and/or pushrods push the
vanes to the walls of the housing. The tight seal among the vanes, rotor, cam, and side plate is
the key to the good suction characteristics common to the vane pumping principle.

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2. The housing and cam force fluid into the pumping chamber through holes in the cam (small
red arrow on the bottom of the pump). Fluid enters the pockets created by the vanes, rotor, cam,
and side plate.
3. As the rotor continues around, the vanes sweep the fluid to the opposite side of the crescent
where it is squeezed through discharge holes of the cam as the vane approaches the point of the
crescent (small red arrow on the side of the pump). Fluid then exits the discharge port.

Advantages
Handles thin liquids at relatively higher Disadvantages
pressures Can have two stuffing boxes
Compensates for wear through vane Complex housing and many parts
extension Not suitable for high pressures
Sometimes preferred for solvents, LPG Not suitable for high viscosity
Can run dry for short periods Not good with abrasives
Can have one seal or stuffing box
Develops good vacuum

Applications
Aerosol and Propellants
Aviation Service - Fuel Transfer, Deicing
Auto Industry - Fuels, Lubes, Refrigeration Coolants
Bulk Transfer of LPG and NH3
LPG Cylinder Filling
Alcohols
Refrigeration - Freons, Ammonia
Solvents
Aqueous solutions

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ROTARY & CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

Rotary pumps operate in a circular motion and displace a constant amount of liquid with each
revolution of the pump shaft. In general, this is accomplished by pumping elements (e.g., gears,
lobes, vanes, screws) moving in such a way as to expand volumes to allow liquid to enter the
pump. These volumes are then contained by the pump geometry until the pumping elements
move in such a way as to reduce the volumes and force liquid out of the pump. Flow from rotary
PD pumps is relatively unaffected by differential pressure and is smooth and continuous. Rotary
PD pumps have very tight internal clearances which minimize the amount of liquid that slips
back from discharge to suction side of the pump. Because of this, they are very efficient. These
pumps work well with a wide range of viscosities, particularly high viscosities.

Centrifugal pumps differ from rotary pumps in that they rely on kinetic energy rather than
mechanical means to move liquid. Liquid enters the pump at the center of a rotating impeller
and gains energy as it moves to the outer diameter of the impeller. Liquid is forced out of the
pump by the energy it obtains from the rotating impeller. Centrifugal pumps can transfer large
volumes of liquid but efficiency and flow decrease rapidly as pressure and/or viscosity increases.

Table 1

Comparisons Between Rotary and Centrifugal Pumps


Rotary Centrifugal
Max. Viscosity(cSt / 1,320,000 /
550 / 2,500
SSU) 6,000,000
Max. Capacity(M3/Hr /
750 / 3,300 27,250 / 120,000
GPM)
Pumping Efficiency E A
Energy Costs E A
Self-Priming Yes No
Flow Control E P
Life-Cycle Cost G G
Initial Cost A E
E = Excellent, G = Good, A = Average, P = Poor

MET 104- MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY 27


INFORMATION SHEET
MODULE-6: PUMPS

TROUBLESHOOTING

General
Pump Problems can be either caused by:
1. Mechanical Problem with the Pump or
2. Pump System Problem

Truth
The Great Majority of Pump Problems are with the Pump System
The Majority of Pump System Problems are on the Suction Side
Pump Problems are usually associated with Noisy Operation

Mechanical Problems
To determine if this noise is a mechanical problem with the pump drain it, close both
suction and discharge valves and run the pump briefly.
If the noise continues you have a mechanical problem.

The mechanical noise can be caused by:


1. Debris in the Impeller
2. Impeller Rubbing
3. Impeller out of Balance
4. Bent or Twisted shaft
5. Bad bearings
6. Coupling Misalignment
7. V-Belt sheave Misalignment
8. Pipe Stress

In any case the problem can be corrected by taking it apart and simply fixing it by either
replacing the damaged parts or correcting the installation.

Items Required:
1. Pump Installation Manual
2. Pump Operation Manual
3. Pump Maintenance Manual
4. Parts List

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INFORMATION SHEET
MODULE 6: PUMPS

System Problems
However if the Noise goes away after draining the pump etc. then the noise is caused by
the Pumping System.

Pump System Noise is usually caused by:


1. Cavitation
2. Vortexing

Tools Required
In order to troubleshoot a pump system problem the following tools are required:
1. Combination Vacuum/Pressure Gauge - To Check Pump Suction Reading
2. 2. Pressure Gauge - To Check Pump Discharge Pressure Reading
3. 3. Amp Meter - To Check Horsepower Load
4. 4. Tachometer - To Check Pump Speed
5. 5. Pump Performance Curve - To Check all Readings Against the
Expected Pump Performance

Suction Cavitation
Suction Cavitation occurs when the Net Positive Suction Head Available to the pump is less than
what is Required NPSHA < NPSHR.

Symptoms
1. The pump sounds like it is pumping rocks!
2. High Vacuum reading on suction line
3. Low discharge pressure/High flow

Causes
1. Clogged suction pipe
2. Suction line too long
3. Suction line diameter too small
4. Suction lift too high
5. Valve on Suction Line only partially open

Remedies
1. Remove debris from suction line
2. Move pump closer to source tank/sump
3. Increase suction line diameter
4. Decrease suction lift requirement

MET 104- MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY 29


INFORMATION SHEET
MODULE-6: PUMPS

5. Install larger pump running slower which will decrease the Net Positive Suction
Head Required by the pump(NPSHR)
6. 6. Increase discharge pressure
7. 7. Fully open Suction line valve

Discharge Cavitations
Discharge Cavitations occurs when the pump discharge head is too high where the pump runs at
or near shutoff.

Symptoms
1. The pump sounds like it is pumping rocks!
2. High Discharge Gauge reading
3. Low flow

Causes
1. Clogged discharge pipe
2. Discharge line too long
3. Discharge line diameter too small
4. Discharge static head too high
5. Discharge line valve only partially open

Remedies
1. Remove debris from discharge line
2. Decrease discharge line length
3. Increase discharge line diameter
4. Decrease discharge static head requirement
5. Install larger pump which will maintain the required flow
6. Fully open discharge line valve

30 YANBU INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE


Educating Technologies