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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This research is about what the students problems in using conjunction of the

eighth grade students at SMPN 2 Pengaron school year 2015/2016. In this chapter,

there are some theories related to the problem and also explanation about it. The

theories are as follows:

2.1 Learning English

Most conjunctions are historically derived from other parts of speech,

particularly from prepositions. Like prepositions, the conjunctions are member of a

small class that has no characteristic from. They function chiefly as non movable

structure words that join such units as parts of speech, phrase, or clause.

There are two types of conjunctions. They are coordinate and subordinate.

Subordinate conjunctions will be taken up in detail later under the syntactic structure

each one introduces. This chapter will therefore devote more attention to coordinate

conjunctions and their role in compounding grammatical units (Frank, 1972:206)

Coordinating conjunctions such as and, but, so and or are used t join two or

more different things. Subordinating conjunctions as the name suggest these join a

subordinate clause to a main or principal clause, so they should be taught in more

detail later, along with the section on clauses. However, it is can recognize them as

joining two parts of a sentence (Barbara, 1933:73).

In order to make good sentence, we have to know the eighth parts of speech in

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English. All language is made up words, each of which has a specific function. This

is called functions the part of speech. The eight parts of speech in English are:

1. Nouns

2. Pronouns

3. Adjectives

4. Verbs

5. Adverbs

6. Conjunctions

7. Prepositions

8. Interjection

So, conjunctions are used to join sentences as well as part of sentences.

Two complete sentences (often called independent clauses) that express

related ideas may join to make one coherent sentence. By using conjunction correctly,

it can make relationship between the sentences clearer. They are used to join two

subjects, verbs, nouns, adjectives, or modifier and also sentences to make compound.

The use of conjunction itself is based on the function of each conjunction and

relationship of grammatical element which structure the sentences or ideas. Thus, it is

very important to recognize each conjunction and its function so that the incorrect

uses of conjunction which can spoil the coherence of ideas can be avoided.

In applying conjunctions, students must know first the element of sentences

such as word, phrases, and clauses. Second, the function of the conjunction so, they

can stick the element of sentences together in logical meaning and within the

relationship. Kalkstein et al, (1976) mention before using a coordinating conjunction

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we must determine the relationship between among the elements of the sentences and

then choose the conjunction to express the relationship.

Table 2.1

Relationship of Coordinating Conjunction

No. Relationship Coordinating Conjunction

1. Addition And

2. Contras But

3. Result So

4. Choice Or

The examples of using coordinating conjunction in forms of sentences are follows:

1. Addition besides, in addition, also, furthermore.

Example: He graduated with the highest scores in his class; furthermore he

got a scholarship to study abroad.

2. Contras thought, although, even though, even if, despite, in spite of.

Example: They attended the meeting although it was raining.

3. Result so, so that, in order that, in order to, consequently, therefore, thus, hence.

Example: We must study hard in order to succeed.

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4. Choice just as.

Example: Just as Billy loves hiking so he enjoys travelling as well.

2.2 Function of Conjunctions

In writing in English, it is likely to find conjunction and, but, so and or

connecting words, phrases or even clauses. Without conjunction, writing hard to read

and to understand because the connection between the ideas is not clear or unrelated

sentences. So conjunctions are one important aspect in writing. It can be used know

the relationship between different ideas. In writing, function of conjunctions is to help

you express your different ideas clearly when you are writing anything (Reid,

1985:21).

Table 2.2

Function of Conjunctions

No. Conjunctions Functions

1. And Used to connect words, phrases, or clauses.

2. But Indicates a contras or exception.

3. Or Presents opinion, alternatives, or substitutes for ideas of

equal importance.

4. So Shows the consequence of related ideas.

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2.2 Conjunction

First, according to Barbara (1933: 73), word is from the Latin con meaning

together and jungere meaning to join. A conjunction joins two or more parts of

speech of a similar kind or two more parts of a sentence. Second, according to Kaeni

& Almascatie (1965: 126), a conjunction is a word which connects word, phrases,

sentences, or paragraph. The distinction between a preposition and conjunction is that

a preposition takes an object, while a conjunction does not. Third, according to Krohn

(1970: 286), conjunctions are used to join sentences as well as parts of sentences.

From the opinion, I conclude that the conjunction is to connecting words to make a

sentence in order to get better and perfect. Conjunctions are words used to link words,

phrases or clauses. Some common conjunctions are and, but, or and so. Conjunctions

are words or phrases that clarify relationship between clauses conjoin means to join

together (Sharpe 1997:189). Fourth, according to Rizka & Hidayati, (2015:153),

conjunction is a word used to connecting words, phrases, or clauses within a

sentence. One used the conjunction is to connect words or phrases that have the same

grammatical function in a sentence.

We can use a conjunction to link two main clauses together in a sentence. We

can use an adverb or a prepositional phrase to link the meaning of two main clauses

or two sentences (Eastwood, 1994: 323).

2.3 Kinds of Conjunction

There are five conjunctions which are used in writing such as coordinator

(Coordinator conjunction), subordinators (Subordinating conjunction), correlative

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conjunction, and conjunctive adverb and time conjunctions. However, for junior high

school level especially the eighth grade students only study conjunction focusing four

conjunction (and, but, so and or).

1. And is used to indicate the two clauses express equal, similar ideas (addition), and

is used to combine nouns and to show time.

Example: My hobby is singing and swimming

2. But is used to indicate the two clauses express equal, contrasting ideas (contras),

but is used to indicate and exception or a conflict and to show selection.

Example: We want to Jakarta yesterday, but he didnt follow us.

3. Or is used to indicate the two clauses express alternative possibilities (choice or

alternative), or is used to show the result of something and to provide additional

information.

Example: I didnt talked or saw him yesterday.

4. So is used to indicate purpose

Students must be concentrated on some elements such as; punctuation,

capitalization, word choice, organization, quality and development idea, and grammar

which conjunction is included. But junior high school level especially the eighth

grade students only learn conjunction focusing three conjunction (and, but, so and

or).

The use of conjunction to show:

1. Addition

2.Contras

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3. Result/consequence

4. Choice