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WIE0010.1177/0309524X17722481Wind EngineeringDar and Mufti

Original Article

Wind Engineering

Enhanced load frequency control response 113


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DOI: 10.1177/0309524X17722481
https://doi.org/10.1177/0309524X17722481

superconducting magnetic energy storage journals.sagepub.com/home/wie

system in wind-penetrated two-area


power system

S Zahid Nabi Dar and MD Mufti

Abstract
This work concentrates on the integration of superconducting magnetic energy storage system with wind-penetrated two-area power
systems. Each area is incorporated with a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit. The superconducting magnetic energy
storage unit is controlled using an adaptive predictive control strategy, which takes care of constraints on converter power rating of
superconducting magnetic energy storage unit. The proposed scheme is tested by carrying out simulation experiments in MATLAB
and Simulink environment. The simulation results demonstrate the improvement in frequency and tie-power oscillations. In addition,
the control objectives related to superconducting magnetic energy storage unit are also depicted.

Keywords
Superconducting magnetic energy storage system, load frequency control, area control error, new area control error, adaptive
generalized predictive control

Introduction
Energy has been the soul for the nonstop advancement of human development. Since the industrial revolution two cen-
turies ago, global energy utilization has expanded significantly to enhance the living standards, particularly in the indus-
trialized countries of the world. Right now, around 87% of aggregate energy is produced from fossil fuels (coal, oil, and
common gas), 6% is created in atomic power plants, and the rest 7% originates from renewable sources (mainly hydro and
wind). The present appraisals indicate regular uranium for atomic power will last around 50years, oil will keep going for
not more than 100years, gas 150years, and coal 200years. Not just that, overdependence on fossil and atomic energies
is bringing about ecological contamination and security problems, which are going to be distinctly overwhelming issues
for future generations. Today, the shift is toward ecologically spotless and safe renewable sources such as wind, photovol-
taic, and fuel cells. The world has gigantic wellspring of wind energy. It has been evaluated that tapping merely 10% of
the wind energy can supply all the power needs of the world as described in American Wind Energy Association (2009)
Annual Wind Industry Report. In recent past, technological headways in wind turbines, power electronics, and controls
have made wind energy competitive with coal and natural gas.
Quicker the prime mover can react to changing power flows, the better would be the frequency regulation. In this
work, a conventional system with 20% penetration of wind energy is considered. Generally, with systems infiltrated with
renewable sources such as wind, prime mover may not have the range to react to the changing power flows. In that case,
extra controllable sources or sinks for power should be utilized to control the system frequency. In systems penetrated with

National Institute of Technology Srinagar, Srinagar, India

Corresponding author:
S Zahid Nabi Dar, National Institute of Technology Srinagar, Srinagar 190006, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Email: zahidnabi21@gmail.com
2 Wind Engineering 00(0)

Figure 1. Fundamental frequency regulation block diagram with wind turbine.

wind energy, traditional generators can be kept on hold when renewable power can supply the whole load. In that case, the
system has generally low inertia, and without any controllable power source to control frequency, the system frequency
can collapse. In case, if the load crests in day time and wind blows just at night, then wind cannot be utilized either to
supply energy or to save any costly fuel. Despite the expanding infiltration of wind turbines, the frequency regulation and
the automatic generation control (AGC) are for the most part embraced by customary generation units. The objective of
frequency regulation and AGC is to maintain the frequency within determined cutoff points through essential and auxil-
iary control of governor.
Generally wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) do not take part in the system frequency support. Hence, wind
turbines do not increment or reduce their generation when the frequency drops or rises, respectively, meaning these do
not add to the system inertia. The articles discussing the effect of energy storage devices especially superconducting
magnetic energy storage (SMES) devices incorporated with wind turbines on frequency regulation and AGC in power
networks with infiltration of wind have limited scope for controlling the various constraints, especially the power and
current constraints associated with the SMES devices as are reflected in Molina and Mercado (2011). The research-
ers are focused on utilizing the energy stored in the rotor blades as one of the options to participate in load frequency
control (LFC) as discussed in Zhang etal. (2017) and Ekanayake etal. (2008). One of the strategies discussed in few
articles proposes, keeping the wind turbines from providing their greatest accessible power in typical circumstances
in order to keep a hold edge that can be used for frequency control as discussed in Jalali and Bhattacharya (2013) and
Mohamed etal. (2012). In the recent past, extraction of kinetic energy put away in mechanical systems of the wind
turbines with variable speed generators has been the subject of interest as detailed in Mullane and OMalley (2005) and
Ekanayake and Jenkins (2004). The power system in view of this idea uses the capacity of doubly fed induction genera-
tor (DFIG)-based wind turbines to create control with variable mechanical speed and separating the active energy to
bolster the essential frequency regulation, as has been represented in block diagram placed in Figure 1 which represents
wind turbine inertial control mode.

Mathematical representation of the DFIG model utilized in simulation studies


Despite the expanding infiltration of wind turbines into the power networks, the frequency regulation and AGC
assignments are fundamentally attempted by conventional generation units. The objective of frequency regulation
and AGC is to keep the frequency inside determined limits through fundamental and secondary control of governor
(Heier, 2014). Generally, wind turbines do not increment or diminish their generation when the frequency drops
or increases, respectively, implying that they do not add to the system inertia. With high rate of growth in wind
Dar and Mufti 3

generation, its commitment to aggregate generation blend is rising; however, the aggregate system inertia taking part
in frequency control is diminishing to insufficient levels for suitable system frequency recuperation after a power
irregularity or grid disturbance. In this manner, advance entrance of wind energy in the system calls for commitments
from wind generators to frequency regulation and AGC, keeping in mind the end goal to avert decrease of aggregate
system inertia of the power system. Similar to customary generators, wind turbines have a lot of active kinetic energy
put away in the rotating mass of their rotor and blades. An imperative component of DFIG machines is the likelihood
for their dynamic and reactive power yields to be controlled as required by network administrators. Despite the fact
that the steady-state dynamic power injected to the matrix by a WECS relies on the wind speed, the power can be
progressively controlled to a specific degree using the stored energy. This is because of the ability of these machines
to work at asynchronous speeds. Along these lines, the wind energy will exchange effectively for a given wind speed,
while the mechanical stress is mitigated to some degree.
DFIG machines with slipring rotors are by and large outlined with three AC windings in the stator and rotor. The stator
is generally connected specifically to the grid, and the rotor is provided by means of a frequency converter. Subsequently,
the angular velocity of stator rotating field is expressed by equations given below

stator
= mec rotor (1)
Pstator Protor

In equation (1), Pstator and Protor signify the quantity of stator and rotor poles individually. According to equation (1), the
system frequency stator is equivalent to aggregate of the angular velocity of mechanical rotation (mech) and rotor current
frequency (rotor). Contingent on the direction of the supply frequency, this machine can work in over- or under-synchro-
nous speed. The measure of dynamic energy discharged from the shaft of the wind turbine when the speed is reduced is
given by Uk, which can be attained from the relations given underneath

1 2 (2)
U K0 = Jmec0
2

1 2 1
U K0 U K1 = Jmec0 J2mec1 (3)
2 2

2
U K = U K0 1 2mec1 (4)
mech0

UK0 is reliant on wind speed which fluctuates between 0 and 1.0pu, and mec1 cannot be lesser than the base mechanical
rotational speed of the DFIG-based wind turbine. Moreover, the prompt power extricated from the wind turbine cannot
surpass the maximum permitted value, according to manufacturer data of the machine. These limitations are expressed in
equations (5) to (8) which must be considered in the control system

U K0 = f ( wind speed ) (5)

0 U K0 1.0 pu = f ( wind speed ) (6)

mecmin mec1 (7)

U K0 + U K = U Kmax (8)

The dynamic execution of a power system containing a routine prime mover model, a nonreheat sort of turbine, and a
DFIG-based wind turbine is depicted by disturbance model as reflected in Figure 1 (Morren etal., 2006; Pena etal., 1996).
This model reproduces the fundamental frequency regulation after a perturbance and incorporates traditional system
parameters, for example, the load damping element (D), the regulation droop (R), the inertia H, and representative time
constants Th and Tt of the equivalent system (governorturbine). The system response relies on the selection of system
parameters and DFIG-based wind turbine speed controllers represented by Kwp and Kwi.
4 Wind Engineering 00(0)

Modeling of high-wind-penetrated two-area power system with incorporation of


SMES
Our primary work is engaged toward incorporation of fast acting energy storage device such as SMES into wind-pen-
etrated two-area power system. The SMES device which is based on superconducting coil has outstanding advantages
such as quick response time, a significantly higher power density, very long life time, and high cyclic efficiency. In
contrast to other existing energy storage devices, the dynamic performance of SMES device is far superior as repre-
sented in Iqbal etal. (2009). Further its lifecycle is not limited by the number of charge/release cycles, as in case of
classical batteries. With improvement in technology, the predicted cost of SMES unit is likely to drop down to 25% of
the existing cost. In near future, it is expected that the SMES device would penetrate the market and be used for LFC
duty. The application of SMES for improved frequency control of power system is, therefore, an appropriate solution.
In Figure 2, the block diagram model of the two-area power system with incorporation of DFIG as well as SMES
device in both the areas is depicted. The basic configuration of DFIG device is reflected in Figure 1. Our main goal
is to achieve smaller frequency deviations and tie-power oscillations with incorporation of these devices. For proper
utilization of these devices, the current response of SMES device in both the systems is depicted. In this work, actually
a small rating power converter for SMES and limits on the converter rating are considered in the problem formulation
itself, unlike the cases (Ali etal., 2009) where the limits on converter are imposed in an ad hoc manner or the cases
where no limit is employed on the converter ratings (Demiroren etal., 2004). For this purpose, a constrained model
predictive controller has been used where the power command to the converter in any case never exceeds the converter
power limits. Furthermore incorporation of a single-input-single-output (SISO) predictive controller designed by uti-
lizing S-function block in Simulink is incorporated with the SMES, and its current loop is fed back to this predictive
controller as detailed in Figure 2.
The essential requirement of integrating SMES unit as depicted in Figure 3 within a power system is to limit
the variations in frequency and tie-power control after a load mismatch inside the power system. Furthermore, it is
required that such variations at the steady state must accomplish zero values. The SMES unit ought to react to these
unsettling disturbances by rapidly discharging or absorbing power. Therefore, for the LFC problem, the exceptionally
clear determination of controlled variable if there should be an occurrence of disturbance must be the area control
error (ACE) that even takes into consideration innate nature of tie-line bias control. A control scheme dependent
exclusively on frequency deviation will bring about SMES units of each zone to work, which further starts the sup-
plementary control of both areas, thus putting at stake the fundamental aspect of noninteraction principle in case
of tie-line bias control. With normal ACE as the controlled variable for SMES operation, the quick reacting SMES
device will deviate until it surpasses the (slow-reacting) conventional generators of the system and supply or absorb
power steadily, hence prohibiting the system from regulating the generation to match the fresh load demand. This is
unwanted as it leads to either releasing of the SMES charge to very low range or overcharging it to a very high level.
The SMES device in the network should complement and not bother to surrogate the traditional generation sources.
Moreover, after tackling a perturbance, the SMES system should be ready for facing a fresh disturbance. Possibility
of it arises only in case SMES reaches to its designed stored energy after attaining the steady state. To achieve this,
a diversified type of the ACE, namely, new area control error (NACE), is utilized given by representing it with the
following equation

( ) ( )
y ( k ) =ACE ( k ) + k1ISM ( k ) +k 2 1 z 1 ACE ( k ) + k 3 1 z 1 ISM ( k ) (9)

where k1, k2, and k3 are constraints, and the ending two terms in the above equation are derivative terms, which are brought
in to enhance damping. As y is a combo of deviation variables, the reference is kept zero.

Generalized predictive control


Generalized predictive control (GPC) is a successful system which has received much attention of the researchers in
the recent past. In the beginning, the predictive control algorithms were applied around 30years back targeting the
control of multidimensional mechanical processes with constraints. With advent of computers, we are currently in
a position to use predictive control innovation with complex system. The principle point of incorporation of quick
reacting energy storage device, namely, SMES inside a power system for improved LFC, is to regulate system fre-
quency and tie-line control. The viable use of a compact-rated SMES device accompanies a disadvantage of forcing
Dar and Mufti 5

Figure 2. Block diagram of a two-area power system with incorporation of wind and SMES unit.

Figure 3. Basic configuration of SMES unit.

constraints that must be handled with a control methodology. The SMES system and its converter administer its power
ratings by producing a desired power command for the SMES system. The secondary control loop enforces the SMES
system to follow the power command received from the supervisory controller, by producing proper gating signals
6 Wind Engineering 00(0)

for the SMES converter switches. With incorporation of the constraints in the controller formulation, unlike the other
schemes which rely on ad hoc control by not incorporating the constraints in controller formulation, the GPC fuses
two fundamental components, the outline of the system required to be controlled and the modeling of the optimizer
that represents the control responses for the controller in future. At each sampling moment, forecasts of the controlled
and additionally constrained factors are continued over a period of NY samples, and the optimal control problem is
explained. For the most part, we accept the control signal to remain uniform past NU samples. NY and NU are delin-
eated as the prediction horizon and the control horizon. On accomplishing the outcomes for the optimum control
problem, the essential component produced by the optimum sequence is executed, and the substitute components
are rejected/relinquished. For control-related problems in case of power systems, generally a third-order model is
adequate. Errors resulted on account of small model orders are reduced through online identification of the model at
each sampling instant. Essentially, the parameters of the low-order model do not have a particular physical signifi-
cance. The cause effect relationship between control variable U and controlled variable Y for each control region can
be explained by the following form

N N
Y (k) = ( y ) ( k i ) + ( y ) ( k i ) (10)
i =1
i
i =1
i

This equation describes that present output can be predicted by making use of n sets of the past output and input measure-
ments. Here, integer N represents the order in case of autoregressive exogenous model (ARX). Recursive least squares
(RLS) identification algorithm is used to estimate the model parameters. In this article, state variable modelbased GPC
formulation has been used. An observable canonical form state variable model of equation (1) has the following form as
given in Gopal (2008)

X ( K+1) =Ax ( k ) + bu ( k ) (11)

Now the optimal control problem for a GPC can be stated as

N Nu

u ( k+i 1)
2
y ( k+i ) w ( k+i ) Q+
2
min J= R (12)

i=1 i=1

subject to the constrains being satisfied, where w is the desired value vector of system output, Q and R are weight matri-
ces. Substituting equation (11) in equation (12), the optimization problem is reduced to a general quadratic form, that is

min J ( U ) =U T HU +2G T U (13)

s.t. A qp U bc

where G=[WSX (k)T][Q][S] and H=[L]T[Q][L]+R


In our SMES control problem, control variable Y is suggested to be a function of the ACE and current deviation since
the various deviations, namely, tie-power frequency and SMES current, are supposed to attain zero value in the steady
state.

Constraints imposed by SMES


The converter rating administers (decides) the maximum power limit taken care by SMES while charging/discharging
conditions. By keeping SMES power command as the control variable, the converter rating forces the accompanying
constraints on control vector u

fu f (14)

I u
where f = and u = max , u min and u max are vectors.
I u min
Dar and Mufti 7

Figure 4. GPC scheme.

Since the converter rating of SMES is 1% of area capacity, Umax=0.01pu and Umin=0.01pu, and the full-form equation is

1 0 0   0 P* ( k )
0 1 0   0 SMES

P* (k +1)
  SMES
Pmax
 
0 0  1 0  *
 P
SMES ( k + N )
 U
Pmax (15)
*  _P
0 0   0 1 * min
1 0 0   0 PSMES (k + N ) 
_
0 1 0   0 Pmin

 
0 0   0 1

Besides, such plans are optimized for a confined range of load disturbances. In this work, another control technique is
proposed for upgraded and productive operation of an SMES system for LFC support. This plan is directed by the GPC
and is equipped for managing all the control issues related with the operation of SMES in a methodical way. Primarily,
we use long range prediction (LRP) to test whether any of the variables such as SMES current is in range or not and
accordingly modify the SMES current. For implementing of GPC, a suitable prediction model of the system is desired
as detailed in Mufti etal. (2015). Primarily, there is inherent nonlinearity complexity and very high order present in a
practical power system. In this way, it is not plausible to design a GPC scheme for the SMES system in light of a point-
by-point, settled parameter model of the system. Rather, a low-order direct model is used wherein parameters are distin-
guished online as represented in Figure 4.
The subsequent GPC in this way is versatile. This work uses a state variablebased GPC detailing which is viewed as
a superior approach than transfer function model. In this way, the continuous distinguished model should be changed over
to a state variable model portrayal. GPC is typically created for a controlled autoregressive integrated moving average
(CARIMA) model in which an incremental statespace model is utilized as a part of GPC detailing. This is on the grounds
that many control situations require a nonzero steady-state control signal which is accomplished by penalizing (k) in the
GPC schemes as depicted by Chalupa (2009). The incremental model approach for SMES system will, however, vanquish
the purpose. A nonzero offset has to be avoided to allow the SMES system and governor control to play their desirable
role. Therefore, incremental state variable representation is avoided in this work and instead a normal state variable rep-
resentation developed.
The two-area power system is subjected with a disturbance as depicted in Appendix 1. Furthermore, Appendices 2 and
3 give the details of the power system and the small rating SMES device along with the predictive controller data utilized
for the simulation studies. Due to the presence of tie-lines, in case of two-area power system, the response of such system
8 Wind Engineering 00(0)

Figure 5. Area 1 frequency deviation with (a) SMES and DFIG, (b) DFIG, and (c) conventional.

Figure 6. Area 2 frequency deviation with (a) SMES and DFIG, (b) DFIG, and (c) conventional.

becomes much more oscillatory. It is seen from the simulation results of the plots portrayed below for the case of two-area
power system that the suggested scheme is very efficient in tackling the load disturbances. It is clearly established that the
SMES current gets restored to nominal rating after dealing with the disturbance.

Results
The simulation results are shown in Figures 5 to 13.

Discussion on simulation results


The simulation results obtained so for can be briefly put in the following manner:

1. A constrained GPC controller is proposed, utilizing a simplified discrete model of SMES unit.
2. As demonstrated by the figures, the proposed scheme results in an improved frequency and tie-power control.
3. SMES unit converter is forced to operate near its constraints for profitable operation.
Dar and Mufti 9

Figure 7. Power deviations with (a) SMES and DFIG, (b) DFIG, and (c) conventional.

Figure 8. ACE with (a) SMES and DFIG and (b) conventional.

Figure 9. Area 1 SMES current.


10 Wind Engineering 00(0)

Figure 10. Area 2 SMES current.

Figure 11. Area 1 SMES power.

Figure 12. Area 2 SMES power.


Dar and Mufti 11

Figure 13. Constrained electrical power.

4. In no case, the power command issued by the controller violates the converter limits.
5. Use of simple discrete model for SMES unit is justified as the converter limits are not violated.

Conclusion
A constrained GPC controller utilizing a simplified discrete model of SMES unit is proposed. The constrained predic-
tive controller generates a suitable power command for SMES unit with an aim to improve the frequency and tie-power
deviations without violating the converter rating of the proposed small capacity SMES unit. Different SMES blocks in
MATLAB and Simulink environment to implement the proposed control scheme are utilized. The effectiveness of the
proposed scheme in handling the control objectives is demonstrated using simulation studies.

Declaration of conflicting interests


The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Funding
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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Appendix 1
Load distursbance profile for two-area power system

PD1 = 0.01pu
PD2 = 0.00 pu, 0 < t 50s
= 0.01pu, t > 50s

Appendix 2
System data
He1=He2=3.5puMWs
KP1=KP2=62Hz/pu
TP1=10s
TP2=15s
TT1=TT2=1
Thi=Th2=0.1
R1=R2=3Hz/puMW
B1=B2=0.05puMW/radian
T12=0.07puMW/Hz
Kwi1=0.1
Kwp1=1.58
Kwi2=0.1
Kwp2=1.61
Ta1=Ta2=0.2s
Tr1=Tr2=0.1s
Th1=Th2=0.1s
Tt1=Tt2=1s
Tw1=Tw2=6s
Dar and Mufti 13

Appendix 3
SMES and predictive controller data
Ism=400A
LS=7.86h
PCS rating=0.01pu

Converter
Vdc=650, P=100kW (0.01pu)
NY=20.
NU=10.
TS=0.1s